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# 1.

Introduction
1.1
Mathematical Monsters
Guiseppe Peano
Cantor Set, 1870
Christoph Traxler 1
Georg Cantor
Peano Curve, 1890
Mathematical Monsters
Koch Curve, 1904
Waclaw Sierpinski
Helge von Koch
Christoph Traxler 2
Sierpinski Triangle, 1916
1. Introduction
1.2
> 2000 years old Around 30 years old
Euclidean Geometry Fractal Geometry
Euclidean vs. Fractal Geometry
y
Applicable for
artificial objects
y
Applicable for natural
objects
Christoph Traxler 3
Invariant under scaling,self Shapes change with scaling
Euclidean vs. Fractal Geometry
Euclidean Geometry Fractal Geometry
similar
scaled by 3
Christoph Traxler 4
1. Introduction
1.3
Objects defined by recursive Objects defined by analytical
Euclidean vs. Fractal Geometry
Euclidean Geometry Fractal Geometry
j y
algorithms
Localy rough, not differentiable
Elements: iteration of functions
j y y
equations
Localy smooth, differentiable
Elements: vertices, edges,
surfaces
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Fractals
deterministic not deterministic
Classes of Fractals
deterministic
not linear
Mandelbrot Set
Julia Sets
linear
IFS
L-systems
not deterministic
Fractal Brownian
Motion
Christoph Traxler 6
Mandelbrot Set
Strange attractors
Bifurcation diagrams
L systems
Diffusion Limited
Aggregation
L-Systems
1. Introduction
1.4
The Cantor Set
Georg Cantor (1845-1918), founder of set
theory
0 1 X
0
= [0,1]
X
1
= [0,1/3] [2/3,1]
X
2
= [0,1/9] [2/9,1/3]
[2/3,7/9] [8/9,1]
...
Christoph Traxler 7
length(C) = length(limX
n
) = lim(2/3)
n
= 0
C ... limit object C = lim
n
X
n
Initiator
G t
Construction of the Cantor Set
Generator
X[0] = initiator;
for(n=1;n=;n++)
X[n] = substitute each span
f X[ 1] ith t
Christoph Traxler 8
of X[n-1] with generator;
1. Introduction
1.5
The Cantor Set
Arithmetic description of the Cantor Set with
Construction: remove all numbers which Construction: remove all numbers, which
contain the digit 1 in their triadic expansion
C = {x = 0.x
1
x
2
x
3
...x
n
| x
i
#1, i = 1,2,...}
uncountable set of points ( Cantor Dust )
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0.0 0.1 0.2
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.20 0.21 0.22
The Cantor Set
The Cantor Set as fix point of a
feedback system:
Starts with an arbitrary point X Starts with an arbitrary point X
0
Two categories of points: prisoner
& escapee
Prisoner set is the Cantor Set
Christoph Traxler 10
X
n
X
n+1
X
3x if x s0.5
-3x+3 if x >0.5

1. Introduction
1.6
The Cantor Set
Escapee vs.
prisoner
1
x
1
x
2
Christoph Traxler 11
x
0
x
0
x
1
x
2
The Cantor Set
Properties:
Self similar
Invariant under scaling Invariant under scaling
Cant be described analytically
Cross section of Saturn rings is similar to
the Cantor Set
Temporary occurrence of data transfer
Christoph Traxler 12
Temporary occurrence of data transfer
errors can be described by Cantor Set
(Mandelbrot 62)
1. Introduction
1.7
X
4
Helge von Koch, 1904
limit object
The Koch Curve
X
2
X
3
limit object
Christoph Traxler 13
X
0
X
1
Initiator
Generator
The Koch Curve
Self similar
Length(X
n
) = (4/3)
n
length(K)= length(K)=
Each part of K has
infinite length
Continuous but not
differentiable
scaled by 3
Christoph Traxler 14
d e e ab e
1. Introduction
1.8
Circumference consists of 3 Koch Curves
length(Koch Island) =
The Koch Island
T/3 T/9 T/27
Christoph Traxler 15
T T 3T/3 T 3T/3
12T/9
T 3T/3
12T/9
48T/27
The Koch Island
T/3 T/9 T/27
Christoph Traxler 16
1. Introduction
1.9
The Koch Island
2
3
5
2
lim a A =
Christoph Traxler 17
Infinite
circumference
but finite area
compass setting length
500 km 2600 km
Measuring the Coast of Britain
100 km
54 km
17 km
3800 km
5770 km
8640 km
Christoph Traxler 18
100 km 50 km
1. Introduction
1.10
Log/Log Diagrams
Description of the relation between compass
setting and measured length
log(u)
4.0
3.8
3.6
P l
Christoph Traxler 19
d = 0.36
log(1/s)
3.4
-2.7 -2.3 -1.9 -1.5 -1.1
log(b)
Power law:
scale 1
log 3(u)
2
Measuring the Koch Curve
scale 1/3
log 3(1/s)
4
1
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scale 1/9
1. Introduction
1.11
3 1/3
number of
pieces
reduction
factor
Self Similarity of Line, Square, Cube
1/6
9=3
2
36=6
2
42 1/42
1764=42
2
6
1/3
1/6
1/42
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1764 42
27=3
3
216=6
3
74088=42
3
1/42
1/3
1/6
1/42
Scaling factors are not arbitrary
b f d ti
Self Similarity of Fractals
number of
pieces
reduction
factor
2 1/3
1/9
2
k
1/3
k
4
4 1/3
Christoph Traxler 22
4 1/3
1/9
4
k
1/3
k
16
1. Introduction
1.12
Self Similarity of Fractals
Scaling factors are characteristic for the
decomposition of fractals into self similar parts
n number of self similar pieces
Christoph Traxler 23
p
s scaling factor
D self similarity dimension D = 1 + d
Self Similarity of Fractals
Line: log3/log3 = 1
Square: log9/log3 = 2
Cube: log27/log3 = 3
Cantor Set:
log2
k
/log3
k
= log2/log3 ~ 0.6309
Christoph Traxler 24
Koch Curve:
log4
k
/log3
k
= log4/log3 ~ 1.2619
1. Introduction
1.13
The Peano Curve
Guiseppe Peano, 1890
Initiator X
0
0
1
2
3
4 8
X
2
Christoph Traxler 25
Generator X
1
Limit object
5
6
7
The Peano Curve
Properties:
Space filling
Self tangenting Self tangenting
Continous mapping [0,1]plane
Dimension: n = 9
k
, s = 3
-k
D = log9/log3 = 2
Strange observation: The limit object is a 2d
curve
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curve
1. Introduction
1.14
The Peano Curve
Parametrization of the square
Each point of the square can be adressed by
only one parameter
0 1
0.2
0 3
0.28
0 01
0.82
only one parameter
Contradiction to classic notion of dimension
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0.0
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.01
0.77
Waclaw Sierpinsky, 1916
Di i l 3
k
/l 2
k
l 3/l 2 1 849
Initiator X
0
Generator X
1
X
2
X
3
Christoph Traxler 28
Dimension: log3
k
/log2
k
= log3/log2 ~ 1.5849
The limit object consists of branching points
1. Introduction
1.15
Corner point
Allows the branching orders:
Touching points
2 (corner of initial triangle)
4 (touching point)
3 (any other point)
Christoph Traxler 29
The Sierpinsky Carpet
Initiator X
0
Generator X
1
X
2
X
3
Dimension: log8
k
/log3
k
= log8/log3 ~ 1.892
The limit object consists of branching points
Christoph Traxler 30
The limit object consists of branching points
Univeral: it contains a topological version
of any 1-dimensional object
1. Introduction
1.16
Contains branching points with any order
Order 4 branching
The Sierpinsky Carpet
g
structure
Cantor set
Christoph Traxler 31
Square
Line
Fractals in 3D
Menger Sponge, D = log20/log3 ~ 2.726
Sierpinsky Tetrahedron,D = log4/log2 = 2
Christoph Traxler 32
1. Introduction
1.17
Fractals in 3D
The Sierpinsky Tetrahedron can be seen as
network of branching points with spatial
extension extension
Since its dimension is 2 it should be possible
to fold it into the plane
In the plane it becomes a space filling network
of branching points
Christoph Traxler 33
Fractals in 3D
Folding the Sierpinsky Tetrahedron
Christoph Traxler 34
1. Introduction
1.18
Fractals in 3D
Christoph Traxler 35
Haptic fractals creation without computers
Christoph Traxler 36
1. Introduction
1.19
Haptic fractals creation without computers
Christoph Traxler 37
Complex inter-reflection pattern of mirror
spheres shows fractal properties
Simplest form: Tetrahedron of spheres Simplest form: Tetrahedron of spheres
Christoph Traxler 38
1. Introduction
1.20
Can be simulated by ray tracing
Christoph Traxler 39
Web sites:
www.miqel.com/fractals_math_patterns/visual
a/index.html
Christoph Traxler 40
1. Introduction
1.21
Application of Fractal Geometry
Computer Graphics, - 3d modeling of natural
phenomena, textures, animation
Engineering Engineering
Electronics and signal processing
Material engineering
Flow simulation
Natural science - dynamic systems (chaos
Christoph Traxler 41
Natural science, dynamic systems (chaos
theory), measuring dimensions
Application of Fractal Geometry
Fractal antenna for a cellular phone
More efficient, - less space
Christoph Traxler 42