Optimising Thermal Performance of Building Envelope In High-rise Residential Buildings of the Tropics Case of Mumbai

Laukik Dhage M. Arch. Studies – Advanced Architectural Studies School of Architecture, University of Sheffield September, 2007
.

.

ABSTRACT

.

Looking at the energy situation on the global level, it is been seen that we posses twin threat of inadequate supply of energy and increase in environmental pollution by too much use of it. Global energy demand is predicted to reach about 66% in 2030 as compared to demand in 2000, with 40 % of this growth accounted by developing countries of Asian region [1]. Rapid increase in population and growing Urbanisation has led to significant rise in energy demand of Asian economic giants like India and China.

Taking the case of India, about 56% of total energy consumption in all the sectors comes alone from residential sector [2], major part of this being used by construction Industry; hence energy efficiency of the residential buildings is matter of great importance in India. With more and more people migrating to the cities, demand for houses shoot up and for the cities like Mumbai where the land is scarce the only way to cope up this problem is to grow vertical. Today when the city is on the verge of having the tallest residential apartment in India, it’s now time to direct this high-rise growth in a more sustainable manner, making these towers more energy efficient. Significant amount of total energy consumed in these buildings is on the maintenance of comfort conditions inside it due to the hothumid tropical climate of Mumbai.

Present study is focused on energy efficiency of High-rise Residential buildings in Mumbai by optimising thermal performance of building envelope using thermal insulation materials and high performance glazing to increase the comfort conditions in these buildings. The study is carried out by performing thermal

simulation analysis on a computer model of existing high-rise residential apartment in Mumbai using the building analysis programme ECOTECT.

1

.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

.

This dissertation wouldn’t have been possible without the support and guidance of the people I mention here. It is a pleasant aspect that I have now the opportunity to express my gratitude for all of them.

First of all I would like to express my deepest gratitude towards my beloved parents for their constant support and encouragement for my dissertation and the entire Masters course.

I sincerely want to acknowledge the sage guidance and encouragement I got from my Supervisor Prof. Steve Sharples, I thank him for helping me to carve my ideas and shape my thesis from inception to the final stage.

I am grateful to Architect T. Khareghat for allowing me to use case study one of their buildings for thermal analysis.

I would like to thank Mr. Ameet Shinde from Godrej and Boyence properties for providing me with the material specification data needed for the analysis. I would also like to thank Dr. Hasim Altan for his valuable feedback on the thermal simulation studies.

Finally I would like to thank all the faculty members, office and library staff at the University for their Cooperation and support throughout the year, and to all my friends for their valuable inputs.

2

3 1.4 Tropical warm and humid climate Thermal comfort in Tropics Vernacular architecture and thermal comfort Design considerations for thermal comfort in buildings 14 15 15 16 CHAPTER 4: Literature Review 4. CONTENTS .6 Global Energy Outlook Energy Insight – India Energy and Building sector – India Energy needs – Buildings in Tropical region of India Rise of High-rise residential culture in Mumbai Sustainable approach for High-rise Residential growth in Mumbai 7 8 8 9 9 10 CHAPTER 2: Concept of Dissertation 2.4 Origin of the Study Aim of Dissertation Simulation Studies performed Research Strategies 11 12 13 13 CHAPTER 3: Tropical climate and thermal comfort 3.5 1.2 1..2 2.2 3.1 4.1.1 3.3 Organisation of Literature Reviews Energy conservation and Building sustainability Building Envelope Case studies of Energy efficient buildings 18 18 22 27 3 .3 3.1 1.2 4. LIST OF FIGURES 5 CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1.1 2.3 2.4 1.1 4.1.1.

2 Comparing U-values and costs of the Glazing materials used CHAPTER 8: Conclusion 8.2 5.2 7.5.3 Summary Limitations of Study Future scope 52 53 53 REFERENCES 54 APPENDICES 58 4 .4 7.5.3 7.2.2 8.1 7.rise apartment 7.2 High Performance Glazing options Insulated glazing and its importance in warm climate 33 36 CHAPTER 7: Analysis of typical Residential High.1 8.2.1 5.2 Thermal Insulation building materials Plastic Insulation materials Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Rigid Polyurethane Foam (PUR) 29 30 31 32 CHAPTER 6: Study of High Performance Glazing 6.1 6.5 Introduction to Modelled High-rise residential apartment Climate of Mumbai Use of ECOTECT for Thermal Simulation Analysis Thermal Simulation Analysis Summary of Results 37 39 40 41 48 50 51 7.1 Comparing U-values and costs of the thermal Insulation materials 7.CHAPTER 5: Study of Insulation materials 5.1 5.

LIST OF FIGURES .1 Figure 7.1.3 Map of India depicting different climate zones Climate modification strategies and building tactics for hot-humid climate type 15 14 CHAPTER 5 Figure 5.2..2 Typical floor plan of modelled building Rear view of Building facing Railway lines 37 38 5 .1.2 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.2 Outlook for World Energy Supply / Demand (by Region) Growth in Energy Demand in the Asian Region 2000-2030 7 8 CHAPTER 3 Figure 3.1.1 Figure 3.1.3 Figure 6.1.1 Figure 5.1 Figure 1.2 RSI & R values of different insulation materials Comparison of building materials & relative insulation values under 'still' air Figure 5.2 Triple Glazed Window Gas filled glazing Various tints of Glazing Reflective glazing Low-e coat on glass Graph.1 Figure 5.2 Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Rigid Polyurethane Foam insulation materials (PUR) 30 31 32 30 CHAPTER 6 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.Annual Energy Savings achieved by use of four types of windows 36 33 34 34 35 35 CHAPTER 7 Figure 7. CHAPTER 1 Figure 1.1 Figure 6.2.1.1.

Figure 7.6 Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – II Figure 7.8 Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – IV Figure 7.4.4.5.3 Figure 7.4.4.3 Table displaying U-values of different wall types Figure 7.5 Comparative capital cost and performance of thermal insulation materials .3 Figure 7.4 Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – I External double wall combination applied to model for Thermal analysis – II 43 Figure 7.5.4.4.6 U-values and cost comparison of glazing materials used 48 48 49 50 50 51 6 .3 Figure 7.5 Materials applied to External single wall of model for Thermal analysis – II 43 44 45 46 47 Figure 7.4.4 U-values and cost comparison of Thermal Insulants used Figure 7.1 Front view of Building facing Express Highway Map of Mumbai Building Model in ECOTECT External double wall combination applied to model for Thermal analysis – I 38 39 40 41 Figure 7. Figure 7.2 Table displaying details about Thermal Insulation materials and glazing types used for different Thermal analysis Figure 7.4.1 Graph shows the comparison between comfort hours (In %) for whole year achieved by applying each set of materials Figure 7.2 Figure 7.1.4.5.5.5.9 Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – V Figure 7.2 Materials applied to External single wall of model for Thermal analysis – I 41 42 Figure 7.7 Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – III Figure 7.5.

resulting into 66% rise in demand in 30 years [3].6% annually on an average (from 2000 to 2030). Rising world’s population which is expected to reach 8 billion by 2030 [3] is also a major concern to cope the rising energy demand. Global energy demand is projected to grow by 1.1 [Outlook for World Energy Supply / Demand (by Region)] (Source: IEA/World Energy Outlook) [1] One reason for the sudden rise in the global energy demand is its growing use in the developing economies of Asian region which sole account for 40% of the predicted growth (from 2000 to 2030). to conserve the existing energy sources and to avoid adverse impact of development on the environment.1 Global Energy Outlook: Rapid advancement in technology all around the world has hyped the demand for energy.CHAPTER 1: Introduction . 1. Figure 1. with China and India in particular showing substantial growth. To tackle the energy crisis to be faced by both developed and developing world it’s now the time to develop and adopt efficient energy practices and technology in all the economical sectors of the world were use of energy is immense. 7 .

1.3 Energy and Building sector . the per capita consumption of energy is 1/5th of the global average [4] and the predicted substantial Figure 1. This need for large source of energy in present sustained source situation directs of development in future to happen in more energy efficient manner. Such high demand for energy is mainly due to rise in technology and population.India: Second most populous and seventh largest country in the world. In India estimates suggest hat 20-25% of the total energy demand is for manufacture of building materials and another 15% goes in the maintenance (running cost) of the buildings [6]. the country is a home to over one billion people living in various climatic zones [4].2 Energy Insight .2: [Growth in Energy Demand in the Asian Region 2000-2030] Source: IEA/World Energy Outlook 2002 [2] growth in energy demand by 2030 is said to be 267 Mtoe [1]. India is the fast growing developing political economy leader and a among developing nations [5].1.India: Construction industry is one of the largest energy consuming sectors in India. Figures mention above explains how residential building sector in India plays a significant role in energy expansion. India being in forefront of developing nations is constantly driving to improve the living standards by rapid Urbanisation and reducing poverty for which energy is prime source. Indian residential sector consumes 56% of total energy consumption of all sectors in India. Increment in Energy efficiency of these 8 . This share is about 11% of world’s energy consumption in Residential sector [2].

hence in order to serve this housing need for the growing population the only alternative was to grow vertical.5 Rise of High-rise residential culture in Mumbai: With the population of about 18 million as on 2006 Mumbai is the India’s topmost and world’s fifth most populous metropolitan area [7].2% is one of the most densely populated cities of the world with the density of about 27. This commercial capital of India with the annual population growth rate of 2. 1. 1. natural ventilation and shading parameters of the building.4 Energy needs – Buildings in Tropical region of India: High temperature and humidity are the main reasons for creating thermal discomfort in tropical cities. The ever increasing migrant population in the city demands for more housing on the limited land. Following the present trend of having taller buildings in the city. not only commercial buildings but also residential buildings are becoming centrally air-conditioned. which is the growing competition amongst mega cities of both developed and developing countries. population and congestion are also amongst the main reasons for growing discomfort in tropical cities. 9 . In modern buildings in tropical climate the present trend of building materials and methodologies used for construction needs to be evaluated for better thermal comfort with less consumption of energy. In addition to climatic conditions. To achieve more comfort levels in buildings in tropical climates by opting energy efficient solutions one has to carefully deal with the day lighting.220 people per square kilometre [7].buildings and innovative ways to cut down energy demand are thus the issues of priority. Mumbai is also on the verge of having one of the tallest commercial as well as residential buildings in Asia. In order to achieve comfort conditions use of airconditioning systems for cooling has gained popularity.

1. [6] 10 . Use of renewable energy systems to meet a part of the building load. and Use of low energy materials and energy efficient methods of construction. In general. Design and use of energy efficient lighting and HVAC systems. energy efficiency in new high-rise buildings can be achieved through: • • • • • Bioclimatic architectural principles. In the light of the strained energy supply scenario more efforts should be made to minimise the energy use in the high-rise residential apartments by application of solar passive design techniques in design of new high-rise buildings and using renewable energy technology systems. Load minimization by the input of solar passive techniques in building design.6 Sustainable approach for High-rise Residential growth in Mumbai: As we go higher the energy usage of the building increases not only to achieve indoor comfort conditions but also for the vertical transport and building maintenance.

better thermal comfort can be achieved with less consumption of energy. By adapting correct climate modification in a building. Thermal comfort is influenced by physical characteristics of the place. Various methods were been used in vernacular architecture in small-scale buildings to maximise comfort in warm humid weather.CHAPTER 2: Concept of Dissertation 2. Tropical buildings face hot and sunny weather for most of the time round the year. The radiation component consists of solar radiation and radiant heat exchange with the surroundings. The conventional component includes the air moving around and through the building. solar gain. Present research is based on optimising the design of building envelope for better thermal performance in tropical climate. radiation and convectional impacts. The following dissertation is focused on the energy efficiency of high-rise residential blocks in the city having tropical hot and humid climate. There two major thermal forces acting on the building envelope. Various studies has been undertaken for optimizing natural ventilation in buildings to achieve better comfort conditions in its interiors.4 climatic conditions and growing urban heat island effect are the main reasons for growing discomfort in tropical cities.1 Origin of the Study: . these methods are widely used in projects by Architect Ken Yang. As discussed in paragraph 1. Referring to literature and research from the past. Previous chapter describes the need for energy efficient approach for High-rise residential construction in future. cross ventilation. cooling and thermal mass. some of those study are done on sustainable technologies like use of wing walls. narrow plans. In his book “The Skyscraper – bio-climatically considered 11 . it is clear that most of the study done in field of energy efficiency in high-rise buildings is done in context of commercial buildings. When we talk about climate modification we look at basic strategies – controlled airflow for ventilation.

Building fabric. 12 . One part of the study is on investigating the possible role of thermal insulation in making the building envelope more energy efficient by improving thermal comfort in the interiors of the building. The study undertaken here is thus focused on energy efficiency of high-rise residential buildings in Indian tropical city. Second part investigates high performance glazing systems and its use in improving thermal comfort conditions inside the building. There is only limited amount of research done on energy-efficient residential building design in hot and humid tropical conditions and to go further. The building is 20 storeys in height.(1996)”. The study involves improving thermal comfort inside the residential high-rise in tropical climatic zone of India. a typical example of high-rise construction in Mumbai. architect Ken Yang has also proposed set of sustainable design principles for high-rise office buildings.2 Aim of Dissertation: The aim of the research is to achieve thermal comfort in high-rise residential buildings in hot and humid tropical conditions in turn minimising the energy consumption of the building. Building envelope comprises of external building fabric. the case taken is of Mumbai located on west banks of India. The following study mainly concentrates on achieving more thermal comfort by optimising two components of building envelope wiz. the building model chosen for performing simulation analysis is of existing high-rise residential apartment located in the suburbs of the of Mumbai city which comes under the same climatic zone. window glazing and shading devices. a negligible amount of research literature was found done on Indian buildings in tropical cities of India. To meet this effort an industry leading building analysis programme ECOTECT is used. window glazing. 2.

2. reviewing global energy situation and need for sustainable approach towards growing high-rise culture in tropics. The simulations were performed on the three floors at different heights for faster process. Results are derived in form of data regarding total comfort hours achieved for whole year. limitations and recommendation are concluded in final chapter eight. Chapter two introduces aim and objectives of the research.4 Research Strategies: Study was carried out in different stages involving data collection from wide range of materials. The stages followed are explained in this dissertation in eight main chapters. Chapter seven mentions simulation studies performed on building model and comparison between different building thermal insulants and glasses used for study. 13 . choosing prototype of high-rise residential for analysis. Then the detailed thermal analysis was run applying all the four sets individually. Chapter three discusses features of tropical climate and thermal comfort. Chapter five focuses on Insulation materials by mentioning two of the materials in detail.3 Simulation studies performed: For the following research two types of building insulation materials and high performance glasses are selected. which is then compared to judge which of the four sets is more effective to achieve maximum comfort hours in the interiors of the Building model. reviewing literature related to study. 2. Combination of these insulation and glazing materials were applied in four sets to the building model of the selected building made in ECOTECT. Chapter six presents new range of high performance window glazing. Chapter four mentions reviews of the literature collected from wide range of sources. The results. performing computer simulations study on the prototype and analysing the findings. Chapter one mentioned earlier provides background to the study undertaken.

• Wind speed: Typically low but strong winds occur during rain squalls. There are variations in climate within the tropics. western and southern parts of the country [figure 3. [9] 14 . Gust of 30 m/s has been reported. DBT: Maximum between 27°C and 33°C and minimum between 21° and 22°C. skies can be bright.CHAPTER 3: Tropical climate and thermal comfort .1 Tropical warm and humid climate: The zone between Tropic of Cancer (latitude 23. In Figure 3.1]. • Sky conditions: Fairly cloudy throughout the year. Some of the countries that lie in this zone are Brazil. • • Humidity (RH): varies from 75% to almost 100% Precipitation: High throughout the year annual rainfall of 2000mm to 5000mm. 3.1: Map of India depicting different climate zones Source: National Building Code 2005. Fig. usually one or two dominant directions. Part 8. part of Central African and Southeast Asian countries. 2 India tropical warm and humid climatic band covers eastern. Few of the important characteristics of the tropical warm and humid climate are listed below [9]: • Air Temperature i.5°N) and the Tropic of Capricorn (latitude 23°S) is defined as Tropical zone. This zone occupies about 40% of the land surface of the earth and holds half of the world’s population. the area within 10° of equator with not much seasonal changes of temperature has warm and moist climatic conditions [8]. the equatorial zone of tropics.e. sometimes exceeds 500mm in a month.

The thermal comfort in the tropics usually lies between Temperature summer index (TSI) values of 25°C and 30°C with maximum per cent of people being comfortable at 27.5°C.5°C in summer seasons. Source: Climate Responsive Design [11] 15 . Most of the important design strategies of Vernacular architecture are concluded in this table [11]: Climate type Hot -humid Adverse climatic elements Rain Heat.3 Vernacular architecture and thermal comfort: In traditional Vernacular architecture there are best design solutions to cater tropical climatic impact in most natural way. sex and type of activity performed by the person.ventilation. provision of ample air movement is also an important requirement for building design in warm-humid climate. These buildings had light construction with wide awnings or verandas shading large windows which were kept open during most of the year. high ceilings Ventilated roof Window shading all year Shaded veranda.2 Thermal comfort in tropics: Thermal comfort conditions depend on various factors. Hence if we have to achieve thermal comfort inside the house in tropical warmhumid climate. Naturally ventilating the building along with proper shading were the main features of Vernacular architecture. relative humidity and wind speed of the location. Figure 3. air temperature.3. conversely cold temperatures between 19°C and 25°C (TSI) are tolerable. high humidity Insolation Small diurnal variation Climate method Minimise heat gain Maximise ventilation Maximise shading Response strategies Thin plan with axis eastwest Cross. not only the climatic factors but it also depends on the age. [10] 3. Stretched building with the prominent openings towards the predominant wind direction and providing cross ventilation provided better thermal comfort conditions in residential Vernacular architecture. Along with the conditioning of indoor environment.3: Climate modification strategies and building tactics for hot-humid climate type. possible emphasis on design techniques should be made to keep the indoor temperature to TSI values around 27.

Rectangular planning of the building with aspect ratio 2:1 reduces the fabric load by 30% compared to square planned building with equally distributed glazed window area on all the four sides [10]. For keeping the indoor environment cooler passive techniques mainly focuses on reducing heat penetration through building envelope and optimising natural cross-ventilation in indoors. While providing desired shading to the window care should be taken avoiding over shading which may obstruct required day light to enter in the room. 16 . The use of shading is critical to achieve thermal comfort and energy conservation in passive design.3. and duration for which windows are exposed to the sun.4 Design considerations for thermal comfort in buildings: Application of solar passive design techniques in the buildings located in tropical climate mainly aims in optimising internal thermal comfort. Effective length of the overhangs depends upon the sun path. a slightly more complicated vertical and horizontal louver system on the southern façade and an egg crate type on western façade. so orienting longer axis of building in East – West direction will minimise solar heat gain by the envelope. Shading to the windows can be provided by application of overhangs or providing louvers to the window to cut off the direct radiations from sun into the room. Window Shading: Especially in tropics importance of shading is enormous. For the northern facade receiving only very early morning sun . It was always a major issue in the vernacular architecture of tropics. Some of the methods for reducing heat flow through building envelope are discussed below Optimum Orientation: The amount of daily solar radiation incident per unit area on N and S facing walls is much less compared to that on the walls facing other directions [10].rain shade is sufficient [10]. Different shading techniques should be applied for different orientations of the windows to achieve optimum results for example a simple box type louver may be suitable on eastern façade.

value of the glass indicates the rate of heat flow due to conduction. External Finishes: The external finish of a surface determines the amount of heat absorbed or rejected by it. Smoot and light colours reflects more light and heat in comparison to dark coloured surface. Location of insulation in building envelope and roof and its optimum thickness are very important. Lighter colour surfaces have higher emissivity and are ideal for use in warm climate. The U-value is considered less (3 W/ m² K) for a window system consisting of double glazing with an air gap of 12mm-18mm. Roof and Wall Insulation: Application of the insulation material on the external wall of the building increases the thermal resistance of the building envelope and helps to reduce space conditioning loads.Window Design: Windows are the primary source of heat loss in the winter and heat gain in the summer. Adoption of such system reduces heat gain by 10% [10]. Insulating Window Glazing: By addition of the insulation layers to the single glazed window or by replacing single glazed windows with double or triple glazing will prevent the heat gain and loss in desired season in turn reducing energy demand. 17 . Introduction of air cavity in the wall also increases its thermal resistance [10]. Window dimensions should be varied with varying orientation for the optimised results. Lower the U-value lower the heat transferred through the glass. U. as a result temperature difference between inside and outside. In hot climate placing insulation on the outer face of the building envelope is proved effective as the thermal mass of the wall is weakly coupled with external source and strongly coupled with interior. Windows on the East and West facades should be avoided as they are worst orientations from heat gain point of view [10]. In light of optimising energy efficiency of building by increasing thermal comfort in interiors various factors should be considered during window design.

window glazing and shading). books.CHAPTER 4: Literature Review .Appropriate Building construction in Tropical and subtropical Regions – Paul Gut.1 Organisation of Literature Reviews: Literature selected for reference is informative providing suitable base for research and is in broader context of research topic. putting the oldest publication at first. Dieter Ackerknecht (1993). 2) Literature focusing on Building Envelope (building fabric material.1 Energy Conservation and Building Sustainability: Climate Responsive Building . Reviews of these literatures are categorised broadly into three main topics as follow: 1) Literature related to Energy Conservation and Building Sustainability in Indian and Tropical context.1. 3) Literature mentioning Case studies on Energy efficient buildings in India and China. energy conservation and building sustainability issues in Tropics. followed by the most recent works. Emphasis is given on the measures that will reduce energy consumption. articles from magazines and websites related to the topic. All the literatures reviewed in above mentioned sections are been organised in ascending order of their dates of publication. mainly focusing on the ideas behind different research. surveys done in the analysing thermal performance of the building envelope. [12] Book describes alternative techniques for designing buildings to specific climates in tropical and subtropical regions. 4. Literature is mainly extracted from research papers. well considered construction and appropriate 18 . 4.

The alternative techniques evaluated in the paper are commonly used low cost techniques in India. Further in the paper the efficiency of day lighting control systems to reduce use of artificial lighting in office buildings is being discussed. The author defines thermal comfort in hot-humid climate referring to various findings and standards approved by bodies like ASHARAE. 2000). Author also investigates the potential of natural ventilation. [18] In light of the major issue about Sustainable buildings in tropics. Sustainable Buildings in Tropics – Michael Laar and Friedrich Wilhelm Grimme (2002). investments and labour needed for this construction process making the paper more practical in its inputs. Step by step evaluation of energy required for different building materials. Author also gives general idea about cost. optimisation and the impact of shading devices or lowering the consumption of energy for air conditioning in Office buildings located in tropical climate. Several case-studies done and thermal performance analysis performed on various materials suggests us on use of different energy efficient construction alternatives for best climatic performance.selection of materials. In this paper the energy costs of alternative construction techniques using an optimization framework are assessed and compared. Author also uses Energy efficiency housing options evaluation model (ENEHOPE) to identify combination of methods at different construction stages. Book provides background necessary to understand the climatic factors. In 19 . the present paper focuses on the measures for energy conservation in Buildings in the Tropics. [13] The concern of the paper is energy consumption in building construction in India. for their use in different construction stages is mentioned clearly in form of tables. Energy efficiency and building construction in India – Piyush Tiwari (July. Author describes many practical applications and low energy design techniques.

three each from Asia.this paper the potential of different techniques discussed in the paper are quantified by displaying results of simulation studies done on the office building in Rio de Janeiro using different simulation tools. Indian Urban Building Sector: CDM Potential through Energy Efficiency in Electricity Consumption – Inderjeet Singh. energy costs of different building materials in India. Africa and Latin America. Mentioning the rural sustainability it also highlights the reinvention of mud as the sustainable building material. Axel Michaelowa (August.Indian Case – Kirtee Shah (2002). Paper mentions Indian energy situation in global context and 20 . Hamburg Institute of International Economics. and Germany. Author concludes the essay suggesting the work to be done in various areas to achieve a major change in the existing paradigm towards sustainability in the built environment.Wirtschafts. Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries . by the International Council for Research and Innovation (CIB) as part of the Action Plan for the Implementation of the CIB Agenda 21 on Sustainable Construction and to further its proactive approach on the subject. [14] Present paper belongs to series of papers concerning CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) potential and capacity building in India published by Hamburgisches Welt. The paper mostly talks on social sustainability and sustainability through construction in India. [16] This paper is one of the nine position papers commissioned. Paper gives economic profile of Indian construction Industry.Archiv (HWWA). Author uses current examples that to in Indian context to back her comments which makes the paper more contemporary. 2004). It gives evidences from the past were some initiatives were taken in vision of sustainable construction development.

Tropical Sustainable Architecture: Social and environmental dimensions Joo. This article does not directly relate to the research topic. researching and designing for the tropics.sustainability through design of semi-open spaces in High-rise housing in Tropical climate. The article on High-rise High-Density Living. Socio-Environmental Dimensions: In Tropical Semi-open Spaces of High-rise Housing in Singapore was referred from this book. developed from the first conference of the International Network for Tropical Architecture. environmental and technical aspects of thinking. CDM case studies for large buildings in the Indian public and private sector are presented. supplies articles from experts worldwide covering the cultural. The set of guidelines proposed for designing fore courts (Tropical Veranda) on upper levels of High-rise residential buildings to provide shade and reduce cooling load increasing thermal comfort. Chapter on Energy efficient glazing systems in Indian housing industry and suggestions on optimization of glazing area and building insulation is quite informative.Lay Ong (July. definitely suggest different aspect of designing building envelope. as it speaks about social. 2006) [17] This book.Energy used in building sector of India especially of residential sector and different climatic zones in India. 21 . Paper exhibits vital information about energy use in Indian building Industry both in Residential and commercial sector backed by the case studies. Paper also assesses the potential to improve building energy efficiency and how measures in the building sector could be framed as projects under the Clean Development Mechanism.Hwa Bay and Boon.

F. Yik. P. air leakage in building envelopes. Building Science Digest 011 (November. Paper explains the parameters of modelled flats in details along with diagrams. Performance of thermal Insulation of different thickness is being tested by varying their position in building envelope. detailed heat transfer simulation software.1. definitions of Thermal insulation. The chapter of thermal insulation materials discusses thermal properties of different insulation materials and their thicknesses required to achieve standard thermal resistance.2 Building Envelope: Influence of thermal insulation position in building envelope on the space cooling of high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong – M. sustainable and economical than most buildings built today. Author focuses on basic mechanism of heat transfer.Sat (September 2000) [19] This paper investigates into the influence of thermal insulation layer (positioning it in the external walls of the building) on the yearly cooling load and maximum cooling demand in two typical residential flats of high-rise residential building in Hong Kong by employing HTB2. 4. Paper serves as a basic reading material for any research done in the light of thermal and energy efficiency of building envelope. thermal bridging. Information mentioned in the paper provides understanding for thermal control in buildings. 2006) [15] This paper was extracted from the series of papers displayed on the Building Science website focusing on awareness of sustainability to promote the design and construction of buildings that are more durable. Occupancy patterns and use of energy in flats are taken into consideration to derive more logical results. The paper forms an introduction to large topic of thermal insulation in buildings.Thermal Control in Buildings – John Straube (2006). Brief and basic information provided in the paper helps to understand need of thermal control in building. Step by step summary of 22 . Bojic. solar radiation through windows and Interior heat gains.

each case is presented and recommendations made through simulations are catering changing seasonal patterns. The results from the simulation study performed indicates reduction in maximum yearly cooling load which is 6.8% for air-conditioned residential flat in hot climate when thermal insulation faces inside the flat and reduction in maximum cooling demand is 7.3% when the thermal simulation faces either inside or outside the flats. Results also indicate that yearly cooling load in mildly sensitive to increase in thermal insulation thickness used i.e. 5cm. The paper is summarised by author highlighting on the need to perform energy simulations, for finding yearly cooling load demand during design stage of the high-rise residential buildings in hot climate.

Energy Performance of windows in high-rise residential buildings in Hong KongM. Bojic, F. Yik, P. Sat (March, 2001), [20]

The study investigates effect of three types of window glazing on yearly peak cooling loads of flats in high-rise residential tower located in hot and humid climate of Hong Kong. Calculations are performed using detailed building heat-transfer simulation programme HTB2. The two flats selected were of different sizes, facing different orientations. Results obtained indicate that optimised performance of different types of glass used for windows of flats depends on the orientation of flats. Values obtained also indicate that drops in values of yearly cooling load and yearly maximum cooling demand were higher for the larger flats then smaller ones and had slight difference depending on flat orientation. There is a detail mention of U-values of glazing, flat areas and occupancy assumptions. Calculation process is self explanatory and results are presented in form of tables and graphs. Author makes a note of limitations of study, concluding with suggestion on use of simulation studies to be performed while designing buildings in hot climates. Author further suggests that study should extend further calculating actual energy consumption, economic appraisal and environmental assessment of the buildings to be designed. 23

Embodied energy of common and alternative building materials &TechnologiesB.V. Venkatarama Reddy, K.S. Jagadish (November, 2001), [21]

Considerable amount of energy is spent in the manufacturing, transportation and constructional use of the building materials. The paper is focused around some issues pertaining to embodied energy of materials and technologies used in buildings construction, particularly in the Indian context. Initially in the paper authors describe the studies done in other countries and then they give details in Indian context. Paper gives us information about energy consumption in manufacturing process of main building materials in India followed by information about energy consumed in transportation of these materials thus suggesting the best building material in terms of energy efficiency in both manufacturing and transportation context. Comparative studies of different types of masonry, flooring and roofing systems are presented, comparing it with some of the conventional systems used viz. Reinforced concrete slab roof. At the end, paper discusses and compares various construction methods used in India through three examples of different buildings built with diverse methods of construction; analysis is also made regarding embodied energy involved in these methods.

Day lighting in the Tropics –
R. Edmonds and P.J. Greenup (March, 2002), [22]

Low daylight factor in tropical buildings encourages optimised use of artificial lighting which contributes to peak cooling load in High-rise buildings in the tropics. Over shading of windows by external and internal shading devices is other reason for low day lighting levels in High-rise buildings even though the ambient luminance levels are very high. In order to overcome this problem some examples of optical shading systems such as Light guiding shades, Light deflecting glazing, Angle selective glazing further categorised into fixed, tiltable, skylight and atrium glazing, light piping systems are mentioned and described in detail in this paper in 24

terms of their angle, orientations, adaptability to changing seasons and ability to illuminate interiors avoiding excessive glare and heat gains. There is a brief mention of simulation of these devices in Radiance software.

Energy performance of the self-shading building envelope –
I.Guedi Capeluto (July, 2002), [23]

This paper is about designing of self shading envelope for the buildings, implementing Solar Collection Envelope (SCE) concept which uses computer model Sust Arc for its application. This model can be used to understand the relationship between sun movement, building geometry and performance. Paper includes sections on solar collection Envelope method, case study of Bank of Israel as example of self shading envelope design and simulation of the office block model considered under different scenarios. Paper is informative and uses hypothetical models as well as live examples for its explanation. The author makes a point to mention limitations of SCE method.

Design development of a static sunshade using small scale modelling technique
Rahul V. Ralegaonkar, Rajiv Gupta (November, 2004), [24]

In the present paper, with respect to particular geographical location in Rajastan India, the desired sunshade has been developed and verified experimentally by small scale modelling technique. Two small scale experimental models of actual construction materials with varying static sunshades are constructed and analysed by models of insulating material (Polyurethane Foam [PUF]) [24]. Authors explain detailed methodology used for deciding on desired geometric shape and

dimensions for proposed static sunshade, the sunlit entry regulation in turn temperature effect has been studied over 6 months period for the proposed sunshade using different materials and their results are compared with the case of horizontal sunshade. 25

correlation between external and internal temperatures and correlation between temperature differences and thermal properties. [25] The paper is a case study presenting the methodology used to compare the thermal performance of bedrooms in multi-storey residential building located in Florianopolis. Ricardo Felipe Massignani (October. southern Brazil which comes under warm-humid climatic zone. while in winter season maximisation of thermal performance and thermal time lag period really works.Thermal performance of bedrooms in a multi-storey residential building in southern Brazil – Enedir Ghisi. The study was done mainly using physical instruments like data logger and results are mentioned for a specified time period. The assessment involved the measurement of absorptance of the colour of external surfaces. 2005).Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (2005). drawing of shading on the windows. High Performance Glass Indian Green Building Council. calculation of thermal properties of walls and windows. As mentioned in the conclusion the readings were measured in flat with no occupancy there lies the drawback of the study as the consideration of closing and opening of windows. CII. [26] This article is a part of the technical bulletin from the website owned by Indian Green Building Council and it mainly speaks about the booming construction Industry in India and significant increase in use of glass in buildings which initiates need to choose right type of energy efficient glazing for significant low cost 26 . also readings were taken in winter months so affect of summer conditions are unconsidered. internal thermal load produced by people and equipment is not taken into consideration.. The primary conclusion derived from the experiment indicates that the thermal performance of bedrooms in multi-storey residential building located in warm-humid climate over summer would optimise if the façade areas and U-values are minimised.

efficient buildings in India – Mili Majumdar (2002). defines high performance glazing and mentions different types of energy efficient glazing.building energy consumption. From the 41 case-studies mentioned. India and an apartment building in Auroville were studied as these buildings are located in climatic zone:warm-humid. Use of energy efficient lighting systems. Article also explains different factors to be considered in glass selection.1. TERI. India. selection and examples of High Performance glazing. 27 . hence following literature was reviewed which was referred for studying energy efficient techniques used in buildings located in warm-humid tropical climate. low-e glass for windows. [27] In light of growing urbanisation and booming building construction in India following book was prepared under Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) project. Energy. 4. The Article is concluded with a section on integrated approach for selection of glazing and list of buildings in India using High Performance Glass. optimum orientation and waste water treatment were some of the green features applied in these projects which are described in the book. Article is informative giving general knowledge about need. No specific case study was done on energy efficient buildings in Tropics. The book covers 41 projects from India’s various climatic zones.3 Case studies of Energy Efficient Buildings: In the following sub topic reviews of the books and articles mentioning case studies of Energy efficient buildings in India and other tropical climatic locations are mentioned. The book provides insight on these various projects and emphasis on the energy efficient techniques used in them. adequate design of fenestrations with overhangs for efficient day lighting and cut off direct gains. three of the case studies on office buildings belonging to Renewable Energy Development Agency and Pollution control Board of Kolkata.

The paper mainly focuses on the importance of energy efficient buildings. Giving evidence for effective working of passive design techniques author has mentioned the example of RETREAT complex at Gurgaon that demonstrates energy efficiency. Case-study presented explores effective use of building insulation. 2004). use of renewable energy technologies and use of low energy methods for building construction to achieve energy conservation in buildings. day lighting techniques. India. Paper discuses passive solar design techniques. use of gas-fired ammonia absorption chillers and earth tunnel system to achieve energy savings upto 250. efficient use of natural resources and waste management systems establishing a ‘zero energy in – zero energy out’ building. sustainability. [6] This is an occasional paper prepared for World Energy Efficiency Association (WEEA). The paper is concludes mentioning need of environment conscious building design and promoting passive design as a cost effective solution for building design.000 units of electricity and 2100LPG cylinders. 28 .Green Buildings – (Paper prepared for WEEA) – Debajit Palit (June. TERI.

R-value is the measure of thermal resistance of the building insulation material. which are termed as Thermal Insulation materials.043 W/ m. but today Foamed plastics and Fibreglass bats having density of about 16 kg/m³ and thermal conductivity of 0. plastic have relatively high density. All the materials used in building construction are in some sense resistant to heat flow. thermal insulants having low-density. higher the R-value better is the thermal resistance of the material.1 Thermal Insulation building materials: Heat flow occurs through the building enclosure via external wall. 5. In order to retard the heat flow through the building enclosure some of the products having lower U-values are deliberately used in building assemblies. At low densities the effective conductivity is generally high. wood. 29 . R-value is inversely proportional to the U-value. The table displayed in figure 5. Most of the building materials like concrete. hence plastic cellular insulations ranging from expanded polystyrene to phenolic foam boards are preferred over mineral fibre based insulation products to increase the thermal comfort in energy efficient buildings reducing space conditioning loads. low conductivity materials are being used. but instead if we use Foam plastic insulants like extruded polystyrene which provide better Rvalue for higher strengths we can resist pressures of 10 psi with density of only 2 pcf [15]. density of glass fibre batt used is more commonly less than 1 pcf (pounds per cubic foot) (15kg/m³) hence if we have to achieve higher strength high density fibrous products of 3 to 8 pcf are used which will increase the cost as more material is used. Previously low density bricks were used for the building construction as they had moderate insulating and load bearing characters. In some of the constructions air gap is introduced between two brick walls in order to optimise its thermal insulation characteristics. hence to minimise the total density of the building enclosure.1 shows R & RSI (thermal resistance index) values of some of different thermal insulating materials.CHAPTER 5: Study of Insulation materials . K [15] are widely being used as the insulation material in most of the modern building enclosures.

Figure 5.foam-insulation. [35] Figure 5. source:www. compares The the diagram below of degree insulation of some of common insulating materials used in construction. foam.co.1: RSI & R values of different insulation materials Source: Thermal Insulation of Energy efficient Buildings [28] 5.2 Plastic Insulation materials: Plastics products are mainly categorised into 3 forms viz. Initially these products used HCFCs for their production which are ozone –depletion agents but they are been replaced by other agents which have no impact on ozone layer.2:Comparison of building materials & relative insulation values under 'still' air conditions. rigid sheet and loose fill. these figures are calculated under assumption of still’ air. Two types of Plastic insulation materials widely used in building industry today are been described in this Chapter. Plastic products are water resistant and do not rot or get affected by termites. as mentioned earlier thermal conductivity of these products are really low hence we can achieve great impact with small thicknesses.uk [35] 30 .

and the EPS insulation retains between 95% and 97% of its thermal efficiency. (Source: EPS technical data .5.8 pcf.2.90 pcf (pounds per cubic foot) to 1. this is an environmental benefit.www.com Fire resistance: EPS softens at 180°F and melts at the temperature of 240°F.1 Expanded Polystyrene (EPS): EPS is an inert. Figure 5.atlasroofing.032 – 0.040 W/Mk [29] Thermal Resistance (R value at 1 inch thickness): 3. Other characteristics: Nowadays we get these insulants free of HCFC and can also be recycled.2.1: Expanded Polystyrene Source: www. Permeance rating on EPS is 2. The small amount of moisture has little or no effect on the compressive or flexural strength. Thermal Conductivity (K-value): 0.insultech-eps. organic material.0. Moisture resistance: moderate water vapour permeability per unit of thickness compared to other building materials.com) 31 . These are rot free and resistance to mould and termite attack. vapour and moisture barriers recommended for sever exposure. Density: Available in varying densities usually from 0. It is popular as a building insulation material due to its stable R –value and recognised energy efficiency and is used in multitude of building application.0 to 5.6 and 4 at mean temperatures of 75°F and 40°F.

EPS .8 pcf. Figure 5.sipsupply.5. for some of the applications it can reach up to 6.87 pcf (pounds per cubic foot) and 2.022 – 0.com) 32 .www. Permeance rating on PUR is 1.028 W/Mk [29] Moisture resistance: PUR has lowest moisture permeability ratings then any of the products used by building industry.2 pcf. Thermal Conductivity (K-value): 0.2 Rigid Polyurethane foam (PUR): PUR is efficient high performance insulation material which provides optimised energy savings at smaller thickness thus providing large occupational spaces. Other characteristics: Polyurethane Foam is resistant to most of the chemicals and like EPS it is resistant to termite and mould attack.2. Density: Density of PUR used for thermal insulation in buildings normally ranges between 1.2 Fire resistance: resists fire (not ignite) until temperature reaches at about 1000°F.2: Rigid Polyurethane Foam insulation materials (PUR) Source: Brochure of Federation of European on Rigid Polyurethane Foam Associations (Source: Polyurethane Vs.2.

The spacers introduced between the panes accommodate expansion and contraction of glass due to heat and provide moisture barrier and insulating barrier. Some of the High Performance Glazing types are described below: Insulated Glazing (double. Another advantage of using multiple glazed windows is that along with heat it also retards sound.0 W/m².com effective insulation. for effective sound retardance the air gap between the panes should be minimum 25 mm. These types of glazing have low U-value ranging from 1.4 and VLT (Visual Light Transmittance) of 40-60% [26] and are the most energy efficient solutions for vertical fenestrations in building.7 – 3. allowing higher penetration of daylight through it is termed as High Performance Glass.CHAPTER 6: Study of High Performance Glazing .K. low Shading Coefficient from 0. For the residential windows the air space from 12 to 30 mm is maintained between the glass panes for Figure 6. 33 .1 High Performance Glazing options: The glass which reduces the intake of heat. triple glazed): The window having two or more glass panes which are separated by a spacer are termed as Multiple-pane or insulated glazing. Using multiple panes of glass paced with an air gap between them increases the thermal resistance of glass lowering the U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient without much reducing light transmittance into the interiors. High performance glass can provide 30-40% more energy savings compared to conventional glass enhancing occupant comfort.1: Triple Glazed Window Source: www. A 16mm air gap is considered the optimum thickness and is usually recommended for most users [7]. 6.gienow.1 – 0.1.

reducing glare.1.3: Various tints of Glazing Source: www. but the disadvantage is that it also reduces the Visual light transmittance of glass.2-0. Use of gas between window panes can bring down the U-values to 0. such glasses are called as spectrally selective Glazing.org Gas Fill cost compared to air filled insulated glazing and do not reduce the VLT of window. odourless. Both these glasses are non. Tinted Glazing: Figure 6. Tinted glazings are mainly used in the buildings located in 34 .com Made by altering chemical composition of glass.Gas filled Insulated Glazing: Another way of further improving the thermal performance of multiple panes Insulated Glazing is to fill the air space between the glass panes with inert gases like Argon or Krypton. tinted glazing absorbs large fraction of solar radiations.toxic. There are some types of tints allowing greater amount of light to pass through them along with reducing heat gain. clear and more resistance to heat flow than air.1. Care should be taken to avoid gas loss through window edges.2: Gas filled glazing Source: www.3 W/m²°C [26]. Use of this kind of technology does not add much of the Figure 6.efficientwindows.patiorooms. This glazing type also reflects small amount of light and does not produce mirror like effect like reflective coated glass.

Low-e windows performs double role it reflects Figure 6. more preferred for commercial buildings as they give uniform aesthetic appearance.1. Emissivities of the window glazing range from 0 to 1.uk 35 . These films when applied to the window glazing reduces heat transfer through the windows. Low-e coats mainly reduce the heat transfer caused by long wave radiations [26].co.35-0. These glazing are made by applying reflective coats made up of thin layers of metal or metallic oxides on the outer surface of the glass. Figure 6. Low-e coatings have emissivity ranging from 0. These type of glazing are more recommended in hot climate to control solar heat gain.4: Reflective glazing Source: betterbricks.com Low-Emissive (Low-E) Glazings: Low-emissive or low-e are coatings applied on the glass.greenspec. retarding heat transfer.84 [26]. These films are microscopically thin and are transparent made of metal or metallic oxides.warm climates where reduction of solar heat gain is a major concern. lower the emmsivity lower is the heat transfer through the glass.5: Low-e coating on glass Source: www. Reflective Glazing: Reflective glazing have better shading coefficients than tinted glazing as they reflect most of the heat radiations than absorb it but at the same time reflective coats reduces visible light transmittance of window. Tints like bronze retards light and heat while blue and green allows more of light to penetrate.1.04 which is quite less compared to the emmisivity of clear glass that is 0.

Graph mentioned in Figure 6. hence use of insulated glazing in hot and warm-humid climates seems to be an important energy efficient solution. In order to optimise thermal efficiency of insulated glazing. while in summers they act as heat reflectors in turn reducing airconditioning costs. In the buildings situated in warm –humid climate were thermal comfort is the prime issue use of air-conditioning is in excess. both environmental and energy cost point of view. In the cold climate insulated glazing (double or triple glazed) are widely used for their ability to reduce infiltration and heat loss in turn reducing heating costs in winter seasons.Annual Energy Savings achieved by use of four types of windows Source: Technical Manual Glazing.Hot humid [30] performance ext.2 indicates savings on cooling energy for residential place in cooling climates for four types of windows. Heating systems are more efficient compared to cooling systems like air-conditioning. that too in the regions of North American and European countries.2: Graph.2 Insulated glazing and its importance in warm climate: For many years the use of insulated glazing for buildings was restricted in cold climatic zones. filling of inert gas within the glass panes and application of low-e coat is recommended.5 shows the position of low-e coating preferred in cold climate to avoid heat loss. 6. tint. a low-e coating. Graph clearly suggest that the double glazed window with application of high Figure 6.heat to interiors in winter season and avoid heat loss while in summer season it reflects back the heat in the exterior reducing heat gains of interiors thereby increasing internal comforts. Figure 6. when same coat applied on exterior surface heat radiations are reflected back keeping interiors cool in hot climate.1. an argon gas fill and an aluminium frame can achieve cooling energy savings up to70% [30] 36 .

1. • Building orientation Two of the corners of triangle are facing N-S direction. 7.e. CHAPTER 7: Analysis of typical Residential High.1 Introduction to Modelled High-rise residential apartment: The study deals with the high-rise residential apartment in specific climatic zone i.(Refer Appendix A) • Building shape In order to achieve economic loading of of four flats on each floor.1: Typical floor plan of modelled building Source: Architect T. (Refer Appendix A for Elevations of building) Figure 7. The residential tower is already built and is a part of Godrej Garden Enclave residential complex in Vikroli (area located in suburbs of Mumbai). with major windows facing S-E & N-E directions. third corner facing East.rise apartment . warm and humid hence a residential tower located in suburbs of Mumbai (comes under warm-humid tropical belt passing through India) was chosen for analysis. Khareghat 37 . less ground coverage and to avoid view of the Railway tracks a sort of triangular shape was chosen for building design. Building specifications are as follows: • Building site Building site is adjacent to Railway lines (on one side) and Express Highway (on other side) ..

single glazed 6 mm.• • • Number of storeys Number of flats on typical flrs. float glass Type of glass used for windows - Figure 7.2: Rear view of Building Facing railway lines Source: Architect T. 38 .C (Reinforced Cement Concrete) 600mm thick external wall boxing which • • Building envelope material External wall type shades windows and air space between wall acts as the heat insulator. Khareghat Figure 7. the terrace slab + brickbat- coba layer + EPS 16Kg Density + reflective clay tiles. • • • External wall finish External wall colour Roof Insulation Used Exterior acrylic putty White (acts as heat reflective surface) The Roof i.C.1. Elevation wall raised 6m above the terrace slab which hides the services on the terrace as well as cuts off sunrays directly falling on terrace slab reducing heat gain by the roof.3: Front view of Building facing Express Highway Source: RADIANCE. Number of flats on 20th floor and two Refuge floors - 20 4 - 2 R.1. • • Windows type Aluminium framed.e.

Maharashtra. to Feb.avg. Monsoon from mid June to mid Sept.9° C in winters .warm – humid . to 2. DBT of 14.annual average rainfall 2200mm (85 inches) . India .summers from April to mid June. Temperature (DBT) Dew point temperature Relative Humidity Figure 7.11m above sea level Climate Seasons .72° 49’ E .max.predominantly blows from north and south west During monsoon seasons (Source: Climatic data ASHARAE 2005 .[31]) 39 . of 28° C and it goes min.max. DBT of 38.max.2 Climate of Mumbai: Location Latitude Longitude Elevation .5° C to min.2° C . relative humidity of 72% (usually varies between 62-85% Rainfall Wind speed Wind direction .7. winters from Nov.2: Map of Mumbai Source: Google Earth [33] . of 11m/s to as low as 0 m/s .18° 53’ N .

3 Use of ECOTECT for Thermal Simulation Analysis: ECOTECT is industry leading building analysis programmes were we can model a building of any level of simplicity (or complexity) in details and apply wide range of materials on it. For the present research the Thermal analysis feature of ECOTECT was explored in detail. lighting. Figure 7. Similar calculations were performed by altering the materials with higher thermal performance and the results achieved thus were compared with earlier results. The 3D model of building to be analysed was drawn in ECOTECT. [32]. forming various zones. Various simulations can be performed on the model prepared applying different materials to get the best option out of it.3: Building model in ECOTECT 40 . thermal analysis calculations are performed on the model and results were noted down in form of comfort hours achieved for whole year for given climatic condition.7. The results acquired can be visualised in form of graphs and tables and we can also compare these results. acoustical and thermal. These materials were then applied to the building model. There are various range of calculations we can undertake in ECOTECT. Some of the analysis we can perform in ECOTECT are Solar. Thus statistical analysis is performed which can give details about the passive performance of building. . Under this Thermal analysis feature we can calculate heating and cooling loads for model and also predict the comfort levels. then in material properties window new elements were added representing the building materials of the actual building.

2: Materials applied to External single wall of model for Thermal analysis .1: External double wall combination applied to model for Thermal analysis . .C. Thermal analysis of the building model applying four different combinations of thermal insulants and high performance glazing and a thermal analysis with application of original materials (as used in existing building) are been discussed below Thermal analysis – I: Flooring and ceiling: Applying original materials Concrete slabs covered with screed and ceramic tiles.4.Figure 7. External wall material: 150mm Concrete Stone (1-2-4 Mix) material finished with cement plaster on outer and gypsum plaster on inner side was applied to external wall representing R.4 Thermal Simulation Analysis: Thermal analysis was performed on the building model applying five different options of materials.C materials of actual building.Figure 7.I .I 41 .7. EPS and PUR (on the external wall) with two types of High Performance glasses which replaces the original glazing used for windows. First analysis performed was with application of the materials which are actually used in the existing building construction and other four simulations were performed by applying combinations of two types of thermal insulation materials viz.4.

. The glazing material used was single glazed 6mm float standard glass. Window materials: Single glazed aluminium frame window element was selected from the ECOTECT library of building materials which was applied to all the windows in the model.0 °C) .. finished by cement plaster on the outer surface of exterior wall and gypsum plaster on inner surface of inner wall.. 57.1%) in comfort for the entire year by application of above materials to the building model.e.Outside Temperature ___________ Inside Temperature .4. Thermal Simulation Results: Results obtained by carrying out simulation with above sets of materials are as follows: Annual Temperature Distribution: . (comfort band considered 18.0 -27.. Total we get 5005 hours (i.The actual double wall (wall boxing) consists of two 150mm thick concrete walls separated by air gap of 450mm.Legengs: .3: Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – I The graph compares the Internal and external temperatures of building model predicting the comfort temperatures we achieve in whole year..Figure 7.(Refer Appendix B for details) 42 .

5: Materials applied to External single wall of model for Thermal analysis .Figure 7. Walls are finished by cement plaster on the outer surface of exterior wall and gypsum plaster on inner surface of inner wall.Thermal analysis – II: Flooring and ceiling: Applying EPS and SUNERGY single glass Concrete slabs covered with screed and ceramic tiles. External wall material: 150mm Concrete Stone (1-2-4 Mix) material with additional 75mm Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) layer on external side finished with cement plaster on outer and gypsum plaster on inner side was applied to external wall. The double wall (wall boxing) consists of two 150mm thick concrete walls with additional layer of 75mm Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) on outer surface of inner walls reducing air gap to 375mm.Figure 7.4: External double wall combination applied to model for Thermal analysis – II .4. .4.II Window materials: Single glazed aluminium frame window element was selected from the EOTECT library of building materials changing the glazing material from single glazed 6mm float standard glass to 6mm thick SUNERGY single glass (clear) which has low –e coating on it which reduces the heat gains through windows. 43 .

In total we get 5287 hours (i. Occupancy – 4 people per flat.Figure 7.Outside Temperature ___________ Inside Temperature ..0 °C) . Activity type –Sedentary Air change rate.5.0 -27.40%) in comfort for the entire year by application of above materials to the building model.(Refer Appendix B for details) Considerations for all the Thermal Analysis from I-V: Comfort bands considered between 18. HVAC system chosen is Natural Ventilation.6: Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – II The graph compares the Internal and external temperatures of building model predicting the comfort temperatures we achieve in whole year..) 44 .. 60.0 -27.0°.e.Legengs: .4.81 (The temperature distribution graphs are for simulations carried for 19th floor and the comfort hours results mentioned are average of results derived by carrying out thermal analysis on different floors. (comfort band considered 18.Thermal Simulation Results: Results obtained by carrying out simulation with above sets of materials are as follows: Annual Temperature Distribution: ...

7: Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – III The graph compares the Internal and external temperatures of building model predicting the comfort temperatures we achieve in the whole year. 61%) in comfort for the entire year by application above materials to the building model. The entire glazing unit in this case consists of two 6mm thick glasses separated by air gap of 16mm with low-e coatings on it.Thermal analysis – III: Applying EPS and SUNERGY double glass with low-e coating.e.4.II External wall material: Same materials used as in case of Thermal Analysis II Window materials: Applying same window element as in case of Thermal Analysis – II... changing the glazing material from SUNERGY single glazed to SUNERGY double glazed (clear) with Planibel Top N low-e coating.Figure 7. ...Outside Temperature ___________ Inside Temperature .(Refer Appendix B for details) 45 . Flooring and ceiling: Same materials as applied in case of Thermal Analysis .. Thermal Simulation Results: Results obtained by carrying out simulation with above sets of materials are as follows: Annual Temperature Distribution: Legengs: . In total we get 5345 hours (i.

6%) in comfort for the entire year by application of above materials to the building model.0 -27...e. 60. changing the thermal insulation material from Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) to 75 mm Rigid Polyurethane Foam (PUR).Outside Temperature ___________ Inside Temperature .8: Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – IV In total we get 5309 hours (i.II External wall material: Same material combination as applied in case of Thermal Analysis– II.Thermal analysis – IV: Applying PUR and SUNERGY single glass Flooring and ceiling: Same materials as applied in case of Thermal Analysis ..4.Figure 7.(Refer Appendix B for details) 46 ...0 °C) . Window materials: Applying same window element and same glazing applied as in case of Thermal Analysis – II. (comfort band considered 18. Thermal Simulation Results: Results obtained by carrying out simulation with above sets of materials are as follows: Annual Temperature Distribution: Legengs: .

.0 °C) .50%) in comfort for the entire year by application of above materials to the building model.e. Flooring and ceiling: Same materials as applied in case of Thermal Analysis .9: Temperature Distribution graph for Thermal analysis – V In total we get 5391 hours (i..4..Thermal analysis – V: Applying PUR and SUNERGY double glass with low-e coating..0 27. 61..Outside Temperature ___________ Inside Temperature . Thermal Simulation Results: Results obtained by carrying out simulation with above sets of materials are as follows: Annual Temperature Distribution: Legengs: . (comfort band considered 18.(Refer Appendix B for details) 47 .II External wall material: Same material combination as applied in case of Thermal Analysis – IV Window materials: Applying same window element and same glazing applied as in case of Thermal Analysis – III.Figure 7.

7.1 I II III IV V Comfort hours in % .Figure 7.4 60.3–4.5% in total yearly comfort hours by application of these materials.5 57.2: Table displays details about Thermal Insulation materials and glazing types used for Thermal analysis.5. in turn reducing the energy consumption for conditioning of flats. 48 .5 Summary of Results: The results of the Thermal analysis performed on building model by altering the materials are summarised in form of graph.1: Graph shows the comparison between comfort hours (in %) for whole year by applying each set of materials. Thermal Analysis I II III IV V Thermal Insulation material Original material concrete with no insulation EPS (75mm) PUR (75mm) EPS (75mm) PUR (75mm) Glazing type Standard 6mm float glass Sunergy (clear) single glazed Sunergy (clear) single glazed Sunergy (clear) double glazed with Planibel Top N coating Sunergy (clear) double glazed with Planibel Top N coating . 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 60.Figure 7.e. By analysing the above comparisons and discussions made in present and last two chapters (i. chapter 5 &6) following conclusions are been derived: • It is clear that use of Insulation materials and high performance glazing definitely helps in increasing comfort inside the High-rise apartment.6 61 61.5. We can get drastic rise of 3.

C with 75mm PUR insulation.2006.972 EPS 0.35 W/(m2. • Results also suggest that Rigid Polyurethane Foam (PUR) has better thermal insulation.972 W/(m2.352 W/(m2. U Value Recommended By ECB code (Climate Zone Warm & Humid) U-value (W/(M2.5.C with 75mm EPS insulation.Figure 7.• The effective combination of PUR and High performance double glazing with low-e value coat gives maximum comfort hours inside an apartment when used in the building envelope.C.C Original concrete wall of the building made up R.K)value same for both the wall types] we can see that with addition of thermal insulation significant fall in U-value can be achieved in turn restricting rate of heat flow through wall.C. moisture resistance and fire retardance properties over Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and hence recommended over EPS.K)] Legend O Wall Type Original concrete wall of the building made up R.34 PUR 0. the U-values thus achieved are also less than the standard U-value for External wall specified by Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) [which is 0.352 . • If we compare the U-values of the actual external wall construction of the building [which is 1. Original concrete wall of the building made up R.3: Table displays U-values of different wall types Source: ECB CODE: The Energy Conservation Building Code. • Double glazed insulated windows have more advantage over single glazed and are recommended for their use in hot climates and addition of inert gases into these glazing will further yield higher results.34 R 0. INDIA [34] refer Appendix C 49 .K) 1.C.K)] with the U-values of the external walls with addition of 75mm layer of EPS and PUR respectively [which is 0.

1 0 0.0.0.033 .040 Figure 7.5.42 EPS PUR U-values (in W/(M2.032 .0.k) Figure 7.7 0.036 .4: U-values and cost comparison of Thermal Insulants used. 2006 – [29]. issue 41.0.3 0. issue 41.4 0.037 . Insulation material Class Thickness (mm) Cost (£/m²) Thermal conductivity W/mK Rock wool Glass wool Rigid urethane foam (PUR) Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Mineral fibre Mineral fibre 100 150 4-6 8-10 0.044 Plastic cellular 75 11-13 0. Sustainability – Thermal insulation.00 0. 2006 – [29] 50 .0.6 0.040 Wool 100 13-15 0.5.7.2 0.022 .0. The comparison of U-values (in W/(M2.1 Comparing U-values and costs of the thermal Insulation materials: 12 10 £8.028 Plastic cellular Plant/animal fibre Plant/animal fibre 75 8-10 0.5.033 .040 Cellulose fibre 100 9-11 0.044 0.5: Comparative capital cost and performance of thermal insulation materials Source: Building. Following table compares thermal conductivity and capital costs of different insulation materials widely used in the building industry.00 8 6 4 2 0 EPS PUR cost (£/m 2) £11.62 0.5 0.K) of insulation materials Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and Rigid Polyurethane foam (PUR) and cost (in £/m2) analysis done serves as a guideline for the choice of effective thermal insulant considering the budget of the project.(U-values from ECOTECT) Source: capital costs from Sustainability – Thermal insulation.

(refer Appendix D) There are many types of High performance glazing brands available in market.70 SDG SUNERGY clear (double glazing) High performance glass with Planibel TOP N coating 1.00 5.2 Comparing U-values and costs of the glazing materials used: 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 SG SSG SDG 1.00 SSG SUNERGY clear (single glazing) High performance glass 4.5.5. The information about U-values and and capita costs of the glazing materials used serves as a guide line to choose the right type of insulted glazing (according to the buget) suitable for the project for higher energy conservation.7.co. for the analysis made here the glasses selected are from the range of High performance glass from Glaverbel. costs mentioned are taken from quatations accuired from AIS glass solutions.6: U-values and cost comparison of Glazing materials used Source: www.4 29.uk/products/brochureslist.K) Cost (in £/m 2) Legend SG Glazing Type Standard 6mm float glass U-value [W/(m².2 25 20 15 10 5 0 SG SSG SDG £5.00 £11.70 £29. 51 .38 U-values (W/(m 2.4 35 30 4.myglaverbel.2 11. which are supplied by AIS Glass Solutions in India.38 Cost (£/m²) 5.00 Figure 7.K)] 5.

the rise is 4.5%. To find out.5% more than the comfort hours achieved by using normal glazing for windows and no thermal insulation for external walls. Conclusions drawn from the study clearly demonstrates and suggests need of thermal insulation and High performance insulated glazing for High-rise Residential structures in warm-humid and hot climates to achieve more comfort hours throughout the year in turn reducing costs on energy need for airconditioning 52 . Thermal simulation results indicate that application of thermal insulation layer to the external wall and use of High performance glass in the window element of the High-rise Residential Building in the Tropical warm-humid climate can increase in the thermal comfort hours inside the building by 3. four cases were analysed in the research.5% is achieved by use of Rigid Polyurethane Foam (PUR) as insulant in external wall and double glazing with low-e coating for windows.5 in the Chapter 7. The cases with the results for individual analysis are described in the subtopic 7.CHAPTER 8: Conclusion 8. The thermal analysis was carried out by using the detailed building analysis programme ECOTECT.1 Summary: .4. The study performed on the cost analysis and U-value comparison further demonstrates the thermal performances of the materials used and gives the general idea about the material selection for the best results considering the budget of the project. The results indicates that highest amount of comfort hours rise to 61. which combination of High performance glazing and thermal insulant can gain higher comfort hours in the building. This research investigates the thermal behaviour of the High-rise Residential apartment by applying thermal insulation layer in the envelope of the building and replacing the existing window glazing system by High performance glazing system. The investigations were based on the thermal analysis predicting the comfort hours achieved in the whole year.

the limitations of these materials for their use as a building material may be termed as the limitations of the study.3 Future scope: Use of Thermal insulation materials and High performance glazing to improve thermal performance of building envelope is one way to cut down energy costs of building by increasing comfort conditions in flats. apart from that use of ECOTECT for thermal simulation analysis shows some limitations. ECOTECT was used as the programme to carry out thermal analysis for this research but had some limitations. hence similar studies can also be performed using different building simulation soft-wares to find out the most effective one.2 Limitations of Study: As study investigate into thermal insulation and High performance glazing materials. Use of thermal insulation layers in the building model envelope do show remarkable rise in yearly comfort hours but further simulation analysis carried out for lower U-value insulation materials and insulated glazing does not show much difference in the rise of comfort hours though the U-values are less than half the U-values of earlier material used.8. 53 . there are other ways like optimisation of natural ventilation and use of energy efficient lighting systems by which high energy cuts can be achieved exploring these and some other techniques can be seen as future scope in this field. 8.

Report on Research and Development of Energy Technologies. Axel Michaelowa (August.last visited August 2007 2) Earth Trends: The Environmental Information Portal. 7) Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopaedia. HWWA discussion paper 2004 6) Green Buildings.A.2004]. India. Baish.org) 8) Special problems of conservation in the tropics.Part one: Climate Design.Gateway of Resource and information on Preservation (GRIP). (www. 2004). (enecho.go. IUPAP working group on energy 5) Indian Urban Building Sector: CDM Potential through Energy Efficiency in Electricity consumption.co.knaw.meti. Ingersoll..org/text/climate-atmosphere/country-profile-India) . M .wikipedia. World outlook. Koenigsberger.Occasional Paper prepared for WEEA.last visited August 2007 3) The Outlook for Energy.View of 2030.wri.last visited August 2007 4) Annex B – Overview by country– Short report on energy situation of India. Agenda 21 for sustainable Construction in Developing Countries – The Indian Case. Mayhew. REFERENCES .nl/ecpa/grip] 9) Manual of Tropical Housing and Building . Inderjeet Singh. Debajit Palit [The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). (http://en. P.exxonmobil. June. www.jp/english/energy/world/outlook) . Szokolay (1974).26 54 . [Source: Preservation of Archives in Tropical climate . Kaw (October. 1) Earth Trends: The Environmental Information Portal. 2004).uk) . (earthtrends.pp. Conservation Administration News 31: 4-5.K. (1987).

Mathur. London. 84. Building and Environment 36. January 6-11. Dieter Ackerknecht. 1127-1135. 2004) 15) Thermal Control in Buildings. John Straube (2006).buildingscience.35.2002). Richard Hyde (2000). 14) Indian Urban Building Sector: CDM Potential through Energy Efficiency in Electricity Consumption. pp. Inderjeet Singh.Hwa Bay and Boon. 11) Climate Responsive Design: A study of Buildings in moderate and hothumid climates. pp. 159-164 55 . Building Science Digest 011(November. (1993) Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management 13) Energy efficiency and building construction in India.Appropriate Building construction in Tropical and subtropical Regions.E&FN Spon. . I E Journal-AR Vol. I Chand (Octobe. RIO 02 – World Climate & Energy Event. Axel Michaelowa (August. 2006) www. Piyush Tiwari (July.57 12) Climate Responsive Building . 34. pp.K. pp. Michael Laar and Friedrich Wilhelm Grimme (2002). V. 2002. 2000). Paul Gut. 2006) 18) Sustainable Buildings in Tropics. Kirtee Shah (2002) 17) Tropical Sustainable Architecture: Social and environmental dimensions Joo.10) Climate Design for Energy Efficiency in Buildings.Lay Ong (July.com – last visited August 2007 16) Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries Indian Case. SKAT.

pp. 2005). 2004). 569-581 20) Energy Performance of windows in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. pp. pp. Greenup (March. 56 . Energy and Building 33.Sat (September 2000). 2001). Edmonds and P. M. 25) Thermal performance of bedrooms in a multi-storey residential building in southern Brazil. Ricardo Felipe Massignani (October. Mili Majumdar (2002). 24) Design development of a static sunshade using small scale modelling technique. Energy and Building 35.efficient buildings in India. Renewable Energy 30. 2.com – last visited August 2007 27) Energy. 111–121 23) Energy performance of the self-shading building envelope. Jagadish (November. F. India.19) Influence of thermal insulation position in building envelope on the space cooling of high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. www.S.Yik. 2002). R.74-82 21) Embodied energy of common and alternative building materials &Technologies. 2005). 730-742. 26) High Performance Glass. pp. pp. Rajiv Gupta (November.327-336. Venkatarama Reddy. 2002). Energy and Building 34. pp. Ralegaonkar.867-880. P.Sat (March. No.Guedi Capeluto (July. Solar Energy Vol. Bojic.73 (2002).greenbusinesscentre. Bojic. M. B. 2001). 22) Day lighting in the Tropics. F.J. 129-137. Building and Environment 42.Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre (October. CII. Enedir Ghisi. Energy and Building 35. Indian Green Building Council technical bulletin. Yik. Rahul V.V. published by TERI and MNES. K. I. P. pp.

2006). www.uk– last visited August 2007 57 . 30) Your Home Technical Manual -1. Akash Singh.com/ecotect– last visited August 2007 33) Location: Mumbai. Building magazine. issue 41. Paper presented for AER 2006 held by department of Energy Systems Engineering. draft found on www.gov.com 35) Polyurethane Chemistry.energy. Climatic data ASHARAE 2005.weather data – IND Mumbai. by Bureau of Energy Efficiency. India (BEE).co. Juhi Gaur. http://squ1. www. Mumbai.greenhouse.gov– last visited August 2007 32) Ecotect: An Overview. Alam Khan. India. IIT. Grishma Gupta (December.eere. www. 29) Sustainability – Thermal insulation. Mohd.au – last visited August 2007 31) Statistics ASHARAE.foam-insulation. 2006.28) Thermal Insulation of Energy efficient Buildings.energymanagertraining.8b Glazing Hot humid.2 -Virtual globe programme 34) Energy Conservation Building Codes (ECBE). 2006. Goggle Earth Version 4.

SITE LAYOUT.HIGH-LIGHTING THE BUILDING 58 . GODREJ GARDEN ENCLAVE .APPENDIX A: SITE LAYOUT .

ARIAL VIEW OF THE SITE HIGHLIGHTING THE BUILDING USED FOR ECOTECT MODELLING. 59 .

CLOSE ARIAL VIEW OF THE BUILDING REAR ELEVATION FRONT ELEVATION ELEVATIONS OF THE BUILDING 60 .

0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0. Annual Temperature Distribution Table for Thermal Analysis .0% 0. ------0°C 2°C 4°C 6°C 8°C 10°C 12°C 14°C 16°C 18°C 20°C 22°C HRS % ------.7% TEMP. ------24°C 26°C 28°C 30°C 32°C 34°C 36°C 38°C 40°C 42°C 44°C 46°C ------Comfort HRS ------1213 3101 2603 844 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ------5287 % -------13.27.0% 0.0% 0. ------24°C 26°C 28°C 30°C 32°C 34°C 36°C 38°C 40°C 42°C 44°C 46°C ------Comfort HRS ------1211 3026 2738 942 75 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ------5005 % -------13.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.4% 61 .I: Operation: Weekdays 00-24.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 125 1.0% 0.0% 127 1.-------0 0.0 °C In Comfort: 5005hrs (57.0% 0 0.0% 0 0. Weekends 00-24.0% 0 0.1%) TEMP.0 .0% 0.0% -------60.4% 29. Weekends 00-24.9% 0.8% 34.1% Annual Temperature Distribution Table for Thermal Analysis .0% 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.II: Operation: Weekdays 00-24.3% 10.6% 0.0% 0 0.3% TEMP.APPENDIX B: ANNUAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION TABLES. Comfort Band: 18.7% 9.0% --------57.0% 0.0% 0.5% 31.0% 0 0.-------0 0.0% 0.0% 0 0.0 .3% 0.0 °C In Comfort: 5287hrs (60.8% 0.0% 0 0.4% 846 9. ------0°C 2°C 4°C 6°C 8°C 10°C 12°C 14°C 16°C 18°C 20°C 22°C HRS % ------.4%) TEMP.0% 0.4% 643 7.0% 0.0% 0 0.8% 35. Comfort Band: 18.0% 0.27.

0% 0 0.0% Annual Temperature Distribution Table for Thermal Analysis .0% 0.0%) TEMP. Weekends 00-24.0% 0.5% 0.Annual Temperature Distribution Table for Thermal Analysis . ------24°C 26°C 28°C 30°C 32°C 34°C 36°C 38°C 40°C 42°C 44°C 46°C ------Comfort HRS ------1285 3132 2653 746 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ------5345 % -------14.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% -------61.0% 0.8% 30.0% 0.6% 0.0% 0.3% 8.6% TEMP.5% 9.0% 65 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.27.0% 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0% -------60.6%) TEMP.0% 0.0% 0 0.IV: Operation: Weekdays 00-24.6% 29.6% 62 .27. ------0°C 2°C 4°C 6°C 8°C 10°C 12°C 14°C 16°C 18°C 20°C 22°C HRS ------0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 157 842 % -------0.7% 863 9. Comfort Band: 18.0% 0 0.2% 0.7% 35.III: Operation: Weekdays 00-24.6% 35.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0 °C In Comfort: 5345hrs (61.0% 0 0. ------0°C 2°C 4°C 6°C 8°C 10°C 12°C 14°C 16°C 18°C 20°C 22°C HRS % ------. ------24°C 26°C 28°C 30°C 32°C 34°C 36°C 38°C 40°C 42°C 44°C 46°C ------Comfort HRS ------1192 3118 2580 845 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ------5309 % -------13.0% 0.9% TEMP. Comfort Band: 18.8% 9.0 .0% 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0. Weekends 00-24.0 °C In Comfort: 5309hrs (60.3% 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.-------0 0.0 .0% 1.

0% 18°C 0 0. Weekends 00-24.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20°C 65 0.-------0°C 0 0.0% 8.V: Operation: Weekdays 00-24.0% 14°C 0 0. HRS % ------------.1% TEMP.0% 12°C 0 0.4% 0.0% -------61.5%) TEMP.0% 0. ------24°C 26°C 28°C 30°C 32°C 34°C 36°C 38°C 40°C 42°C 44°C 46°C ------HRS ------1283 3160 2628 734 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ------Comfort 5391 % -------14.0 °C In Comfort: 5391hrs (61.6% 36.0% 2°C 0 0.5% 63 .Annual Temperature Distribution Table for Thermal Analysis .0% 16°C 0 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 8°C 0 0.7% 22°C 883 10.0% 4°C 0 0. Comfort Band: 18.0% 6°C 0 0.1% 30.0% 10°C 0 0.0 .0% 0.27.

The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) 2006 has been developed by the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) under contract with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as a part of the Energy Conservation and Commercialization (ECO) Project providing support to the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) Action Plan [34] The main aim behind developing these codes is to set minimum Energy performance standards for buildings and initiate the energy conservation by use of thermal efficient building materials. INDIA .pdf 64 .com/ECBC/DRAFTECBC27MARCH2006. 2006 and Energy Conservation Act in 2001 following sites can be referred: http://en. 2006. The growth of economy and building construction in India lead to increase in energy intensity. lighting systems and less energy consuming building construction techniques. 2007 specifying energy performance requirements for all commercial buildings to be constructed in India.wikipedia. the supply of energy was not up to the mark to meet the energy demands of various sectors in country which lead the Indian government to enact the Energy Conservation Act in 2001. The Act mainly provides framework for encouraging Energy efficiency in various sectors including Building construction Industry.energymanagertraining. There has been a recent launch of The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC).APPENDIX C: BRIEF NOTE ON ECB CODES.org/wiki/Energy_Conservation_Building_Code www. For more details regarding The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC). The government also appointed a body named as Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) for the effective implementation of this Act.

APPENDIX D: SPECIFICATIONS OF GLASS USED FOR ANALYSIS 65 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful