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Need of Study - Criteria that must be met for marketing to occur - The Marketing Vs. the selling concept - The 4 Ps 2. Key terms 3. Review of subject - What is Marketing - The Marketing Environment -- Elements of the Environment --Environmental Scanning - Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process - SWOT Analysis - Criteria for effective marketing plans - Consumer Behaviour - The Global Marketplace - Marketing Research -- Primary vs. Secondary Research - Electronic Commerce - Economics -- Historical Basics for Trade -- Protectionism -- Justifications for protectionism -- Effects of protectionism -- Efforts to encourage trade -- Stages in International Trade Agreements - Economics Issues - Measuring Country Wealth - Economic Trends - Culture - Political and Legal Influences - Segmentation, Targeting and positioning - Entry Strategies - Market Analysis Tools 4. Opinion of Respondent
5. Hypothesis 6. Major Findings (Conclusion) 7. Suggestions 8. Sample Design 9. Analysis of Data 10. Bibliography 11. Appendix
There are several good reasons for studying marketing. First of all, marketingissues are important in all areas of the organization—customers are the reasons why businesses exist! In fact, marketing efforts (including such services as promotion andd i s t r i b u t i o n ) of t e n a c c o u n t for more than half of the price of a product. As an added benefit, studying marketing often helps us become more savvy consumers. W e w i l l learn, for instance, that the per unit price of a bigger package is frequently higher thant h a t o f a s m a l l e r o n e , a n d t h a t m o r e e x p e n s i v e p r o d u c t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y n o t b e t t er i n quality. Criteria that must be met for marketing to occur: Several criteria must bemet for marketing to occur: • There must be two parties, each with unsatisfied needs or wants. This want, of course, could be money for the seller. • Each must have something to offer. Marketing involves voluntary “exchange”relationships where both sides must be willing parties. Thus, a consumer who b u y s a s o f t d r i n k i n a v e n d i n g m a c h i n e f o r 6 0 ¢ m u s t v a l u e t h e s o f t d r i n k , available at that time and place, more than the money. Conversely, the vendor m u s t v a l u e t h e m o n e y m o r e . ( I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t m o n e y i s , s t r i c t l y speaking, not necessary for this exchange to take place. It is possible, albeit a bitcumbersome, to exchange two ducks for a pair of shoes.) • The parties must be able to communicate. This could be through a display in astore, an infomercial, or a posting on eBay. The marketing vs. the selling concept: T w o a p p r o a c h e s t o m a r k e t i n g e x i s t . T h e traditional selling concept emphasizes selling existing products. The philosophy here isthat if a
product is not selling, more aggressive measures must be taken to sell it —e.g.,1
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NEED OF STUDY
There are several good reasons for
studying marketing. First of all, marketingissu es are important in all areas of the
organization —customers are the reasons why business es exist! In fact, marketing
efforts (including such services as promotion anddistributio n) often account for more than .
As an added benefit .half of the price of a product. studying marketing often helps .
us become more savvy consumers. for instance. We willlearn. that the per unit price of a bigger .
and that more expensive .package is frequently higher thanthat of a smaller one.
products are frequently not better inquality. Criteria that must be met for marketing to occur: .
each .Several criteria must bemet for marketing to occur: • There must be two parties.
of course.with unsatisfied needs or wants. could be . This want.
money for the seller. Marketing involves . • Each must have something to offer.
Thus. a consumer .voluntary “exchange”re lationships where both sides must be willing parties.
who buys a soft drink in a vending machine for 60¢ must value the soft drink.availabl .
more than the money. the vendor must value the .e at that time and place. Conversely.
(It is interesting to note that money is. strictlyspeaki ng. not necessary for .money more.
to exchange two .this exchange to take place. albeit a bitcumbersom e. It is possible.
) • The parties must be able to communicate. This could be through a .ducks for a pair of shoes.
The marketing vs. an infomercial. the selling concept: .display in astore. or a posting on eBay.
Two approaches to marketing exist. Thetraditional selling concept emphasizes .
selling existing products. The philosophy here isthat if a product is not selling, more
aggressive measures must be taken to sell it—e.g.,1
2cutting price, advertising more, or hiring more aggressive (and obnoxious)
sales- people. When the railroads started to lose business due to the advent of more
effectivetruck s that could deliver goods right to the customer’s door, the railroads cut pricesinstead
of recognizing that the customers ultimately wanted transportation of goods, notnecessaril
y railroad transportation . Smith Corona, a manufacturer of typewriters, wastoo slow
to realize that consumers wanted the ability to process documents and
nottypewriter s per se. The marketing concept, in contrast, focuses on getting consumerswh
at they seek. regardless of whether this entails coming up with entirely new products. .
and price —represent thevariables that are .The 4 Ps— product. promotion. place (distribution).
within the control of the firm (at least in the medium to long run). Incontrast. the firm is .
faced with uncertainty from the environment. The suggested framework of international .
SWOT analysis. a mix of .marketing includes motivation for internatio nalization.
international marketing decisions andconsolidat ion of marketing efforts on the basis of .
2 .reviewing markets performance.
3 KEY TERM Re-geocentric orientation: the approach that considers a region as a uniform .
marketsegme nt and a firm following this approach adopts a similar marketing strategy .
Geocentric orientation: the approach that treats .withinthe region but not across the region.
the whole world as a single marketand attempt to formulate integrated .
Self reference criterion: an unconscious reference to one’s own .marketing strategies.
experie nce and knowledge as a basis for decision making.cultural value. .
Theory of mercantilism: attributes wealth of a nation by the size of its accumulatedt reasures. .
usually measured in terms of gold. A theory that holds that national shouldaccum ulate .
financial wealth in the form of gold by encouraging exports anddiscouragi ng imports. .
Theory of international product life cycle: the cyclical pattern followed by theinternatio .
nal markets over a time due to a variety of factors which explains the shift inthe markets as .
well as manufacturin g bases of the firms. Domestic marketing: marketing practice .
within the domestic markets. Foreign marketing: methods and practices used in the .
home markets and also appliedin overseas markets with little adaptation. .
Comparative marketing: Comparative study of two or more marketing system to findout the .
differences and similarities.3 .
4 REVIEW OF SUBJECT What is marketing? .
” The .Almost every marketing textbook has a different definition of the term“marketi ng.
American Marketing Association (AMA) uses the following: “The process of planning and executing .
the conception. goods. promotion. pricing. and services . and distributionof ideas.
” From this .to create exchanges that satisfy individual andorganizati onal objectives.
definition.” . we see that: • Marketing involves an ongoing process. The environment is “dynamic.
Thismeans that the market tends to change— what customers want today is notnecessaril .
sales of beef are decliningin the United . For example.y what they want tomorrow.
Tupp erware parties .States because consumers have become health oriented. Similarly.
are less popular today than they once were because there arefewer housewives who do not .
• This process involves both planning and implementing (executing) the plan.work outside the home. • .
Some of the main issues involved include: o Marketers help design products. finding out .
what customers want andwhat can practically be made available given .
technology and priceconstrain ts. o Marketers distribute products— there must be .
o Marketers also promote .some efficient way to getthe products from the factory to the endconsumer.
and this is perhaps what we tend tothink of first when we think of marketing. .products.
Promotion involvesadve rtising—and much more. Other tools to promote products includetrade .
obtaining favorableand visible shelfspace. and rebates).promotion (store sales. coupons. and .
o Marketers also price products to “move” .obtaining favorable press coverage.
them. in most cases. We know fromeconomi cs that. sales correlate negatively .
with price— the4 .
In some cases.5higher the price. price may . the lower the quantity demanded.howev er.
the marketer needs to price the product to .provide the customer with a “signal” of quality.Thus.
(1) maximize profit and(2) communicate a desired image of the product. o Marketing is applicable to .
For example.services and ideas as well as to tangible prod ucts. accountants may need to .
THE MARKETING ENVIRONME NT .market their tax preparatio n services to consumers.
for the most .ELEMENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT: The marketing environment involves factors that.
the company must adapt to these . Thus.part. are beyondthe control of the company.
factors. It isimportant to observe how the environment changes so that a firm can adapt .
itsstrategies appropriately. Consider these environmental forces: • Competition: .
.Competitors often “creep” in and threaten to take away markets fromfirms. For example.
Japanese auto manufacturer s became a serious threat toAmerican car makers in the late .
maker of one of the first commercially . the LotusCorporat ion.1970s and early 1980s. Similarly.
successful spreadsheets. Note that while . soon faced competition from other software firms.
we will . it is good for consumers. (In fact.competitionm ay be frustrating for the firm.
Note thatcompetiti .come back to this point when we consider the legal environment) .
• Economics: Some firms in particular are extremely .on today is increasingly global in scope.
vulnerable to changes in theeconomy. going out to . Consumers tend to put off buying a new car.
eat. in good times. firms serving thoseneeds . In contrast. or building new homes in bad times.
may have difficulty keeping up with demand.5 .
6 • Political: Businesses are very vulnerable to changes in the political situation. .
For example. because consumer groups lobbied Congress. more stringent rules .
weremade on the terms of car leases. The tobacco industry is currently the target of much
negative attention from government and public interest groups. Currently,the desire to
avoid aiding the enemy may result in laws that make it moredifficult for American firms to
export goods to other countries.
Firms are very vulnerable to
changing laws and changing interpretation s by the courts. Firms in the U.S. are very vulnerable to
lawsuits. McDonald’s, for example, is currently being sued by people who claim that eating the
chain’shambu rgers caused them to get fat. Some impacts of the legal environment.
Firms are significantly limited in what they can do by various laws—some laws,for example,
require that disclosures be made to consumers on the effectiveinter est rates they pay on
products bought on installment. A particularlyin teresting group of laws relate to
. These laws basically exist to promote fair competition among firms.antitrust.
Some principles involved here include: o Collusion: Firms may not “conspire” to .
o .fix prices (agree that they willnot sell below an agreed upon price) or reduce services.
Predation: Firms may not sell their products below their cost of production for the .
can raise . themselves.purpose of driving competitors out of business so thatthey.
o Market share: Firms which have an unacceptably large market .prices when competition is reduced.
sharemay be “broken” up by court order so that many smaller firms will bearound to compete. (This is what .
and at times. • Tying: A firm that controls .happened to AT&T. IBMhas been worried about this prospect).
avaluable product may not require the consumer to buy a morecommon place one to .
get the scarce product. For example. Intel controls6 .
g.. Pentium IV).7many of the newest microprocesso rs (e. Intel also makesmother boards for .
motherboards are made by a lotof firms.computers. Intel would be thought to abuse its . however.
effective monopoly power if it required consumers to buy a motherboard in order to .
• Technological : Changes in technology may significantly .get its newestchips.
the advent of the fax machine was bad news for .influence the demand for a product. For example.
• Social: . The Internet is a major threat to travel agents.FederalExpres s.
Fewer babies today are .Changes in customs or demographic s greatly influence firms.
being born. resulting in a decreased demand for baby foods.More women work outside the .
home today. There are more unmarried . so there is a greater demand for prepared foods.
g.. fast food restaurants) .singles today. This providesoppo rtunities for some firms (e.
but creates problemsfor others (e. manufacturer s of high quality furniture that many people .g..
put off buying until marriage). Today. there are more “blended” families that .
These families are often strapped for .result as parents remarry after divorce.
.money butmay require “duplicate” items for children at each parent’s residence.
Such .Environment al scanning: Its helps the firm understand developments in the market.
g..developments may involve changes in the market place due to social trends (e. Gerber. amanufactur .
birthrates). .S.er of baby products. faces a serious challenge with declining U.
technology (e. or new or potential .g. VCR makers are threatened by DVD players)..
competitors (e. Internet service providers are being threatened by increasingmar keting efforts .g..
Note that environmenta l scanning must be performedcon tinuously.from MSN). since .
Economic cycles : 7 .environmental change does not cease.
S. In the late 1990s. the U. economy wasquite .8The economy goes through cycles.
and many luxury goods were sold.strong. and many . Currently. the economy is somewhatwe ak.
have seendeclining profit margins . Car makers.firms are facing the results. for example.
(and even losses) as they have had to cut prices and offer lowinterest rates on .
financing. in good economic times. there is a great deal of demand. Generally. .
. In the U. the Federal Reservewill .S.but this introduces a fear of possible inflation.
then try to prevent the economy from “overheating. ” This is usually done byraising .
and as a result. people . This makes businesses less willing to invest.interest rates.
causing consumers to . unemployme nt tends to rise. During a recession.tend to make less money.
spend less.” with more peoplelosing their jobs due to lowered . This may result in a “bad circle.
Some businesses. however. may take thisopportunit y to invest in growth now .demands.
that things can be bought more cheaply. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND THE MARKETING PROCESSPla .
ns and planning: Plans are needed to clarify what kinds of strategic objectives an .
organizationw ould like to achieve and how this is to be done. Such plans must consider the amountof .
Microsoft keeps a great deal of cash .resources available. One critical resource is capital.
Small startupsoftwa re firms.on hand to be able to “jump” on opportunities that come about. on .
may have limited cash on hand.the other hand. This means that theymay have to forego what .
would have been a good investment because they do not havethe cash to invest and cannot find a .
way to raise the capital. Other resources that affectwhat a firm may be able to .
achieve include Trademarks/b rand names: It would be verydifficult to compete .
factors such as: Patents: It would be difficult to against Cokeand Pepsi in the cola market. .
Compete against Intel and AMD in the microprocess or market since both these People: .
Even with all of Microsoft’s money .firms have a number of patents that it is difficult toget around.
available. it could not immediatelyhi re the Distribution: Stores have space .
For only a fraction of the products they are .people needed to manufacture computer chi ps.
so they must turn manyaway.offered. A firm that does not have an established .
8 .relationship with stores will be at adisadvantag e in trying to introduce a new product.
9Plans are subject to the choices and policies that the organization has made.Some .
for example. .firms have goals of social responsibility. Some firms are willing totake a greater risk.
. than others.which may result in a very large payoff but also involve the risk of alarge loss.
Typically: • .Strategic marketing is best seen as an ongoing and neverending process.
This couldinvolve profitability .The organization will identify the objectives it wishes to achieve.
but often profitability is a long term goal that mayrequire some intermediate .directly.
achieve distribution in more outlets. have sales .steps. The firm may seek to increase market share.
grow by a certain percentage. . or have consumers evaluate the product more favorably.
. promoting .g.Some organizations haveobjective s that are not focused on monetary profit—e.
taking into consideration issues such .literacy or preventing breast cancer. • An analysis is made.
competitors. different . the competitors’ strengths.as organizationa lresources.
• Based on this analysis. or the impact of new technology.types of customers. .ch anges in the market.
a plan is made based on tradeoffs between theadvantage s and disadvantages of different .
options available. . The firm may design new products. • This strategy is then carried out.
revamp itsadvertising strategy. or . invest in getting more stores to carry the product.
the results or . • After implementati on.decideto focus on a new customer segment.
outcome are evaluated. a change may have to be made to the . If results are not asdesired.
the firm still needs to monitor the .strategy. Even if results aresatisfactor y.
environment for changes. Levels of planning and strategies: Plans for a firm can be made at .
several different levels. At the corporate level .the management considers the .
objectives of the firm as a whole.Micr osoft may want seek to grow by providing . For example.
hardware. To achieve this goal. the . andservices to consumers.high quality software.
9 .firm may be willing to investaggress ively.
For example. althoughMicr .10Plans can also be made at the business unit level .
osoft is best known for its operating systems and applications software. the firmalso provides .
Internet access and makes video games. Different managers will haveresponsi bilities for .
different areas. and goals may best be made by those closest to the business area being .
considered. It is also more practical to hold managers accountablefo r performance .
if the plan is being made at a more specific level. Boeing has bothcommerc ial aircraft and defense .
althoughthere is some overlap in technology . Each is run by different managers.divisions.
plans are needed bothat the corporate and at the . Therefore.between the two.
Occasio nally.business levels. plans will be made at the functional level .
to allow managers tospecialize and to increase managerial accountability .. . Marketing.
for example. may becharged with increasing awareness of Microsoft game .
consoles to 55% of the U.S. populatio n or to increase the number of units of Microsoft .
Manufacturin . Finance may becharged with raising a given amount of capital at a given cost.Office sold.
g may becharged with decreasing production costs by 5%.The firm needs to .
Here. a balance must be made sothat the firm’s scope is not defined .identify the business it is in.
too narrowly or too broadly. A firm may define itsgoal very narrowly and then miss opportunities .
in the market place. if Dell were to define itself only as a computer company. For example. it .
might miss an opportunity to branch into PDAs or Internet service. they might instead define . Thus.
” A company should not define itself .themselves as a provider of “information solutions.
a manufacturer . since this may result in loss of focus.howe ver.too broadly. For example.
So .of bakingsoda should probably not see itself as a manufacturer of all types of chemicals.
For example. companies can define themselves in terms of a customer need.metimes. .
3M sees itself as being in the business of making products whose surfaces are bonded .
A firm’s mission . This accounts for both Post-It notes and computer disks.together.
should generally include a discussion of the customers served(e. Wal-Mart and ..g.
Nordstrom’s serve different groups). the kind of technologyinv olved. and the .
markets served.10 .
11Several issues are involved in selecting target customers. We will consider .
but for now.thesein more detail within the context of segmentation . the firm needs .
• .toconsider issues such as: • The size of various market segments.
How well these segments are being served by existing firms. • Changes in the market— .
. or seen by .g.e. growth of segments or change in technology. • How the firm should be positioned.
customers. For example. . Wal-Mart positions itself as providing value in retailing.
.while Nordstrom’s definesitself more in terms of high levels of customer service.
The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) matrix provides a firm an opportunity toassess how .
Each business unit is evaluated interms of .well its business units work together.
the larger a . Generally.two factors: market share and the growth prospects in the market.
and the greater the growth in amarket. the better future . the stronger its position.firm’s share.
Four combinations emerge: • A star represents a business unit .possibilities.
Motorola has a large share in the rapidly . For example.that has a high share in a growing market.
• A question mark .growing market for cellular phon es.
The firm’s position. is not as .results when a unit has a small share in a rapidly growingmark et. then.
strong as it would have been had itsmarket share been greater. but there is an opportunity .
but .to grow.Hew lett-Packard has a small share of the digital camera market. For example.
this is avery rapidly growing market. • A cash cow results when a firm has a .
large share in a market that is notgrowing. and may even be shrinking. Brother has a large share of .
the typewriter ma rket. • A dog results when a business unit has a .
small share in a market that is notgrowing. This is generally a somewhat unattractive .
For example. although dogs canstill be profitable in the short run.situation. Smith Corona how has a .
smallshare of the typewriter market.11 .
12Firms are usually best of with a portfolio that has a balance of firms in eachcategory . The cash .
cows tend to generate cash but require little future investment. stars generate . Onthe other hand.
some cash. but even more cash is needed to invest in thefuture— for research and .
development. and building newmanufact uring facilities. a . marketing campaigns. Therefore.
firm may take excess cash from the cash cow anddivert it to the star. Brother could “harvest” its . For example.
profits from typewritersan d invest this in the unit making color laser printers, which will need the cash
to grow.If a firm has cash cows that generate a lot of cash, this may be used to try to improvethe
market share of a question mark. A firm that has a number of promising stars in its portfolio
may be in serious trouble if it does not have any cash cows to support it. If itis about to
run out of cash— regardless of how profitable it is —is becomes vulnerableas a takeover
target from a firm that has the cash to continue running it.A SWOT (“Strengths, Opportunities,
Weaknesses, and Threats”) analysis is usedto help the firm identify effective strategies.
Successful firms such as Microsoft havecertain strengths. Microsoft, for example, has a great deal
of technology, a huge staff of very talented engineers, a great deal of experience in designing
software, a very largemarket share, a well respected brand name, and a great deal of cash.
however: The game console and MSN units are currently .Microsoft also hassome weaknesses.
Firms may . and MSN has been unable to achieve desired levels of growth.running ata loss.
for example. may have the opportunityto . Microsoft.faceopportuni ties in the current market.
take advantage of its brand name to enter into the hardware market. Microsoft .
mayalso become a trusted source of consumer services. Microsoft currently .
Because fewer new computers are .faces severalthreats . including the weak economy.
bough during arecession. fewer operating systems and software packages.Rat her than .
merely listing strengths. and threats. weaknesses. aSWOT analysis should . opportunities.
.suggest how the firm may use its strengths and opportunities toovercome weaknesses and threats.
For example. .Decisions should also be made as to how resourcessho uld be allocated.
.Microsoft could either decide to put more resourcesinto MSN or to abandon this unit entirely.
.Microsoft has a great deal of cash ready tospend. so the option to put resources toward MSN is available.
Microsoft will also needto see how threats can be addressed. The firm can earn political good will by .
.engagingin charitable acts. For example. which it has money available to fund.
Microsoft has12 .
39has been serving a segment of premium quality cellular phone buyers in one countrycan .
.put its experience to use in another country that features that same segment.
(Eventhough segments may be similar across the cultures. it should be noted that it is .
although a segment commonacros .stillnecessary to learn about the local market. For example.
the cultures of each country maycause .s two countries may seek the same benefits.
people to respond differently to the "hard sell" advertising that has beensuccessf .
The international product life cycle suggests that product adoption and spread .ul in one).
Often. then.insome markets may lag significantly behind those of others. a segment .
thathas existed for some time in an "early adopter" country such as the U. or Japan .S.
willemerge after several years (or even decades) in a "late adopter" country such as Britainor .
(We will discuss this issue in more detail when we cover the .most developing countries.
Positioning across markets : .product mix in the second half of the term).
Firms often have to make a tradeoff between adapting their products to theunique .
demands of a country market or gaining benefits of standardizatio n such as costsavings .
and the maintenance of a consistent global brand image. There are no easyanswers .
.here. McDonald’s has spent a great deal of resources to promote its global image. On the one hand.
significant accommodati ons are made tolocal tastes and preferences— .on the other hand.
restaurantsw ould go against the family image of the . while serving alcohol in U.S.for example.
McDonald’s has accommodate .restaurant carefully nurtured over severaldecad es.
d this demand of European patrons. ENTRY STRATEGIES Methods of entry: 39 .
products just don’t emerge in foreign markets overnight— a firm has to .40With rare exceptions.
which differ inaggressiven ess. risk.build up a market over time. Several strategies. and the amount of .
areavailable: • Exporting is a relatively low risk .control that the firm is able to maintain.
A drawback is that.strategy in which few investments are madein the new country. because .
market share .the firm makes few if anymarketin g investments in the new country.
may be below potenti al. Further, the firm, by not operating in the country, learns less
about themarket (What do consumers really want? Which kinds of advertising campaignsare
most successful? What are the most effective methods of distribution?) If animporter
is willing to do a good job of marketing, this arrangement mayrepresent a "win-win" situation, but
it may be more difficult for the firm to enter on its own later if it decides that larger profits can be made
within the country.
Licensing and franchising are also low exposure methods of entry—you
allowsomeone else to use your trademarks and accumulated expertise. Your
partner puts up the money and assumes the risk. Problems here involve the fact that youare
training a potential competitor and that you have little control over how the business
is operated. For example, American fast food restaurants have foundthat foreign
a foreign .franchisers often fail to maintain American standards of cleanliness.Si milarly.
manufacturer may use lower quality ingredients inmanufacturi ng a brand based on premium .
• Contract manufacturing involves having someone else .contents in the home country.
This savesinvestm .manufacture productswhile you take on some of the marketing efforts yourself.
but again you may be training a competitor. • Direct entry strategies. where the firm either .ent.
but .acquires a firm or buildsoperati ons "from scratch" involve the highest exposure.
also the greatestoppor tunities for profits. The firm gains more knowledge about the .
. but now has a huge investment.local marketand maintains greater control.
In somecountrie s. the government may expropriate assets without .
A variation involves a .compensatio n. sodirect investment entails an additional risk.
joint venture.wher e a local firm puts up some of the money and knowledge about the .
4 0 .localmarket.
41 MARKET ANALYSIS TOOLS: Country Map (Country Map is free to all .
users worldwide and does not require alogin or password.)Be nchmarking national and .
Profiles of 184 countries and territories.sectoral trade performance and competitiven ess. .
including the . Country Map provides a widerange of analytical tools.freely available.
National Export Performance .Trade Performance Index on exportcompe titiveness.
the econometrict rade simulation model Trade Sim on bilateral trade .and Import Profile.
potential and an assessment of thereliability and characteristic s of national .
.trade statistics. Country Map also includeslinks to Trade Information Sources.
Trade Map: .Trade Support Institutions and current ITC projectsfor the country concerned.
An online database of global trade .Trade statistics for international business development.
flows in goods and services and tariff measur es for international business development .
providingdeta iled export and import profiles and trends for over 5.and trade promotion.300 .
Based on the world’s largest .products in over 200countries and territories.
growth rates. . TradeMap presents import/export values and quantities.database COMTRADE.
market shares andmarket access information. . It allows users to analyze markets.
select priority countriesfor export diversification . review the performance of competing countries and .
assessopport unities for product diversificatio n by identifying existing and potential .
Product Map Business information for going global a Web portal .trade betwee n countries.
The .presenting businessinfor mation and intelligence in a product context for 72 product clusters.
Product Map includesmark .productcluste rs range from agricultural machinery to wood products.
links to product information. price indicators.et studies. trade data and links to41 .
Companies can also create their .000 companies and organizations.42over 20.
own basicweb site. which is hosted on the portal. Market Access Map: Making market .
access barriers transparent Market Access Map is an interactivedat abase of .
It contains the market access conditionsapp .tariffs and market access barriers.
lied at the bilateral level by over 170 importing countries to the products exported by over 200 .
countries and territories. Market Access Map’s strength lies in its widegeograph ical coverage. .
its taking into account of almost all multilateral. . regional and bilateral trade agreements.
as well as certificates and rules of .the integration of ad valorem equivalents of specific tariffs.
origin. Market Access Map allows users to analyzethe protection of any geographic grouping and .
sectoral aggregation. It also offers the possibilit y of simulating tariff reductions .
using various negotiation formulae.Dev eloped by ITC in collaboration with CEPII. UNCTAD and .
WTO. Market AccessMap aims to enhance market transparency. support international .
trade promotion. andto facilitate the analysis of related trade policy issues. .
Investment Map: Identifying foreign investment opportunitiesI nvestment Map is an .
interactive web-based tool that combines statistics onforeign direct investment .
(FDI). international trade and market access into a single portal. It allows analyses by .
It also includes informationon the location. employment . partner and industry. sales.country.
000 foreignaffiliat es located in developing countries and economies in .and parent company for over 70.
Investment Map.transition.the foreign direct investment with foreign companies. international .
42 .trade and tariffs isavailable online free to Sub-Saharan Africa users.
43 OPINION OF RESPONDE NT .
It is a process of executing. effective marketing mix for the purpose of achieving . planning.
International marketing will helps to .objects for all those whose involve in the process.
International marketing .improve to banking facilities andadvantag es.
helps to improve to the import & export goods &services. The informal interviewing .
gives valuable indication as to how use. International marketing is helps to develop good .
relations between twocountries and at international level we get best quality product. .
The concept of International marketing is necessary to developing countries & .
International marketing will improve the .itimproves economic development of country.
International marketing improved the competitive .quality & quantity of the product.
International marketing product is reasonable one customer .efficiency of forms.
like the product andthey keep on demanding. International marketing .
depends product life cycle and individual capacity.43 .
.46 SUGGESTI ONS Quality product should be produced.
Cost of productions should be under control. People should vote for .
political stability. Simple rules and regulations for import & export .
E-commerce & E-banking should be used. .business are necessary.
46 .Research & development using should be proper.
47 .SAMPLE DESIGN The present research work is important for .
planning are development of internation al marketing. 50 sample are . for effective research purpose.
They are of different age groups and they are engaged .selected fromvarious organization.
AGE GROUP 1 8 2 5 2 7 2 6 3 5 1 2 .directly onindirectly in the field.
3 6 4 5 0 9 4 6 5 5 0 2 5 6 6 5 0 0 Total 50 .
The age group of the respondent is stated as aboveSEX .
M a l e F e m a l e T o t a l 47 .
483 4 1 6 5 0 For research purpose 34 males and 16 females were selected. The .
questionnaire containing 17 guest ions were developing with the help of project guide. The .
types .questionsare as under: Question typeQues tion no. Yes / no.
Personal information Multiple choice090404 Total .
17The questionnaire was circulated among the 50 respondent for getting information onthe subject. .
ANALYSIS OF DATA Section -2 (questions wise)Q.1Have you noticed\witn .
essed as unplanned changes inMarketing activities? Y e s N o T o t a l .
4 5 0 5 5 0 45 respondents witnessed unplanned changes in .
Q.marketing activities. 05 respondents do not notice.2-Is their any good .
effect of modern technology o n Internatio nal Marketing? Y e s N o T o t a l .
4 8 0 2 5 0 Almost all agreed to above & very few do not agree.48 .
3Developmen t of Information & Communica .49 Q.
tion brings closerInternational Markets? Do you agree with? Y e s N o T o t a l .
4 7 0 3 5 0 47 respondents say that development in information & .
4Globalization . 03 do not agree. Q.communicatio n bringscloser international markets.
brings changes in International Marketing Systemis it true? Y e s N o T o t a l .
.4 0 1 0 5 0 40 respondents agreed to this & 10 do not respond positively.
Q.Is it possible to globalize production of goods and services? Y e s N o T o t a l .5.
.4 1 0 9 5 0 41 respondents said product can be globalizes.
Q.09 respondents disagreed to this.6Domestic Marketing Decisions .
And Internationa l MarketingD ecisions Are Not Same? Is It True? .
Y e s N o T o t a l 5 0 N i l 5 0 All respondents agreed to .
Q.above statement.7- It Is True That Political Forces .
Within A Country Affect TheInternati onal Marketing Decisions? .
50 Y e s N o T o t a l 4 5 0 5 5 0 45 respondents agree. .
8.05 respondents disagree. Q.Do you agree that environmen tal challenges .
influence themarketin g strategy? Y e s N o T o t a l 4 2 0 8 5 0 .
9-Do You Agree That . 08 respondents do not agree. Q.42 respondents agree.
Political Stability And Government PolicyGreatl y Affects The .
International Markets? Y e s N o T o t a l 4 0 1 0 5 0 40 respondents .
.agree that political stability & govt. policies affect international marketing.
Q.10-Do You Agree That More Competition Is One Of .10 do not agree.
The DemeritsOf International Market? Y e s N o T o t a l 4 7 0 3 5 0 .
50 .47 respondents are agreeing for stiff competition. 03 respondents disagree.
Project .51 For more Notes. Presentat ions.
blo .comh rmba.Reports visita2zm ba.blogs pot.
com ANALYSIS OF .gspot.co mmbafin. blogspot.
1.Have You Noticed\Wit .DATASecti on -2 (percentag e wise) Q.
nessed As Unplanned Changes InMarketing Activities? Y e s N o T o t a l .
9 0 1 0 1 0 0 90% respondents witnessed unplanned changes in .
Q. 10% respondents do not notice.Is Their Any Good .marketing activities.2.
Effect Of Modern Technology OnInternatio nal Marketing? Y e s N o T o t a l .
9 6 0 6 1 0 0 Almost all agreed to above & very few do not agree. .
3Developmen t Of Information & Communicat ion Brings .Q.
CloserInternational Markets? Do You Agree With? Y e s N o T o t a l .
9 4 0 6 1 0 0 94% respondents say that development in information & .
51 .communicatio n bringscloser international markets.
52 06% do not agree.4Globalization Brings Changes In . Q.
International Marketing SystemIs It True? Y e s T o t 8 0 1 0 N o a l 2 0 0 .
5.80% respondents agreed to this & 20% do not respond positively.Is It Possible To . Q.
Globalize Production Of Goods And Services? Y e s N o T o t a l .
.8 2 1 8 1 0 0 82% respondents said product can be globalizes.
6Domestic Marketing Decisions .18% respondents disagreed to this. Q.
And Internationa l MarketingD ecisions Are Not Same? Is It True? .
Y e s N o T o t a l 1 0 0 N i l 1 0 0 All respondents agreed to .
It Is True That Political Forces Within A .above statement. Q.7.
Country Affect TheInternati onal Marketing Decisions? Y e s N o T o t a l .
9 0 1 0 1 0 0 90% respondents agree.52 .
Q.Do you agree that environmen .53 10% respondents disagree.8.
tal challenges influence themarketin g strategy? Y e s N o T o t a l .
. 16 respondents do not agree.8 4 1 6 1 0 0 84 respondents agree.
9-Do You Agree That Political Stability And Government PolicyGreatl .Q.
y Affects The International Markets? Y e s T o t 8 0 1 0 N o a l 2 0 0 .
policies affectinternat .80% respondents agree that political stability & govt.
ional marketing. Q. 20% do not agree.10-Do You Agree That More .
Competition Is One Of The DemeritsOf International Market? .
Y e s N o T o t a l 9 4 0 6 1 0 0 94% respondents are agreeing .
for stiff competition. BIBLIOGRA PHY . 06% respondents disagree.
yahoo.54 www.c om www.google.co m .
International marketingVipu l Prakashan International marketingHim alaya Publication .
Project . Presentat ions.For more Notes.
comh rmba.blo .Reports visita2zm ba.blogs pot.
co mmbafin.gspot. com 54 . blogspot.
55 APPENDIXT he concept of internation .
al marketing Questionnair e: Name: Age: .
Sex: male/female Qualification : Profession: .
Have You Noticed\Witne ssed As Unplanned Changes In MarketingActi vities? Yes/No .
Is Their Any Good Effect Of Modern Technology On InternationalM arketing? Yes/No .
Development Of Information & Communicatio n Brings CloserInternational Markets? Do .
You Agree With? Yes/No Globalization Brings Changes In International .
Marketing System Is ItTrue?Yes/No Is It Possible To Globalize Production Of Goods And Services? .
Yes/No Domestic Marketing Decisions And International Marketing Decisions .
AreNot Same? Is It True? Yes/No It Is True That Political Forces Within A Country Affect The .
InternationalM arketing Decisions? Yes/No Do You Agree That Environmental .
Challenges Influence The MarketingStrat egy? Yes/No Do You Agree That Political .
Stability and Government Policy GreatlyAffects the International Markets? Yes/No .
56 Do You Agree That More Competition Is One Of The Demerits .
Of Internationa l Market? Yes/No Your Opinion? .
DECL ARATI ON .
I hereby declare that the project report title as- .
STUDY OF INTERNATI ONAL MARKETIN G .
That I am going to submit to is not substantiall ysame as one which .
has already been submitted tothis or any another .
authority for this any otherpurpo se.Place:Da te: Signatur e .
Cert ifica .
The Project Report on- STUDY OF .te This is to certify that .
IMPORT PROCEDU RE is bona fide work carried out by us. under the .
The same has not been & submitted elsewhere for .supervision/ guidance of theconcerne d faculty.
anyDegree / Diploma / Certificate . Date: 57 .
58 Principal Head of the collegeProjec t Guide President & CEO .
ACKN OWLE DGEM ENT .
E.It is my great privilege to thanks for M. College of Managem ent having .P.S.
I also sincerely thank our guide for .given us this opportunity to conduct this project work.
having guided us theseoutstan ding work research work without whose help. it could have .
family .beenimpossi ble to complete this research work.I also thank my parents.
members & friends for theirencoura gement and help.My humble thanks to meritorious .
58 .God for giving me encourageme ntand power to complete this research work.
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