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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ASSIGNMENT
This report is an analytical report that undertaken to fulfill the academic requirements for effective communication of bridging program for the HND in IT at ICBT southern campus. This assignment based on research done by examining a selected organization and the selected organization is branch office of Ceylon electricity board. This report describe its communication system, that include research about importance of communication system, both internal and external communication channels, the currant systems advantages and disadvantages, a conclusion and finally a recommendations for better communication processes than currant system. There are few issues that not covered in this report; the reason is the report only needs information about the organizations branch office. The issued that not covered are not using for communication needs for neither internal nor external in selected company. The selected information is gathered by both primary and secondary sources. The used methods of investigations are questionnaires and interviews. The internet and books used as secondary sources information.

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO SELECTED ORGANIZATION


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Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB), the largest electricity power provider for country. The CEB is government organization that provides services for every power need in country both industrial and household use. The company is responsible for develop and maintain efficient, co-ordinate and economical system of electricity supply. And electricity board also constructs, maintain and operate the necessary work for the generation of electricity, it mainly generates electricity by using hydroelectric power, that system of using hydroelectricity saves money and its also a environmental friendly way to generate electricity. Recently due to the increasing power needs, CEB also develop thermal power plants and join with private sector organizations to provide better power for developing industrial needs.

1.2.1 History of the Ceylon electricity board


During the 19th century world undergo through industrial revolution, for industrial needs the source of energy is required; electricity is most common source of energy. After 1950s Sri Lanka also experienced an industrial development therefore the need of electricity is increased. To fulfill this power requirements government founded Ceylon electricity board in 1961 through the Ceylon electricity board Act. Sri Lanka is a country with natural rivers with mountains, so the geographical landscape is ideal for generate electricity from water, therefore from the beginning CEB used hydroelectricity to generate electric power. The first hydroelectric plant was Wimalasurendra, and after that power plants build throughout the country. Until the beginning of this decade the power generated through hydraulic plants fulfill the required amount of energy. But due to growing economy country needs more electric power than before in this few years. Therefore CEB also build thermal plants few years ago also CEB joined with private sector to supply increasing demand of electrical power.

1.2.2 Vision
Be an internationally recognized efficient utility providing high quality service to all its stakeholders.
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1.2.3 Mission
To provide reliable quality electricity to the entire nation at internationally competitive prices effectively and efficiently through a meaningful partnership with skilled and motivated employees using appropriate state-of-the-art technology for the socio economic development of the country in an economically sustainable manner while meeting acceptable environment standards and a satisfactory rate of return on investments.

1.2.4 Goals and objectives


The Board is under a statutory duty to develop and maintain an efficient, co-ordinate and economical system of Electricity Supply. It is also the duty of the Board,
1. To generate or acquire supplies of electricity. 2. To construct, maintain and operate the necessary works for the generation of

electricity by all means.


3. To construct, maintain and operate the necessary works for the inter-

connection of Generating Stations and Sub-stations and for the transmission of electricity in bulk from Generating Stations and Sub-stations to such places as may be necessary from time to time
4. To distribute and sell electricity in bulk or otherwise.

5. To develop a sound, adequate, and uniform electricity policy and, for that propose, to control and utilize natural power resources. 6. To take over and carry on any electrical undertaken transferred in terms of electricity policy.

1.2.5. Organizational structure

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SecurityAssistant Area Manager Labors OfficersGeneral Manager Drivers Clarks Lines Contractors Chief Assistant Engineer Meter General Manager Electric Divisional Electric Engineer man Clark readers Supervisors

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Structure of Ceylon electricity board General managerial post to labors

1.2.6 Product portfolio

It is the duty of the Board to exercise its powers and perform its functions so as to secure that the revenue of the Board are sufficient to meet its total outgoing properly chargeable to revenue account including depreciation and interest on capital, and to meet a reasonable proportion of the cost of the development of the services of Board. (Ceylon Electricity Board Act No. 17 of 1969)

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2. Communication
2.1 Introduction
Communication, the process of sharing ideas, information and messages with others in a particular place. Communication includes writing and talking, as well as non verbal communication (such as facial express, body language), visual communication (use of images and pictures such as painting, photography, video, or film), and electronic communication (telephone calls, electronic mail, cable television, or satellite broadcasts). Communication is a vital part of personal life and is also important in business, education, and any other situation where people encounter each other. The sharing of ideas helps people to build relationship with each other more efficiently.
(Microsoft Encarta 2007. Microsoft Corporation).

2.2 Communication process

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Communication is a process that requires many elements to successfully complete the process. Here are the elements of the communication process.

A message: what need to be communicated. A messenger: the person who has something to communicate. A receiver: the person who receive the message. Encoding: verbal and non-verbal convention of communication. Decoding: reading by the receiver of the encoding done by the messenger. Channels: the means of communication. Background signals: signals that make disturbance between sender and receiver.

Feedback: giving respond to message, this can be either positive or negative.

There are two ways of communication in communication process, 1. One way communication 2. Two way communication In one-way communication the specific thing is that the message is only travelling to one direction. Therefore there is no respond from receiver. So in one way communication it cannot exactly sure that whether receiver got the message or not. But in two-way communication there is a respond from receiver to the sender. So the two-way communication is the effective way of communication.
Sender Receiver Idea Words Images Sounds Body language Understand Or Misunderstan d Message

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- Background signals

This process works as follows: The messenger has something to communicate, a message. This message has intent. The messenger will encode his message to best communicate this message according to his intent. The message will go through a channel, a means of communication such as e-mail conversation. The receiver will then decode the message using conventions, cultural or contextual background, and language skills. The message he receives might or might not meet the intent of the messenger.

2.3 Importance of communication to business organization


According to above explanations about communication, communication is an essential and very important to share ideas with each other. To a business organization the existence of good communication is vital part to carry on every task of organizations work, no matter what the organization is, whether its private or government it need good and effective communication system to be a successful company. Here are some points about the importance of business communication, Inform the companies co-operate vision, mission, and goals, strategies, culture, rules, policies and procedures to the organizational members. For effective team work and higher work efficiency among employees. Inform management level decisions to lover level employees. Hiring right persons at right positions.

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Get employees ideas and suggestions, it support to develop company. Face market competitions and satisfy customer needs at right time. Deal with suppliers efficiently. Deal with other external parties, such as governments, illegal bodies and financial institutions.

Above there are mentioned about only main fields of communication needs, but for every simple procedure of company, communication is first, because without communication the company will ruin within very short time CEB is the main and government controlled electricity power supplying company in Sri Lanka. Company is mainly using hydroelectricity to generate electrical power that need for country. Like every electricity generation and distributing company in world CEB has both office and electricity generating workplaces throughout the country. Company consisting power stations, sub stations, control stations, depots, offices, billing counters and many more places. All of these places must be interconnected through good communication system to provide reliable service to customers and to the extinction of company itself.

2.4 Communication barriers


Communication is a process sending messages to someone or group of people. If message was sent clearly, the receiver can understand it easily and it is known as effective communication. When the message is not clear to receiver, both sender and receiver facing a barrier to communication. These barriers differ from time to time, because there are number of facts that causing for communication barriers. Here are some main points that cause barriers to effective communication.

Physical barriers- one of the major barriers to communication, this means physically separated from others (distance), physical environment and noise. Also electronic failure, whether conditions are including to physical barriers. Even sender and receiver barriers can stop sometimes, this barrier practically impossible to remove.

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Language barriers-Inability to converse in a language that is known by language barriers. Both the sender and receiver is the greatest barrier to effective communication. When a person uses wrong words for speaking and writing, it could be misunderstanding between the sender and receiver.

Emotions- Emotions could be a barrier to communication if people are engrossed in their emotions for some reason. In such cases, they tend to have trouble listening to others or understanding the message conveyed to them. A few of the emotional interferences include hostility, anger, resentfulness and fear.

Stress- One of the major communication barriers faced by employees in most of the organization is stress. When a person is under immense stress, he may find it difficult to understand the message, leading to communication barrier.

Lack of subject knowledge- if the person who send the message lacks the subject, he may not able to send his message clearly. The receiver could misunderstood senders message, therefore it cause barrier to communication.

2.5 Communication channels


Communication channel refer to the medium used to convey information from sender to a receiver. In communication process sender encode and sends the message, which is then carried via the communication channel to the receiver and then receiver decode the message and them receiver processes the information and sends an appropriate reply via the same communication channel. There are three main channels of communication.bal 1. Oral 2. Visual
3. Tactile

Above are mentioned the main channels for communication, but according to the distance between sender and receiver it needs to use some carriers for carry information generated my above channels. Some are easy to use and not require specific equipments when the receiver is very near to sender. In that kind of communications people can simply use their own words, body language or signs to
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communicate with each other. But when the distance is problem, it needs to use carriers like telephone, internet, radio or that kind of media to transfer information between long distances. Oral channel- any communication done by speaking is oral. Talks, lectures, debates and discussions are examples for oral channel. This channel is fast, easy to use and it saved lot of cost. But people with language problems can find great difficulty to communicate with each others; also disturbance can occur during background issues. Visual channel- if anyone used text, videos, photographs or images to communicate, it is known as visual channel. But this channel is relatively slower and expensive then oral channel. But this channel is attractive, accurate (especially suite for explaining complex things) and easy to understand than other channels. Tactile channel- this channel is using for demonstrations and role plays. It enhances memory and also can be use to communicate feelings. But this channel of communication can be easily misinterpreted. Also this is an informal way of communication therefore cannot use for business contents. In human face to face communication, there are three major parts which are body language, voice tonality and words. According to the researches, 55% of impact is determined by body languagepostures, gestures, and eye contact. 38% by the tone of voice, and 7% by the content or the words used in the communication process.

The communication process that use above channels further can be divided to two sections based on style of communication, which are formal and informal.

Formal communication-Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time.

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Informal communication-Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a good relationship with each other. Informal communication normally occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rules and guidelines.

3. Existing communication channels of company


3.1 Internal communication channels
Internal communication channels refer to channels which are using to communicate among organizational employees. In order to run efficiently, every organization needs good internal communication channels. Company cant exist without efficient and reliable communication system. Internal communication can use to inform any information within company employees. It can be simple notice, important official things such as inform the company vision , mission, goals and objectives, rules and policies to organizational members and inform managerial level decisions to low level employees. When companies have efficient communication system it can benefit following, Effective team work among employees. Higher work efficiency. Slowing problem quickly. Solving market competition effectively. Get employees ideas to develop company.

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Specially company like CEB, need very high level internal communication channels that are reliable. Because they need to supply power and repair breakdowns, communicating with every power plants. So CEB needs very reliable internal communication channels in order to fulfill all objectives. Currently CEB have both ordinary internal communication channels and specific channels. Telephone, e-mail, internet, letters, fax, magazines are common channels, because that channels using commonly in every organization.

But there are some specific channels to CEB, like radio communication and specially the carrier channel telephone system. Company use radio transmitters and receiver to connect companies field service crew. In carrier line it used ground cable of 132kv transmission line.

1.1.1Telephone
Like most of companies of country, CEB use telephone for one of their main internal communication systems, because telephone is one of easy to use communication channel for both internal and external communication needs. Telephone, Instrument that sends and receives voice messages and data. Telephone converts speech and data to electrical and magnetic energy and transfer electronic impulses via wires or electromagnetic waves between great distances. Telephone can use for casual conversations to official purposes and in emergency situations to help people. CEB use telephone systems to communicate inside the company. The areas that using of these channel are communicate with employees, to fulfill needs as inform workers about their works, connecting every branch office and headquarters together, inform field services to repair breakdowns, call for special meetings, inform about emergency situations and for many more common issues. Specially to inform immediate actions to employees. Advantages of telephone channels.

Easy to use and can use for real time conversations. Relatively speed than other channels to send information.

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Takes less time to process information that needs to send than other channels.

Fastest way to communicate when the distance is too long.

Disadvantages of telephone channels.

May cause technical failures in any time during communication. Not practical to use for communication of important formal information. Relatively expensive, when usage is too long. Sometimes its difficult to communicate due to physical barriers.

Considering about above facts, using telephone channel as internal communication system is effective relative to other channels, because telephones saves lot of time. Especially CEB needs very fast channels to communicate with other power stations or else its difficult to manage that kind of an expended company that have lot of places to communicate.
1.1.1

Intercom
The technology in intercom is the same technology that using in telephone. It

only defer from telephone from one point, intercom doesnt need any service provider like in telephone. Because it only works inside one building therefore it only need few meters of cables to connect receiver/transmitter systems. In CEB most of offices and other service/power stations use intercom systems for internal communication needs. Using intercom can lead higher work efficiency in the work place, because employees can quickly get their messages via intercom. Advantages of intercom systems.

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Intercom is working without service providers therefore its cost effective way to internal communication, it only takes cost of buying basic equipments.

More reliable than telephone systems and easy to use. Less technical failures than telephone and other internal communication channels.

Disadvantages of intercom systems.

Can only use within a single building or maximally within few buildings, therefore only able to communicate with specific building.

Communication with other branch offices cannot be done.

Intercom is using only for internal communications in CEBs branch offices. So intercom is relatively trouble free, cost effective way to communicate, hence its not effective channel of internal communication.

3.1.3 Fax
Faxing communication system that copies, sends and receive documents by way of telephone lines. This method of communication allows sharing exact copies of important documents by duplicating and sending them by one point and receiving and reproducing at other point. CEB use fax machines in every office in order to send and receive important official documents without delay. In official internal communication process, using fax is also secure to transfer data. Advantages of fax channels. Faster and more secure way to communicate business information. Official documents can send without any changes and mistakes. Easy and accurate to get received data via fax machine.

Disadvantages of fax channels.

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Relatively higher charges can apply than telephone charges. Fax is also based on telephone lines, therefore technical failures can occur. Both receiver and sender must have fax machines which are expensive than telephone or intercom systems.

Faxing is a communication system with no feedback from receiver, hence sender need special reply from receiver.

Fax is reliable way to communicate internally; it can transmit important official documents from place to place within fraction of time. Fax can considered only good way to communicate official matters within short time.

3.1.4

E-mail

E mail is a service based on internet. Using internet connection from anywhere from world people can exchange text, picture, audio or even videos between computers. E mail is relatively very fast and takes only fraction of coast. Sri Lanka is a developing country, therefore the use of internet and email is start to use very recently. CEB has many offices around country but all of these offices havent computers or internet, hence e mail only using with offices where have needed facilities. Advantages of e-mail communication channel, Only takes little amount of coast to messages. Can attached communication. Receive message within fraction of time, wherever the sender was. pictures, audio and videos rather than text only

Disadvantages of e-mail communication channel,

Require specific equipments to use e-mail, which are normally expensive. Computer literacy need both to sender and receiver. Difficult to establish internet connection in rural areas. Risky to communicate official information because of cyber criminals.

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Even e-mail is cost effective and fast way to communicate for developed country, its not practical to use widely in country like Sri Lanka, as far as the computer and internet facilities are difficult to find in rural areas.

3.1.5 Radio communication channel

Radio transmitters and receivers

Radio, system of communication employing electromagnetic waves propagated through space. Radio waves of difference lengths using for difference purposes and usually identified by their frequency. A typical radio communication system has two main components, transmitter and receiver. The transmitter generates electronic oscillations at a radio frequency called the carrier frequency. Then the carrier frequencies amplitude or frequency is modulated by sound waves, and transmit throughout the air. Then receiver capture the transmitted radio signals and demodulate, finally it give audio output.

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Ceylon electricity board has number of depots and field service stations around the country, so the board need wireless powerful communication system to communicate with their depots and mobile field service vehicles. Therefore CEB use radio communication systems for mobile communication. Especially every depot and its vehicles have radio transmitters and receivers.

Advantages of radio communication channel,

Fast and accurate way to communicate, specially when the receiver is moving. Cost effective, because there is no service provider for radio systems. Less maintain required for radio system equipments. Ideal for field services where mobility and quicker communication channels needed. Need only less electric energy therefore can powered by even from battery, hence can easily used in rural areas to connect with main offices.

Disadvantages of radio communication channel, Expensive to establish radio communication system. Sometimes its difficult to get message clearly, because every receiver is interconnected with every transmitter. As far as company is service based company like CEB it need wireless communication system of their own. Its more reliable than depending on outside service providers communication channels. Therefore radio communication is one of very reliable and effective way of internal communication for CEB.

3.1.6 Carrier line telephone communication channel.

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This communication channel is very specific one for CEB. In carrier line telephone system, the basic theory is the same one that using for ordinary wire line telephone systems, but this time CEB use ground cable of 132kV transition line instead of ordinary telephone cables. The high voltage 132kV line runs through the power stations to sub stations where voltage decreased to 33kV. These power stations and sub stations are the main components of power distribution. Therefore it must need specially reliable and less maintainable communication system to run power distribution efficiently. Because power stations and sub stations are the back bone of electric transmission, any failure can cause loss of electricity for large areas. Carrier line telephone system is reliable than any other communication channel because the cable that carry signals stay very high above ground and it attached strongly to towers, therefore its difficult to malfunctioned due to rough weather conditions or by any other means. Otherwise no one can access to this communication system because it only connected within power stations and sub stations where high confidential and secure is most important in communication. Advantages of carrier line telephone system, Highly reliable than other communication channels. Take only fraction of coast to both establish and maintain. Communicating is very secure via this channel. Less probability of failures.

132kv transmission line and its components

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Every stations are connected more than one time with channel therefore probability of losing connection is very small.

Disadvantages of carrier line telephone system, In any case if breakdown of transmission towers occurred it takes long time to repair. Carrier line telephone can be considered one of reliable, secure and trouble free communication channel that using for internal communication in CEB. Specially communicating technical information must be very responsible than normal issues. Carrier line is ideal for that kind of communication processes.
3.1.6

Magazine

CEB publish magazine named LANVIMA, it publish once in two month, which include news about electricity boards projects, social works, exhibitions, about retired employees and also about competitions, festivals, scholarships and even theres a space for employees poems and that kind of creative things. Even magazines arent very effective way of communication, its good way to know people inside CEB about their fellow workers ideas and publishing about retired employees is good way to inform it to other employees. The magazine publish by board is only using two colors; therefore its not very attractive. But if company issues colorful quality magazine it takes load of money. Considering about above facts magazines arent effective way to communicate in modern life.

3.1.7 Notice boards and memos


Notice boards are very common feature inside every company. It displays about special events using mainly text. Employees need to put attention to get these messages shown in notice boards. This communication channel is east to use. But sometimes if people arent put any special attention to notice boards, the message can miss. Memos a written communication similar to letter but without formal address block at the beginning, specially using to circulated to people within an office or organization. The main disadvantage of memos are not formal way to communicate,
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therefore memos can only use for official communication with less important and where security is not important.

Even memos are not fully formal employees surely and quickly get message rather than in notice boards, where it needs time to communicate the message. Therefore notice boards can use to inform events before few days or week when there is sufficient time to communicate.

3.2 External communication channels.


Every organization based on providing people services or goods directly or indirectly, therefore every single organization needs to deal with outside groups or peoples while providing their duties. In that point organization need communication channels to communicate with external parties. These types of channels using for communication known as external communication channels. The CEB is service providing organization so it always needs a fast and accurate communication channel to communicate with their customers to maintain their services and for establish new supplies. Using effective external communication channels give following benefits to CEB,

Satisfy their costumers needs by providing fast and friendly service. Deal with suppliers efficiently. CEB always need to communicate with government, financial institutions and with suppliers, nature care parties, by using effective external communication channels organization can deal with above parties easily.

External communication channels are telephones, internet, fax, e-mail, letters, bills, advertisements, public speaking systems, logos and notice boards.

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3.2.1 Telephone
Telephone is one of major channels of external communication within CEB. Especially people use telephone to inform any breakdowns within their area immediately to board. That helps to repair breakdowns quickly, because by using peoples calls its easy to understand where the failure is. Also CEB itself use telephone to communicate with companies branches and also with other companies for immediate communication needs. Therefore telephone is always effective way of communication for both internal and external communication needs.

3.2.2 Fax
Fax is using for formal purpose communication and also only using when dealing with other companies. Mostly CEB use fax for communicate with their suppliers normally are foreign companies. Also fax messages using to communicate with contract companies. Fax is considered a secure way to communicate officially and faster. Fax has same advantages and disadvantages occurred in internal communication as well as external. In external communication fax is more effective than using as internal communication.

3.2.3 E-mail
In external communication e mail is one of easiest and coast effective way to communicate. Its ideal for long distances, especially if company wants to inform about some less valuable information to other companies. CEB use e-mail to deal with their foreign supplies. Its easy to use e-mail in that kind of long distances also pictures of certain products can be attached via e-mail at fraction of time and coast.

3.2.4 Internet
In modern world internet and internet based applications are best way to communicate. Most of organizations have their own web site. Publishing web site
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allows world to know about company and its duty or products. It leads very easy to communicate with other worldwide companies because companies can know each other well using internet based applications. They can exchange their knowledge and find answers for difficult technical failures. Also its great way to let people know what is the projects and further plans of company. Advantages of internet based communication

Represent in official way locally and internationally. To inform people about companies information. By publishing web site company can gain publicity and reputation.

Disadvantages of internet based communication. To maintain web site is relatively expensive. Sri Lanka is developing country, therefore only little amount of people can benefit from this communication channel.

Home page of Ceylon electricity boards official web site

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In this web site there are some important information to customers include breakdown service numbers, tender notices, environmental issues, energy saving tips, news and considerable information about Ceylon electricity board. Therefore even most customers cannot gain maximum benefits by using CEBs web site, its great step of using modern technology for external communication. Because Sri Lanka is rapidly growing in information technology field within last years. Now even some rural villages has internet facility through E- Nanasala , a recent government project.

3.2.5 Logo and Notice boards

Ceylon electricity boards official Logo

CEB using its official logo wherever in offices or in properties, to inform people that the property belongs to electricity board. Using logos is easy and official way to communicate, whether in officially or normal conditions such as advertisement. Specially in CEB these symbol are using for every documents of company and also in every vehicles and CEBs properties. In external communication notice boards are using specially outside to warn to people, because high voltage electricity is hazards to human, therefore its very important to inform people about that kind of hazardous things to avoid accidents. Also CEB has number of power station throughout the country, where security is highly considering. In such places notice boards using to warn people not to trespass to security areas. Logo as external communication system is effective way to communicate; CEBs logo is simple and easy to remember to anyone. But in using notice boards it
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needs to maintain consistently otherwise its difficult to get exact message, misunderstanding these messages cause great danger to peoples lives. Therefore notice boards that using hazards areas and security areas must be easy to understand clearly and must maintain when repairs needed. Also theses kind of notice boards must highlight from background otherwise it isnt taking peoples attention.

3.2.6 Advertisements
Advertisement are common nowadays, modern advertising using nearly every kind of electronic media include TV, radio, internet and also non electronic medias such as newspapers. CEB specially use advertisements to inform people about power saving, and also uses to inform about power cuts during maintain procedures. Most effective way of modern advertising is television advertising. Electricity board use TV adds specially to inform people about power saving. This short time audio and video advertisement shows how to decrease the usage of electricity and save energy. During power cuts, especially in urban areas Company use to inform about power cuts using TV and radio advertisements. Also advertisements use to call for tender notices and contracts. Advantages of using advertisements The easiest way to give messages to people. Its relatively attractive and effective than other external channels, especially when dealing with people. Can use to give messages quickly throughout entire country or region by using TV or radio channels. Disadvantages of using advertisements Relatively expensive than other external communication channels. Advertisements transmission is done by only exact time periods by communication agencies; hence there is great possibility to miss the message to people.

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According to above facts advertising can useful to let people know about power cuts and energy saving. Because people spend lot of their time in front of TVs, so its easy to send the message by advertising.

3.2.7 Public speaking systems


Public speaking refers to addressing large group of people at same time. CEB needs to inform about power cuts to their customers in a certain area. The most affordable and effective way to do this is using public speaking system. In this channel the message is transmitted by voice that magnified by using amplifier system. CEB use their own vehicles and employees to this communication system. To address customers it doesnt need special practice, just only need to give the message clearly. Advantages of public speaking channel. Cheapest and easiest way to give message. Can address lot of people at one time. Ideal for inform normal issues like power cuts.

Disadvantages of public speaking channel. Sound pollution can occurred due to high noise. Message may be not clear some times, due to technical failures or natural facts such as rain or wind. Public speaking is good for rural areas and sub urban areas where background noises are lower than urban areas.

3.2.8 Bills and Letters

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Bills are using in CEB as one of major external communication channel with their customers. Monthly CEB send bill to their every costumer. This bill inform to customer about electricity usage, charges, currant account, units of consumption, all detail about costumer and it also include conditions and instructions given by electricity board. Billing is common way to inform to customer about their usage. But there is some confused look of electricity bill that issued by CEB. The main disadvantage is its difficult to read computer printed billing information; the characters arent clear and printed in very light gray color therefore, it cause difficult to read the bill. Letters are one of oldest way of communication, it is using for both internal and external communication. Letters are text based one way communication channel. In offices letters are use for formal proposes. Electricity board using letters for inform people about billing problems and new connections. Also letters using for communicate with other parties. Letters are relatively very slower than e-mail and fax, but still in Sri Lanka most government companies include CEB using snail mail for their official communication. Using letters are wasting time, where time is very important during official communication. Therefore letters are no more effective way of communication in nowadays.

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3 Conclusion and Recommendation


4.1 Conclusion
After considering the relevant facts that based on Ceylon electricity boards internal and external communication channels and systems, the following opinions can be done. These opinions about communication channels based on selected channels effectiveness of using. As mentioned in above chapters CEB is service based company, therefore company needs reliable channels for internal communication. Currently company has number of reliable and fast internal channels that include especial channels like radio transmission, and carrier line transmission which requires no specific maintain and less probability to technical failures. Therefore considering the above facts it can say that majority of internal communication channels are effective. Considering about the external communication channels of CEB, which are important to communicate with outside parties, it can say some channels are effective while other are not effective to currant requirements of communication in nowadays. As examples CEB still use old communication channels like letters, also company use bills that confuse to customers. Specially when bills not paid by customers in due dates, it need to inform to customers about power disconnection as quick as possible, but CEB use letters to inform it to customers. Letters normally takes long time to deliver the message, therefore customers face to great difficulty in that kind of situations. Finally considering about all above facts it can say that Ceylon electricity boards communication system contain both effective and non effective channels of
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communication. Some channels using for internal communication are very effective while some of external channels are non effective ones. Also some channels are not effective in using developing country like Sri Lanka.

4.2 Recommendations
Every organization need and has communication channels for their normal daily procedures. This communication channels must be effective otherwise the organization will be never able to success in their field. Ceylon electricity board use verity of communication channels for both internal and external communication processes. Some of these channels are effective while others are non- effective. These non effectiveness causes following, Highly expensive the communication system. Higher value of maintain coast. Old systems, that communicating in slower speeds. Neither fast nor reliable. These kinds of non-effective communication channels must be replaced to new ones in order to build effective communication process. Following recommendations can be used to improve the existing communication system of Ceylon electricity board. Company can remove old communication channels like letters and instead they can use fast electronic based channels like fax. By transferring to electronic channels specially it saves time. CEB use public speaking systems to inform to people in certain area about power cuts, but these channel isnt effective, because these channel is using in daytime, but people at work at day time and therefore they didnt get message. Its effective if CEB use radio or TV messages to inform people.

Currently most of CEBs branch offices have only one telephone line with one number which cause difficult to connect in emergency. Company can increase telephone channels to two or three for better communication with customers.

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CEB is currently telecasting TV ads about power saving. But these advertisements are rarely playing in TVs. By increase of playing ads can courage people about power saving.

Electricity Bills can print according to much simple structure, and computer printed bill details must more clearly than now, much simpler and clear detailed bill is easy to read.

Electricity is very harmful for humans, it almost bring death by accidents. Therefore its CEBs responsibility to inform about these hazardous to people and keep them away from high voltage structures. To do this CEB use caution boards, but most of these boards are not maintain, therefore its difficult to read the message that contained. Also these caution boards must be luminous to dark. To continue these characteristics of caution boards it need to maintain continuously. By do this it can reduce of accidents cause of high voltage electricity. If above recommendations make actionable, both the company and customers

can benefit it; by removing the non-effective communication channels it improve both internal and external communication process of company. Therefore company can run effectively and communicate with customers more easily than before.

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Reference
Ceylon electricity board, viewed 27 October 2009, http://www.ceb.lk Davis, F 2004, Models of communication process, viewed 24 October, http://davis.foulger.info/research/unifiedModelOfCommunication.htm Effective interpersonal communication, 2009, New York Time Company, viewed 06 October 2009, http://about.com//Effective_Interpersonal_Communication.htm Maya, P 2008, barriers to effective communication, viewed 27 October 2009, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/workplace-communications Microsoft Encarta, 2007, communication, Microsoft cooperation Redmond, WA 98052-6399 U.S.A. Sri Lanka Consolidated Acts: Ceylon Electricity Board Act (No. 17 of 1969) viewed 02 October 2009, http://www.commonlii.org/lk/legis/num_act/ceba17o1969288/ Valerie, L 2008, Elements of communication process, viewed 30 October 2009, http://soft-skills-development.suite101.com/article.cfm/communication_model Wikipedia, 2009, channels (communication), Wikipedia incorporation, updated 13 September 2009, viewed 30 October 2009, (communications) Wikipedia, 2009, Media (communication), Wikipedia incorporation, updated 29 October 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_ (communication) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Channel_

Wikipedia, 2009, Radio communication systems, Wikipedia incorporation, updated 18 February 2009, viewed 05 November 2009, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_communication_system

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