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BASICS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
FATHIMA 4.P 2.S 5. HIMA K. ATHIRA M.STEAM POWER PLANT SUBMITTED BY 1. DIVYA 3. KAJAL K .
KRISHNAJ P. Also we are thankful to jerin sir for giving us support and suggestions to complete our project and helping us to present it. . This project is developed with whole effort and contributions by each and every member of this group.K ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We the students of thejus engineering college are thankful to the principal for giving us an opportunity to work on a mini project. Through this project we will present various topics related to steam power plant. its working and impact.6.
Index y Introduction y Layout y Construction y Working y Advantages and disadvantages y Bibiliography .
The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Natural gas is frequently combusted in gas turbines as well as boilers. is typically 33% to 48%. as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. The rest of the energy must leave the plant in the form of heat. This efficiency is limited as all heat engines are governed by the laws of thermodynamics. This waste heat can go through a condenser and be disposed of with cooling water or in cooling towers.INTRODUCTION With the world on a development speed. nuclear. or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. The waste heat from a gas turbine can be used to raise steam. in a combined cycle plant that improves overall efficiency. and waste incineration plants. the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated. but the conventional thermal power plants play an equally important role in this power equation. considered as salable energy as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed. Almost all coal. for district heating. If the waste heat is instead . solar thermal electric. Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes. The energy efficiency of a conventional thermal power station. efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread. there is shortage of power in most places while the demand seems to be in a never ending upward spiral. There are several answers to this challenge such as the nuclear power plants. A large part of human CO2 emissions comes from fossil fueled thermal power plants. A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated. After it passes through the turbine. geothermal. this is known as a Rankine cycle. turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator.
it is called co-generation. these are typically found in desert countries with large supplies of natural gas and in these plants. An important class of thermal power station is associated with desalination facilities. freshwater production and electricity are equally important co-products. LAYOUT .utilized for district heating.
Steam is directed through a piping system to the point of use throughout the system. Coal is the main fuel used by steam power plant. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment that must be treated with utmost care. The boiler system comprises of: feed water system. The process of heating a liquid until it reaches its gaseous state is called evaporation. The important equipments used in a steam power plant are 1. steam system and fuel system. The steam system collects and controls the steam produced in the boiler. . When water is boiled into steam its volume increases about 1. Various valves provide access for maintenance and repair. Natural gas and oil are also used as fuels for small sized steam power plants.CONSTRUCTION Steam power plants produce electricity using fossil fuels working on Rankine cycle. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and cheap medium for transferring heat to a process.600times. The feed water system provides water to the boiler and regulates it automatically to meet the steam demand. producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. Boilers A Boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be transferred into water until it becomes heated water or steam.
2. propellers. or gas into mechanical energy. The basic element in a turbine is a wheel or rotor with paddles. The two sources of feed water are: 1) Condensate or condensed steam returned from the processes and 2) Makeup water (treated raw water) which must come from outside the boiler room and plant processes. compressor. or water. Turbines are classified as hydraulic. For higher boiler efficiencies. turbines. 3.steam pressure is regulated using valves and checked with steam pressure gauges. using the waste heat in the flue gas. dissolved oxygen in boiler feed waters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides(rust). the feed water is preheated by economizer. It also combines with any dissolved carbon . The fuel system includes all equipment used to provide fuel to generate the necessary heat. Today turbine-powered generators produce most of the world's electrical energy. Turbine Turbine is rotary engine that converts the energy of a moving stream of water. or buckets arranged on its circumference in such a fashion that the moving fluid exerts a tangential force that turns the wheel and imparts energy to it. The water supplied to the boiler that is converted into steam is called feed water. steam turbines. steam. or gas turbines. electric generator. or propeller. Deaerator A deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the feed water to steam generating boilers. Windmills that generate electricity are known as wind turbines. blades. In particular. This mechanical energy is then transferred through a drive shaft to operate a machine. The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of fuel used in the system.
Heat exchanger performance can deteriorate with time. The driving temperature across the heat transfer surface varies with position. Most deaerators are designed to remove oxygen down to levels of 7 ppb by weight (0. It is necessary to assess periodically the heat exchanger performance in order to maintain them at a high efficiency level. Sometimes direct knowledge of the LMTD is not available and the NTU method is used. For efficiency. and were widely adopted. 4.dioxide to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion. increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. which increase surface area and may channel fluid flow or induce turbulence. but an appropriate means temperature can be defined. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine. In most simple systems this is the log mean temperature difference (LMTD). 5. Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers are equipment that transfers heat from one medium to another.0005 cm³/L) or less. operation and maintenance of heat exchangers will make the process energy efficient and minimize energy losses. The proper design. scaling etc. while minimizing resistance to fluid flow through the exchanger. off design operations and other interferences such as fouling. The exchanger's performance can also be affected by the addition of fins or corrugations in one or both directions. Steam which has been superheated is . heat exchangers are designed to maximize the surface area of the wall between the two fluids. Super Heater A super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again.
or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. Thus leaks of non-condensable air into the closed loop must be prevented. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere. or once-through water from a river. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer.logically known as super heated steam. 6. the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam . lake or ocean. the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. 8. 7. In simple terms. Feed water heater In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler. Condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motordriven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. For best efficiency. Economizers Economizers are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100°C where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. an economizer is a heat exchanger. the condenser generally works under vacuum. non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam.
a wind turbine. and motors and generators have many similarities. Electrical generator In electricity generation.as it changes states from vapour to liquid. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduced back into the steam cycle. which is already present in the wire of its windings. . The feed water heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feed water heater. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. an economizer is a heat exchanger. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor. but it does not create electricity or charge. A generator forces electric charges to move through an external electrical circuit. The heat content (btu)I n the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. generally using electromagnetic induction. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump. a hand crank. 9. water falling through a turbine or waterwheel. compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. the sun or solar energy. an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. an internal combustion engine. In simple terms. which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine.
WORKING Pure water is pressurized and sent to the boiler by a feed water supply pump. Ash handling Combustion of coal inside the boiler produces exhaust gas and solid waste (ash). High pressure feed water is converted into high-pressure steam using heat generated by the combustion of the fuel in the boiler. The feed water is again pumped back to the boiler. This high pressure steam runs the steam turbine before going to the condenser. The ash generated from the combustion of solid fuel is removed through the bottom doors of the boiler and transported to the deposit site through hydraulic or mechanical or pneumatic systems. A generator directly coupled with the steam turbine produces electricity and feeds it to the power grid. The solid fly ash accompanying the exhaust gas will be separated using electrostatic precipitators or by a scrubber. The low-pressure steam is drawn out of the turbine and condensed into feed water in the condenser by exchanging its heat indirectly with the cooling water taken from natural water sources. The exhaust gas carries the heat produced by the combustion of coal is discharged into the atmosphere through the chimney after its heat is used to convert feed water in to steam. Power plant efficiency .
2. The coal can be transported to the site of the plant by rail or road. The overall thermal efficiency of a steam power plant is. . Less initial cost as compared to other generating plants. 2. Cost of generation is less than that of diesel power plants.In the thermodynamic analysis of Rankine cycle. 3. It can be installed at any place irrespective of the existence of coal. on which steam power plant works. The fuel used is quite cheap. It is costlier in running cost as compared to Hydro electric plants. It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes. The thermal efficiency of the steam power plant depends on the number of energy conversions that take place during the conversion of chemical energy of the fuel to electricity. the thermal efficiency and the power output are of prime importance. It require less space as compared to Hydro power plants. 4. Advantages 1. Disadvantages 1. 5. = electricity output / fuel power = (boiler) x (turbine) x (generator) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Some of advantages and disadvantages of steam power plant are given below.
powerelectricalblog.com y www.com y www.brighthub.wikipedia.BIBILIOGRAPHY y En.com y ³Elements of civil & mechanical engineering´ by L S Jayagopal & R Rudramoorthy .org y www.scribd.
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