History of Psychology 1

Running Head: History of Psychology Paper

History of Psychology Virginia Baccellia PSY/310 June 25,2011 Celine Cate

The Difference method is contrast of the Agreement method (if not Y. 2008). including the method of Agreement. Each of these philosophers shared ideas and significant theories that had a bountiful impact on the development of modern psychology. Kant and Leibniz were two German philosophers who had a evident influence on modern psychology whereas their ideas contradict those of the Associationists and Empiricists. then X). The Beginnings of Modern Psychology Mill Mill published System of Logic in 1843 which had an tremendous impression on the methods used to study psychology by applying inductive logic. these laws . The Concomitant method focuses on the idea of cause and effect (a change in Y will bring upon a change in X).History of Psychology 2 History of Psychology Modern psychology history is dated back to early influential philosophers such as Mill. During the 19th century there were many scientific innovations that moved to the development of the science of psychology that allowed scientists and psychologists to study the physical aspects after psychological theories. Difference. In this publication he explained the methods that could be used in the study of psychology. The method of Agreement was established on the idea of studying certain commonalities inside a sample group in a pursuance to terminate what risk factors may consider (if Y. Locke. Hume also implemented three laws of association. Hume Hume originated the idea that impressions evolve from ideas and sensations that are experienced in daily life. Hume. then not X). and Descartes whose main focus was on Associationism and British Empiricism. and Concomitant (Goodwin.

2008). 2008. Cause and effect was established on the thought that if two objects are regularly associated with one another an individual might come to associate these two events. Descartes Descartes was a significant influential philosopher in reference to the field of psychology. Descartes presented the theory of dualism (mind-body issue). Resemblance was focused on the idea that objects that may have similarity to someone to trigger specific memories. Descartes validated the role in the mind-body problem that has been a constant issue in the history of psychology. Locke Locke was considered as the founder of British Empiricism. According to this theory the mind and the body are two separate entities that work together to create human experiences (Goodwin. and cause/effect (Goodwin. These laws of association triggered many up coming theories and ideas within the psychology field. Kant agreed that experience was an important part of understanding and learning. The law of contiguity is interested in experiencing things at the simultaneously. then. this developes an association between these two objects. ready to be written upon by the experiences of one’s lifetime” (Goodwin. He believed that personal experiences largely effect the inner workings of the development of personality. 2008). Kant and Leibniz Kant and Leibniz challenged the ideas of the Empiricists and Associationists. the mind. “the mind at birth. and behaviors.History of Psychology 3 included: resemblance. is an empty sheet of white paper. contiguity.40). Locke stated that. he thought that previous . p.

Seperate of Descartes. Leibniz disputed Locke’s belief that the mind resembled a blank paper and proposed that it resembled a piece of veined marble. The 19th Century Influence During the 19th century several new innovations allowed for in-depth and direct study of the human mind and nervous system. vision and audition. and perception. and that psychology would never be considered an actual science. This law set the stage for many new discoveries and theories regarding neural impulses. p. while anterior roots controlled motor responses” (Goodwin.57). but in agreement” (Goodwin.56). He suggested that both mind and body “operate independently of one another.67). p. The functioning of the nervous system and the localization of brain function were the two major scientific advancements in psychology that were introduced during the 19th century. This discovery was made by Francois Magendie and became referred to as the Bell-Magendie Law. . By studying the functioning of the nervous system it was discovered that “the posterior roots of the spinal cord controlled sensation. Leibniz had difficulties distinguishing with theories proposed by both Locke and Descartes. 2008. These innovations paved the way for psychology to become an actual science because theories could now be proven using scientific data and research. . 2008. Leibniz believed that the mind and body funtioned together by parallelism rather than dualism. p. He believed that “the mind has innate properties that help determine the limits and shape the effects of experience” (Goodwin. each piece having its own unique point of view.History of Psychology 4 knowledge had to exist for experiences to occur and influence an individual. Kant also believed that science and psychology were on relitively different levels. 2008.

Innovative advancements during the 19th century allowed for new clinical studies to be performed that allowed scientists and psychologists to study individuals with mental illnesses and brain damage.History of Psychology 5 Another important issue was brought up during the 19th century regarding the brains structural makeup and the corresponding effects that each part of the brain had on the body. They also proposed many ideas about how experiences can affect an individual’s development. which is still an issue within the field of psychology today. and as time continues to progress many new theories and ideas will arise. Without the innovative advancements made during the 19th century psychology may never have been considered an actual science due to lack of evidential proof. This issue was referred to as phrenology. Had it not been for the advancements in the 19th century scientists and psychologists would have continued to struggle to prove theories on the basis of ideas rather than scientific evidence. Philosophers opened the door to psychological theories by proposing questions regarding the mind and the body and how the two were related to one another. and is primarily concerned with the localization of brain function. Conclusion The history of modern psychology has been influenced by many significant individuals throughout the centuries. As the world advanced so did the field of psychology. . Franz Josef Gall was a phrenologist who was able to prove his theory of contra lateral function which was the belief that the right side of the brain controlled the left side of the body and vice versa.

C.) Hoboken. (2008). NJ: Wiley . (3rd ed.J.History of Psychology 6 References Goodwin. A History of Modern Psychology.

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