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You are on page 1of 21

Introduction

1.1

Mathematical Monsters

Guiseppe Peano

Cantor Set, 1870

Christoph Traxler 1

Georg Cantor

Peano Curve, 1890

Mathematical Monsters

Koch Curve, 1904

Waclaw Sierpinski

Helge von Koch

Christoph Traxler 2

Sierpinski Triangle, 1916

1. Introduction

1.2

> 2000 years old Around 30 years old

Euclidean Geometry Fractal Geometry

Euclidean vs. Fractal Geometry

y

Applicable for

artificial objects

y

Applicable for natural

objects

Christoph Traxler 3

Invariant under scaling,self Shapes change with scaling

Euclidean vs. Fractal Geometry

Euclidean Geometry Fractal Geometry

similar

scaled by 3

Christoph Traxler 4

1. Introduction

1.3

Objects defined by recursive Objects defined by analytical

Euclidean vs. Fractal Geometry

Euclidean Geometry Fractal Geometry

j y

algorithms

Localy rough, not differentiable

Elements: iteration of functions

j y y

equations

Localy smooth, differentiable

Elements: vertices, edges,

surfaces

Christoph Traxler 5

Fractals

deterministic not deterministic

Classes of Fractals

deterministic

not linear

Mandelbrot Set

Julia Sets

linear

IFS

L-systems

not deterministic

Fractal Brownian

Motion

Christoph Traxler 6

Mandelbrot Set

Strange attractors

Bifurcation diagrams

L systems

Diffusion Limited

Aggregation

L-Systems

1. Introduction

1.4

The Cantor Set

Georg Cantor (1845-1918), founder of set

theory

0 1 X

0

= [0,1]

X

1

= [0,1/3] [2/3,1]

X

2

= [0,1/9] [2/9,1/3]

[2/3,7/9] [8/9,1]

...

Christoph Traxler 7

length(C) = length(limX

n

) = lim(2/3)

n

= 0

C ... limit object C = lim

n

X

n

Initiator

G t

Construction of the Cantor Set

Generator

X[0] = initiator;

for(n=1;n=;n++)

X[n] = substitute each span

f X[ 1] ith t

Christoph Traxler 8

of X[n-1] with generator;

1. Introduction

1.5

The Cantor Set

Arithmetic description of the Cantor Set with

triadic numbers {0,1,2}

Construction: remove all numbers which Construction: remove all numbers, which

contain the digit 1 in their triadic expansion

C = {x = 0.x

1

x

2

x

3

...x

n

| x

i

#1, i = 1,2,...}

uncountable set of points ( Cantor Dust )

Christoph Traxler 9

0.0 0.1 0.2

0.00 0.01 0.02 0.20 0.21 0.22

The Cantor Set

The Cantor Set as fix point of a

feedback system:

Starts with an arbitrary point X Starts with an arbitrary point X

0

Two categories of points: prisoner

& escapee

Prisoner set is the Cantor Set

Christoph Traxler 10

X

n

X

n+1

X

3x if x s0.5

-3x+3 if x >0.5

1. Introduction

1.6

The Cantor Set

Escapee vs.

prisoner

1

x

1

x

2

Christoph Traxler 11

x

0

x

0

x

1

x

2

The Cantor Set

Properties:

Self similar

Invariant under scaling Invariant under scaling

Cant be described analytically

Cross section of Saturn rings is similar to

the Cantor Set

Temporary occurrence of data transfer

Christoph Traxler 12

Temporary occurrence of data transfer

errors can be described by Cantor Set

(Mandelbrot 62)

1. Introduction

1.7

X

4

Helge von Koch, 1904

limit object

The Koch Curve

X

2

X

3

limit object

Christoph Traxler 13

X

0

X

1

Initiator

Generator

The Koch Curve

Self similar

Length(X

n

) = (4/3)

n

length(K)= length(K)=

Each part of K has

infinite length

Continuous but not

differentiable

scaled by 3

Christoph Traxler 14

d e e ab e

1. Introduction

1.8

Circumference consists of 3 Koch Curves

length(Koch Island) =

The Koch Island

T/3 T/9 T/27

Christoph Traxler 15

T T 3T/3 T 3T/3

12T/9

T 3T/3

12T/9

48T/27

The Koch Island

T/3 T/9 T/27

Christoph Traxler 16

1. Introduction

1.9

The Koch Island

2

3

5

2

lim a A =

Christoph Traxler 17

Infinite

circumference

but finite area

compass setting length

500 km 2600 km

Measuring the Coast of Britain

100 km

54 km

17 km

3800 km

5770 km

8640 km

Christoph Traxler 18

100 km 50 km

1. Introduction

1.10

Log/Log Diagrams

Description of the relation between compass

setting and measured length

log(u)

4.0

3.8

3.6

P l

Christoph Traxler 19

d = 0.36

log(1/s)

3.4

-2.7 -2.3 -1.9 -1.5 -1.1

log(b)

Power law:

scale 1

log 3(u)

2

Measuring the Koch Curve

scale 1/3

log 3(1/s)

4

1

Christoph Traxler 20

scale 1/9

1. Introduction

1.11

3 1/3

number of

pieces

reduction

factor

Self Similarity of Line, Square, Cube

1/6

9=3

2

36=6

2

42 1/42

1764=42

2

6

1/3

1/6

1/42

Christoph Traxler 21

1764 42

27=3

3

216=6

3

74088=42

3

1/42

1/3

1/6

1/42

Scaling factors are not arbitrary

b f d ti

Self Similarity of Fractals

number of

pieces

reduction

factor

2 1/3

1/9

2

k

1/3

k

4

4 1/3

Christoph Traxler 22

4 1/3

1/9

4

k

1/3

k

16

1. Introduction

1.12

Self Similarity of Fractals

Scaling factors are characteristic for the

decomposition of fractals into self similar parts

n number of self similar pieces

Christoph Traxler 23

p

s scaling factor

D self similarity dimension D = 1 + d

Self Similarity of Fractals

Line: log3/log3 = 1

Square: log9/log3 = 2

Cube: log27/log3 = 3

Cantor Set:

log2

k

/log3

k

= log2/log3 ~ 0.6309

Christoph Traxler 24

Koch Curve:

log4

k

/log3

k

= log4/log3 ~ 1.2619

1. Introduction

1.13

The Peano Curve

Guiseppe Peano, 1890

Initiator X

0

0

1

2

3

4 8

X

2

Christoph Traxler 25

Generator X

1

Limit object

5

6

7

The Peano Curve

Properties:

Space filling

Self tangenting Self tangenting

Continous mapping [0,1]plane

Dimension: n = 9

k

, s = 3

-k

D = log9/log3 = 2

Strange observation: The limit object is a 2d

curve

Christoph Traxler 26

curve

1. Introduction

1.14

The Peano Curve

Parametrization of the square

Each point of the square can be adressed by

only one parameter

0 1

0.2

0 3

0.28

0 01

0.82

only one parameter

Contradiction to classic notion of dimension

Christoph Traxler 27

0.0

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.01

0.77

The Sierpinsky Gasket

Waclaw Sierpinsky, 1916

Di i l 3

k

/l 2

k

l 3/l 2 1 849

Initiator X

0

Generator X

1

X

2

X

3

Christoph Traxler 28

Dimension: log3

k

/log2

k

= log3/log2 ~ 1.5849

The limit object consists of branching points

1. Introduction

1.15

The Sierpinsky Gasket

Corner point

Allows the branching orders:

Touching points

2 (corner of initial triangle)

4 (touching point)

3 (any other point)

Christoph Traxler 29

The Sierpinsky Carpet

Initiator X

0

Generator X

1

X

2

X

3

Dimension: log8

k

/log3

k

= log8/log3 ~ 1.892

The limit object consists of branching points

Christoph Traxler 30

The limit object consists of branching points

Univeral: it contains a topological version

of any 1-dimensional object

1. Introduction

1.16

Contains branching points with any order

Order 4 branching

The Sierpinsky Carpet

g

structure

Cantor set

Christoph Traxler 31

Square

Line

Fractals in 3D

Menger Sponge, D = log20/log3 ~ 2.726

Sierpinsky Tetrahedron,D = log4/log2 = 2

Christoph Traxler 32

1. Introduction

1.17

Fractals in 3D

The Sierpinsky Tetrahedron can be seen as

network of branching points with spatial

extension extension

Since its dimension is 2 it should be possible

to fold it into the plane

In the plane it becomes a space filling network

of branching points

Christoph Traxler 33

Fractals in 3D

Folding the Sierpinsky Tetrahedron

Christoph Traxler 34

1. Introduction

1.18

Fractals in 3D

Christoph Traxler 35

The Sierpinsky Gasket

Haptic fractals creation without computers

Christoph Traxler 36

1. Introduction

1.19

The Sierpinsky Gasket

Haptic fractals creation without computers

Christoph Traxler 37

Wada Basin Fractals

Complex inter-reflection pattern of mirror

spheres shows fractal properties

Simplest form: Tetrahedron of spheres Simplest form: Tetrahedron of spheres

Christoph Traxler 38

1. Introduction

1.20

Wada Basin Fractals

Can be simulated by ray tracing

Christoph Traxler 39

Wada Basin Fractals

Web sites:

www.miqel.com/fractals_math_patterns/visual

-math-wada-basin-spheres html math wada basin spheres.html

local.wasp.uwa.edu.au/~pbourke/fractals/wad

a/index.html

Christoph Traxler 40

1. Introduction

1.21

Application of Fractal Geometry

Computer Graphics, - 3d modeling of natural

phenomena, textures, animation

Engineering Engineering

Electronics and signal processing

Material engineering

Flow simulation

Natural science - dynamic systems (chaos

Christoph Traxler 41

Natural science, dynamic systems (chaos

theory), measuring dimensions

Application of Fractal Geometry

Fractal antenna for a cellular phone

More efficient, - less space

Christoph Traxler 42

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