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Bisalloy Technical Manual

BISPLATE Technical Manual

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Bisalloy Technical Manual Contents


Chapters Introduction How to Contact us Process Route Range of Grades Available Sizes Manufacturing Tolerances Cutting BISPLATE Welding BISPLATE Bending, Rolling, Shearing and Punching BISPLATE Drilling, Countersinking & Tapping BISPLATE Turning & Milling BISPLATE Design Examples BISPLATE Identification Marking and Colour Coding Testing and Certification Hardness Testing BISPLATE BISPLATE Wear Comparisons Fatigue resistance of BISPLATE Performance of BISPLATE at Elevated Temperatures Galvanising BISPLATE Page Numbers 3 4 5 6 23 24 27 35 43 47 53 57 69 70 71 74 79 87 90

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Bisalloy Technical Manual Introduction


Bisalloy Steels Pty Ltd, located at Unanderra close to BlueScope Steels integrated steel works at Port Kembla, is Australias only manufacturer of high strength, wear resistant and armour grade steel plate by the continuos roller quenching and tempering process. Quenching and tempering, defined as a combination of heating and cooling of a metal or alloy, changes the microstructure of the steel and improves the strength, hardness and toughness of the materials being treated. Utilising the most advanced heat treatment technology; furnace temperatures and quenching rates are scientifically controlled to obtain the optimum quality grades of steel with low alloy content. The resulting products of low alloy quenched and tempered steel offer designers the strength to weight advantages and wear resistant properties not available in conventional steels. High strength steel has a strength to weight ratio of more than three times that of mild steel. Principal applications lie in mining equipment, transport, telescopic cranes, materials handling equipment, high rise construction and forestry. High hardness grades offer improved wear life making it ideal for applications such as liners for chutes, buckets, dump trucks etc. BISPLATE Armour grades are suitable for armoured personnel carriers and ballistic protection of military and civilian fixed plant and transport equipment. BISPLATE grades can be readily cut, welded, formed and drilled using similar techniques to mild steel. Bisalloy Steels operates an approved mechanical testing laboratory registered and monitored by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA). The companys quality control and management system is assessed by Lloyds and accredited to ISO9001:2000. The capacity, quality and versatility of our heat treatment line enables us to compete in both domestic and international markets; including North and South America, Asia, New Zealand and Africa.
Disclaimer

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Bisalloy Steels Pty Ltd 18 Resolution Drive Unanderra P.O.Box 1246 NSW 2526 Australia Tel Switch Fax Web Site 61 (0)2 4272 0444 61 (0)2 4272 0456 www.Bisalloy.com.au

Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia and South Australia Greg Check tel 02 4272 0417 Mob. 0418 833030 greg.check@Bisalloy.com.au New South Wales, Queensland, Northern Territory & New Zealand Jim Devlin tel 02 4272 0419 Mob. 0418 427766 jim.devlin@Bisalloy.com.au Export Sales Willy Pang tel 02 4272 0418 Mob 0419 280765 willy.pang@Bisalloy.com.au

Sales & Marketing Manager Michael Sampson tel 02 4272 0412 Mob. 0418 603852 michael.sampson@Bisalloy.com.au Bisalloy Manager Nick Hardcastle

tel 02 4272 0402 Mob. 0418 264370 nick.hardcastle@Bisalloy.com.au

Technical Manager Russell Barnett tel 02 4272 0470 Mob. 0418 271948 russell.barnett@Bisalloy.com.au

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Schematic Diagram of BISPATE Production Process

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RANGE OF GRADES INTRODUCTION Bisalloy Steels grades are world class, our structural grades complying with many of the international quenched and tempered steel plate standards. Each of the grades covered by this brochure has specific mechanical and chemical properties detailed. The process information detailed below is applicable to all BISPLATE product manufactured by Bisalloy Steels. BISALLOYS FEED PLATE The technology used in the manufacture of BISPLATE is not only world class, but the demands of high strength and high hardness steels dictate the need for one of the most stringent process routes utilised in the manufacture of steel plate, anywhere in the world. Hot metal desulphurisation ensures low levels of sulphur and other impurities in steelmaking. Vacuum degassing is carried out to reduce the Hydrogen content of the steel whilst also decreasing the amount of undesirable Oxygen and Nitrogen in the steel. Control of impurities is additionally assisted through the use of hot metal injection and conditioning of the slag during the Basic Oxygen Steelmaking process. Close control of chemical composition and final microstructure is maintained through the use of ladle refining with Calcium injection, Argon bubbling through the heat during steelmaking and alloying additions made under vacuum. Following steelmaking, integrity of slab product is ensured by the use of electromagnetic stirring, continuous casting and controlled cooling of slabs prior to plate rolling. Finally, plate rolling is carried out in a computer controlled four high rolling mill in which each draft is modified during rolling for optimisation of final properties. The net result is steel with improved toughness, structural integrity and fatigue resistance, providing consistent product performance in service. BISALLOYS HEAT TREATMENT Plate is heated in our natural gas fired furnace prior to quenching in the Drever roller quench unit. Complete PLC control allows tight and consistent control of all furnace and quench operations including water flow rates and pressures, furnace temperatures and residency times. Pre and post heat treatment shot blasting removes scale and presents an attractive plate. This results in improvements in product properties, welding and cutting, as well as simplification during fabrication.

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The final operation at Bisalloy is plate leveling through the plate leveler in material up to 32mm thickness. This has resulted in significant improvements in flatness of plate to market, much tighter than the Australian Standard and other international standards. Our quality assurance system ensures that full traceability exists from initial steelmaking right through the process to the final plate. Each plate is individually hard stamped with a unique identification, and this links the overall traceability. All plates are tested for hardness, whilst all structural grades are tested in Bisalloys NATA approved mechanical testing laboratory. Plates of all grades are certified. The entire process is carried out in compliance with ISO-9001 certified by LRQA (Lloyds Register Quality Assurance). BISALLOYS TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT Each of the grades outlined in this brochure has been developed to optimise chemistry and mechanical properties in conjunction with Bisalloys heat treatment process. Our world class steel grades ensure that properties such as ductility, weldability and toughness are maximised whilst complying with the required hardness and strength requirements. Ongoing R&D at Bisalloy keeps our product range at the leading edge of available quenched and tempered steels. Already we are developing steels to meet the emerging requirements for still stronger structural and higher hardnesses grades, and these will be released to the market as demand dictates.

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BISPLATE 6 0 BISPLATE 60 is a low carbon, low alloy, high strength structural steel which exhibits excellent cold formability and low temperature fracture toughness. APPLICATIONS The combination of BISPLATE 60 mechanical properties and ease of fabrication offers economical advantages in many structural applications. Some examples of applications for this grade include: Storage tanks (Water/Oil/Gas) High rise buildings (Columns/Transfer beams) Lifting equipment (Mobile/Overhead cranes) FABRICATION BISPLATE 60 can be welded successfully with minimal levels of preheat and has excellent low temperature fracture toughness. BISPLATE 60 has been designed such that a low hardness level is produced in the heat affected zone (HAZ). As a result this steel has a low susceptibility to HAZ cracking. For further details on fabrication please refer to Bisalloys technical literature. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) 20C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness SPECIFICATION 500 MPa (Min) 590 730 MPa 20% (Min) 80J (Min) TYPICAL 580 MPa 640 MPa 30% 200J 210HB

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 Typical Typical Typical C 0.16 0.18 0.16 P 0.010 0.010 0.010 Mn 1.10 1.40 1.15 Si 0.20 0.20 0.20 S 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.20 0.90 Cr Mo 0.20 0.20 0.20 B 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010 CE(IIW) 0.40 0.50 0.58 PCM 0.25 0.29 0.30

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BISPLATE 70 BISPLATE 70 is a low carbon, low alloy, high strength structural steel. This grade can be welded with minimal preheat and has excellent low temperature fracture toughness suitable for structural applications. APPLICATIONS The combination of BISPLATE 70 mechanical properties and ease of fabrication offers economical advantages in many structural applications. Some examples of applications for this grade include: Transport equipment (Trays/Low loaders/Outriggers) Storage tanks (Water/Oil/Gas) High rise buildings (Columns/Transfer beams) Lifting equipment (Mobile/Overhead cranes) Mining equipment (Dump truck trays/Structural applications) Longwall mining supports FABRICATION BISPLATE 70 exhibits excellent cold formability and low temperature fracture toughness. BISPLATE 70 has been designed such that a low hardness level is produced in the heat affected zone (HAZ). As a result, this steel has a low susceptibility to HAZ cracking. For further details on fabrication please refer to Bisalloy's technical literature. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) 20C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness 230HB SPECIFICATION 600 MPa (Min) 690 830 MPa 20% (Min) 75J (Min) TYPICAL 670 MPa 760 MPa 28% 180J

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 Typical Typical Typical C 0.16 0.18 0.16 P 0.010 0.010 0.010 Mn 1.10 1.40 1.15 Si 0.20 0.20 0.20 S 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.20 0.90 Cr Mo 0.20 0.20 0.20 B 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010 CE(IIW) 0.40 0.50 0.58 PCM 0.25 0.29 0.30

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BISPLATE 80 BISPLATE 80 is a high strength, low alloy steel plate with a yield strength three times that of carbon steel and featuring low carbon, excellent notch toughness, good weldability and formability. APPLICATIONS Utilising the high strength properties of BISPLATE 80 allows reduction in section thickness, without loss of structural integrity. The following lists some applications where the strength advantage has been realised: Transport equipment (Low loaders) High rise buildings (Columns) Mining equipment (Dump truck trays/Longwall roof supports) Lifting equipment (Mobile Cranes/Container handling equipment) Bridges Storage tanks Induced draft fans Excavator buckets FABRICATION BISPLATE 80 is a high strength steel manufactured with a controlled carbon equivalent for optimum weldability. BISPLATE 80 can be successfully welded to itself and a range of other steels, provided low hydrogen consumables are used and attention is paid to preheat, interpass temperature, heat input and the degree of joint restraint. Stress Relieving can be achieved at 540C - 570C. Heating above this temperature should be avoided to minimise any adverse effects on mechanical properties. Cold forming can be successfully conducted, provided due account is taken of the increased strength of the steel. For further details on fabrication please refer to Bisalloy's technical literature. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) 20C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness 255HB SPECIFICATION 690 MPa (Min) 790 930 MPa 18% (Min) 40J (Min) TYPICAL 750 MPa 830 MPa 26% 160J

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 Typical Typical Typical C 0.16 0.18 0.16 P 0.010 0.010 0.010 Mn 1.10 1.40 1.15 Si 0.20 0.20 0.20 S 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.20 0.90 Cr Mo 0.20 0.20 0.20 B 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010 CE(IIW) 0.40 0.50 0.58 PCM 0.25 0.29 0.30

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BISPLATE 8OPV BISPLATE 80PV is a high strength steel alternative for designers of unfired pressure vessels which meets the requirements of AS1210 and achieves a light weight structure. APPLICATIONS BISPLATE 80PV has been approved by statutory authorities and complies with the requirements of AS1210 for pressure applications and is supplied ultrasonically tested to AS1710-Level 1. The high strength offers substantial weight reductions in the following areas: Transportable road tankers Storage tanks (Spherical and cylindrical) Railroad tankers (LPG/Liquid ammonia) Refinery and Petro chemical equipment (Tube plates/Channel covers) FABRICATION BISPLATE 80PV is a high strength, low alloy pressure vessel steel with a controlled carbon equivalent for optimum weldability. BISPLATE 80PV can be successfully welded to itself and a range of other steels, provided low hydrogen consumables are used and attention is paid to preheat, interpass temperature, heat input and the degree of joint restraint. Stress relieving can be achieved at 540C - 570C. Heating above this temperature should be avoided to minimise any adverse effects on mechanical properties. Cold forming can be conducted successfully, provided due account is taken of the increased strength of the steel. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Lateral Expansion Charpy Impact Hardness SPECIFICATION 690 MPa* (Min) 790 930 MPa 18% (Min) 0.38mm (Min) TYPICAL 750 MPa 830 MPa 26% 0.70mm 55J 255HB

*Dependant on plate thickness.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 6-<16 16-80 >80-100 Typical Typical Typical C 0.16 0.18 0.16 P 0.010 0.010 0.010 Mn 1.10 1.40 1.15 Si 0.20 0.20 0.20 S 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.20 0.90 Cr Mo 0.20 0.20 0.20 B 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010 CE(IIW) 0.40 0.50 0.58 PCM 0.25* 0.29 0.30

*Low heat input butt welding required to ensure transverse weld tensile properties are achieved. Alternate chemistry may be specified when necessary.

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BISPLATE 320 BISPLATE 320 is a through hardened, abrasion resistant steel plate, offering long life expectancy in high impact abrasion applications. APPLICATIONS BISPLATE 320 offers the optimum combination of hardness, impact and formability for wear applications which require extensive forming/drilling or fabrication, in impact abrasive applications such as: Deflector plates Chutes Storage bins Dump Truck liners Earthmoving buckets FABRICATION BISPLATE 320 is a high hardness, abrasion resistant steel with a controlled carbon equivalent for optimum weldability. With appropriate attention to heat input, preheat and consumable selection, BISPLATE 320 can be readily welded to itself and other steels, using conventional processes. Cold forming of BISPLATE 320 plates is possible in all thicknesses, provided the high strength of this steel is taken into account. Adequate allowance must be made for increased springback relative to mild steel. Heating above 400C should be avoided, otherwise the mechanical properties may be affected. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) +20C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness 320 360HB 340HB SPECIFICATION TYPICAL 970 MPa 1070 MPa 18% 60J

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 Typical Typical Typical C 0.16 0.18 0.16 P 0.010 0.010 0.010 Mn 1.10 1.40 1.15 Si 0.20 0.20 0.20 S 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.20 0.90 Cr Mo 0.20 0.20 0.20 B 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010 CE(IIW) 0.40 0.50 0.58 PCM 0.25 0.29 0.30

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BISPLATE 400 BISPLATE 400 is a through hardened, abrasion resistant steel plate, offering long life expectancy in high impact abrasion applications. APPLICATIONS BISPLATE 400 offers excellent wear and abrasion resistance and impact toughness in applications which include: Dump truck wear liners Cyclones Screw conveyors Deflector plates Chutes Ground engaging tools Storage bins Cutting edges Earthmoving buckets FABRICATION BISPLATE 400 is a high hardness, abrasion resistant steel offering very good impact toughness properties. BISPLATE 400 provides an optimum combination of abrasion resistance, toughness and weldability Due to its low alloy content, BISPLATE 400 can be readily welded using conventional welding processes and low hydrogen consumables. Cold forming of BISPLATE 400 is achievable on all thicknesses although an allowance for the higher strength should be taken into account. Bending machine capabilities should also be taken into consideration prior to any forming operation. Heating above 350C should be avoided, otherwise mechanical properties may be affected. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) +20C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness 370 430HB 400HB SPECIFICATION TYPICAL 1070 MPa 1320 MPa 14% 55J

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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 Typical Typical Typical C 0.16 0.18 0.16 P 0.010 0.010 0.010 Mn 1.10 1.40 1.15 Si 0.20 0.20 0.20 S 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.20 0.90 Cr Mo 0.20 0.20 0.20 B 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010 CE(IIW) 0.40 0.50 0.58 PCM 0.25 0.29 0.30

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BISPLATE 400XT BISPLATE 400XT is a through hardened, abrasion resistant steel plate, offering long life expectancy in high impact abrasion applications. APPLICATIONS BISPLATE 400XT offers excellent wear and abrasion resistance and impact toughness in applications which include: Dump truck bodies Armoured Face Conveyors Mining Bucket Construction Cutting Edges Tipper Body Construction FABRICATION BISPLATE 400XT is a through hardened, abrasion resistant steel plate, offering long life expectancy in very high impact abrasion applications. BISPLATE 400XT offers excellent wear and abrasion resistance, and is supplied with guaranteed impact toughness. Due to its low alloy content, BISPLATE 400XT can be readily welded using conventional welding processes and low hydrogen consumables. Cold forming of BISPLATE 400XT is achievable on all thicknesses although an allowance for the higher strength should be taken into account. Bending machine capabilities should also be taken into consideration prior to any forming operation. Heating above 350C should be avoided, otherwise mechanical properties may be affected. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) 40C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness 370 430HB 400HB SPECIFICATION TYPICAL 1070 MPa 1320 MPa 16% 45J

GUARANTEED CHARPY-V IMPACT TOUGHNESS


THICKNESS (mm) 6-8 10 X 7.5 12-50 TEST PIECE 10 X 5 10 X 7.5 10 X 10 MIN ENERGY, LONGITUDINAL -40C 17J 21J 25J

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 6-20 >20-50 Maximum Maximum C 0.165 0.21 P 0.025 0.025 Mn 1.25 0.40

*TYPICAL
Si 0.25 0.60 S 0.005 0.005 Ni 0.25 0.35 Cr 0.25 1.20 Mo 0.25 0.30 B 0.002 0.002 CE(IIW) 0.39* 0.44* PCM 0.23* 0.28*

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BISPLATE 425 BISPLATE 425 is a through hardened, abrasion resistant steel plate, offering long life expectancy in sliding and gouging abrasion applications, with impact loading. APPLICATIONS BISPLATE 425 offers exceptionally long life in high abrasion applications with impact loading. Applications include: Dump truck wear liners Chutes Wear liners Ground engaging tools Cutting edges FABRICATION BISPLATE 425 is a medium carbon, high hardness, abrasion resistant steel. With appropriate attention to heat input, preheat and consumable selections, BISPLATE can be successfully welded to itself and a range of other steels by conventional techniques. Because of its high hardness, cold forming of BISPLATE 425 requires higher bending and forming forces, and greater allowances must be made for springback. Heating above 300C should be avoided, otherwise mechanical properties may be affected. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) +20C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness 400 460HB 440HB SPECIFICATION TYPICAL 1260 MPa 1480 MPa 11% 40J

THICKNESS (mm) 6-100 Typical

C 0.29

P 0.015

Mn 0.30

Si 0.30

S 0.003

Cr 1.00

Mo 0.25

B 0.0010

CE(IIW) 0.61

PCM 0.40

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BISPLATE 500 BISPLATE 500 is a through hardened, abrasion resistant steel plate, offering long life expectancy in sliding and gouging abrasion applications. APPLICATIONS BISPLATE 500 is the hardest steel produced by Bisalloy Steels and offers exceptionally long life in sliding abrasion applications such as: Dump truck wear liners Chutes Wear liners Earthmoving buckets Cutting edges Ground engaging tools FABRICATION BISPLATE 500 is a medium carbon, high hardness, abrasion resistant steel. With appropriate attention to heat input, preheat and consumable selections, BISPLATE 500 can be successfully welded to itself and a range of other steels by conventional techniques. Because of its high hardness, cold forming of BISPLATE 500 is difficult, requiring higher bending and forming forces, and greater allowances must be made for springback. If heating is necessary, this should not exceed 200C, otherwise mechanical properties may be affected. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. Charpy Impact (Longitudinal) +20C (10mm X 10mm) Hardness THICKNESS (mm) 6-100 Typical 477 534HB 5000HB SPECIFICATION TYPICAL 1400 MPa 1640 MPa 10% 35J

C 0.29

P 0.015

Mn 0.30

Si 0.30

S 0.003

Cr 1.00

Mo 0.25

B 0.0010

CE(IIW) 0.61

PCM 0.40

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BISPLATE HIGH HARDNESS ARMOUR PLATE INTRODUCTION BISPLATE High Hardness Armour (BISPLATE HHA) is a quenched and tempered steel armour plate suitable for use in both military and civil applications where light weight and resistance to ballistic projectiles is required. METHOD OF MANUFACTURE BISPLATE HHA is a hot rolled steel product that is subsequently heat treated to promote its high strength and toughness, high hardness and ballistics properties. BRINELL HARDNESS
THICKNESS 6 25mm SPECIFICATION 477 534HB TYPICAL 500HB

*Other thicknesses may be available on request

TENSILE PROPERTIES
PROPERTY 0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation in 50mm G.L. TYPICAL 1400MPa 1640 MPa 14%

CHARPY IMPACT VALUES


THICKNESS 5mm 6 -<9.5mm 9.5 - <12mm 12mm TEST PIECE 10 x Thk 10 x 5 10 x 7.5 10 x 10 TEST TEMP -20C -20C -20C -20C MIN ENERGY (TRANSVERSE) By Agreement 8J 12J 16J MIN ENERGY (LONGITUDINAL) By Agreement 10J 15J 20J

MECHANICAL TEST FREQUENCIES


TEST Hardness Charpy (L) Charpy (T) Tensile Testing Thickness Testing Ballistic Testing FREQUENCY Per Plate Per Batch Per Batch By Agreement Per Plate By Agreement

CHEMISTRY The chemical specification conforms with the requirements of MIL-A-46100, although it is tighter than the requirements of that specification so as to optimise the materials performance. Product chemical analyses are taken on a per heat basis. Chemical analysis is as follows:

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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
THICKNESS (mm) 6-25 Max C 0.32 P 0.025 Mn 0.40 Si 0.35 S 0.005 Ni 0.35 Cr 1.20 Mo 0.30 B 0.002 CE(IIW) 0.61 PCM 0.40

*Note Nickel and Vanadium are intentionally added.

Ballistic Properties AS 2343 PART 2 1997 BULLET RESISTANT PANELS FOR INTERIOR: OPAQUE PANELS
CLASS CALIBRE AMMUNITION 15.6g LEAD SEMIWAD CUTTER BULLET 12 GUAGE 70mm HIGH VELOCITY MAGNUM 32g SG SHOT 12 GUAGE 70mm 24.8g SINGLE SLUG M193 5.56mm 3.6g FULL METAL CASE BULLET NATO STANDARD 7.62mm 9.3g FULL METAL CASE BULLET MEASURED VELOCITY @ DISTANCE FROM MUZZLE 488 + 10m/s @ 1.5m RANGE MINIMUM REQUIRED HHA THICKNESS 6mm

G2

44 MAGNUM

3m

SO

12 GUAGE (FULL CHOKE) 12 GUAGE (FULL CHOKE) 5.56mm

403 + 10m/s @ 1.5m

3m

6mm

S1

477 + 10m/s @1.5m

3m

6mm

R1

980 + 15m/s @ 5m

10m

10mm

R2

7.62mm

853 + 10m/s @ 5m

10m

6mm

CLASS G HAND GUN

CLASS S SHOTGUN CLASS R RIFLES

RESIDUAL MAGNETISM Residual Magnetism will be the maximum 20 gauss.

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GRADE EQUIVALENTS
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN Australia ISO Japan UK USA USA USA USA Europe Australia ISO USA Europe Australia ISO USA Europe Japan Australia USA

GRADE 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 70 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 80 80PV 80PV

STEEL STANDARD AS3597-1993 Grade 500 ISO 4950/3 Grade E500 JIS G3106 SM58 BS4360 Grade 55F ASTM A572 Grade 60 ASTM A572 Grade 65 ASTM A537 CI.2 ASTM A852 EN10137-2 S500Q AS3597-1993 Grade 600 ISO 4950/3 Grade E620 ASTM A533 Type A.CI.3 EN10137-2 S620Q AS3597-1993 Grade 700 ISO 4950/3 Grade E690 ASTM A514 EN10137-2 S690Q JIS G3128 AS3597-1993 Grade 700PV ASTM A517

COMMENTS Min. yield 500 MPa Min. yield 500 MPa Min. yield 430 MPa Min. yield 430 MPa Min. yield 415 MPa Min. yield 450 MPa Min. yield 485 MPa Min. yield 485 MPa Min. yield 500 MPa Min. yield 600 MPa Min. yield 620 MPa Min. yield 570 MPa Min. yield 620 MPa Min. yield 690 MPa Min. yield 690 MPa Min. yield 690 MPa Min. yield 690 MPa Min. yield 685 MPa Min. yield 690 MPa Min. yield 690 MPa

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SUMMARY TABLES STRUCTURAL STEEL GRADES
STEEL PLATE CARBON BRINELL GRADE THICKNESS EQUIVALENT HARDNESS (mm) (IIW) (HB3000/10) MECHANICAL PROPERTIES TENSILE CHARPY V-NOTCH IMPACT PLATE 0.2% PROOF TENSILE ELONGATION PLATE ENERGY TEST TEST THICKNES STRESS (MPa) STRENGTH IN 50mm G.L THICKNESS (J) TEMP. DIRECTION S (MPa) (mm) (C) (mm)

Bisplate 60 (AS 3597 Grade 500)

5 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 0.40 0.50 0.58 210 5-100 500 590-730 20 6-9.5 9.5-12 13-100 5 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 0.40 0.50 0.58 0.40 0.50 0.58 255 5 6-65 70-100 650 690 620 750-900 790-930 720-900 18 18 16 230 5-100 600 690-830 20 6-9.5 9.5-12 13-100 5 6-9.5 9.5-12 13-100

By Agmnt 45 60 80 By Agmnt 40 60 75 By Agmnt 20 30 40

-20 -20 -20 -20 -20 -20 -20 -20 -20 -20 -20 -20

L L L L L L L L L L L L

Bisplate 70 (AS 3597 Grade 600)

Bisplate 80 (AS 3597 Grade 700)

5-<16 16-80 >80-100

Bisplate 80PV (AS 3597 Grade 700PV)

6-<16 16-80 >80-100

0.40 0.50 0.50 255

6-65 70-100

690 620

790-930 720-900

18 16

6 100

Lateral By T Expansion Agmnt 0.38mm max 0C min

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HIGH HARDNESS STEEL GRADES
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CHARPY V-NOTCH IMPACT TENSILE
0.2% PROOF STRESS (MPa) TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa) ELONGATION IN 50mm G.L ENERGY (J) TEST TEMP. (C) TEST DIRECTION

STEEL GRADE

PLATE THICKNESS (mm)

CARBON EQUIVALENT (IIW

BRINELL HARDNESS (HB3000/10)

BISPLATE 320

5-<16 16-80 >80-100 5-<16 16-80 >80-100 6-20 >20-50 6-100 6-100

0.40 0.50 0.58 0.40 0.50 0.58 0.39 0.44 0.61 0.61 370-430 370-430 400-460 477-534 1070 1070 1260 1400 1320 1320 1480 1640 14 16 11 10 55 45 40 35 +20 -40 +20 +20 L L L L 320-360 970 1070 18 60 +20 L

BISPLATE 400 BISPLATE 400XT BISPLATE 425 BISPLATE 500

LEGEND L T Longitudinal Transverse Guaranteed Values Typical Values (provided for reference information only)

||W Carbon Equivalent Formula: C.E. = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu 6 5 15 Please Note: Every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of information contained in this manual which supersedes earlier publications, however Bisalloy Steels shall not be liable for any loss or damage howsoever caused or arising from the application of such information. Typical values are provided for reference information only and no guarantee is given that a specific plate will provide these properties. Information is subject to change without notice.

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BISPLATE SIZE RANGE SIZE RANGE STANDARD SIZE SCHEDULE
Table 1:
PLATE MASS IN TONNES GRADE WIDTH (mm) LENGTH (m) Thickness (mm) 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 60 70 75 80 90 100 1525 8 BISPLATE 60, 70,80 ,320, 400 1525 6 1900 6 2485 6 2485 8 3100 8 BISPLATE 450 2485 8 3100 8 1525 6 BISPLATE 500 1900 6 2485 5 2485 8

0.479 0.575

0.936 1.248 1.561 1.873 2.497 3.121 3.901 4.994 6.242 7.803 7.023 6.264 6.712 7.159 6.464 7.183

0.431 1.947 2.336 3.115 3.894 4.867 1.248 1.561 1.873 2.497 3.121 1.947 2.336 3.115 3.894

0.585 1.248 1.561 1.873 2.497 3.121 3.901 4.994 6.242 7.803 5.852 6.264

5.387 5.746 6.464 7.183 Plate mass (tonnes) calculation = 7.85 x W x T x L (m)

NON STANDARD SIZES Available subject to sales enquiry. Minimum order quantities may apply.

EDGE CONDITION All plate 1525mm wide and 5 & 6mm thick is supplied with untrimmed edge. All other plate is supplied with trimmed edge.

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MANUFACTURING TOLERANCES THICKNESS TOLERANCE
Table 2:
Thickness (+ / - mm) WIDTH <1600 1600 2100 2700 <2100 <2700 6 0.53 0.60 0.75 >6 8 0.60 0.68 0.75 0.98 >8 10 0.60 0.68 0.83 1.05 >10 13 0.68 0.75 0.90 1.13 >13 18 0.83 0.90 0.98 1.20 >18 22 0.90 0.98 1.05 1.35 >22 30 1.05 1.13 1.28 1.43 >30 42 1.28 1.35 1.50 >42 63 1.73 1.80 1.95 >63 2.55 2.63 -

Notes: 1. Measurement can be conducted anywhere on plate. 2. All dimensions are in millimetres.

WIDTH TOLERANCE TRIMMED EDGE PLATE


Table 3:
THICKNESS Width <1520 Plus 16 <16 Minus 0 16 <50 Plus 20 Minus 0 Plus 25 50 Minus 0

1520

20

25

30

Note: All dimensions are in millimetres

UNTRIMMED EDGE PLATE


Table 4:
ALL THICKNESS Width 1800 >1800 40 50 0 0 PLUS MINUS

Note: All dimensions are in millimetres.

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LENGTH TOLERANCE
Table 5:
THICKNESS Length <6000 6000 <12000 1200 Plus 25 30 50 <25 Minus 0 0 0 Plus 30 45 65 25 MINUS 0 0 0

Note: All dimensions are in millimetres.

CAMBER EDGE CAMBER TOLERANCE


Table 6:
SPECIFIED WIDTH ALL TRIMMED EDGE 4 UNTRIMMED EDGE 6

Note: All dimensions are in millimetres

Edge Camber shall be limited so that it shall be possible to inscribe the dimensions of the ordered plate within the delivered size.

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FLATNESS Measurement of flatness tolerance should be made when the product, resting under its own mass, is placed on a flat horizontal surface. A straight edge shall be placed on the plate and the maximum vertical distance from the plate shall be measured (H).

Table 7:
SPECIFIED THICKNESS PLATE (mm) 8 DISTANCE BETWEEN POINTS OF CONTACT (mm) 1000 2000 >8 12 1000 2000 >12 25 1000 2000 >25 1000 2000 SPECIFIED WIDTH OF PLATE (mm) <1500 1500 <1800 8 15 6 10 6 10 6 8 1800 <2400 8 15 8 15 6 12 6 10 2400 <3000 10 25 10 20 10 16 6 10 3000

8 15 6 10 6 8 6 8

15 30 15 25 10 16 6 10

Notes:

1. The tolerances apply when measured at least 20mm from the longitudinal edges and 100mm from the transverse edges. 2. Where the distance between the points of contact is between 500mm and 1000mmm, the permissible deviation is obtained as follows. DISTANCE BETWEEN POINTS OF CONTACT x H 1000 Where H = allowable deviation for 1000mm Note: This table is an extract of the AS1365 - 1986 (table 3.4). However Bisalloy Steels Pty Ltd internal manufacturing tolerances are considerably more restrictive. 3. All dimensions are in millimetres.

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FLAME CUTTING, PLASMA CUTTING, LASER CUTTING, WATERJET CUTTING AND SAWING RECOMMENDATIONS All grades of BISPLATE quenched and tempered steel can be cut by either thermal cutting, laser cutting, waterjet cutting or power saw operations. The cutting operations can be carried out either in the workshop or, in the case of flame cutting, in field conditions. Both the high strength structural grades and the wear and abrasion resistant grades can be cut using the same type of equipment employed in cutting plain carbon steels. CUTTING OPERATIONS Dependant on the grade and thickness being cut, the following operations can be used on BISPLATE grades. Flame Cutting (Oxy-LPG and Oxy-acetylene) Plasma Cutting Laser Cutting Waterjet Cutting Power Sawing FLAME CUTTING Both Oxy-LPG and Oxy-acetylene processes are acceptable for sectioning all thicknesses of BISPLATE. With these processes, the following techniques are recommended: Gas pressure to be the same as for cutting the equivalent thickness in plain carbon steel. Reduce travel speeds by 30% when compared to the equivalent thickness plain carbon steels when using a standard cutting nozzle. Nozzle size to be the same as for equivalent thickness plain carbon steel. Correct selection of nozzle size for the plate thickness being cut is important to ensure efficient cutting and to minimise the width of the heat affected zone (HAZ). As with all plate steels, the smoothness of the cut is affected by surface scale. If this is present, it is advisable to remove it prior to cutting. (BISPLATE is normally supplied in the shotblasted condition) Under normal Oxy cutting conditions, the total heat affected zone adjacent to the flame cut edge will extend into the plate approximately 2-3mm, as shown left in figure 2a for BISPLATE 80. It should be noted that the heat affected zone produces a hard layer adjacent to the flame cut edge, with a soft layer inside this. The original plate hardness

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returns after the 2-3mm distance from the cut edge. For BISPLATE 500 the HAZ may extend as much as 4-5mm into the plate as shown in figure 2b. Preheating BISPLATE steel prior to flame cutting will minimise the hardness of the flame cut edge and also reduce the risk of delayed cracking from this cut edge. This is particularly important in cold environments where plate temperature is less than 20C and for the high hardenability grades of BISPLATE 425 and 500. Table 1 below, gives guidance on the preheat requirements. It is recommended that the zone to be preheated should extend at least 75mm either side of the line of cut, with the temperature being measured on the opposite surface and at a distance of 75mm, as shown in figure 3. Recommended Minimum Preheat Temperatures for Flame Cutting of BISPLATE Grades
Table 1:
BISPLATE GRADE 60, 70 80, 80PV PLATE THICKNESS (mm) 8 32 5 31 32 100 320, 400, 450 5 31 32 - 100 500 6 20 21 100 MINIMUM PRE-HEAT TEMPERATURE 20C 20C 50C 20C 50C 50C 100C

If the flame cut surface is to be the face of a welded joint, the heat affected zone from the flame cutting need not be removed. However, all slag and loose scale should be removed by light grinding, and prior to welding, the cut surface should be dry and free from organic matter such as oil, grease, etc (as directed by good workshop practice).

Recommended preheat zone and location of Preheat measurement

When stripping plates, the use of multiple cutting heads will help to minimise distortion of the cut pieces. Correct nozzle size, gas pressure and travel speed will also minimise distortion during cutting. Softening on edges can also occur when flame cutting small strips, eg. 50mm wide x 50mm thick plate. Quench cutting of BISPLATE grades to minimise distortion is not recommended, while cooling in still air is preferred. The technique of stacking plates during profile cutting should also be avoided.

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SUMMARY OF FLAME CUTTING RECOMMENDATIONS For Oxy processes use gas pressures and nozzle sizes as for an equivalent thickness of plain carbon steel. For oxy processes use cutting speeds two thirds of that recommended for an equivalent thickness of plain carbon steel. Flame cutting produces a heat affected zone on all grades. The risk of delayed cracking is reduced by using preheat especially for thick plate and for BISPLATE 500 grade. Use multiple cutting heads when stripping plates. Still air cooling after cutting. Do not stack cut. Do not quench cut plates. Use thermal crayons or surface thermometers to measure preheat temperatures. REFERENCES/FURTHER READING WTIA Technical Note 5 Flame Cutting of Steels. PLASMA CUTTING Plasma cutting is an acceptable method of sectioning all grades of BISPLATE. The process offers particular advantages of productivity over flame cutting in thicknesses up to 20mm using currently available equipment. For instance, the cutting speed of 6mm BISPLATE 400 may be up to 9 times that recommended for conventional flame cutting techniques. The cut quality may be inferior, however, due to rounding of the top edges and difficulty in obtaining a square cut face of both edges. Guidance on the optimum settings for nozzle size, gas pressure, gas composition and cutting speeds will be provided by the equipment manufacturer. BISPLATE with low alloy contents should be treated similarly to conventional structural steels. The heat affected zone from a plasma cut is narrower than that produced from flame cutting but peak hardnesses are generally higher. General recommendations for the removal of this hardened zone are outlined below. Hardness Profile Characteristics for Plasma Cutting

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Table 2:
PLATE THICKNESS (mm) RECOMMENDED DEPTH OF REMOVAL (mm) PEAK HARDNESS (HB) BISPLATE 60, 70, 80 320 400 58 >8 12 >12 - 20 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 430 450 450 480 480 480 540 540 540 BISPLATE 450 BISPLATE 500

The plasma cut HAZ typically extends 0.5 1.0mm into the plate under normal conditions. As is the case for flame cutting, complete removal by grinding is recommended if cold forming of the cut plate is contemplated. All other comments for flame cutting regarding preheating, removal of the HAZ, stripping and stack cutting of plates would apply to plasma cutting. LASER CUTTING Laser cutting is a productive method for sectioning all grades of BISPLATE up to 12mm thickness, particularly where high levels of accuracy and minimal distortion is required. Currently, with thicknesses above 12mm, productivity levels drop when compared with other processes. The laser cutting process is unlike other thermal cutting in so far as the material is essentially vapourised from the kerf rather than melting and removal by kinetic energy. The laser concentrates its energy into a focused beam resulting in low levels of excess heat. This results in very small HAZ areas (0.05 0.15mm) and small kerfs (0.3mm). Comparison of Flame, Plasma and Laser Cutting on 6mm BISPLATE 400
Table 3:
PROCESS Flame cutting Plasma cutting Laser cutting KERF WIDTH (mm) 0.9 3.2 0.3 HAZ WIDTH (mm) 1.5 0.5 0.2

Cutting speeds are typically 5000mm/min and the edge is generally square, burr free and minimal dross. Peak hardness levels are lower than those obtained from alternate cutting methods previously described. Removal of the HAZ is generally not considered necessary for most applications, however, for forming operations it is advised that Bisalloy Steels are contacted for guidance.

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POWER SAWING All BISPLATE grades can be cut with power saws, provided lower blade speeds and blade pressures up to 50% higher than those used for cutting plain carbon steel are used. Best results have been achieved using power saw blades normally recommended for cutting stainless steel (generally, blades having 4-6 teeth per 25mm). Sawing directly onto a flame cut surface should be avoided where possible.

Correct practice of sawing BISPLATE grades

Incorrect practice of sawing BISPLATE grades

WATERJET CUTTING Waterjet cutting can be performed on all grades of BISPLATE, although its widespread use is limited due to the current machines available in Australia and their low cutting speeds. A key advantage of water jet cutting is that it leaves the surface free of HAZ. Cutting without heat protects against metallurgical changes in the plate, ensuring original plate mechanical properties are maintained. Recent tests performed by the CSIRO Division of Manufacturing Technology on waterjet cutting 8mm BISPLATE 500 at 40mm/min resulting in near perfect cut edges. Speeds to 75mm/min are possible but with reduced smoothness of the cut edge. The micrographs show the parent material adjacent to the cut edge for waterjet cutting in comparison to laser cutting. The waterjet cut shows no change in material structure at the edge of the cut. The laser cut edge shows a distinct change in structure to a depth of 0.2mm. Both laser cutting and waterjet cutting are industrial processes which should be considered by structural designers and fabricators as alternate means to avoiding problems associated with fit up, cut edge squareness, shape precision, dross and gross HAZs which can occur with conventional thermal cutting processes.
Bisalloy steels wish to thank the Australian Welding journal, CSIRO-DMT, Ian Henderson,CRC for Materials Welding and joining and Rory Thompson, CSIRO Industry Liasion Manager for information pertaining to laser and waterjet cuting contained in this publication . Please Note: Every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of information contained in this manual which supersedes earlier publications, however Bisalloy Steels shall not be liable for any loss or damage howsoever caused arising from the application of such information. Typical values are provided for reference information only and no guarantee is given that a specific plate will provide these properties. Information is subject to change without notice.

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WELDING OF BISPLATE QUENCHED AND TEMPERED STEELS GENERAL INFORMATION All grades of BISPLATE can be readily welded using any of the conventional low hydrogen welding processes. Their low carbon content and carefully balanced, but relatively small additions of alloying elements (Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni, B) ensures good weldability, in addition to the advantages of high strength, impact toughness and high hardness. HYDROGEN CONTROL To ensure adequate welding of BISPLATE, it is necessary to be more mindful of the levels of hydrogen, preheat temperatures and arc energy inputs in order to minimise the hardening and maintain the properties of the weld Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). Particular attention must be paid to the control of hydrogen content to minimise the risk of weld and HAZ cracking. Weld hydrogen content is minimised by careful attention to the cleanliness and dryness of the joint preparations and the use of hydrogen controlled welding consumables. Recommendations on the correct storage and handling of consumables may be obtained from welding consumable manufacturers, for instance the use of Hot Boxes for storage and reconditioning are required when using manual metal arc welding electrodes. Refer WTIA Tech Note 3 for further guidance. HEAT AFFECTED ZONE PROPERTY CONTROL The HAZ, a region directly adjacent to the weld, experiences a thermal cycle ranging from unaffected parent plate to near melting at the fusion boundary. The properties of this zone are determined by the steel composition as well as the cooling rate. STEEL COMPOSITION BISPLATE grades and chemical compositions may be divided into categories based on Carbon Equivalent and Pcm, as follows:
Table 1: BISPLATE GRADE 60, 70, 80 320, 400 60, 70, 80 320, 400 60, 70, 80 320, 400 450 500 PLATE THICKNESS (mm) 5-12 13 - 80 81 - 100 6-20 5 - 100 CARBON EQUIVALENT (IIW) TYPICAL 0.40 0.50 0.58 0.45 0.62 Pcm% (JWES) TYPICAL 0.25 0.29 0.30 0.29 0.39 CET 0.29 0.35 0.34 0.29 0.42

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Notes: 1. 2. C.E. (IIW) = C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Cu+Ni 6 5 15 Pcm% (JWES) = C + Si + Mn+Cu+Cr + Ni + Mo + V + 5B 30 3. 20 60 15 10

CET = C + Mn +Mo + Cr + Cu + Ni 10 20 40

These categories give an indication of the degree of care required in the proper selection of welding preheat/heat inputs. COOLING RATE Limitations on both preheat and heat input are necessary to ensure that the HAZ cools at an appropriate rate and that the correct hardness and microstructure are achieved. Too slow a cooling rate can result in a soft HAZ and thus a loss of tensile and fracture toughness properties. Too rapid a cooling rate produces a hard HAZ which may cause loss of ductility. Cooling is controlled by a balance between preheat and heat input for a particular plate thickness and joint configuration. PREHEAT/HEAT INPUT The preheat/heat input recommendations outlined in tables 2 and 3 will ensure that the cooling rate of the HAZ is satisfactory. Recommended Preheat/Interpass Temperatures (C) for BISPLATE
Table 2: BISPLATE GRADE Minimum Preheat TempC High Strength Structural Grades 60 (AS 3597 Grade 500) 70 (AS 3597 Grade 600) 80 (AS 3597 Grade 700) Abrasion Resistant Grades 320 400 450 500 Maximum Interpass TemperatureC All Grades 150 175 200 220 50 50 Nil*** 100 150 150 ** 75 75 125 125 150 150 Nil* Nil* Nil* 50 50 50 75 75 75 140 140 140 MAXIMUM THICKNESS IN JOINT (mm) <13 >13<25 >25<50 >50

*Chill must be removed from plates prior to welding. **Refer to Bisalloy Steels for availability, preheat/interpass requirements. ***Nil preheat up to a max thickness in the joint of 20mm. Note that under rigid weld joint restraint conditions preheating temperature should be increased by 25C.

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Above details on recommended minimum preheat and maximum interpass temperatures are based on low restraint butt weld joint configurations. Increase in preheats is necessary for more complex joint configurations. Guidance is provided in WTIA Tech. Note 15 i.e. calculation of Joint Combined Thickness and determination of minimum preheat and interpass temperature conditions. Permissible Heat Input (kJ /mm) for BISPLATE
Table 3: WELDING PROCESS MMAW GMAW FCAW SAW MAXIMUM PLATE THICKNESS IN JOINT (mm) 3 12*** 1.25 2.5 1.0 2.5 0.8 2.5 1.0 2.5 >12 25 1.25 3.5 1.0 3.5 0.8 3.5 1.0 3.5 >25 32 1.25 4.5 1.25 4.5 1.5 4.5 1.5 4.5 >32 - 100 1.5 5.0 1.5 5.0 1.5 5.0 1.5 5.0

Heat input (kJ/mm) = Volts x Amps x0.06 Travel Speed (mm/minute)


***For these thicknesses in structural grades, the maximum arc energy input may need to be limited to 1.5kJ/mm maximum in specific applications. Refer to Bisalloy Steels for further guidance if required.

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WELDING CONSUMABLES Welding Consumable Selection Guide for BISPLATE (AS Classifications)
Table 4a: BISPLATE 60 MMAW Consumables1 Warning: Hydrogen consumables Strength Level Matching Lower Lower Hardness GMAW Consumables 2 Strength Level Matching Lower Lower Hardness FCAW Consumables Strength Level
3

BISPLATE 70

BISPLATE 80

BISPLATE 320, 400, 450, 500

Only

use

Controlled E55XX/E62XX+ E48XX E48XX N.R. E69XX* E55XX E48XX N.R. E76XX E55XX/E62XX E48XX N.R. N.R. E55XX E48XX 1430-AX, 1855-AX**

Matching

W55XX/W62XX+ W50XX W50XX N.R.

W69XX* W55XX W50XX N.R.

W76XX W62XX/W69XX W55XX.X N.R.

N.R. W55XX W50XX 1855-BX**

Matching

Matching Lower Lower

W55XX.X/ W62XX.X+ W50XX.X W50XX.X N.R.

W69XX.X* W62XX.X W55XX.X N.R.

W76XX.X W62XX.X W55XX.X N.R.

N.R. W55XX.X W50XX.X 1430-BX, 1855-BX, 1860BX**

Hardness SAW Consumables Strength Level


4

Matching

Matching Lower Lower

W55XX/W62XX+ W50XX W40XX N.R.

W69XX* W50XX W40XX N.R.

W76XX W50XX W40XX N.R

N.R. W50XX W40XX 1855-BX**

Hardness

Matching

Table 4a courtesy of WTIA (Tech Note 15) Notes: 1 MMAW - AS/NZS 1553.1 - 1995 and AS1553.2 - 1987 consumable classification. 2 GMAW - AS271 7.1 - 1984 consumable classification. 3 FCAW - AS2203 - 1990 consumable classification. 4 SAW - AS1858. 1 - 1996 and AS1858.2 - 1989 consumable classification. X = A Variable - any value allowed by the relevant standard may be acceptable provided that the consumable is hydrogen controlled (ie low hydrogen). + E62XX and W62XX type consumables overmatch the strength requirements but may be used. * These Consumables may be difficult to obtain. In some cases E62XX or W62XX type consumables may be substituted, otherwise use E76XX or W76XX types.
** AS2576 and WTIA TN 4 Classifications. N.R. Not Recommended.

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Welding Consumable Selection Guide for BISPLATE (AWS Classifications)
Table 4b: BISPLATE 60 MMAW Consumables1 Warning: Hydrogen consumables Strength Level Matching Lower Lower Hardness GMAW Consumables Strength Level
2

BISPLATE 70

BISPLATE 80

BISPLATE 320, 400, 450, 500

Only

use

Controlled E80XX/E90XX+ E70XX E70XX N.R. ER80S-X/ER90S-X+ ER70S-X ER70S-X N.R. E8XTX-X/E9XTX-X+ E7XTX-X E7XTX-X N.R. F8XX/F9XX+ F7XX F6XX N.R. E100XX* E80XX E70XX N.R. E110XX E80XX/E90XX E70XX N.R. N.R. E80XX E70XX 1430-AX, 1855-AX**

Matching

Matching Lower Lower

ER100S-X* ER80S-X ER70S-X N.R. E10XTX-X8 E9XTX-X E8XTX-X N.R. F10XX* F7XX F6XX N.R.

ER110S-X ER90S-X/ER100S-X ER80S-X N.R. E11XTX-X E9XTX-X E8XTX-X N.R. F11XX F7XX F6XX N.R.

N.R. W55XX W50XX 1855-BX** N.R. E8XTX-X E7XTX-X 1430-BX, 1855-BX, 1860BX** N.R. F7XX F6XX 1855-BX**

Hardness FCAW Consumables3 Strength Level

Matching Matching Lower Lower

Hardness SAW Consumables Strength Level


4

Matching Matching Lower Lower

Hardness

Matching

Table 4B courtesy of WTIA (Tech Note 15) Notes: 1 MMAW AWS A5. 1-91 and AWS A5.5-81 consumable classification. 2 GMAW AWS A5. 18-93 and AWS A5.28-79 consumable classification. 3 FCAW AWS A5.20-79 and AWS A5.29-80 consumable classification. 4 SAW - AWS A5.17-89 and AWS A5.23-90 consumable classification. X = A Variable - any value allowed by the relevant standard may be acceptable provided that the consumable is hydrogen controlled (ie low hydrogen). + E90XX, ER90S, E9XTX and F9XX type consumables overmatch the strength requirements but may be used. * These Consumables may be difficult to obtain. In some cases E90XX, ER90S, E9XTX or F9XX type consumables may be substituted, otherwise use E110XX, ER110S, E11XTX or F11XX types. AS2576-1982 WTIA TN 4 Classifications. N.R. Not Recommended.
**

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MANUFACTURERS WELDING CONSUMABLES Welding Consumables suitable for matching strength, lower strength and matching hardness are readily available from a range of consumable manufacturers as per following tables 5 to 8. Welding Consumables for Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) Table 5:
BRANDS
CIGWELD M.S. L.S. M.H. M.S. L.S. M.H. M.S. L.S M.H. M.S. L.S. M.H. Eutectic Castolin SWP/Metrode Products M.S. L.S. M.H. M.S. L.S. M.H. M.S. L.S. M.H.

BISPLATE 60
Alloycraft 90 Ferrocraft 61 Multicraft 7016 N.R. Jetweld LH90-MR Jetweld LH70, LH75-MR N.R. N.A. Easyarc 16GP, Easyarc 18MR N.R. Austalloy 6218-M (Austarc 18TT) Austarc 18TT, 16TC, Weldwell PH77, PH56S N.R. N.A. Eutectrode 66*66 N.R. E9018-D1 MP51 N.R. OK 48.08 OK 48.04 N.R.

BISPLATE 70
Alloycraft 110*, (Alloycraft90) Ferrocraft 61 Multicraft 7016 N.R. (Jetweld LH90-MR) Jetweld LH70, LH75-MR N.R. N.A. Easyarc 16GP, Easyarc 18MR N.R. Austarc 761 8-M, (621 8-M), Weldwell PH118 Austarc 18TT, 16TC, Weldwell PH77, PH56S N.R. N.A. Eutectrode 66*66 N.R. E1001 8-D2 MP51 N.R. OK 74.78 OK 48.04, OK 48.08 N.R.

BISPLATE 80
Alloycraft 110 Ferrocraft 61 Multicraft 7016 N.R. Jetweld LH110M-MR Jetweld LH70, LH75-MR N.R. N.A. Easyarc 16GP, Easyarc 18MR N.R. Austalloy 7818-M, Weldwell PH118 Austarc 18TT, 16TC, Weldwell PH77, PH56S N.R. N.A. Eutectrode 66*66 N.R. E11018-M MP51 N.R. OK 75.75 OK 48.04, OK 48.08 N.R.

BISPLATE 320 400, 450, 500


N.R. Ferrocraft 61 Multicraft 7016 Cobalarc 350, 650 NR Jetweld LH70, LH75-MR Wearshield ABR N.R. Easyarc 16GP, Easyarc 18MR Liquidarc HF 600 N.R. Austarc 18TT, 16TC, Weldwell PH77, PH56S AbrasoCord 350, 700, Weldwell PH400, PH600 N.R. Eutectrode 66*66 N.R. N.R. MP51 Methard 350, Methard 650 N.R. OK 48.04, OK 48.08 OK 83.28, OK 83.50

Lincoln Electric

LiquidArc

W.I.A

ESAB

M.S. Matching Strength L.S. Lower Strength M.H. Matching hardness N.R. Not Recommended N.A. Not available N.B. Consumables in brackets will match mechanical property requirements in the majority of instances as per manufacturers recommendations and where the appropriate weld procedure is applied. Weld Qualification procedures should be carried out to establish actual Weld metal properties. *Consumable recommendations overmatch mechanical property requirements.

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Welding Consumables for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Table 6:
M.S. Matching Strength L.S. Lower Strength M.H. Matching hardness N.R. Not Recommended

BRANDS
CIGWELD M.S.

BISPLATE 60
Autocraft Mn Mo/ Argoshield 51 or 52

BISPLATE 70
Autocraft Ni Cr Mo*/ Argoshield 60 or 52, (Autocraft Mn Mo/ Argoshield 51 or 52)

BISPLATE 80
Autocraft Ni Cr Mo/ Argoshield 60 or 52

BISPLATE 320 400, 450, 500


N.R.

L.S.

Autocraft LW1/ Argoshield 51 or 52, Autocraft LW1-6/ Argoshield 51 or CO2

Autocraft LW1/ Argoshield 51 or 52 Autocraft LW1-6/ Argoshield 51 or CO2 N.R. LA-100/AR+2%O2 L54, L54 Ultra/ CO2 or Mixed Gas, L56 Ultra/C02 LA6047*/CO2 or Mixed Gas Steelmig Super 4/ CO2 or Mixed Gas Steelmig Super 6/CO2 PZ6047/CO2 Or mixed Gas Austmig ES6/ CO2 or Mixed Gas PZ6000/ CO2 or Mixed Gas N.A. AN45252/ CO2 or Mixed Gas DO*65/CO2 Or Mixed Gas

Autocraft LW1 Argoshield 51 or 52 Autocraft LW1-6/ Argoshield 51 or CO2 N.R. N.A. L54, L54 Ultra/ CO2 or Mixed Gas, L56 Ultra/CO2 LA6047*/CO2 or Gas Steelmig Super 4/ CO2 or Mixed Gas Steelmig Super 6/CO2 PZ6047/CO2 Or mixed Gas Austmig ES6/ CO2 or Mixed Gas PZ6000/ CO2 or Mixed Gas N.A. AN45252/ CO2 or Mixed Gas DO*65/CO2 Or Mixed Gas

Autocraft LW1/ Argoshield 51 or 52 Autocraft LW1-6/ Argoshield 51 or CO2 Cobalarc 350-FC, Cobalarc 650-FC N.R. L54, L54 Ultra/ CO2 or Mixed Gas, L56 Ultra/CO2 N.R. Steelmig Super 4/ CO2 or Mixed Gas Steelmig Super 6/CO2 N.R. Austmig ES6/ CO2 or Mixed Gas PZ6000/ CO2 or Mixed Gas TD600/CO2 or Mixed Gas N.R. DO*65/CO2 Or Mixed Gas

M.H. Lincoln Electric M.S. L.S.

N.R. LA-90/C02 or Ar+CO2 L54, L54 Ultra/ CO2 or Mixed Gas, L56 Ultra/CO2

LiquidArc

M.S. L.S M.H.

LA6047*/CO2 or Mixed Gas Steelmig Super 4/ CO2 or Mixed Gas Steelmig Super 6/CO2 Austmig ESD2/CO2 or Mixed Gas Austmig ES6/ CO2 or Mixed Gas PZ6000/ CO2 or Mixed Gas N.A.

W.I.A

M.S. L.S. M.H.

Eutectic Castolin

M.S. L.S.

AN45252/ CO2 or Mixed Gas DO*65/CO2 Or Mixed Gas

N.A. Not available N.B. Consumables in brackets will match mechanical property requirements in the majority of instances as per manufacturers recommendations and where the appropriate weld procedure is applied. Weld Qualification procedures should be carried out to establish actual Weld metal properties. *Consumable recommendations overmatch mechanical property requirements.

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Welding Consumables for Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Table 7:
BRANDS CIGWELD M.S. BISPLATE 60 Verti-Cor 91-K2/ Argoshield 52 SupreCor 5 or Verti-Cor 80 Ni 1/ Argoshield 52 N.R. O/Shield 91K2-H/Ar +25% CO2 O/Shield 70, 71, 71M/ CO2 or Ar+25% CO2 O/Shield 71C-H, 75H/ Ar+25% CO2 IShield NS3M, NR232 NR203M N.R. N.A. Easy-Core 70T-1/ CO2 or mixed gas, Easy Core 71M/CO2 Or mixed gas Easy-Core 71C-H, 75-H/ Ar+25% CO2 N.R. Fluxofil 41/CO2 or Mixed gas Fluxofil 20, 31, 36/ CO2 or Mixed gas N.R. N.A. Teromatec OA2020 N.R. X91X-T5-K2/ CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 X71-T1/CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 X71-T5/CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 N.R. Dualshield II-70/Ar + 25% CO2 Dualshield II-71/CO2 Dualshield T-5/mixed gas Dualshield 7000/mixed gas N.R. BISPLATE 70 Tensi-Cor 110TXP*/ CO2 (Verti-cor 91-K2/ Argoshield 52) SupreCor 5 or Verti-Cor 80 Ni 1/ Argoshield 52 N.R. O/Shield MC100/Ar+5% CO2 or 2% CO2 O/Shield 70, 71, 71M/ CO2 or Ar+25% CO2 O/Shield 71C-H, 75H/ Ar+25% CO2 IShield NS3M, NR232 NR203M N.R. N.A. Easy-Core 70T-1/ CO2 or mixed gas, Easy Core 71M/CO2 Or mixed gas Easy-Core 71C-H, 75-H/ Ar+25% CO2 N.R. Fluxofil 42/CO2 or Mixed gas Fluxofil 20, 31, 36/ CO2 or Mixed gas N.R. N.A. Teromatec OA2020 N.R. X110-T5-K4*/ CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 X71-T1/CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 X71-T5/CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 N.R. Dualshield II-100/CO2 Dualshield T-5/mixed gas Dualshield 7000/mixed gas N.R. BISPLATE 80 Tensi-Cor 110TXP*/ CO2 BISPLATE 450, 500 N.R. 320, 400,

L.S. M.H. Lincoln Electric M.S. L.S.

SupreCor 5 or Verti-Cor 80 Ni 1/ Argoshield 52 N.R. O/Shield MC 120-55Ar +2% O2 O/Shield 70, 71, 71M/ CO2 or Ar+25% CO2 O/Shield 71C-H, 75H/ Ar+25% CO2 IShield NS3M, NR232 NR203M N.R. N.A. Easy-Core 70T-1/ CO2 or mixed gas, Easy Core 71M/CO2 Or mixed gas Easy-Core 71C-H, 75-H/ Ar+25% CO2 N.R. Fluxofil 42/CO2 or Mixed gas Fluxofil 20, 31, 36/ CO2 or Mixed gas N.R. N.A. Teromatec OA2020 N.R. X110-T5-K4/ CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 X71-T1/CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 X71-T5/CO2 or Ar+20% CO2 N.R. Dualshield II-110/CO2 Dualshield T-5/mixed gas N.R.

SupreCor 5 or Verti-Cor 80 Ni 1/ Argoshield 52 Cobalarc 350 FC, Cobalarc 650 FC N.R. O/Shield 70, 71, 71M/ CO2 or Ar+25% CO2 O/Shield 71C-H, 75H/ Ar+25% CO2 IShield NS3M, NR232 NR203M Lincore 55 N.R. Easy-Core 70T-1/ CO2 or mixed gas, Easy Core 71M/CO2 Or mixed gas Easy-Core 71C-H, 75-H/ Ar+25% CO2 N.A. N.R Fluxofil 20,31,36/ CO2 or Mixed gas Fluxodur 1430, 1855/ CO2 or Mixed gas N.A. Teromatec OA2020 N.R. N.R. X71-T1/CO2 Or Ar+20% CO2 X71-T5/CO2 Or Ar+20% CO2 Hardface T-O/S/G, L-O/S/G N.R. Dualshield T-5/mixed gas N.R.

LiquidArc

M.H M.S. L.S.

W.I.A

M.H M.S. L.S. M.H

Eutectic Castolin SWP/Welding Alloys Ltd

M.S. L.S. M.H. M.S. L.S.

M.H ESAB/Alloy Rods M.S. L.S. M.H.

M.S. Matching Strength L.S. Lower Strength M.H. Matching Hardness N.R. Not Recommended N.A. Not available N.B. Consumables in brackets will match mechanical property requirements in the majority of instances as per manufacturers recommendations and where the appropriate weld procedure is applied. Weld Qualification procedures should be carried out to establish actual Weld metal properties. *Consumable recommendations overmatch mechanical property requirements.

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Welding Consumables for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Table 8:
BRANDS CIGWELD M.S. L.S. M.H. Lincoln Electric M.S. L.S. M.H. M.S. L.S. M.H. BISPLATE 60 N.A. Autocraft SA1, SA2/ Satinarc 4 N.R. LA 100/880M* L60,L61/761,780 or 860 N.R. N.A Austmatic SD3/OP121TT N.R. BISPLATE 70 N.A. Autocraft SA1, SA2/ Satinarc 4 N.R. LA 100/Mil 800H L60, 61/761,780 or 860 N.R. Fluxocord 42/OP121TT* Austmatic SD3/OP121TT* N.R. BISPLATE 80 N.A. Autocraft SA1, SA2/ Satinarc 4 N.R. LACM2/880M or 880 L60, 61/761,780 or 860 N.R. Fluxocord 42/OP121TT Austmatic SD3/OP121TT* N.R. BISPLATE 320, 400, 450, 500 N.A. Autocraft SA1, SA2/ Satinarc 4 Cobalarc 107-SA/ Satinarc 4 N.R. L60, 61/761,780 or 860 Lincore 55/802 N.R. Austmatic SD3/OP121TT N.A.

WIA

M.S. Matching Strength L.S. Lower Strength M.H. Matching Hardness N.R. Not Recommended N.A. Not available N.B. Consumables in brackets will match mechanical property requirements in the majority of instances as per manufacturers recommendations and where the appropriate weld procedure is applied. Weld Qualification procedures should be carried out to establish actual Weld metal properties. *Consumable recommendations overmatch mechanical property requirements.

WELDING PROCEDURES The specific effects of welding on weld joint properties in any practical situation will depend on many factors including the choice of consumables, total weld heat input, level of restraint, weld geometry and proximity of adjacent welds. Guidance on weld procedures for specific applications may be sought from Bisalloy Technical staff or consumable suppliers. ARC STRIKES Arc strikes outside the welded zone can result in cracks, particularly on dynamically loaded structures. All strikes should be made within the joint preparation. TACK WELDING Tack welds require special care due to the abnormal stresses and high cooling rates experienced by the adjacent material. The same preheat, heat input requirements should be employed and lower strength welding consumables considered.

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FILLET WELDING Good fillet welding techniques are important in welding Q and T steels because often very high stresses are applied in service. It is essential that welds have good root penetration, be smooth, correctly contoured and well flared into the legs of the joined pieces. Lower strength consumables are suggested when design permits. WTIA Tech. Note 15 provides guidance on correct procedures for fillet welding. REPAIR WORK It is good practice to weld repair with lower strength consumables (low hydrogen type), since plate materials which have been highly stressed in service may tend to warp or distort slightly during welding and improved ductility may be required. In some situations, such as joints under restraint, joints subjected to impact/fatigue stresses, etc, special welding consumables may be necessary. WELDING STRESSES It should be emphasised that the recommended values of preheat and heat input are based on low to moderate levels of restraint. For conditions of high restraint it is important to minimise the degree to which free contraction is hampered and it may be necessary to use higher preheats. Proper welding sequence and small joint configurations would be considered important in high restraint situations and it is advisable to establish welding parameters with simulated full scale weld tests. Care should also be exercised at the assembly stage to avoid offset and angular distortion at the plate edge, undercutting and bad appearance. STRESS RELIEF Stress relief may be conducted on BISPLATE 60, 70, 80 and 80PV grades but is advisable only if absolutely necessary (eg. to comply with AS1210 in the case of road tankers). Stress relief is recommended within a 540 - 5700C temperature range for one hour per 25mm of thickness. Thermal cycling is generally performed in accordance with AS 1210-1989 Code requirements for Q and T steels. The toes of weld beads should be dressed by grinding prior to any stress relief treatment in order to prevent stress relief cracking. When stress relieving BISPLATE 12mm (typically 0.40 CEIIW) and matching strength across the weld is a requirement, it is recommended to weld with minimum permissible preheat/ interpass temperatures (Table 2) and heat input (Table 3) conditions to minimise the degree of softening or any loss of strength which may occur in the HAZ. Consult Bisalloy Steels for further information if required. POST-WELD HEATING Post-weld heating at 200-250 may be conducted as an effective hydrogen dissolution treatment particularly when consumables other than H5 or H10 are used.

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HELPFUL HINTS General rules for good quality welding of BISPLATE: Use a low hydrogen process, eg GMAW (MIG), FCAW (gas shielded). Adhere to the correct rules for storage and handling of low hydrogen consumables per the manufacturers recommendations, or WTIA Tech. Note 3. Clean joint area of all contaminants prior to welding. Remove 1 - 2mm from flame cut or gouged surfaces by grinding. Select the recommended preheat, interpass and heat input parameters. Position for downhand welding where possible. Always use stringer beads, never wide weaves. Use lower strength consumables on root runs and fillet welds (when the design permits). Use temper beads when necessary. Arc strikes to be made in the joint preparation. Particular attention should be given to tack welds re preheat, heat input and joint cleanliness requirements. Grinding toes of fillet welds is particularly important in fatigue applications. REFERENCES/FURTHER READING AS1554 Part 4 - 1989 Welding of Q & T Steels. AS1554 Part 5 - 1995 Welding of Steel Structures Subject to High Levels of Fatigue Loading. WTIA Technical Note 15, 1996. WTIA Technical Note 3, 1994.

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BENDING AND ROLLING. FORMING, SHEARING RECOMMENDATIONS FORMING COLD FORMING All of the BISPLATE quenched and tempered steel grades can be cold formed, using brake press bending or plate rolling techniques. However, with an increase in both hardness and yield stress compared to plain carbon steel grades, suitable consideration of sufficient machine power, plate bending direction and former radii must be made. In addition, springback allowances should be greater than for plain carbon steel and will depend on the type of forming. Plate edges should be ground smooth, and for thick plates and high hardness grades, the plate edges should be rounded prior to forming. It is recommended for the high hardness grades that where possible the bend axis be at right angles to the plate rolling direction (transverse bending). For plate 16mm and above in BISPLATE 500 grade, it is suggested bending be done in the transverse direction only (refer to figure 1a). AND PUNCHING

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MINIMUM FORMER RADII (R) IN MM FOR COLD FORMING Table 1 following gives the minimum former radii for cold forming of the BISPLATE grades (where possible a larger former radii should be used). Table 1:
BISPLATE GRADE Bend Direction Plate Thickness (t) (mm) 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50 60 T L 70 T L 80 T L 320,400 T L 450 T L 500 T L

12 12 12 15 18 24 40 50 64 100 140

12 15 16 20 24 32 50 62 80 120 190

12 12 12 15 18 24 40 50 80 110 150

12 15 16 20 24 32 50 62 95 130 200

12 15 20 25 30 45 65 75 100 125 150

12 15 20 25 30 45 65 75 110 140 200

15 20 25 30 35 50 70 80 110 170 300

20 25 35 45 55 75 100 125 175 250 -

32 40 48 64 80

40 50 60 80 100

25 40 50 60 85 100 150 250 -

50 70 90 110 -

T: Transverse Bending Direction (refer to fig 1a). L: Longitudinal Bending Direction (refer to fig 1b).

Notes re Table 1
1. Above values were determined for plate at a temperature of 30C. If minimum former radii values are to be used, plate temperature should be at least 30C, maximum 100C. If forming at a temperature less than 30C, an increase in former radii of minimum 50% must be made. 2. When pressing is being done in a single pass operation, an increase in former radii of minimum 50% must be made. 3. When forming using these minimum former radii, flame cut hardened edge (heat affected zone of 1-2mm) should be removed.

4. The use of smaller former radii than in the table is not recommended. 5. For best cold forming results, ensure adequate lubrication between the plate, die and former.

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CAPACITY OF PRESS All BISPLATE grades have yield and tensile strengths higher than for plain carbon steel. It is important that the capacity of the machine is suitable, bending press manufacturers provide information on bending loads in relation to V-block opening, plate thickness and steel strength. Table 2 gives an indication of the approximate bending force required when forming BISPLATE grades, compared to plain carbon steel (e.g. AS3678-Grade 250). Approximate Bending Force (P) Required for BISPLATE Grades, Compared to Plain Carbon Steel, for a Given Forming Geometry (refer fig 2) Table 2:
STEEL GRADE AS3678 Grade 250 BISPLATE 60 70 80 320 400 450 500 BENDING FORCE (P) P 2.0P 2.4P 2.8P 4.0P 5.0P 5.0P 6.4P

Approximate Die Openings (refer fig 2) Table 3:


BISPLATE GRADE W/t TRANSVERSE BENDING W/t LONGITUDINAL BENDING

60 70 80 320 400 450 500

6.0 6.0 7.0 8.5 8.5 8.5 10.0

7.5 7.5 8.5 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0

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HOT FORMING The operation of hot forming is not recommended for the BISPLATE grades, as hot forming is generally done at a high temperature (900-1000C) which exceeds the tempering temperature. As a result, the mechanical properties of quenched and tempered steels will be reduced considerably. However, if hot forming is unavoidable, it is essential that the component be requenched and tempered to restore original mechanical properties. SHEARING AND PUNCHING Shearing and punching of the lower hardness BISPLATE grades can be done successfully, provided a machine of sufficient power and stability is used. BISPLATE 60, 70 and 80 grades can normally be cold sheared up to 25mm thickness. However, the necessary shearing force is in the order of 2-3 times that required for plain carbon steel grades. The grades of BISPLATE 400, 450 and 500 should not be considered for shearing. The guillotine blades should be very sharp and set with a clearance of 0.25 to 0.40mm. note, the maximum limiting thickness for cold punching are approximately half the cold shearing values. Maximum Thickness for Cold Shearing and Punching Table 4:
BISPLATE GRADE 60 70 80 320 400 450 500 COLD SHEARING 25mm 25mm 25mm 10mm Not recommended Not recommended Not recommended COLD PUNCHING 12mm 12mm 12mm 6mm Not recommended Not recommended Not recommended

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DRILLING, COUNTERSINKING & TAPPING BISPLATE DRILLING, COUNTERSINKING AND TAPPING RECOMMENDATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION All grades of BISPLATE are able to be drilled, countersunk and tapped although, as with most fabrication aspects, care should be taken with these grades of steel. In all cases, suitable high powered and rigid drilling equipment should be used. DRILLING OF HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL GRADES When drilling the BISPLATE grades 60, 70 and 80 the use of cobalt type high speed steel drills is recommended. Drills equipped with replaceable carbide inserts can also be used. DRILLING OF WEAR/ABRASION RESISTANT GRADES BISPLATE 320, 400 and 450 grades may be drilled with either cobalt type high speed steel drills or drills equipped with replaceable carbide inserts. With regards to the drilling of BISPLATE 500 grade, we recommend only the use of drills equipped with replaceable carbide inserts. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVED RESULTS The supporting bars under the plate should be placed as close to the hole as possible. If possible, use a plain carbon steel backing plate under the BISPLATE. The drilling head should be placed as close as possible to the main support. Short length drills are preferred. The last part of the hole to be drilled should be done with manual feed. Usage of adequate coolant (water and oil emulsion mixture).

Delta C Drills. The grades of Bisplate 60, 70, 80, 320, 400 and 450 can be drilled using these types of drills. (Drills courtesy of Sandvik Coromant)

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Approximate Feeds and Speeds Using Cobalt Type High Speed Steel Drills Table 1:
STEEL GRADE PERIPHERAL SPEED (m/min) 23 16 15 14 9 7 7 R.P.M (UPPER FIGURES) AND FEED PER REVOLUTION (mm) FOR GIVEN DRILL SIZE 3mm 6mm 12mm 20mm 25mm 2300 1150 575 385 285 0.050 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 1450 720 380 250 200 0.040 0.060 0.130 0.190 0.254 1400 700 360 240 180 0.040 0.060 0.130 0.190 0.254 1370 685 340 230 170 0.040 0.060 0.130 0.190 0.254 920 460 230 150 115 0.025 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 460 230 115 110 90 0.025 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 440 220 115 110 90 HARDNESS BRINELL ~120 ~220 ~240 ~260 320 (min) 360 (min) 425 (min)

AS3678-Grade 250 BISPLATE 60 BISPLATE 70 BISPLATE 80 BISPLATE 320 BISPLATE 400 BISPLATE 450

Note: This table applies when cobalt type high speed drills are used with a cutting fluid, if no fluid is used the speeds shown above must be reduced.

Drill Tip Configuration Using Cobalt Type High Speed Steel Drills

Table 2:
BISPLATE GRADE 60 70 80 320 400, 450 POINT ANGLE 118 deg. 118 deg. 118 deg. 125 deg. 150 deg. LIP/CLEARANCE ANGLE 10 deg. 10 deg. 10 deg. 7.5 deg. 5 deg.

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Approximate Feeds and Speeds Using Drills With Replaceable Carbide Inserts Table 3:
SURFACE SPEED FEED RATE HARDNESS (m/min) (mm/rev) BRINELL 1020 125 210 0.06 0.18 ~220 1020 125 210 0.06 0.18 ~240 1020 125 210 0.06 0.18 ~260 1020 125 210 0.06 0.18 320 360 H13A 125 210 0.06 0.18 370 430 H13A 70 - 90 0.06 0.14 425 - 475 H13A 70 - 90 0.06 0.12 500 (avg) Note: Above drilling recommendations are based on u sing a Sandvik Coromant U drill and is based on hole sizes of 12.7 - 60mm diameter. Through the tool coolant must be used. It may be necessary to use different insert grades and geometrics to suit the application. BISPLATE GRADE 60 70 80 320 400 450 500 INSERT GRADE

Further information can be obtained from your local Sandvik Coromant office.

COUNTERSINKING AND COUNTERBORING Countersinking and counterboring of holes is possible in all BISPLATE grades with best performance obtained using tools with a revolving pilot. The pilot increases the stability and allows tools with replaceable carbide inserts to be used. Cobalt type high speed steel drills with a pilot can be used for the BISPLATE grades 60, 70, 80, 320, 400 and 450. The cutting data will vary from machine to machine. A coolant should be used. Replaceable carbide insert tools should be used on BISPLATE 500 grade. Cutting Speeds and Feeds When Using High Speed Steel Cobalt Type Tools

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Table 4:
BISPLATE GRADE 60 70 80 320 400 450 CUTTING SPEED (m/min) 10-12 9-11 7-9 6-8 4-6 16 Rpm 250 210 170 150 130 FEED (mm/r) 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 20 Rpm 200 170 130 120 105 FEED (mm/r) 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 0.05 0.2 25 Rpm 160 130 100 90 75 FEED (mm/r) 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 32 Rpm 110 90 70 60 50 FEED (mm/r) 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 40 Rpm 90 60 60 50 40 FEED (mm/r) 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 60 Rpm 70 60 40 40 30 FEED (mm/r) 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3 0.07 0.3

Fig 4:

Fig 5:

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Cutting Speeds and Feeds When using Replaceable Insert Tools Table 5:
BISPLATE GRADE 60 70 80 320 400 450 500 CUTTING SPEED (m/min) 90 - 110 80 100 70 90 40 60 28 35 25 - 30 17 20 20 Rpm 1675 1500 1340 840 550 450 300 FEED (mm/r) 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 25 Rpm 1320 1195 1060 660 420 360 240 FEED (mm/r) 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 0.150.20 32 Rpm 935 840 750 470 300 250 170 FEED (mm/r) 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 40 Rpm 760 680 605 380 250 205 136 FEED (mm/r) 0.100.17 0.100.17 0.100.17 0.100.17 0.100.17 0.100.17 0.100.17 60 Rpm 560 500 445 280 175 150 100 FEED (mm/r) 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15 0.100.15

TAPPING With the correct tools and cutting speeds, tapping can be performed in all the BISPLATE grades of steel. For the high hardness BISPLATE 400, 450 and 500 grades, higher alloyed taps must be used. Difficulties that commonly arise when thread cutting higher tensile strength steels include tap sticking, torn threads and the short life of taps. The Prototyp brand tools have been specifically developed for tapping in the BISPLATE grades of steel. With all tapping it is recommended that the cutting speed is accurately controlled. For best results, cutting oil or grease should be used. For through-holes of up to 2 times diameter in thread depth, in metric sizes, the following tapping tools are recommended.
Note: The introduction of stress concentrations (as a result of tapping) is an important consideration in fatigue applications.

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Tapping Speeds and Types Recommended for BISPLATE Grades Table 6:
BISPLATE GRADE 60 70 80 320 400 450 500 TAP TYPE (prototype) Paradur 20360 Paradur 20360 Prototex Inox 202135 Prototex Inox 202135 Prototex Inox 202135 Prototex Ni 202602 Paradur H/C 80311 TAPPING SPEED (m/min) 15 15 6 15* 6 15* 6 15* SIZE RANGE M3 M56 M3 M56 M1.6 M36 M1.6 M36 M1.6 M36 LUBRICATION Cutting Oil Cutting Oil Cutting Oil Cutting Oil Cutting Oil

3 M1.6 M24 Cutting Oil 1.6 M3 M12** Cutting Oil * 6m/min using steam tempered taps and 15m/min using tin coated tips. ** For larger size threads, thread milling is recommended.

Straight fluted gun-nose tap for through-hole.

Spiral sluted tap foe blind holes. (Taps coutesy of Ti-Tek)

Bisalloy Steels wish to thanks Sandvik Coromant and Ti-Tek for the information pertaining to drilling, tapping and countersinking contained in this publication.

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TURNING MILLING MILLING AND TURNING RECOMMENDATIONS MILLING Milling operations can be performed satisfactorily on all BISPLATE grades; utilisation of cemented carbide tooling is recommended. In many situations, the milling operation entails the dressing of a flame cut edge, and then subsequent bulk milling of material to the desired surface finish and dimensional tolerance. Care must be taken to make a first cut sufficiently deep to remove the heat affected zone of the flame cut edge. Cutters must be sufficiently robust to take this heavy loading. In such circumstances it is desirable that, due to the high hardness adjacent to the flame cut surfaces, cutter speeds and feed rates for initial milling should be reduced to 40-59% of the speed normally used when milling plain carbon steel. The importance of adequate preheating prior to flame cutting and slow cooling after cutting to minimise edge hardening is again emphasised. Speed and feed rates may be increased somewhat for subsequent bulk milling to 50-75% of the settings used for plain carbon steel. Milling Recommendations Table 1:
BISPLATE GRADE CEMENTED SURFACE SPEED FEED/TOOTH CARBIDE TOOLING GRADE 60 GC4030 295m/min 0.25mm 70 GC4030 275m/min 0.25mm 80 GC4030 257m/min 0.25mm 320 GC4030 131m/mon 0.25mm 400 GC4030 110m/min 0.25mm 450 GC4030 100m/min 0.25mm 500 GC4030 87m/min 0.25mm Note: These recommendations are given as a guide only, and are based on stable working conditions. It is suggested a 45 deg. Approach angle or a round insert facesmill be used. In certain conditions it may be necessary to use negative geometry milling tools. Feed rates are dependant on geometry selected. Eg. PM medium machining (0.1 0.28) fz mm/tooth PH heavy machining (0.1 0.42) fz mm/tooth.

AVOID VIBRATIONS Indexable inserts are sensitive to vibrations. These can be avoided or reduced by observing the following. When turning or milling gas cut edges the cutting depth should be at least 2mm to cope with the hardness and unevenness of the edge.

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OTHER MILLING REQUIREMENTS Firm clamping of the workpiece. Use cutters with the smallest possible gap between the teeth. Machine stability permitting, unidirectional milling is preferable, see figure 1. If a large cutter is used for the milling of small areas, place the milling cutter eccentrically to get as many teeth as possible operating, see figure 2. Avoid, if possible, the use of a universal cutterhead which generally causes weakening of the power transmission and the tool holder.

TURNING All BISPLATE grades, including those with hardness in excess of 360 Brinell can be satisfactorily with carbide tooling, provided spindle speeds and feed rates are reduced from those normally employed when carrying out similar machining operations on plain carbon steel. Reductions of 50-70% in spindle speed and up to 50% in feed rate may be necessary, depending on the hardness of the component being machined, High speed tools are not recommended. As an example, the following settings have been found to give satisfactory results when turning cylindrical workpieces of 25mm diameter from the various BISPLATE grades. With increases in stock diameter, spindle speeds will obviously need to be decreased.

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Turning Recommendations Table 2:
BISPLATE GRADE 60 70 80 320 400 425 500 CARBIDE TOOLING GRADE GC4025 GC4025 GC4025 GC4025 GC4025 GC4025 GC4025 SURFACE SPEED 295m/min 275m/min 257m/min 131m/min 110m/min 100m/min 87m/min

For operations under favourable conditions where higher productivity can be obtained GC 4015 could be used. For operations with high toughness requirements and where increased security is needed GC 4035 could be used.
Note: These recommendations are given as a guide only. And are based on stable working conditions. The geometry of the inserts used will be dependant on the operation. Eg. PF for finishing. PM for medium machining PR for roughing.

OTHER TURNING REQUIREMENTS


Firm clamping of the workpiece Avoid long overhangs for both workpiece and tool holder. Use correct tip radius: too large a tip radius, combined with insufficient clamping, causes vibrations. Small setting angles also can cause vibrations.

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Fig 4

FORMULA FOR THE CALCULATION OF SPEEDS AND FEEDS FOR GENERAL MILLING AND TURNING OPERATIONS. Formula for calculation of cutting speed: v= Dn
1000

m/min

Formula for calculation of turning speed: n= v 1000 m/min D Formula for calculation of table feed: u = n z sz m/min v = cutting speed m/min D = Diameter in mm of milling cutter or workpiece Z = Number of cutters Sz = Feed per cutter, mm n = Turning speed, rpm u = Table feed, mm/min
Bisalloy Steels wish to thank Sandvik Coromant for information pertaining to milling and turning contained in this publication.

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DESIGN EXAMPLES The following five structural design examples demonstrate the significant savings which can be achieved in the areas of weight and cost by using Grade 690 MPa Bisplate 80 steel instead of the more commonly used lower grade structural steels. These examples primarily compare Bisplate 80 to Grade 300 Plus Steel which is currently the most commonly used structural steel in Australia. Comparison with other steels are noted where appropriate. The design examples are as follows: Heavily Loaded Column Heavily Loaded Beam - I section Heavily Loaded Beam - Box section Heavily Loaded Truss 70 MI Water tank

Where appropriate, these examples have been simplified as much as possible in order to facilitate ease of comparison between the different steels. Each example contains a brief explanation of the structural element and the loading applied. Also provided are some typical examples of applications in which the structural element may be utilised. DESIGN CODES RELATING TO THE USE OF HIGH STRENGTH QUENCHED AND TEMPERED PLATE MEMBERS IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. There is currently no Australian Standard covering the design of structural elements utilising high strength quenched and tempered steels. The SAA Steel Structures Code, AS 4100-1990, may be used for the design of structures in steel grades up to 450 MPa, beyond which the general provisions of the code are not applicable. AS4100 does not exclude the use of structural steels in excess of 450 MPa yield stress. However, in order to adequately design and demonstrate the validity of a design in such steels, it is necessary to engage an appropriate international standard which has been specifically developed to cater for the use of high strength steels. One such code, and the most commonly used in Australia for design in high strength steels is the American Institute of Steel Constructions (AISC) Specification For Structural Steel Buildings - Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design, June 1, 1989. This code has been proven to provide relatively simple and efficient methods of structural design for all types of structural elements, and has been used in the development of each of the design examples contained within this publication. A limit state version of the AISC specification is also available, and should be equally effective in the design of High Strength Steel structures. It should also be noted that Bisplate 80 steel, at 690 MPa yield stress, is right on the upper limit of 100 ksi yield stress steel covered by the AISC specification. Above this yield stress the AISC specification is not applicable.

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EXAMPLE 1 HEAVILY LOADED COLUMN Consider a braced column, 10m high, loaded axially with an 11,000 KN factored live load (Fig. 1). Some examples of practical applications where such a column may be required are as follows: In multi-storey construction Heavy industrial structures Storage silos/Hopper supports

Structural column design was carried out for Grade 300 MPa steel using AS4100-1990. C Corresponding design was carried out for Grade 690 MPa Bisplate 80 Steel using the AISC specification. The results of each design are summarised in Table 1. Representative calculations are provided on following pages.
STEEL GRADE MPa 300 690 SECTION 500WC383 tf = 20 d1 = 400 tw = 16 bf = 500 WEIGHT Kg/m 383 207

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COLUM DESIGN USING GRADE 300 STEEL
Design in accordance with AS4100 1900. Fig 3

COLUMN DESIGN USING GRADE 690 MPA YIELD STRENGTH BISPLATE 80


Design in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction Specification for Structural Steel Buildings - 1989.

Ag = 48,800 mm2 Ix = 1,890 x 106mm4 Iy = 751 x 106mm4 rx = 197mm ry = 124mm fy = 280 MPa

Ag = 26,400 mm2 = An = Ae Iy = 416.8 x 106mm4 Ry = Iy A = 125.7mm fy = 690 MPa = 100 Ksi

AS4100 500WC383 Reference 6.2.1

Section Capacity NS = KfAnfy An=Ag=Ae Kf = 1.0 Ns = 13664 KN Ns = 12,298 KN > N* Member Capacity Nc = c Ns N

AISC Spec. Reference

Design Load = 11,000 1.5

= 7,333 KN

fa = 7,333 = 277.78 MPa


Ag

OK
B5 Table B5.1

Fa = 40.29 ksi Check Local Buckling Flanges : 95 = 95 = 9.5 < b = 12.1 100 t Fy Kc 1.0 Slender Element
Table B5.1

6.3.3

c = {[1-[1-(90/) ]} = 0.8945 Nc = 12,222 KN Nc = 11,000 KN N* OK Nominal Mass of Column = 383 kg/m

Web:

253 = 253 = 25.3 > b = 25.0 100 t Fy

Non-Compact Element Slender elements involved Design by Appendix B


App. B B5a

Stress Reduction Factor for Flange, Qs = 1.293 0.00309 b Fy = 0.907 t Kc Stress Reduction Factor for Web, Qa = 1.0 Member stress reduction factor, Q = QsQa = 0.907

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COLUMN DESIGN USING GRADE 690 MPA YIELD STRENGTH BISPLATE 80 (CONTINUED)

AISC Spec. Reference B5c

Allowable Stress, Fa C1c = 79.44 > kl r kl 2 r Q Fa = 12Cc,2


3

Fy kl r
3

Eq A-B5-11

5 3+

kl r 8Cc

8Cc3 OK

Fa = 43.13 ksi > fa

Nominal mass of Column = 208 kg/m

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EXAMPLE 2 HEAVILY LOADED BEAM (I SECTION) Consider a beam with full lateral restraint spanning 10m, loaded continuously with a live load of 470 KN/m (factored) as shown in Fig.5. Practical applications where such a beam may required are: In multi-storey construction Heavy industrial structures Roof support in underground mining

Structural beam design was carried out for Grade 300 MPa steel using AS4100-1990. Corresponding design was carried out for Grade 690 MPa Bisplate 80 steel using the AISC specification. The results of each design are summarised in Table 2. Representative calculations are provided on the following pages.

STEEL GRADE MPa 300 690

SECTION 1200WB392 tf = 25 d1 = 850 tw = 12 bf = 450

WEIGHT Kg/m 392 256

Note that a significant reduction in the depth of the beam was achieved through the use of Bisplate 80, in addition to the weight waving, while still satisfying the permissible deflection requirements. This is of great importance in underground mining and multi-storey construction applications, where head room is at a premium.

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BEAM DESIGN USING GRADE 300 STEEL
Design in accordance with AS4100 1990.

BEAM DESIGN USING GRADE 690 MPA YIELD STRENGTH BISPLATE 80

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EXAMPLE 3 HEAVILY LOADED BEAM (BOX SECTION) Consider a beam with full lateral restraint spanning 10m, loaded continuously with a live load of 470 KN/m (factored) as shown in Fig 9.

Practical applications are : Heavy industrial structures Roof support in mining A box section is effective in long spans where additional lateral restraint is required within the beam section to compensate for a lack of external restraints. A common application of a box section fabricated from high strength Q & T steel in which the load configuration varies significantly from that described above, is in the lifting booms of mobile cranes. Structural beam design was carried out for both Grade 250 MPa steel and Grade 690 MPa Bisplate 80 steel using the AISC specification. The results of each design are summarised in Table 3. Representative calculations are provided on the following pages. Table 3:
STEEL GRADE MPa 250 690 SECTION tf = 40 d1 = 1120 tw = 10 bf = 500 tf = 25 d1 = 850 tw = 8 bf = 450 WEIGHT Kg/m 490 284

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BOX SECTION BEAM DESIGN USING GRADE 250 MPA ASTM A36 In accordance with AISC Spec. BOX SECTION BEAM DESIGN USING GRADE 690 MPA BISPLATE 80 In accordance with AISC Spec.

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EXAMPLE 4 HEAVILY LOADED TRUSS Consider a heavily loaded truss spanning 40m. Some examples of practical applications where such a truss may be required include : Underground construction supporting a trafficable roof (e.g. a hydro-electric power station). Multi-storey construction supporting several floors.

In this example the following loading parameters have been considered. Truss spacing 10m Live Load 3 KPa Dead Load 1 KPa Occasional Load 20 KN mid span The resulting load configuration is illustrated in Fig.13.

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Structural member design was carried out for Grade 300 and 350 MPa steels using AS4100 1990. Corresponding design was carried out for Grade 690 Bisplate 80 steel using the American Institute of Steel Construction Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Results are summarised in Tables 4 and 5. TRUSS DESIGN SUMMARY Grade 300 & 350 MPa AS4100 1990
Table 4:
MEMBER Top Cord Bottom Cord Webs SECTION 310 UC 137 310 UC 96.8 250 UC89.5 * (250 x 250 x 6 SHS) kg/m 137 96.8 89.5 (45) TOTAL LENGTH m 40 40 87.3 (87.3) Total Weight = TOTAL WEIGHT TONNES 5.480 3.872 7.814 (3.929) 17.166 (13.281)

*Figures in brackets correspond to the use of Grade 350 square Hollow Sections as web members. All other members are Grade 300.

Grade 690 Bisplate 80 AISC Spec.


Table 5:
MEMBER Top Cord Bottom Cord Webs SECTION kg/m 55 58 43 TOTAL LENGTH m 40 40 87.3 Total Weight = TOTAL WEIGHT TONNES 2.200 2.320 3.754 8.274

tf = 10 tw = 8 tf = 10 tw = 10 tf = 8 tw = 6

d1 = 212 bf = 256 d1 = 212 bf = 260 d1 = 225 bf = 256

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EXAMPLE 5 REVISED DESIGN FOR A LARGE WATER STORAGE TANK A water storage tank was originally designed in AS3678-1990 Grade 250 and 350 steel plate to the following parameters: Height = 14.25m Diameter = 83.8m Capacity = 70 MI The stress calculations for the original design are as shown in Table 6.
Table 6::
DEPTH (m) 2.85 5.70 8.55 11.40 14.25 PRESSURE (KPa) 28.5 57.0 85.5 114.0 142.5 HOOP TENSION (KN/m) 1194 2388 3582 4777 5971 PLATE YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) 250 250 250 350 350 PLATE THICKNESS (mm) 10 20 25 28 36 STRESS (MPa) 119 119 143 171 166

A revised design incorporating 690 MPa yield strength Q & T steel plates in the lower two sections produced the following set of values, shown in Table 7.
Table 7:
DEPTH (m) 2.85 5.70 8.55 11.40 14.25 PRESSURE (KPa) 28.5 57.0 85.5 114.0 142.5 HOOP TENSION (KN/m) 1194 2388 3582 4777 5971 PLATE YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) 250 250 250 690 690 PLATE THICKNESS (mm) 10 20 20 20 20 STRESS (MPa) 119 119 179 239 298

As shown in Fig. 15, this revised design resulting in a saving of 25% in the mass of steelwork in the walls of the tank.

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Please Note: Every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the design examples, however, the information is provided as a guide only. A structural engineer should be consulted with respect to use for specific projects. Bisalloy does not warrant the suitability of the design examples for a particular purpose. The purchaser relies on its own skill and judgement as to the suitability of Bisalloy 80 (Bisplate 80) for its purpose. Bisalloy Steels shall not be liable for any loss or damage howsoever caused arising from the application of such information.

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Bisalloy Technical Manual BISPLATE Identification Marking and Colour Coding


Bisalloy Steels has a series of identification markings and colour codes to clearly identify the plate specifications and differentiate the grades from each other and other grades of steel. It is crucial that when plates are profiled that this identification is transferred to all off-cuts to prevent grade and size mixes. Grade identification stencils - there are two grade id stencils on each plate located at opposite ends so that if plates are halved then each end remains identified. These stencils are colour matched to the grade colour coding. Plate identification stencils there are two plate id stencils on each plate located at opposite ends so that if plates are halved then each end remains identified. For domestic orders
Customer Name Dimensions Plate Weight Grade Australian Standard (if applic.)

Plates delivered via central stock will not have a customer name For Export Orders
Customer Name Customer O/No. Plate Dimensions Grade Plate Number

Plate Weight

Plate Corners two diagonal corners of the plate are coloured with the relevant grade colour code. The other two plate corners are hard stamped with the plate number, which is then over sprayed with the plate number.

R.D.

Plate number

Colour Code

Grade Colour Code BISPLATE 60 - White BISPLATE 70 - Lime Green BISPLATE 80 - Pink BISPLATE 80PV - Pink/Red

BISPLATE 320 BISPLATE 400 BISPLATE 450 BISPLATE 500

Blue Orange Yellow Black

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Bisalloy Technical Manual Testing and Certification


Mechanical testing Brinell Hardness Test Brinell hardness test is performed in accordance with the requirements of AS 1816 1990. All plates are individually hardness tested. Tensile Tests Structural steel grades only are tensile tested in accordance with the requirements of AS1391 1991 and these tensile tests are done on a batch basis, one test per heat per 20 tonne (max.) per thickness production run. Charpy V-Notch Impact Tests Structural steel grades only are impact tested. Charpy VNotch tests are done on a batch basis, one test per heat per 20 tonne production run. Standard test direction is longitudinal and standard test temperature is 20 deg C. Tests conducted in accordance with AS 1544.2 1989 requirements Certification A separate NATA certified test certificate will be issued for each full plate supplied. Tests are conducted in our NATA certified laboratory and will detail chemical analysis, hardness and relevant mechanical test information dependent on the grade ordered.

Bisalloy Customer

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HARDNESS TESTING BISPLATE WHAT IS HARDNESS? Hardness is the resistance of material to plastic deformation usually by indentation or penetration. It also defines the ability of material to resist scratching, abrasion or cutting. WHY TEST FOR IT? Hardness testing is undertaken to: 1. 2. 3.
Table 1: Method Brinell (4)

Specify and certify a range of wear resistance products. Double check the tensile strength of structural grade materials. Assist in failure analyses and material identification.
Standard AS1816 Basis 10mm Tungsten Carbide ball (1) impressed under 3,000kg load 136 Diamond pyramid impressed under load 120 Conical Diamond Steel ball used for soft metals Rebound Method 10mm Ball impressed with hammered test bar Measurement Surface area for known load Surface area for known load Depth of impression under known load (15 150kg) Height of rebound Comparative impression Accuracy Approx % 2 Max Temp 50C

Vickers (HV) Rockwell (HR) A, B, C Equotip (2) Poldi (3)

AS1817

50C

AS1815 ISO6517-1 NIL NIL

2 Poor Very Poor ( 20)

50C -

WHERE TO TEST? Testing can be carried out in the laboratory, workshop or on site. However, site testing with portable equipment can often have difficulties of access, surface preparation and vibration, which may reduce the accuracy of testing. TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT The table above sets out the methods of identifying common indentation hardness, and other types of hardness tests. It is absolutely vital to understand the specific uses, strengths and any weaknesses of and correct requirements and procedures demanded by each of these methods in order to ensure consistent, comparable results in testing.

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Interpreting Table 1 Some Important Considerations 1. Where the maximum hardness of the work exceed 450 HB, but doesnt exceed 650 HB, the standard says a tungsten carbide ball must be used. 2. Equotip is a rebound method of hardness testing, which does NOT measure hardness (indentation or plastic deformation) but gives a result convertible within a restricted range into an indentation hardness figure. This method is not standardized and gives only indicative results. It is extremely dependent on the operator, test material and surface condition. It is NOT recommended on quenched and tempered steel, or surfaces that arent bright and smoothly ground. 3. The Poldi test is sometimes employed in the field. Even though it is an impression method, it displays very poor accuracy. It is not recommended for quenched and tempered steel. 4. The Brinell test is strongly recommended for all BISPLATE grades as it is widely accepted as the industry standard. (Brinell gives a more definite reading, by leaving a more definite impression on the plate). It is the standard employed at Bisalloy and by other manufacturers, both on the production line and in the laboratory. The hardness rating on a certificate issued by Bisalloy is measured in Brinell hardness. Converted values from other methods such as Rockwell or Vickers (more often used in laboratory testing small samples of steel, or in small-parts engineering, and not ideal for use in the production environment) can cause small discrepancies from the Brinell rating on the certificate. Proper Preparation of the test surface Since BISPLATE is a quenched and tempered steel, some decarburisation will occur on the plate surface during the heat treatment process. The thickness of the decarburised layer (the very thin surface layer which has lost carbon during austenitising) will vary depending on the plate thickness. This decarburized layer will get thicker as the plate thickness increases. To ensure testing accuracy, surface scale and the decarburized layer must always be removed by either grinding or machining from the areas where hardness measurements are taken. The minimum grinding or machining depths are listed in the Table 2.
Table 2: Plate Thickness Min Grinding or Machining Depths (mm) 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.5

6 >6 10 >10 20 > 20 50 > 50 80 > 80

Without removing the entire decarburized layer by grinding or machining, the results of the hardness test will be invalid.
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It should also be noted that the area tested should be a min. of 75mm from any thermally cut surface to avoid any hear-affected zone. The tested area must represent the whole material, must be clean, free from unwanted scale, and must be flat, sufficiently thick and smooth. The test piece must be well supported and not subject to movement or vibration. CALIBRATION To further ensure accuracy and consistency, all testing equipment must be calibrated (usually 3 yearly) and checked daily against calibration blocks. PERSONNEL COMPETENCY For all tests, the operator requires training in the correct methods and assessment acceptable to the employer. Preference is given to NATA registered laboratories for highrisk applications. REPORTING Reporting should include plate identification, location, method, result, date, surface condition, operators name and signature. Refer to AS1816-2002.
Table 3 Grade BIS80 BIS320 BIS400 BIS425 BIS450 BIS500 Specified Hardness (HB) 320 360 360 430 400 460 425 - 475 477 - 534 Typical (HB) 255 340 400 440 450 500 Hardness

Currently already unique among other manufactures Bisalloy goes to the extent of physically testing every plate produced that is, each one goes through the full process of grinding, test and measure. The size of the indentation is measured using the latest video imaging technology, which is interfaced with a dedicated computer to generate a BHN number to within one point. This testing procedure is now fully automated including automated grinding and indentation, guaranteeing an even greater and more consistent level of accuracy and repeatability.

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BISPLATE WEAR COMPARISONS THEORY OF ABRASIVE WEAR Abrasive wear is wear by displacement of material caused by hard particles or protuberances. Abrasive wear occurs when particles slide or roll under pressure across a surface of the material and may be classified generally as a) gouging abrasion, b) high stress grinding abrasion and c) low stress scratching abrasion or erosion. A similar action is involved in all three types of abrasive wear; i.e. a hard particle is dragged across a softer surface and material removal takes place by the formation of chips, leaving a scratch in the surface as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig 1 Material removal takes place by formation of chips Abrasive wear is determined by: Properties of wear material. Properties of abrasive material. Nature and severity of the interaction between abrasive and wear materials. They are related to the hardness of the material, hardness of the particles and the pressure between the particle and the material surface. According to the simplified abrasion wear theory, volume loss (Q) is proportional to the applied load (N) and inversely proportional to the hardness (H) of the abraded surface for a certain abrasive material applied Q = N/H It can be seen that, in a specific working environment, the wear loss of a material is dependent on hardness of the material. In general, as the hardness of the material increases, the wear rate decreases. To assess the wear properties of BISPLATE, three grades of BISPLATE (BIS80, 360/400 and 500) have been tested against mild steel, overseas Q&T steels and clad plates under sliding abrasive wear environment complying ASTM standard G65-86. DRY SAND RUBBER WHEEL WEAR TEST (DSRW) ASTM G65-86 DSRW is a standardised low stress sliding abrasion wear test designed to simulate the wear experienced in applications such as chutes or bin and dump truck liners for post crushed ore.

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Sand flow Sand Nozzle

Rotation

Mounted Rubber Ring Steel Disk Weights Specimen Specimen Holder

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of test apparatus (Dry Sand / Rubber Wheel abrasion wear)

Parameters set up for wear testing (ASTM Standard G65-86)


Specimen Dimension (mm) 25x10x76 Surface Condition Ground Abrasive Sand Sand Grade Flow (g/min) 60 360-380 Rubber Wheel Diameter Rubber & Width Hardness 228 & 12.7mm A-60 Revolution (r.p.m) 200 Time Load

30min

130N

RESULTS 1.

Relationship between Wear Resistance and Hardness of the Materials

In general, as the hardness of a wear resistant material increases, the wear resistance ratio increases (Abrasion Resistance Ratio = mass loss of mild steel / mass loss of tested steel). That is, steel with a hardness of 250 Brinell, i.e. BIS80, has relatively higher wear resistance than mild steel, which has a hardness of 120 Brinell. BIS500 has a hardness twice high as that of BIS80. Therefore it is expected that BIS500 has a resistance one time higher than BIS80 (see Fig. 3a and b).

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Mild Steel BIS 80 BIS 400 BIS500

Fig. 3 Wear resistance comparison between BISPLATE and mild steel 2. Wear Rate Comparison between BISPLATE and Other Q&T Products

BIS 80 Structural Type BIS 80 wear was slightly better than one Japanese brand and slightly worse than another. All grades were however very similar in wear resistance. BIS 80 wear resistance was 60% better than mild steel.
Fig.4 Comparison of wear resistance between BIS80 and Japanese products

BIS 400 Wear Grade BIS 400 performed best from all the 400 grades tested. European grades, which were water quenched with leaner chemistry, were slightly worse than BIS 400. Oil quenched 400 type was about 5% worse than BIS 400 in the wear resistance rate.
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BIS 500 Wear Type BISPLATE 500 performed very well compared to most Japanese 500 grade plates, 10% better than European water quenched and 30% better than European oil quenched plate.

Fig. 6 Wear resistance comparison between BIS 500 and other products

PADDLE IMPACT ABRASION TEST The Paddle Wear Testing was conducted at the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Centre (AMTC), a Division of Central TAFE, Subiaco WA. The testing offers a medium stress impact & sliding abrasion wear normally experienced by such components as chute liners, grizzly bars, and other impact plate liners in mining industries. The testing is performed by placing two specimens (test material and reference material) to be compared against each other at either end of the Paddle Arm located in a Drum. Both the arm and the drum rotate in the same direction with their speeds being 270 rpm and 45 rpm respectively as shown in Figure 1. Blue metal ore sized between 5.5 and 14.0 mm was used as the abrasion medium. Each test lasts 15 minutes. Three materials were chosen as reference specimens, BIS80, BIS400 and BIS500. The testing materials are listed in Table 1 below, including three Japanese products, four European plates and tow clad (overlaid) products.
Test specimen (held by the arm rotating at 270rpm) Drum (rotating at 45 rpm)

Reference sample

Gravel (5.5 14 mm in size) Fig. 1 Schematic set-up of Paddle Wear Tester

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Table 1 Test and reference materials
Test Material Reference Mild steel BIS80 Jap400-1 BIS400 Jap400-2 BIS400 EurO8* BIS500 Euro400 BIS400 DClad BIS500 EurO4* BIS400 D60 BIS500

Test Material Jap500 Euro500 Reference BIS500 BIS500 * European oil quenched 400 and 500 grade products

RESULTS Two samples from each material were tested against two same reference samples. The relative wear rate (RWR) of the test material was recorded as: RWR = (MLt x t) / (MLr x r), Where: MLt and MLr mass loss (g) of test specimen and reference specimen respectively, and t, r are specific densities (g/cm3) of test and reference materials respectively. Table 5 Lists average relative wear rates for the Paddle tested specimens.
Test Material (HB) Mild Steel (121) Jap400-1 (425) Euro400 (401) EurO4 (391) Jap400-2 (398) Euro500 (495) Jap500 (514) EurO8 (465) D60 (664) Dclad (573) Reference Material (HB) BIS80 (255) BIS400 (424) BIS400 (424) BIS400 (424) BIS400 (424) BIS500 (503) BIS500 (503) BIS500 (503) BIS500 (503) BIS500 (503) Relative Wear Rate 1.518 1.115 1.015 1.064 1.044 0.984 1.036 1.223 1.462 1.164

It can be seen that BIS80 performed 50% better than mild steel under impact abrasion condition. 400 and 500 grade Q&T plates did not show major differences between manufacturers although BISPLATEs did perform slightly better than most overseas products. Clad plates performed poorly under impact abrasion wear conditions compared to Q&T steel, especially high hardness D60 which experienced almost 50% more wear compared to Q&T plate. Higher mass loss from clad materials compared to quenched plates are caused by chipping off due to impact. Clad layer contains high volume of CrC and this layer is hard but can be very brittle. Under impact, brittle material tends to be fractured and chipped off easily compared to quenched plate.

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FATIGUE WHAT IS FATIGUE A metal component subjected to repeated or cyclic stresses may eventually fail even when the maximum applied stress is less than the yield stress of the parent steel. This phenomenon is known as fatigue. It is known that in machines and other kinds of structures that are subjected to fatigue loads, that 80-90% of all fractures that occur are fatigue fractures. However, it is relatively easy to appreciate why this occurs, since structures are usually designed against plastic deformation (i.e. yielding) and not against fatigue! FATIGUE FAILURES CHARACTERISTICS OF FATIGUE FAILURES The surface of a fatigue fracture is distinctive and from a knowledge of various characteristics of the fracture surface considerable information can be obtained about the cause(s) of crack nucleation and the nature of the fatigue loading. The material adjacent to a fatigue fracture displays no evidence of plastic deformation. The fracture surface is relatively smooth and generally contains concoidal markings which appear to radiate from a particular point on the outer surface, see figure 6.5.

Figure 6.5 Fatigue fracture surface of a failed gear showing the concoidal beach markings radiating from the oil hole, marked (A). Also shown are the beach markings associated with fatigue crack growth (B), and the area where ductile overload occurred (C).

Fatigue cracks generally nucleate at the surface, and because crack growth requires a tensile stress, the direction of the fatigue crack is always perpendicular to maximum tensile stress.

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Because the load is applied in a pulsating manner, the crack grows in small steps. Pulsating loads are invariably not uniform (as say a sine wave would be), so that crack growth rate variations occur and these reflected in the form of ridges on the fracture surface as can be seen in figure 6.5. These are given the name beach markings, and are the single most distinctive feature of fatigue crack failure. As the crack grows, the section supporting the load is progressively reduced. As such the stress of each cycle is progressively increased and the crack growth rate become faster, and the beach markings become larger and more distinct. Ultimately, the cross sectional area supporting the load is reduced to such an extent that it is too small to support the applied load, and final failure occurs by ductile overload; the area marked C in figure 6.5. WHY IS KNOWLEDGE OF FATIGUE IMPORTANT WHEN DESIGNING WITH HIGH STRENGTH STEELS? There are two main reasons: Firstly, fatigue cracks propogate at approximately the same rate in all steels, and since the life of welded joints is dependent upon crack propogation, welded sections of high strength steels exhibit the same strength at around 2 x 106 load cycles as welded plain carbon steels. Secondly, a principal reason for using high strength steels is to reduce plate thickness (i.e. weight reduction). When this is done, the stresses in the steel both static and fatigue stresses will naturally increase for a given load case. As a result, design against fatigue is more important when high strength steel is used in welded structures, since fatigue strength does not increase at the same rate as static strength. In addition, high strength steels are often used is applications that are naturally subjected to high fatigue loads, e.g. mining and transport equipment. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF STEELS FATIGUE DATA Fatigue data generated under laboratory conditions is generally in the form of the number of cycles to cause failure at a particular stress amplitude. This may be in the form of simple bending, so that a point on the surface of the specimen may be in tension when bending occurs in one direction, followed by compression when bending occurs in the opposite direction. Alternatively, the specimen may be subjected to a pulsating axial load causing alternate tension and compression. This simple situation can be presented as a sine wave as shown in figure 6.6.

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Figure 6.6 Diagram showing the sinusoidal type of pulsating load generally applied in laboratory type work (carried out to determine fatigue data).

The fatigue diagrams produced from cycles to failure tests can be presented as either stress amplitude (Sa) or stress range (Sr) and for most steels takes a form similar to that shown in figure 6.7, the cycles to failure generally being represented on a logarithmic scale. Fig. 6.7 Diagram showing the form in which data is presented, relating number of cycles to failure for a particular stress.

It can be seen in figure 6.7 that after about 2 x 106 cycles the curve tends to flatten out, indicating an almost infinite fatigue life at stress loadings below a critical value. The critical value is generally referred to as the fatigue limit and for most steels is referred to at 2 x 106.
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Figure 6.6 and 6.7 represent a situation where the tensile stress and compressive stress are equal in magnitude so that SMAX = -SMIN. There are however, other cyclic stress situations. For example, after the application of a tensile load the specimen may simply return to zero stress before re-application of the tensile load. Alternatively, an applied static tensile load may be present and an alternating cyclic load may be superimposed. To differentiate between such loading conditions a convenient means to define the loading conditions is achieved by the use of the stress ratio, R which is defined as: R= SMIN SMAX

For the simple bending situation of equal tension and compression stress (shown diagrammatically in fig. 6.6) where SMAX = -SMIN, R= -1. If only a tensile pulsating load is applied and SMIN = 0, then R = 0. When a pre-existing tensile static load is present and pulsating loads are applied R becomes positive; the limiting case of R = 1 when the static load equals the tensile strength of the steel. Obviously there can exist a variety of loading conditions between R=-1 and R = 1. These are represented in the form of a Goodman Diagram as shown in figure 6.8. It can be seen that Smin is represented on the abscissa (negative and positive) and Smax is represented on the ordinate. In such diagrams, the line ABCDE represents the stress ratio, R, at failure from -1 to +1 for a specified number of cycles to failure, i.e. 2 x 106.

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Fig. 6.8 Goodman Diagram depicting the various stress configurations required to determine the points on the diagram.

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From laboratory controlled fatigue tests the Goodman Diagrams for two steels having tensile strengths of 400MPa (AS3678-Grade 250), and 800MPa (BISPLATE 80 grade) are shown in figure 6.9. Here it can be seen that over the entire fatigue stress range there is a distinct advantage in using the higher strength BISPLATE 80 grade steel.

However, most structures involve welded connections, so that when examining a simple butt weld joint (with the weld bead left in place) a different Goodman Diagram emerges.

It can be seen in figure 6.10 that for butt welds when R = -1 (equal tension and compression) the fatigue strength of BISPLATE 80 is reduced by more than half its base material value (fig 6.9) and to substantially the same values of AS3678-Grade 250. This indicates that there is very little advantage in using high strength steels under such loading condition. On the other hand, for conditions where R is positive, i.e. high static loads with a superimposed pulsating load, there is a distinct advantage in the use of high strength steels.
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WHERE CAN HIGH STRENGTH STEELS BE USED TO ADVANTAGE? There are a number of key areas in which high strength steels can be used to advantage, in structures subjected to fatigue loading, as follows: PARENT PLATE MATERIAL UNAFFECTED BY WELD Welding can influence the fatigue behaviour of steels due to: (a) (b) (c) the existence of geometrical stress concentrations in the vicinity of welds due to weld deposit profiles. The presence of welding deposits such as porosity, lack of fusion, slag inclusions, etc, which facilitate the initiation of fatigue cracks, and The generation of residual stresses in the welded component.

Obviously, in structures in which welds are absent are absent or where welds can be suitably located in areas of low stress, high strength steels can be used to advantage (as fatigue strength is higher than for plain carbon steels). HIGH STRESS LEVELS In many structures, the load consists of a high static load with a superimposed smaller fatigue load. In this instance, it is relatively easy to exceed the permissible static stress or the yield of plain carbon steels. As we have seen previously, we can permit the same stress range at high stress levels as at low low stress levels. In these cases, R is in the range R = 0 to R = +1. LOW LOAD CYCLE NUMBERS The region for the permissible stress range is limited by the S-N curve and by the yield stress (or permissible static stress) of the steel. In other words, high strength steels are advantageous when the number of load cycles is less than 105, there is a full load spectrum (constant amplitude) and R = 0. SUITABLE LOAD SPECTRA In many situations, there are multiple fatigue loading conditions (different amplitudes) and hence it is incorrect to design with constant amplitude data if the load is of variable amplitude. WHEN IT IS POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE TO INCREASE THE FATIGUE STRENGTH OF THE WELDS. There are a number of techniques available to improve the fatigue strength of welded joints, including: redesign of the joint itself, removal of butt weld reinforcement,
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reduction of the stress concentrating effects by grinding or TIG dressing the toes of fillet welds, and reduction of the residual stress pattern around welds by thermal stress relieving treatments or shot peening. With each of these techniques, substantial improvement in the fatigue strength of the aswelded joint is possible, although the resultant fatigue strength will always be less than that of the parent plate material.
References/further reading Fatigue of Welded Structures, T.R. Gurney, Cambridge University Press UK 1979 Australian Standard AS1554 Part 5- 1989. SAA Structural steel welding code welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading. American Institute of Steel Construction, Specification for the design, fabrication and erection of structural steel for buildings, 1978.

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PERFORMANCE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BISPLATE processed grades perform favorably against other types of structural steels at elevated temperature. This can be seen below in Table 1, where the performance of BISPLATE 80 is superior when compared with other well-known structural grades at an elevated temperature of 600C. GRADE BISPLATE 80 AS3678-250 AS3678-350 0.2% Proof Stress @ 600C 300 MPa 127 MPa 140 MPa

Table 1: 0.2% Proof Stress at elevated temperature of 600C. However, the use of BISPLATE at elevated temperatures should be approached with caution. Prolonged exposure to excessive heat will lead to loss of mechanical properties including strength and hardness. This is primarily due to a microstructural change of the plate due to over-tempering. Any proposal for the use of BISPLATE at temperatures above 150C should be referred to the manufacturer. The following graphs show the results of high temperature tests performed on BISPLATE 80 and BISPLATE 400. Please note that these graphs depict instantaneous tensile measurements only and are not indictative of results when BISPLATE is exposed to excessive heat for a prolonged period of time.

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BISPLATE 80 (12mm)
900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Temperature (deg.C)
0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength

Stress (MPa)

BISPLATE 400 (12mm)


1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Temperature (deg.C)
0.2% Proof Stress Tensile Strength

The results of this project indicate the Bisalloy processed grades perform comparably or favourably with other types of structural steel in terms of the temperature at which the strength of the material is half that of its room temperature strength. This temperature was identified as being between 500C and 600C for processed grades. This temperature for greenfeed grades was seen to be beyond 600C. There was no significant difference in 0.2% Proof Stress at 600C between the processed and greenfeed samples, all values being in the vicinity of 300MPa. This compares with 127MPa and 140MPa for AS3678250 grade and AS3678-350 grade respectively at 600C The results confirm the suitability of Bisalloy products for use in structural and elevated temperature applications.

Stress (MPa)

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Table 1. Results summary for all samples
Sample number/grade. PX441/ BIS53, 20mm Temp. (deg. C) 20 200 300 400 500 600 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 Reduction in area 45% 64% 58% 71% 83% 89% 62% 67% 57% 58% 85% 79% 90% 56% 44% 48% 70% 84% 82% 89% 52% 5% 42% 68% 77% 79% 91% 65% 71% 62% 64% 71% 79% 87% 72% 70% 70% 68% 78% 86% 84% 62% 61% 55% 80% 79% 90% 63% 58% 58% 61% 75% 82% 91% 0.2%P.S. (MPa) 504 475 530 486 434 327 496 483 476 679 515 401 297 971 976 1017 922 789 580 297 1020 1024 989 955 757 582 293 560 572 561 550 501 464 336 713 638 527 512 490 460 327 815 795 759 720 664 538 272 816 800 746 741 635 553 290 U.T.S. (MPa) 706 637 697 650 520 393 659 620 618 705 596 481 349 1338 1318 1374 1234 962 679 431 1416 1328 1462 1340 986 674 438 752 663 709 737 717 593 421 773 704 617 673 559 522 407 862 843 829 837 748 600 382 876 859 833 846 736 633 413 Elongation (%) 16% 15% 5% 19% 23% 19% 20% 16% 16% 21% 25% 20% 22% 4% 9% 4% 12% 4% 15% 20% 11% 10% 11% 14% 14% 14% 26% 17% 16% 12% 15% 16% 16% 7% 16% 15% 16% 7% 19% 17% 17% 13% 13% 11% 11% 17% 15% 28% 17% 13% 11% 15% 15% 15% 24% Yield/tensile 0.71 0.75 0.76 0.75 0.83 0.83 0.75% 0.78% 0.77% 0.96% 0.86% 0.83% 0.85% 0.73 0.74 0.74 0.75 0.82 0.85 0.69 0.72 0.77 0.68 0.71 0.77 0.86 0.67 0.74 0.86 0.79 0.75 0.70 0.78 0.80 0.92 0.91 0.85 0.76 0.82 0.88 0.80 0.95 0.94 0.91 0.86 0.89 0.90 0.71 0.93 0.93 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.87 0.70

PX461/ BIS52, 12mm

71815/ BIS400, 12mm

71831/ BIS400, 20mm

RF464A1, BIS1, 100mm

77873, BIS80, 100mm

71974/BIS80, 12mm

72005/BIS80, 20mm

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GALVANISING BISPLATE structural grades can be readily galvanised. BISPLATE wear grades are not suitable for galvanising. BISPLATE achieves sound and continuous galvanised coatings because they contain 0.20% Silicon, which is an optimal level for galvanising. Galvanising does not affect the mechanical properties of BISPLATE structural grades. However, there are some precautions & recommendations that should be taken into account when galvanising BISPLATE. DO NOT ACID DESCALE to prepare the surface. Acid descaling can lead to hydrogen being absorbed into the steel, increasing the likelihood of hydrogen embrittlement. To prepare the surface it is recommended to use grit/shot blasting. This method not only ensures there is no hydrogen contamination it assists the galvanizing process by increasing the surface reactiveness to molten zinc. Care should be taken when galvanizing BISPLATE structures that contain severe internal stresses, such as those caused by large weldments, as liquid metal embrittlement may occur. In these cases, it may be appropriate to prototype test or attain the use of painted or sprayed coatings in place of galvanizing.

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