You are on page 1of 10

Security & Sustainability of Supply

Benefits of Power Electronics Understanding HVDC and FACTS

Power Transmission Division


2 06-2008 26.06.2008 E T PS

Energy Sector
Power Transmission Division

IEEE PES Presentation Overview


1. Introduction

2. Global Trends on Power Markets 3. Security and Sustainability of Power Supply 4. Power Quality or Low-Cost Energy ? 5. Trends in AC & DC Transmission, EHV & UHV 6. Transmission Solutions with HVDC and FACTS 7. Basics of FACTS Flexible AC Transmission Systems 8. Basics of HVDC High-Voltage Direct Current 9. Voltage Source Converter for Transmission and Special Grids Basics & Applications 10. Power Electronics for Distribution & Industrial Systems 11. Efficiency of Power Supply

26.06.2008

E T PS

Power Transmission Division

1.

I ntroduction
4 26.06.2008 E T PS

CO2 Reduction Green Energy Megacities Security of Supply


Power Transmission Division

Electrical Energy of our Society

is the Backbone

today and in Future

26.06.2008

E T PS

Power Transmission Division

Example of China: Its Development is breathtaking


Financial District Pudong, Shanghai

26.06.2008

E T PS

Power Transmission Division

Conclusions of IPCC: CO2 Increase due to human

Influence is much higher than natural Fluctuation


Carbon Dioxide Variations in the Air
400 CO2 Concentration (ppmv) 350

The Industrial Revolution has caused a dramatic Rise in CO2

300

250

A crucial Global Issue: to achieve CO2 Reduction

200

Ice Age
0
7

Thousands of Years ago


Wrm / Weichsel Ri / Saale Mindel/ Elster

100
E T PS

200

300

400
Power Transmission Division

Sources: Siemens PTD TI / Wikipedia 2006; IPCC 2007


26.06.2008

2.

G lobal Trends
on Power Markets
8 26.06.2008 E T PS Power Transmission Division

The Situation on Electric Power Markets Increasing Demand for Power Generation from 3,620 GW in 2000 to 8,800 GW in 2030 Strong Environmental Constraints Limitation on Power Plant Expansions Natural Energy Resources far away from the Load Centers Severe Right-of-Way Constraints
A strong Issue in many Countries, especially in Europe
9 26.06.2008 E T PS Power Transmission Division

Power Generation: The Global Tendency Increase in Power Generation Capacity


Installed Capacity in Gigawatt
Regionally
8,800
14% 7%

By Energy Sources
8,800 Western Europe Eastern Europe / CIS
8%

Nuclear Gas Oil Coal


Other Renewables

26% 5%

44%

Asia / Pacific 3,620 2,835


29% 10% 22% 14% 30% 2% 22% 14% 18%

3,620 2,835
21% 16% 20% 37% 19% 13% 27% 6% 7% 34% 29% 9%

Africa / Middle East Americas

12% 17% 15% 32% 1% 23%

Hydro

1990

2000

2030

1990

2000

2030

Source: Siemens Energy, PG GS4 - 2008


10 26.06.2008 E T PS Power Transmission Division

Eco-friendly Power Generation, such as Wind Energy, is gaining in Significance; however, fossil-based Applications keep on growing as well
Power Generation in TWh
2.5% p.a.
Others

35,000
Other Renewables Hydro
Solar Others Geothermal Biomass

Nuclear

1% 8% 7%

Geothermal

15%1% 32%
Wind Biomass

19,000
Gas Oil 50% Coal
Wind

34%

52%

Renewables
(excl. Hydro)

Renewables
(excl. Hydro)

by 2006: 460 TWh (2% of the total Amount)


11 26.06.2008

2006

2030

by 2030: 2,700 TWh (8% of the total Amount)


Power Transmission Division

Source: Siemens Energy, PG GS4 - 2008


E T PS

Development of Power Systems


Extensions of Interconnected Systems Increased Power Exchange among the Interconnected Systems Transmission of large Power Blocks over long Distances (Hydro, Wind * and Solar Energy) Renewable Energy Resources at favorable Locations

12

26.06.2008

E T PS

Power Transmission Division

Regenerative Energy Sources and Dispersed Generation Impact on the whole T&D Grid Structure

G G G G G

G H

G G G H

Load Flow will be fuzzy


13

Use of Dispersed Generation 04-2008 26.06.2008 E T PS MT/Re PS

Power Transmission Division

Wind Power Generation during a Week of maximum Load in the E.ON Grid Example of Germany
Source: E.ON - 2003

This will be a big Issue both in the German Grid Development and worldwide

14

Problems with Wind Power Generation o Wind Generation varies strongly o It can not follow the Load Requirements 26.06.2008 E T PS

Additional Reserve Capacity is required


Power Transmission Division

The best Solution: Integration of HVDC Transmission into a synchronous AC System Long-term: 30 - 50 GW
Share in installed wind energy of 12,223 MW

Share in installed Wind Energy of

12,223 MW

Vattenfall Europe Transmission

E. ON Netz: E. ON Netz: 48 % Vattenfall Europe Transmission: Vattenfall Europe Transmission: 37 % RWE Net: 14 % RWE Transportnetz Strom: EnBW Transportnetze: 1% EnBW Transportnetze: Source: E.ON - 2003

48 % 37 % 14 % 1%

very fast

2006: 20 GW !

Benefits of this Solution: o Load Sharing o Generation Reserve Sharing

15

15

Installed Generation Capacity: 120 GWPower Transmission Division (2006) 26.06.2008 E T PS

Getting more Power out of the Grid

and
16 26.06.2008 E T PS Power Transmission Division

Development of AC Transmission
Reasonable Line Lengths:
1,000 kV: over 2,000 km 800 kV: up to 1,500 km 500 kV: up to 1,000 km **
However, some Countries will finally go 1 MV *

800 kV as realistic Standard

The Initial Statement Initial

**
17

Source: Siemens E D SEEPTI - 2004 26.06.2008 T PS

Power Transmission Division

Development of DC Transmission: Worldwide installed Capacity


Worldwide installed HVDC Capacity: 55 GW in 2005 This is 1.4 % of the Worldwide installed Generation Capacity

Additional 48 GW are expected from China alone by 2020 !

Sources: IEEE T&D Committee 2000 -Cigre WG B4-04 2003


18 26.06.2008 E T PS Power Transmission Division

Network Configurations for Long-Distance Transmission the AC and DC Options

Subs.

Subs.

Subs.

HVDC Long-Distance Transmission


Long-Distance AC Transmission

Point-to-Point Connection

AC Transmission through interconnected Power Systems


19 26.06.2008 E T PS Power Transmission Division

Benefits of Hybrid System Interconnections

System 1

System 2 a) AC Interconnection: many Lines from the Beginning, for Stability Reasons b) DC Interconnection: 1 Link sufficient for stable Interconnection c) Hybrid AC/DC Interconnection: The flexible synchronous Solution

20

26.06.2008

E T PS

Power Transmission Division

Benefits of Hybrid System Interconnections

System instable

System stable

DC supports AC for Stability


21 26.06.2008 E T PS Power Transmission Division

10