Earth Science

Fall Final Study Guide

2011-2012 B

NOTE: These questions have been taken straight from the final exam without their answer choices. Sorry

Standard 1 (13 questions)- Textbook Sections 24.3 & 22.3 and Chapter 23 1. A day on Saturn takes about 10 Earth hours. Which fact would best explain this short day? 2. Which of the following statements best describes how the planets of the solar system formed? 3. Which planet was formed from the light gases of the outer solar nebula? 4. The diameter of Saturn is almost ten times that of the Earth, yet its density is much less. This can best be explained by the fact that Saturn 5. Evidence suggests that Earth is about 4.6 billion years old, even though no Earth rocks have been found that can be dated at more than 4 billion years old. This discrepancy is most likely caused by Earth’s original crust being 6. It has been determined that the oldest rocks retrieved from the Moon by Apollo astronauts were formed 4.44 billion years ago, while the oldest rocks found on Earth are less than 4 billion years old. This difference is most likely because 7. Before humans visited the Moon and brought back lunar rocks, the age of the Moon was unknown. Radioisotope dating of these rocks showed that the age of the oldest lunar rock was closest to 8. Early telescopes showed stars as only points of light, while the planets appeared to be much larger, providing evidence that stars must 9. Although many ancient civilizations designated certain patterns of stars as constellations, they never included planets in their constellations. What feature of planets, as opposed to stars, explains this? 10. Before the telescope was invented, people had the idea that the planets were closer to Earth than were the stars. Which piece of evidence contributed to this conclusion? 11. What is the source of energy for the Sun? 12. Fusion is a form of nuclear reaction resulting in an enormous release of heat energy. The fusion of hydrogen to helium is a reaction that commonly occurs in 13. The surfaces of planet Mercury & our moon contain some very large craters that are most likely the result of Standard 2 (12 questions)- Textbook Chapter 25 14. The Sun is an average yellow star in the Milky Way galaxy, which is described as 15. As part of the modern theory of the origins of the elements, it is hypothesized that before the formation of the stars, most of the matter in the universe consisted of what atoms?

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Earth Science

Fall Final Study Guide

2011-2012 B

16. Scientific evidence suggests that magnesium is formed by stars during 17. Stars begin their life cycle in 18. Astronomers have discovered vast differences in stars through their observations. One theory used to explain these differences is that 19. An astronomer uses a telescope to observe a star. The color of the star indicates that it has a size and surface temperature similar to that of the Sun. Using this information, the astronomer can conclude that the star 20. The final stage of a star’s existence is determined by its mass. The most massive stars will end their lives as 21. Which drawing most accurately represents the shape of the Milky Way?  22. The graph below represents the brightness and temperature of stars visible from Earth. Which location on the graph best represents a star with average brightness and temperature?  23. A nuclear reaction that takes place in the cores of stars involves the fusion of protons to form an isotope of helium-3. Then two helium-3 isotopes fuse, and two protons break away to leave behind a helium-4 nucleus. What happens as a result of this process? 24. During red shift, the observed wavelengths of light from distant celestial objects appear closer to the red end of the spectrum than light from nearby celestial objects. The explanation for red shift is that the universe is presently 25. In which list are celestial features correctly shown in order of increasing size? (smallest to biggest) Standard 4 (12 questions)- Textbook Sections 4.2, 4.3, 17.2, 21.3 & 23.2 26. Only about 50% of the solar energy directed toward Earth penetrates directly to the surface. What happens to the rest of the radiation? 27. Geothermal energy, a possible energy resource, is based on which phenomenon?  28. The Moon is very hot on the side facing the Sun and very cold on the dark side. This extreme temperature difference is primarily due to the Moon’s 29. Venus is warmed by solar radiation, but its thick cloud cover increases the temperature because the clouds

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Earth Science

Fall Final Study Guide

2011-2012 B

30. Which of these could increase average global temperatures? 31. The clouds that surround Venus are so thick that the planet actually absorbs less sunlight than the Earth. Nevertheless, Venus has a surface temperature of more than 400°C. Which of these best explains this high surface temperature? 32. Permanent deforestation can contribute to potential global warming by 33. Which of the inner planets has the highest average surface temperature? 34. Much of the Earth’s internal heat comes from 35. Which statement best describes what is occurring in this figure?  36. Light from the Sun that reaches Earth’s surface is either  37. Which greenhouse gas has increased as a direct result of burning more fossil fuels and deforestation? Standard 5 (12 questions)- Textbook Chapter 19, Sections 15.1, 15.2, 16.1 and 16.2, and page 523 38. More solar energy reaches the equatorial regions than the polar regions because the equatorial regions 39. Which diagram best models the movement of coastal air during the afternoon?  40. What is the driving force for surface ocean currents? 41. What causes the wind deflection from the north and south poles? 42. Air moving from the poles toward the equator turns west. The primary cause of this global deflection is  43. Earth rotates in an easterly direction. Therefore, southward wind currents in the Northern Hemisphere appear to be deflected to the 44. When a layer of cool air at the surface of Earth is found under a layer of warmer air above it, the result is known as

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Earth Science 45. Temperature inversions can occur when 46. Ocean surface currents are created by

Fall Final Study Guide

2011-2012 B

47. At which location on the map would a rain forest most likely be found? 

48. Where would deserts most likely be found on Planet X?  49. Which of these effects generally occurs as the result of a warm air mass and a cooler air mass converging at Earth’s surface? Standard 6 (12 questions)- Textbook Chapter 21 50. Snow on the ground prevents polar climates from gaining heat by what mechanism? 51. Shifts in Earth’s continents most likely caused a change in Earth’s 52. The Gulf Stream in the Northern Hemisphere and the Brazilian Current in the Southern Hemisphere move poleward. Compared to inland areas at the same latitude, the coastal areas bordering these currents will 53. When comparing temperatures of two California regions of the same latitude, students found that the nighttime temperature dropped significantly at the desert site but only slightly at the coastal site. This difference is mostly caused by 54. Scientists have found fossils of tropical plants in Antarctica. How could tropical plants have grown in Antarctica? 55. What is the primary difference between weather and climate? 56. Compared to location B, over the course of a year, location A will have 57. What tools do scientists use to study the atmosphere and predict what effects greenhouse gases are having on Earth’s climate?

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Earth Science

Fall Final Study Guide

2011-2012 B

58. During the time of Pangaea, what had the greatest impact on earth’s climate? 59. Coal beds have been found in rocks of Antarctica. This suggests that the climate in Antarctica was once 60. How can an increase in greenhouse gases be predicted? 61. Short-term climate changes caused by regular variations in daylight, temperature, and weather patterns are called 62. How does temperature change with latitude? Standard 8 (12 questions)- Textbook Chapter 17 63. Earth’s atmosphere is divided into layers that are based upon their 64. According to many scientists, what process led to the formation of the early atmosphere of Earth? 65. According to scientists, which of the following material categories is thought to be the primary cause for the depletion of the ozone layer? 66. The diagram above shows four layers of Earth’s atmosphere. Which of the following correctly labels the layers represented by A, B, C, and D (from Earth moving upward) in the correct sequence?  67. The primitive atmosphere of Earth was deficient in free oxygen. What process was primarily responsible for the development of the present percentage of free oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere? 68. Most molecular oxygen in the early atmosphere of Earth resulted from 69. The first atmosphere that formed above Earth was most likely due to what process? 70. Which of the following human activities reduces the level of ozone in the atmosphere? 71. Scientists are concerned about the decrease in ozone in the upper atmosphere primarily because ozone protects life on Earth by absorbing certain wavelengths of 72. The Earth’s atmosphere has changed greatly since the planet formed. What gas was probably rare or absent in the Earth’s earliest atmosphere? 73. Seventy-eight percent of the atmosphere is composed of which gas? 74. What happens to air temperature through the thermosphere? 75. What was the primary source of atmospheric oxygen on Earth? 76. The ozone layer is located in the 5

Earth Science

Fall Final Study Guide

2011-2012 B

Investigation & Experimentation (4 questions)- Various chapters throughout textbook 77. The highest elevation on this topographic map can be no more than about (See textbook Section 1.3 for more help with this question) 

78. A student models an impact crater on the Moon by dropping a marble from a known height onto a pan of smooth flour. Before reaching any conclusions about the results of this simple experiment, the student repeats the activity several times so that  79. The existence of extraterrestrial life may never be proven, but this idea will become more scientifically acceptable over time if

80. An astronomer notes the change in position of Mars over several nights and then calculates that Mars orbits the Sun once every 400 Earth days. This figure is considerably lower than the 687 Earth-day orbit that is widely accepted for Mars. The scientist should

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