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U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series B, Vol. 73, Iss.

4, 2011

ISSN 1454-2331

PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PROCESSING ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WASTE (WEEE) FOR NONFERROUS METALS RECOVERY
Ionela Poenia BRLOAG1, Traian BUZATU2, Ecaterina MATEI3
Obiectivul principal al prezentei lucrri a fost recuperarea metalelor preioase, n special aurul, din DEEE-uri (microprocesoare). Prima etap a fluxului de recuperare a metalelor preioase a constat n sortarea i mcinarea microprocesoarelor nglobate n materiale plastice i ceramice. Mcinarea microprocesoarelor s-a efectuat n dou tipuri de mori respectiv cele nglobate n plastic ntr-o moar cu cuite tietoare SM2000 tip Retsch i a celor nglobate n ceramic n moara cu discuri oscilante tip Retsch 10. Separarea volumic i magnetic a concentratelor a reprezentat o a doua etap a fluxului. n urma acestor operaii au rezultat ase probe de dimensiuni i proprietati magnetice diferite. Tehnologia de separare propus a permis determinarea distribuiei de Au i Ag n toate fraciile rezultate, utiliznd spectroscopia de fluorescen de rayeX. This paper aims to recover precious metals, especially gold, from the WEEE (microprocessors). The first stage of the flow sheet of precious metals recovery consisted of sorting and grinding microprocessorsembedded in plastics and ceramics materials. Grinding was performed in twotzpes of mills, microprocessors that were embedded in plastic were ground in a Retsch SM2000 knife mill and those embedded in ceramic in a Retsch 10 rotating disc mill. Volumetric and magnetic separation of the concentrates represents the second phase of theproposed flow sheet. Following these operations six samples resulted, of different sizes and magnetic properties. The distribution of Au and Ag in all fractions resulted from the proposed separation technology has been ascertained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

Keywords: waste electrical and electronic equipment, microprocessors, grinding, magnetic separation, precious metals

Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Engineering and Management for Elaboration of Metallic Materials Department, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: ionela_birloaga@yahoo.com 2 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Engineering and Management for Elaboration of Metallic Materials Department, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: traian1983@yahoo.com 3 Lect. PhD, Dept. of Materials Processing and Eco - Metallurgical, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania, e-mail: ecaterinamatei@yahoo.com

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Ionela Poenia Brloag, Traian Buzatu, Ecaterina Matei

1. Introduction The treatment of electronic and electric waste is a current topic as their role in modern life is increasing [1, 2]. The best option in waste treatment is recycling. There have been a large number of studies on the recycling of materials by mechanical [3, 4], thermal [5] and chemical [6] processes, but most of them dealt with the recovery of one or two specified materials of all WEEE compositions. In this paper, the preliminary stages of recovering precious metals from electrical and electronic equipment (used microprocessors) waste are presented. The use of precious metals (PM) in this field is of primary importance given PMs unique properties, which confer to each of them a specific and irreplaceable role [7]. During the last decades, substantial quantities of gold have been used by the electronic industry in view of its excellent electric conductivity and resistance to corrosion. This ensures high reliability in WEEE, which over a period of time get obsolete and redundant. The process of recovery makes sense only if the cost of recovery is much lower than the value of the precious metal. Many studies have been carried out with regard to the recycling of electronic and electric waste with a view to recover resources and at the same time preventing environmental contamination [8, 9]. The first stage of the experimental study consisted of separating and milling microprocessors embedded in plastic and ceramic materials. After this stage the concentrates were subjected to magnetic separation to obtain the magnetic and non-magnetic fractions. The elements and their concentrations in the mass of each sample were studied by Xray fluorescence analysis. This study is intended to continue for obtaining useful data for the next steps for the recovery of precious metals used in microprocessors. 2. Experimental procedures 2.1. Experimental materials and devices Waste microprocessors disassembled from obsolete computers were used for the experiments. Two types of microprocessors were used for the experiment: microprocessors embedded in plastic materials and microprocessors embedded in ceramic materials. Therefore, for the milling operation two types of mills were used, namely a Retsch SM2000 cutting knife mill for microprocessors embedded in plastic and a Retsch 10 disk mill for those embedded in ceramics. Methods A schematic flowsheet diagram of the preliminary stages for precious metal recovery is shown in Fig. 1.a and Fig.1.b.

Physical methods for processing [] equipment waste (weee) for nonferrous metals recovery 229

Sorting microprocessors

Plastic microprocessors 173,05g 0,76g Au

0,063g Ag

Milling

Density Separation Microprocessor size >0,8mm 103,68g 0,54g Au Magnetic separation


Microprocessor size <0,8mm 69,37g

0,22g Au
0,063g Ag

Sample 1, >0,8mm nonmagnetic fraction

Sample 2, >0,8mm magnetic fraction 34,98 g 0,54g Au

Sample 3, <0,8mm nonmagnetic fraction 42,58 g

Sample 4, <0,8mm magnetic fraction


26,36 g 0,13g Au

0,063g Ag

Fig.1.a.Flow and balance recovery of precious metals from microprocessors embedded in plastic

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Ionela Poenia Brloag, Traian Buzatu, Ecaterina Matei

Sorting microprocessors

Ceramics microprocessors 171,68g 0,23g Au 1,07g Ag

Milling

Magnetic separation

Microprocessors nonmagnetic fraction 122,41 0,23g Au 0,46g Ag

Microprocessors magnetic fraction 46,72g 0,61g Ag

Fig.1.b. Flow sheet and balance recovery of precious metals from microprocessors embedded in ceramics

The technological steps of these flow sheets are: sorting chips, milling, magnetic separation of displacement and separation. The microprocessors were sorted, resulting in a quantity of 173.05 g of microprocessors embedded in plastic material and a quantity of 171.68 g of microprocessors embedded in ceramic material, and then milled. 2.2. Milling microprocessors To separate metallic parts, the microprocessors were milled in two mills: RETSCH SM 2000 heavy-duty cutting mill (Fig.2.a) and RETSCH RS100 Vibratory Disc Mill (Fig.2.b). Plastic microprocessors were milled in a heavyduty cutting mill resulting in a concentrate with different sizes of particles, ranging from 0.25-20 mm. The ceramics were milled in a vibratory disc mill for

Physical methods for processing [] equipment waste (weee) for nonferrous metals recovery 231

10 minutes, resulting in a powder concentrate with a particle size up to 9 microns. The concentrates resulted by milling of plastic microprocessors were then volumetrically separated using a sieve with a mesh size of 0.8 mm.

Fig. 2.a. RETSCH SM 2000 heavy-duty cutting mill

Fig.2.b. RETSCH RS100Vibratory Disc Mill

2.3. Magnetic separation The magnetic separation of the milled concentrate was performed to separate the magnetic and non-magnetic fractions. The magnetic separation carried out by means of a Carpco l MIH (13)111-5 high-intensity induced-roll magnetic laboratory separator (Fig. 3). The Meter Magnet separator places all particles in contact with the highest magnetic field at the zones of steepest magnetic gradient and utilizes magnetic force and gravity to capture weakly magnetic particles. A turning, induced magnetic roll is used to transport material through the active area providing an opposing centrifugal force for separation of magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. This technique is capable of efficiently removing weakly magnetic material occurring as contaminants in nonmagnetic products. On each fraction an analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic separation of metallic elements.

Fig. 3. Carpco MIH (13)111-5 high-intensity induced-roll magnetic laboratory separato

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Ionela Poenia Brloag, Traian Buzatu, Ecaterina Matei

2.4 Chemical analysis Samples of 8g of each fraction were analyzed to determine the elements and their distribution in concentrates obtained after milling and separation. These samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence using an X-ray fluorescence XEPOS spectrometer. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Milling of microprocessors Microprocessors have been reduced with a hammer to a smaller size and then milled in the two mills. Shearing occurs during microprocessor milling in heavy-duty cutting mill, a process that is performed between widia plates and rapid steel knives. At the startup of the mill the distance between the high rapid steel knives will be taken into account so that to be small enough to easily produce shear milling process. At the bottom of the milling chamber there is a bolter that is interchangeable so that the size of grinding can be adjusted. Plastic microprocessors whose initial size was reduced using a hammer in order to be introduced in the milling chamber are ground until they reach the size smaller than the mesh sieve at the bottom of the milling chamber. Once this is done the milling particles leave the milling chamber and reach the flask from where they are discharged intermittently. The aspect of microprocessor embedded in plastic after milling is shown in Fig.4.

Fig. 4. Aspect of plastic microprocessors milled in the cutting knifes mill

Microprocessors embedded in ceramics have also been reduced in size with a hammer and then milled in an oscillating disk mill. This mill has a capacity of 50g and the time needed for milling is 10 minutes, to reduce the size of the material from 40 mm to 9 microns. After milling the microprocessors embedded in ceramic, a powder form concentrate resulted (Fig. 5).

Physical methods for processing [] equipment waste (weee) for nonferrous metals recovery 233

Fig. 5.Aspect of ceramic microprocessors milled in the oscillating disk mill

After milling, the plastic microprocessors were separated volumetrically using sieves with a mesh size of 0.8 mm to observe the distribution of metals at different particle sizes. From these physical processes three samples resulted, with different dimensions and aspects. 3.2. Magnetic separation Magnetic separation was carried out to distinguish the magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions from milled microprocessors. Table 1 presents the distribution of elements in all six fractions.

Fig. 6. Distribution of precious metals after complete separation technology

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Ionela Poenia Brloag, Traian Buzatu, Ecaterina Matei

It is noted that copper is the most abundant metallic element in the plastic microprocessors while aluminum is the metal with the highest content in ceramic microprocessors. Iron and nickel, which are the typical ferromagnetic metallic elements, were largely separated into the magnetic fraction by the magnetic separation. It can be seen that the nickel and iron were left in the non-magnetic fraction, probably due to their presence in paramagnetic or diamagnetic particles as alloying elements. The paramagnetic or diamagnetic elements, such as aluminum, tin, copper, and lead, were mostly distributed in the non-magnetic fraction. Note that beside these metals others elements appear, but in low concentrations. Fig. 6 shows the distribution of precious metals in each sample after complete separation technology.
Tablel 1 Distribution of elements in mass sample s Sample 1 Nonmag. fraction >0,8 0.00 0.00 0.00 17,8 0.46 0.00 0.00 6.38 0.17 0.25 0.12 25.50 0.16 13.80 2.62 0.30 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 A Microprocessor plastic 2 Magnetic fraction 3 Nonmag. fraction<0,8 0.23 3.10 0.00 17.40 0.35 0.47 0.11 9.45 0.36 0.40 0.12 16.40 0.31 11.30 2.42 1.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 Fr. mag. <0,8 0.50 3.38 0.18 17.40 0.47 0.49 0.13 8.85 0.48 3.21 1.86 15.6 0.27 10.30 2.39 2.04 0.00 0.12 0.00 2.82 0.20 0.49 0.24 0.00 0.00 B Microprocessor ceramic 5 Nonmag. fraction 0.36 37.10 0.00 6.29 0.21 0.13 0.00 0.67 0.31 0.34 0.15 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.46 0.26 0.00 0.00 1.59 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.38 0.17 9.24 6 Magnetic fraction 0.21 25.50 0.00 5.13 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.78 0.37 0.85 0.66 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.37 0.00 0.00 1.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.31 0.34 13.2

Element,% Mg Al Na Si S Cl K Ca Ti Fe Ni Cu Zn Br Ba Pb Mn Sr Cr Sn Sb Au Ag Co W

>0,8
0.34 0.96 0.00 5.25 0.11 0.00 0.00 2.37 0.91 5.87 10.90 23.40 0.00 5.07 3.52 2.89 0.00 0.00 3.90 0.23 1.56 0.00 0.00 1.07 0.00

K ps C

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Ba KA1 Sb KB1 Sn KB1 Sb KA1 Sn KA1 Ag KB1 Rh KB1 Ag KA1 Rh KB1/Com pton Rh KA1
20 30

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Sb KB1 Sn KB1

Sb KA1 Sn Ag KB1 KA1 Pd KB1 Rh KB1 Ag KA1 Rh KA1 Pd KB1/Compton Rh KA1 Rh KA1/Compton Nb KB1
Rh KA1/Com pton
KeV

20

KeV

Sr KB1 Sr KA1 Br KB1 Pb LB1 Au LB1 Pb LA1


10

Nb KA1 Sr KB1 Rb KB1 Sr KA1 Rb KA1 Br KB1 SnPb LB1 KA1/Order 2

Br KA1

Au LA1 W KB1 Zn LB1 Cu KB1


9

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Zn KA1 W LA1 Ni KB1


8

Cu KA1
7

Cu KA1

CoKA1 Ni KB1 Fe KB1 Co KA1 Br KB1/O rder 2 Fe KA1 Br KA1/O rder 2


6 5 4 3 2 1

Figs. 7-12 show the resulting X-ray fluorescence analysis diagrams for the six fractions obtained from physical proccesing of waste microprocessors.

Fig.8. Diagram of XRF analysis for sample 2, microprocessors plastic waste milled, size> 0.8 mm, after magnetic separation, magnetic fraction
Ti KB1 Ba LB1 Ti KA1 rder 2 Ba LA1 Cu KB1/O Cu KA1/O Ca KB1 rder 2 Sb LB1 Sn LB1 Sb LA1 K Ca KA1 KB1 Sn LA1 K KA1 Ag LB1 Ag LA1 Rh LB1 Cl KB1 Rh LA1 Cl KA1 S KB1 Pb M A S KA1 Au M A Sr LA1 CaLB1 Si KB1 rder 2 Sr KA1 W KA1/O A Si M
1 0.5

Fig.7. Diagram of XRF analysis for sample 1, microprocessors plastic waste milled, size> 0.8 mm, after magnetic separation, nonmagnetic fraction
Br LB1 Br LA1 MgKB1 g M KA1 Zn LB1 LA1 Cu LB1 Cu LA1 Ni LB1 CoLA1 rder 2 LB1 LA1 Br LA1/O
0.5

Physical methods for processing [] equipment waste (weee) for nonferrous metals recovery 235

Fe LB1 Ti LB1

Br KA1 Au LB1 Pb LA1 Au LA1 W LB1 Zn KB1 Zn LA1 Cu KB1 W KA1 Ni KB1 Co KB1 Ni KA1 Fe KB1 Co KA1 Br KB1/Order 2 KA1 Mn KB1 Fe Br KB1 Cr KA1/Order 2 Mn KA1 Cr LA1/Order 2 Pb KA1 Ti KB1 Ba LB1 Ti LA1 Ba KB1/Order 2 Cu KA1 Ni KB1/Order 22 Cu LB1 KA1/Order Ca KB1 SbKA1/Order 2 Ni KB1 KA1 Sn LA1 LB1 Sb KA1/Order 2 KCaLA1 Co KA1 Sn K KA1/Order 2 Fe LB1 Ag LB1 Pd LB1 Ag LA1 Pd LA1 Rh LA1 Cl KB1 Rh Cl KA1 S KB1 Pb MA S LB1 NbKA1 Nb MA LA1 P KB1 AuKA1 P Sr KB1 Si KA1 Sr LA1 W MA RbLB1 Si LB1 RbLA1 Al KB1 Br LB1 Al LA1 Br KA1 Mg KB1 Mg KA1 Zn LB1 LA1 Cu LB1 CuLA1 LA1 Ni LB1 Co LB1 LA1 Fe LB1 Mn LB1 LA1 Cr LB1 Ti LB1

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Ba KB1

Ba KA1
Ba KA1
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Sb KB1 Sn KB1 Sb KA1 Sn Ag KB1 KA1 Rh KB1 Ag KA1 Rh KB1/Compton
20

20

Ag Sn KA1 KB1 Pd KB1 Rh KB1 Ag KA1 Rh KB1/Compton Pd KA1 Rh KA1 Rh KA1/Compton Nb KB1
KeV

Rh KA1 Rh KA1/Compton

Ionela Poenia Brloag, Traian Buzatu, Ecaterina Matei

Fig.9. Diagram of XRF analysis for sample3, microprocessors plastic waste milled, size< 0.8 mm, after magnetic separation, nonmagnetic fraction

KeV

Nb KA1 Sr KB1 Sr KA1 Br KB1 Sn KA1/Order 2 Pb LB1 Br KA1

Sr KB1 Rb KB1 Sr KA1 Rb KA1 KB1 Br Sn Pb LB1 KA1/Order 2 Au LB1 Pb LA1


10

Br KA1

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Au LB1 Pb LA1 Au LA1 W LB1 Zn KB1 Cu KB1 WZn KA1 LA1 Ni KB1 Cu KA1

Au LA1 W LB1 Zn KB1


9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0.5

Fig.10. Diagram of XRF analysis for sample4, microprocessors plastic waste milled, size< 0.8 mm, after magnetic separation, magnetic fraction
Ni KA1 Fe KB1 Br KB1/Order 2 Mn KB1 Fe KA1 Br KA1/Order 2 Cr KB1 Mn KA1 Cr LA1/Order 2 Pb KA1 Ti KB1 Ba LB1 Ti KB1/Order 2 Ba LA1 CuKA1 Cu KA1/Order 2 Ca KB1 Ca Sn LB1 K KB1 KA1 Sn LA1 K LB1 Ag KA1 Pd LB1 Ag LA1 Pd LB1 Rh LA1 Cl KB1 Rh LA1 Cl KA1 S KB1 Pb LB1 S MA NbKA1 Nb MA LA1 P KB1 AuKA1 P Sr KB1 Si KA1 Ca LB1 Sr LA1 W KA1/Order 2 Si MA Al KB1 LA1 Br LB1KA1 Al Br Mg KB1 Mg KA1 Zn LB1 LA1 Cu LB1 Cu LB1 LA1 Ni LA1 Al KA1/Order 2 Br LA1/Order Fe LB1 LA1 Mn LA1 LA1 Cr LB1 Cr LB1 Ti LB1
Zn KA1 Cu KB1 W LA1 Ni KB1 Co KB1Ni KA1 Fe KB1 Co KA1 Br KB1 MnKB1/Order 2 Fe KA1 Br KB1 Cr KA1/Order 2 Mn KA1 Cr LA1/Order 2 Pb KA1 Ti KB1 Ba LB1 Ti LA1 Ba KB1/Order 2 CuKA1 Cu KA1/Order 2 Ca KB1 Sb LB1 Ni KB1 KA1 2 Ca SnKA1/Order Sb LA1 K LB1 SnKA1 K LA1 Fe KA1/Order 2 Ag LB1 Ag LA1 Rh LB1 Cl KB1 Rh LA1 Cl KA1 S KB1 Pb MA S KA1 P KB1 AuKA1 P MA Sr KB1 Ca KA1 Si LB1 Sr KA1/Order 2 W LB1 RbLA1 Si LA1 Rb MA Al KB1 LA1 Br LB1 KA1 Al Br Mg KB1 Mg KA1 Zn LB1 Na LA1 KA1 CuLB1 LB1 CuLA1 LA1 Ni LB1 Co LB1 Al LA1/Order Br KA1/Order 2 Fe LA1 Mn LA1 LB1 LA1 Cr LB1 Cr LA1 Cu KA1 Ti LB1
0.5

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Ag KB1
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Rh KA1 Mo KB1 Rh KA1/Compton Mo KA1


20

KeV
KeV

Rh KB1 Ag KA1 Rh KB1/Compton Rh KA1 Mo KB1 Rh KA1/Compton Mo KA1

Pb LB1 Au LB1
10 9

Pb LB1 Se KB1

Pb LA1 Rh KA1/Order 2 Re LB1 Mo KB1/Order 2 LB1 Au LA1 W W LA1

10 9

Au LB1 Se KA1 Ag KA1/Order 2 Pb LA1 Rh KA1/Order 2 Re LB1 Mo KB1/Order 2 Au LA1

W LB1 W LA1
8 7

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

6 5 4

Cu KB1 Mo KA1/Order 2 Re LA1 Ni KB1 Cu KA1 Co KB1 Ni KA1 Fe KB1 Co KA1 Mn KB1 Fe KA1 Cr KA1 MnKB1 Cr KA1 Ti LB1/Order 2 WKB1 Ba LB1 Ti LA1 BaKA1 W LA1/Order 2 Ca KB1

3 2

Ca KA1 K KB1 K KA1 Ag LB1 Ag LA1 Rh LB1 Rh LA1 S KB1 Mo MA Pb LA1 S KA1 Mo LB1 Au MA Si KB1 Re MA W MA Si KA1

Cu KB1 Mo KA1/Order 2 Re LA1 Ni Cu KA1 KB1 Co KB1 KA1 Ni Fe KB1 Co KA1 Mn KB1KA1 Fe Cr KB1 Mn KA1 Cr KA1 Ti LB1/Order 2 W KB1 Ba LB1 Ti LA1 BaKA1 W LA1/Order 2 Ca KB1 Ni KB1 Ca KA1 K KA1/Order 2 K KA1 Ag LB1 Ag LA1 Rh LB1 Cl KB1 Rh LA1 Cl KA1 S KB1 MoKA1 Pb MA S LA1 Mo LB1 Au MA ReKB1 SiSi KA1 W MA MA Al KB1 Se LB1 Se LA1 Mg KB1 Mg KA1
1

Al KA1

Al KA1

CuLB1 Cu LB1 LA1 Ni LA1 CoKA1/Order LB1 Al KB1/Order 2 LA1 Fe LA1 Mn LB1 LB1 LA1
0.5

Fig.11. Diagram of XRF analysis for sample5, waste ceramic microprocessors milled, after magnetic separation, nonmagnetic fraction

Physical methods for processing [] equipment waste (weee) for nonferrous metals recovery 237

Fig.12. Diagram of XRF analysis for sample6, waste ceramic microprocessors milled, after magnetic separation, magnetic fraction
Al KB1 Mg KB1 Mg KA1 Na KA1 Cu LB1 Cu LA1 Ni LB1 CoLA1 LB1 Al KB1/Order 2 LA1 Al LB1 FeKA1/Order 2 MnLA1 LB1 LA1 Cr LB1 Cr LA1 Ti LB1
Cr LB1 Ti LB1
0.5

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The precious metal distribution for each sample at the end of preparation technology is the following: It can be seen that gold is not present in the first sample because, after magnetic separation, it was distributed mostly in the magnetic fractions, namely sample 2, in samples with a size greater than 0.8 mm, while in those with sizes smaller than 0.8 mm, this precious metal was proportionately distributed in the samples with nonmagnetic (3) and magnetic (4) particles. In sample 4 (magnetic fraction of milled plastic microprocessor with a particle size smaller than 0.8 mm) in addition to gold silver appears with a concentration of 0.24%. It results that gold is well separated from larger particles while silver is separated from a smaller size. Fractions resulting from magnetic separation of ceramic microprocessors exhibited the following precious metals distribution: Gold remained in the magnetic fraction in a concentration of 0.19%, while silver was distributed in both samples, with concentrations of 0, 38% in the non-magnetic fraction and 1.31% in the magnetic fraction. It resulted that microprocessors embedded in ceramic materials used in large quantities silver as the precious metal. The separation of this content will be investigated in further works. In addition, the separation processes will be optimized to maximize the degree of recovery for the metallic components. This metals can be used as raw materials in metallurgical industries and also, hydrometallurgical processes will be used for recovery of precious metals, which consist in the individually recovery of metals from physically processed concentrates. 4. Conclusions Samples were subjected to mechanical milling and separation processes consisting of milling, gravity separation and magnetic separation. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study. Following the milling process, which was performed in two types of mills, due to different embedding materials for microprocessors, two types of concentrates resulted, one from microprocessors embedded in plastic, with particles of different sizes, and the other from microprocessors embedded in ceramic materials, in powder form. The concentrates from plastic microprocessors were volumetrically separated resulting two fractions, one with a size greater than 0.8 mm and the other of size smaller than 0.8 mm. All three magnetic concentrates were then separated and analyzed by x-ray fluorescence analysis. From the results of these tests it can be said that gold was separated best in the magnetic fraction of plastic microprocessors concentrates with size dimensions larger than 0.8 mm and had a much higher concentration than those with smaller size. In addition to gold, silver also appears in a small concentration in the magnetic fraction of these concentrates.

Physical methods for processing [] equipment waste (weee) for nonferrous metals recovery 239

After magnetic separation, it was noticed that in the concentrates from microprocessors embedded in ceramics gold was left in the non-magnetic fraction, while silver was distributed in both fractions, but with a higher concentration in the magnetic fraction. Future works will focus on optimizing the processes for separating and recovering precious metals by hydrometallurgical processing methods, that will pursue the recovery of individual metals from polymetallic concentrates resulting from physical processing. REFERENCES
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