A-Plus Community Solutions, Inc.

SCABC - 10GbE Network Interoperability Journal Systems Performance & Validation Test Methodology
Draft Date: May 20, 2011

260 Peachtree Street Suite 2100 Atlanta, GA 30303 1(770) 776-7811 sysperf@a-plus.net

Bailey White Georgia Tech Enterprise Innovation Institute [Pick the date]

South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC)

Table of Contents
1 2 3 4 SCABC Project Summary.............................................................................................. 4 Abstract .......................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 5 The IEEE 802.3ae 10GbE Standard............................................................................... 6 4.1 IEEE 802.3ae Objectives ...................................................................................... 6 4.2 IEEE 802.3ae XGMII – 10Gb Media Independent Interface ................................ 7 4.3 IEEE 802.3ae PHY Families ................................................................................... 8 4.4 IEEE 802.3ae XAUI – 10GbE Attachment Unit Interface ................................... 10 4.5 IEEE 802.3ae PMD Sublayers ............................................................................. 12 4.6 IEEE 10GbE Port Types ....................................................................................... 12 The Challenges of Packet Processing .......................................................................... 12 5.1 Stress Point 1 – lngress Packet Buffer ............................................................... 12 5.2 Stress Point 2 – Packet Classification ................................................................ 13 5.3 Stress Point 3 – Traffic Management ................................................................ 15 5.4 Stress Point 4 – Control Plane ........................................................................... 16 5.5 Stress Point 5 – Multicast Replication and Queues ........................................... 17 5.6 Stress Point 6 – Ethernet Switch Backplane Interconnect ................................ 17 Conformance vs. Interoperability ................................................................................ 18 6.1 Definition of Conformance ................................................................................ 18 6.2 Definition of Interoperability............................................................................. 19 6.3 Interoperability and Conformance .................................................................... 20 6.4 Necessity of Conformance ................................................................................. 21 Developing the Right Test Methodology..................................................................... 23 The A-PLUS Test Methodologies ............................................................................... 26 8.1 The Basis for Layer 2 and Layer 3 Testing.......................................................... 26 8.2 Assuredness and Interoperability Utilizing Industry Standards ........................ 27 Layer 2 Testing with RFC 2889................................................................................... 28 9.1 Fully Meshed Throughput, Frame Loss and Forwarding Rates ......................... 28 9.2 Partially Meshed: One-to-Many/Many-to-One................................................. 30 9.3 Partially Meshed: Multiple Devices ................................................................... 33 9.4 Partially Meshed: Unidirectional Traffic ............................................................ 35 9.5 Congestion Control ............................................................................................ 38 9.6 Forward Pressure and Maximum Forwarding Rate .......................................... 40 9.7 Address Caching Capacity .................................................................................. 43 9.8 Address Learning Rate ....................................................................................... 45
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South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 9.9 Errored Frame Filtering ..................................................................................... 48 9.10 Broadcast Frame Forwarding and Latency .................................................... 50 Layer 3 Testing with RFC 2544................................................................................... 52 10.1 RFC2544/1242 Concepts and Terminology ................................................... 52 10.2 Throughput .................................................................................................... 54 10.3 Frame Latency ................................................................................................ 57 10.4 Frame Loss Rate ............................................................................................. 58 10.5 Back-to-Back Frames...................................................................................... 60 10.6 System Recovery ............................................................................................ 62 10.7 Reset .............................................................................................................. 63 IEEE EFM Overview ................................................................................................... 64 IEEE EFM Testing ....................................................................................................... 65 12.1 EFM OAM Conformance Testing ................................................................... 66 12.2 EFM P2P Protocol Conformance Testing ....................................................... 66 12.3 EFM EPON Protocol Conformance Testing .................................................... 66 12.4 EFM Optical PMD Conformance Testing ....................................................... 68 12.5 EFM OAM Interoperability Testing ................................................................ 68 12.6 EFM P2P Interoperability Testing .................................................................. 69 12.7 EPON Interoperability Testing ....................................................................... 70 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 71 References .................................................................................................................... 72 Glossary ....................................................................................................................... 74

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South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC)

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SCABC Project Summary

The South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) has contracted the services of A-Plus Community Solutions (A-PLUSCSI) to provide systems performance and validation services for the eight county middle-mile broadband initiative. This optical backbone network will span Butler, Crenshaw, Conecuh, Dallas, Escambia, Lowndes, Macon and Wilcox counties in the state of Alabama. The principal purpose of the network is to bring economic development to the region by providing high capacity data transport and serve as the foundation for wide area access to the rural community.

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Abstract

The importance of last mile interoperability for broadband networks indicates that there is a necessity for comprehensive testing and documentation of interoperability for optical networks. Only through demonstrated testing and documentation are network components, equipment manufacturers, and service providers are able to bring last mile optical services to subscribers in the most cost-effective, efficient and successful manner. A-Plus Community Solutions (A-PLUSCSI) has sixteen years of experience with Ethernet interoperability, compliance testing and usage which have helped to contribute to the methodologies and metrics by which Ethernet technology can be judged. The knowledge gained by testing and deploying IP technologies are applied to the development of interoperability testing strategies for last mile optical technologies including point-to-point optical subscriber access networks and passive optical networks (PON). A primary emphasis and focus will be placed on how interoperability applies to Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) for interoperability is necessary at layers including component-tocomponent, system-to-system, and vendor-to-vendor. Strategies and suggestions for successful testing and implementation of these tests will be presented on a case by case basis. Only through a concerted effort and focus on interoperability will optical last mile technologies gain the appreciation and respect of its vendors, providers and end users. Second generation of 10GbE products have arrived, with substantial packet processing capabilities that enable additional services. Key functions in this technology include performing the necessary packet classification, header modification, policing of flows, and queuing/scheduling all at wire-speed rates. Amendments to the IEEE Standard 802.3-2008 extends Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs) operation to 10 Gb/s providing both symmetric, 10 Gb/s downstream and upstream, and asymmetric, 10 Gb/s downstream and 1 Gb/s upstream, data rates. It specifies the 10 Gb/s EPON Reconciliation Sublayer, 10GBASE-PR symmetric and 10/1GBASE-PRX Physical Coding Sublayers (PCSs) and Physical Media Attachments (PMAs), and Physical Medium Dependent sublayers (PMDs) that support both symmetric
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adoption and penetration of the technology. These concepts take on even more importance when dealing with a network that extends the last mile or first mile to the subscriber within a community network. and for split ratios of 1:16 and 1:32. the number of interoperability and conformance issues will decline. every attempt should be made to achieve this goal. These problems can be eliminated more quickly if the proper Copyright © 2011.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) and asymmetric data rates while maintaining complete backward compatibility with already deployed 1 Gb/s EPON equipment. interoperability and conformance have the ability to help foster the acceptance and success of the new technology. Recently.3 Working Group has been actively developing a standard for PON and P2P last mile optical networks as well as last mile copper networks utilizing SHDSL and VDSL physical layers. Together. designing and ultimately deploying a new technology. The EPON operation is defined for distances of at least 10 km and at least 20 km. Although there are several technologies available. which is the integration of products based on an accepted standard. there will be certainly be interoperability and conformance issues with EFM devices. commonly referred to as FTTx. A-PLUSCSI Page 5 of 80 . This report will address the common building blocks of 10GbE networks. An additional MAC Control opcode was also defined to provide organization specific extension operation. 3 Introduction Interoperability or the lack of thereof. All of these last mile technologies are being developed under the heading of Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM). Equally important is the concept of conformance. there have been community initiatives to create optical community networks. The ultimate goal of any technology that wishes to be highly successful should be that a device from any company will interoperate with a device from another company. Community networks with deployments in xDSL and DOCSIS technologies have been in existence for a number of years. which will help to increase the success. As with any new technology. and will provide multiple comprehensive test procedures to test and validate performance of the network various stress points. Although such a reality may not be readily feasible. Over time as the technology matures. identifies various stress points within the network. or when vendors have implemented proprietary features which may not be recognized in the standard. and it is not uncommon for vendors to produce products which may not be conformant to the standard. two of the architectures are point-to-point (P2P) optical fiber and point-to-multipoint (P2MP) passive optical networks (PON). especially when pre-standard products are produced and deployed. is one of the most important factors to consider when developing. Any new technology will have its share of interoperability problems. The IEEE 802.

Preserve minimum and maximum FrameSize of current 802. Such an effort can be helped by the development of a set of comprehensive standards based conformance tests and agreed upon scenarios under which interoperability must be achieved. Specify an optional Media Independent Interface (MII).1 The IEEE 802. Support a speed of 10. & 40km over SingleMode Fiber (SMF) Copyright © 2011. Besides raising the speed bar to 10. at least 2km.3/Ethernet frame format at the MAC Client service interface. Define two Families of PHYs.000 Gb/s at the MAC/PLS service interface 2. WAN PHYs. with the possible exception of Hamming Distance. and then corrected. Support full-duplex operation only. LAN PHYs. Preserve the 802. operating at a data rate of 10.000 Gb/s. operating at a data rate compatible with the payload rate of OC-192c/SDH VC-4-64c 3.3ae 10 GbE standard were to: 1. if the EFM industry comes together with a concerted and organized effort to demonstrate interoperability and conformance to each other. a. A-PLUSCSI Page 6 of 80 . Define a mechanism to adapt the MAC/PLS data rate to the data rate of the WAN PHY 4. f. the main objectives of the 802. 10km. c. Support star-wired local area networks using point-to-point links and structured cabling topologies.3ad (Link Aggregation) g. it is just much faster.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) measures are taken. a. Support proposed standard P802. and then to the public. Define two Families of PHYs.000 Gb/s b. 4 4.3 Standard. at least 65m & 300m over installed MultiMode Fiber (MMF) b. d. b. Interoperability problems will only be discovered. Meet 802 Functional Requirements.3ae Objectives First and foremost 10 GbE is still Ethernet. a.3ae 10GbE Standard IEEE 802. e.

support only full-duplex operation (dropping the requirement for the CSMA/CD protocol). maintain the maximum and minimum rate size of the 802.3ae 10Gb Media Controls Copyright © 2011. as well as clock and control signals. The IEEE 802.3 standard and.3 Standards Committee shall work with SC25/WG3 to develop appropriate specifications for any new fiber media.3ae standard has been focused on defining the physical layer of 10 GbE.2 IEEE 802. because the transmission medium of choice is fiber optics. In total the interface is 74 bits wide. A big portion of the work done by the IEEE 802.3 Standards Committee was able to preserve the Ethernet frame format. Support fiber media selected from the second edition of ISO/IEC 11801. or 10 Gigabit Media Independent Interface. The XGMII provides full duplex operation at a rate of 10 Gb/s between the MAC and PHY. which defines that the IEEE 802. Figure 1: IEEE 802. A-PLUSCSI Page 7 of 80 .3ae XGMII – 10Gb Media Independent Interface Between the MAC and the PHY is the XGMII. Each direction is independent and contains a 32-bit data path.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 5. 4.

The two types of PHYs are solely distinguished by the PCS.5 Gbaud would require costly technical issues to be solved and raise the development cost of effective serial implementation. Serial LAN PHY . which corresponds to OSI Layer 2. In general the properties of the PHY are defined in the Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS) which is responsible for the encoding and decoding functions. A-PLUSCSI Page 8 of 80 . The position of this in the 10GBASE-W architecture is shown in Figure 1. which corresponds to Layer 1 of the OSI model. It was therefore decided to employ a more efficient 64B/66B code. Copyright © 2011. LAN and WAN. however it was soon realised that the resulting 12. The WAN PHY has an extended feature set added onto the functions of a LAN PHY. 4.5 Gb/s with a coded line rate of 3. An Ethernet PHYsical layer device (PHY). The WIS maps the output of the serial PCS into a frame.uses a physical coding sublayer (PCS) based on four channels or lanes of 8B/10B coded data. Each lane operates at 2. The 802. and processes the frame overhead including pointers and parity checks.For this PHY an additional sub-layer known as the WAN Interface Sub-layer (WIS) is required between the PCS and the serial PMA.for connection to 10 Gb/s SONET/SDH .3125 GBaud.3ae specification defines two PHY types.95328 Gb/s.initially it appeared attractive to reuse the 8B/10B code used with Gigabit Ethernet. LAN PHY . WAN PHY . There are two types of LAN PHY: • • WWDM LAN PHY . which reduced the serial baud rate to 10. Ethernet architecture further divides the PHY (Layer 1) into a Physical Media Dependent (PMD) and a Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS).for native Ethernet applications.125 Gb/s. The line rate is 9.3 IEEE 802.there is one type of WAN PHY: • Serial WAN PHY .South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Ethernet is fundamentally a Layer 2 protocol. based on SONET/SDH practice and vice versa.3ae PHY Families Two new physical layer specifications are part of the 10 GbE standard framework: LAN PHY and WAN PHY. connects the media (optical or copper) to the MAC layer.

953 Gb/s. A mechanism to transport 10 GbE across wide area networks built around SONET/SDH was deemed required. On the other hand WAN PHY wraps the 64B/66B encoded payload into a SONET concatenated STS-192c frame in order to generate a data rate of 9.3ae Physical Layer Focus & Definition The LAN PHY and WAN PHY differ in the type of framing and interface speed.3125 Gb/s (the MAC runs at 10. Serial LAN PHY (10GBASER) adopts Ethernet framing and the data rate is 10.3125 Gb/s which does not match the speed of SONET/SDH.). thus it cannot be transported as it is over wide area networks based on SONET/SDH.953 Gb/s. Copyright © 2011. the dominant technologies deployed in optical transport networks. A-PLUSCSI Page 9 of 80 .3125 Gb/s.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Figure 2: IEEE 802.000 * 66 / 64 = 10. WAN PHY is the IEEE answer to adapt 10 GbE data rate to the speed of SONET/SDH. LAN PHY has a line rate of 10.000 Gb/s and by adding the coding redundancy of 64B/66B the effective line rate becomes 10. So why do we need WAN PHY? The traditional optical transport infrastructure is based on the SONET/SDH protocols which operate at a speed of 9.

or "frozen garden hose") drops with their BNC connectors used?? Well. but rather we can think of WAN PHY as a SONET-friendly variant of 10 GbE.4 IEEE 802. as defined by ANSI.k.a. half-duplex Ethernet technologies. 4. it does need the Carrier-Sensing Multiple-Access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) protocol that defines slower. WAN PHY is not strictly SONET compliant. In addition to these PMDs the standard introduces two new families of physical layer specifications (a. The XGMII is a 74 signal wide interface (32-bit data paths for each of transmit and receive). this is the same thing only faster. in which a point-to-multipoint (P2MP) network topology is implemented with passive optical splitters. EFM also introduces the concept of Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs). a. is the XGMII. as well as the SDH VC-4-64c container specified by ITU. a mechanism for network Operations. Copyright © 2011. 100BASE-LX10 extends the reach of 100BASE-X to achieve 10 km over conventional single-mode two-fiber cabling. combines a minimal set of extensions to the IEEE 802. most applications want the extender for both physical workability. The XAUI is not mandatory. PHYs in the IEEE lingo) to support LAN as well as WAN applications. Remember the old AUI's that ancient Ethernet (over large coax. and for adaptation to Fiber Connectors. The relationships between these EFM elements and the ISO/IEC Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model are shown in Figure 2. As a result of the standardization effort.3 Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC Control sublayers with a family of Physical Layers.a. Ethernet for subscriber access networks.k. and the interface. because the XGMII can be used to directly attach the Ethernet MAC to its PHY! However. Administration. PMDs) to operate at various distances on both single mode and multimode fibers. also referred to as “Ethernet in the First Mile. The optical specifications as well as the timing and jitter requirements remain substantially different from the SONET/SDH protocols. yet 10GbE remains true to the original Ethernet OSI Model. and Maintenance (OAM) is included to facilitate network operation and troubleshooting. The XAUI is an interface extender.” or EFM. along with extensions to the MAC Control sublayer and Reconciliation Sublayer as well as optical fiber PMDs to support this topology. Since 10GbE is a full-duplex only. A-PLUSCSI Page 10 of 80 .3ae XAUI – 10GbE Attachment Unit Interface The XAUI (pronounced “Zowie”) is the 10GbE MDI. various optical interface types have been defined (or in IEEE jargon.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) The purpose of WAN-PHY is to render 10 GbE compatible with SONET STS-192c format and data rate. In addition. which it extends. various Physical Medium Dependent sublayers. These Physical Layers include optical fiber and voice grade copper cable Physical Medium Dependent sublayers (PMDs) for point-to-point (P2P) connections in subscriber access networks.

By arranging four serial lanes. or to extend. Conversion between the XGMII and XAUI interfaces occurs at the XGXS (XAUI GbE Extender Sublayer). and extends the functional reach of the XGMII by approximately another 50 cm. The XAUI is a full duplex interface that uses four (4) self-clocked serial differential links in each direction to achieve 10 Gb/s data throughput.5 times that used in Gigabit Ethernet. A-PLUSCSI Page 11 of 80 . self-clocked serial bus directly evolved from Gigabit Ethernet. The XAUI interface speed is 2. Copyright © 2011. The XAUI employs the same robust 8B/10B transmission code of Gigabit Ethernet to provide a high level of signal integrity through the copper media typical of chip-to-chip printed circuit board traces.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) The XAUI may be used in place of. Additional benefits of XAUI technology include its inherently low EMI (Electro. The self-clocked nature eliminates skew concerns between clock and data. The XAUI is a low pin count. the 4-bit XAUI interface supports the ten-times data throughput required by 10 Gigabit Ethernet. Each serial link operates at 3.Magnetic Interference) due to it’s self-clocked nature The XAUI is the actual physical interface for GbE. and has 70 pins.125 Gb/s to accommodate both data and the overhead associated with 8B/10B coding. the XGMII.

or even service outage. 4. jitter. Copyright © 2011. discuss and address the conditions that might push the network towards a strained state.5 IEEE 802.1 Stress Point 1 – lngress Packet Buffer The ingress packet buffer is a temporary repository for arriving packets waiting to be processed by the packet processor.3ae PMD Sublayers The proliferation of PMD sublayers promoted by the standard may sound confusing at first. resulting in intermittent (poor) latency. A-PLUSCSI Page 12 of 80 . Depending on the architecture and efficiency of the packet processor. data in the packet buffer could build up.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 4.6 IEEE 10GbE Port Types 5 The Challenges of Packet Processing A-PLUSCSI has determined the most common stress points within a 10GbE network. The approach chosen by IEEE can be explained with the intent to offer the cheapest optical technology possible for a particular application. packet loss. and will examine. but each PMD has different technical characteristics in order to support different fiber media and operating distances. 5.

IPv4. The required degree of packet parsing and processing is one of the main criteria that identifies the class of a switch/router. in some cases. A simple Layer 2-3 switch only inspects the L2 header (i. 5. Generally. However. Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM) devices or equivalent technologies are used to map these keys to addresses. requesting it to stop passing packets. complex applications or routing protocols may require multiple key searches to drive a look-up result.. the buffer in any part of the system can build up for two reasons: Local or downstream devices are exceeding their allocated processing budget. performs limited flow classification. arriving 64-byte packets must be deposited into buffer memory every 67 nanoseconds (ns).South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) In most architectures. multiple ingress ports on a switch/router contending for an egress port. and are capable of holding millions of entries and performing key searches in a matter of few internal clock cycles. If the packet flow continues and the flow control signal is not removed by the packet processor before the MAC device’s buffer fills up. Thus.e. and then do a route look-up to decide where to forward it. These keys are then used to address various tables. VLAN). or There is contention for resources for instance. and departing packets must be retrieved from buffer memory every 67ns. leading to unpredictable behavior in a switch or router. separate classification sequences may be required to determine what to do with a packet. and. to process a stream of back-to-back 64-byte packets. IPv6). and the L3 header (i. the MAC device will start dropping packets. This special packet is called a pause frame.. when packet buffers begin to fill beyond a preset threshold. but it does not solve the packet loss problem completely. MAC header. the packet processor may perform an ACL look-up first to decide whether to forward or deny a packet. The MAC device then transmits a special packet requesting remote ports to delay sending packets for a period of time.e. Furthermore. Classification maps information from the packet header to information stored in local tables maintained by a control plane processor (see "Stress Point 6: Control plane"). A-PLUSCSI Page 13 of 80 . at 10 Gbps speeds. the packet processor initiates flow control to the upstream MAC device. In most high-end architectures. For example. This helps prevent buffer overflow. Buffer buildup can create a chain reaction.2 Stress Point 2 – Packet Classification Packet classification is one of the most susceptible stress points. Another challenge in packet buffering for 10GE switches is dealing with back-to-back small packets. Copyright © 2011. the packet buffer memory subsystem must support a write and a read every 67ns. The packet processor parses various fields in the packet header to construct search keys. For example. It might also perform a flow control look-up to provide enhanced services.

Flow classifiers track the protocol state of each flow as the connection develops. A “flow” is a collection of one or more packet streams. MPLS switching or Ethernet bridging. since many protocols establish connections and negotiate services on well-known Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) ports and then establish another ephemeral port to transfer the data for the network session. In addition to complex packet classification. A-PLUSCSI Page 14 of 80 . Flow classification provides a level of granularity that allows policies to be established based on the applications.88 million packets/sec 12.02 million packets/sec 12. flow classifiers perform stateful analysis of packets within the packet streams. Table 1 – Maximum packet arrival rates over 10-Gigabit Ethernet Wire rate LAN throughput for minimum-size packet Ethernet IPv4 Ethernet IPv6 Ethernet Over MPLS IPv4 Ethernet Over MPLS IPv6 14. In some classes of switches/routers. A more complex example is a Layer 2 VPN Martini Draft packet with frames arriving over Ethernet in a wide range of dispositions.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Complex packets might require the classification of multiple L2-L3 headers for a given packet. as shown in Figure 3. including IPv4 routing. flow classification might be required to provide enhanced services and policies. Packets of a given protocol may be encapsulated within one or more tunnels of varying protocols.25 million packets/sec 10.25 million packets/sec Copyright © 2011. Figure 1 – Packets may be encapsulated in tunnels of varying protocols Flow classification. Any number of combinations of Layer 3 and Layer 4 information could be employed to define the QoS or security policies that are then enforced. a system supporting IPv6 over GRE requires two Layer 3 headers (IPv4 and IPv6) in addition to the Layer 2 MAC addresses. This is important. This makes it possible to track control connections on well-known ports that spawn data connections on ephemeral ports. For example. in addition to packet classification.

or MPLS stacks with Ethernet header..e. WFQ allows packets from lower priority queues to be interleaved with higher priority traffic into the switch fabric." on page 18. or destination port. 5. On the ingress line card. Table 1 shows the worst-case performance packet arrival rate for small packets. using a packet discard algorithm like Random Early Detection (RED) or Weighted RED (WRED) for IP traffic. and TCP) the classification process might require multiple accesses to the look-up table for each packet. Classification table information is typically stored in a lookup table. since the queues are guaranteed access to the switch fabric for a predefined proportion of the time. latency and bandwidth guarantees.3 Stress Point 3 – Traffic Management The traffic management function provides advanced queuing. that is. Other products use mechanisms such as Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) to statistically multiplex packets into the fabric. This additional bandwidth is called speedup. congestion management. IPv6 over IPv4. how traffic prioritization is handled and how different traffic flows are merged through the fabric. A-PLUSCSI Page 15 of 80 .South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Look-ups and Performance. IP header. the traffic manager may need to make discard decisions based on the availability of queue space. When processing encapsulated packets or packets with multiple L2/L3 headers (i. Packet discarding is also part of traffic management. a back-toback Ethernet packet with an IPv6 datagram requiring ACL and flow look-up might require 7–8 look-ups per packet. and varying congestion levels. this is called strict priority queuing. The architecture of a switch/router can affect how the network behaves in times of heavy demand. This prevents the higher priority traffic from completely blocking the lower priority traffic. An important concern is how packets are queued as they enter the switching fabric. Communication from line card to switch fabric requires additional flow control information. and hierarchical scheduling of network traffic for large numbers of flows. See "Speed-up. For example. During times of congestion. creating overhead and increased bandwidth. It forwards traffic according to a user-defined set of rules pertaining to priority levels. Some products forward all high-priority packets before any lower-priority packets. It also provides the packet buffering required to perform instructions with any queuing mechanisms used to manage traffic flow across the switch fabric. usually held in a large TCAM or equivalent technology. this will require the network to handle approximately 96 million look-ups/sec. priority. Depending on the packet arrival rate and number of required look-ups per packet. Copyright © 2011. the packet processor or the classification device could become a resource bottleneck. With 12 million packets arriving per second.

The control processor can read/write to any location in the forwarding table. A-PLUSCSI Page 16 of 80 . perform diagnostics. Small numbers of queues are common for class-based queuing. etc. the control plane would not be called upon to modify more than a few thousand routes per second in response to a routing protocol update. Queues established on a per-flow basis provide the possibility for each user session to get its own queue. and policy for a given flow. During ordinary system operation and moderately stressed conditions. and most importantly. such as user configuration. Copyright © 2011. as well as many system management operations. This document focuses only on how the control and data plane interact for the purpose of packet processing. The look-up and table management operation is asynchronous. rather than on higher level information such as application or protocol type. synchronizes. policies. Layer 2 tables. while the system is at the same time forwarding data plane packets. for example). table flushing in route flaps. to initialize. diagnostics. to set up or update routing tables. background diagnostics. and other memories to support route removal and addition. configure. and QoS/CoS tables. However. BGP. console port. In a distributed architecture. Systems with large numbers of queues facilitate more granular prioritization and greater fairness. where each line card has its own control plane processor. network management. network management (SNMP). 5. a large number of CoS and QoS policies requires large amounts of memory and hierarchical schedulers capable of handling hundreds of thousands of flows. The route table may be updated by the control plane processor while the packet processor is performing a look-up. However. a master control plane processor typically generates. etc.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Some routers and switches are fundamentally limited by the small number of queues they have for QoS. and distributes routing tables and other information among line cards for local forwarding decisions. which limits prioritization and fairness. Class-based queuing typically prioritizes traffic based on the Layer 2 header (virtual LAN and source or destination MAC address. The control plane processor runs the switch/router’s operating system and is responsible for the operation of network routing protocols (OSPF. context memory. IS-IS.4 Stress Point 4 – Control Plane The control plane processor handles the routing and switching control plane. IGRP). hundreds of thousands of routes may be modified each second while packets are still arriving on each interface at up to line rate. during error conditions. or a topology alteration known as route flapping or route convergence. The control plane path interconnects the management processor(s) with various data plane blocks. statistics and alarm collection and reporting.

This method relieves the ingress line card from performing packet replication. Speed-up is a common way to reduce input and output blocking by running the Ethernet switch faster than the external line rate. A 10GE line card that supports 15 Gbps to the switch fabric offers 50 percent speedup. if the Ethernet switch runs twice as fast as the external line. The first stage handles the branch replications from one ingress line card to multiple egress line cards. input blocking. However. and is typically accomplished on the egress line card.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Therefore. and output blocking. For example. sufficient speed-up can guarantee that every cell is immediately transferred to the output port. A-PLUSCSI Page 17 of 80 .6 Stress Point 6 – Ethernet Switch Backplane Interconnect Although most switch architectures for modern systems are non-blocking. and thus reducing the delay of each cell through the switch. three types of blocking can limit performance when multiple ingress ports are contending for an egress port: Head-of-Line (HOL) blocking. New generation switches take advantage of the natural multicast properties of a crossbar switch and perform cell replication within the fabric by closing multiple cross points simultaneously. that is. in conjunction with a scheduling algorithm. the traffic manager can transfer two cells from each input port. as it accesses the data plane to forward the replicated packets. Modern switch architectures employ Virtual Output Queuing (VOQ).5 Stress Point 5 – Multicast Replication and Queues The biggest challenge in handling multicast packets is packet replication. determining how fast a switch/router can update its routing table requires a testing platform that can create/modify hundreds of thousands of route updates per second while performing normal data plane operation. including requests for permission to transmit. These scheduling algorithms require the traffic manager device and the switch fabric to exchange information. In fact. First-Out (FIFO) queue. The additional bandwidth required to support VOQ and related scheduling algorithms is called speed-up. granting of permissions to transmit. and other information. the second-stage replication on the egress line card can still cause resource starvation and congestion. Packet replication is generally accomplished in two stages. VOQ. eliminates most blocking issues. 5. and two cells to each output port during each cell time. as well as contention with unicast packets. Speed-up. 5. Depending on the switch architecture. The advantage of speed-up is obvious — it offers more predictable delay and jitter across the switch ports by delivering more cells per cell time. the packet replication function could cause resource starvation in memory and CPU processing. where its departure time can be precisely scheduled. forwarding packets at line rate. HOL blocking can waste nearly half a crossbar switch's bandwidth if the cells waiting at each input are stored in a single First-In. The second stage handles the leaf replications. Copyright © 2011.

Interoperability An understanding of the concepts of conformance and interoperability is of paramount importance when deciding which technologies should be deployed in the network. Additional statements within IEEE 802. and each shall statement should have an associated PICS item.3 include recommendations (should. but also an understanding of the similarities and differences between conformance and interoperability and how they relate to the various pitfalls associated with these concepts.1 Definition of Conformance A device is said to be conformant. and two devices that are interoperable are not necessarily conformant.3 are set apart from the rest of the text by a shall statement. The supplier of any component or system that is said to conform to a particular clause or set of clauses must fill out the PICS associated with each clause that is relevant for that device. may not). Each Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sublayer. it is desirable for an independent third party to verify the legitimacy of such a claim by performing a set of conformance tests. or with all devices. which are Copyright © 2011. a Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS). it may not be interoperable under all conditions. State diagrams are often included along with the supporting text in order to clearly and concisely describe the behavior of certain protocols or functions. Physical Coding Sublayer (PCS). In many instances.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 6 Conformance vs. 6. should not) and options (may. and are necessary for a device to be considered conformant. The PICS section allows the supplier to fill out a form indicating which options and mandatory portions of the standard have actually been implemented for a particular device or component. All mandatory portions of IEEE 802. to a standard if it has properly implemented all of the mandatory portions of that standard. it is possible that while one device may interoperate with another device under a certain set of conditions. and Reconciliation Sublayer (RS) has a PICS section that must be filled out. it does not guarantee that the device is conformant to every item that has been checked off. Each PICS item should have an associated shall statement. Adherence to the mandatory state diagrams and portions of the text needs to be verified for every component and device before a statement of conformance may be issued.3 includes at the end of every chapter. All statements that say something shall or shall not happen are mandatory. Only exhaustive testing and documentation can help to ensure that devices are both conformant to the standard. It should be stressed that even though these PICS forms do exist and are completed by the supplier of a device. or compliant. or clause. and interoperable with the vast majority of available products. Additionally. IEEE 802. The PICS sections include a unique item for all mandatory features of the specification. it is possible that two devices that are conformant to the standard will not necessarily be interoperable. Not only are the definitions of these concepts important. For example. A-PLUSCSI Page 18 of 80 .

each of which needs to be compliant to the respective part of the standard. In many instances. thermal. sustain. the conditions over which interoperability must exist can and should be derived from the standard. in any given full system. there are likely to be components from a number of different suppliers. The document specifies the Copyright © 2011. or another component. Whether it is an optics module. A common set of guidelines must be developed and accepted by the industry as a whole so that claims of interoperability from one vendor will have been made under the same circumstances as another competing vendor. on the device in question. 6. under a given set of conditions. So in order to claim the interoperability of a set of devices. power. Testing and verification is necessary at the component and system level to provide proof that a device is truly conformant. Additionally. A-PLUSCSI Page 19 of 80 . it should be noted that the worst-case conditions do not always exist on a given link between two devices. including those conditions that may be less stressful than the worst-case conditions. Using IEEE 802. and the level of performance over which the above criteria must be maintained. However.3ae. the statement that two devices work under worst-case conditions does not necessarily imply that the two devices will work under all conditions. and if necessary. a joint effort between the UNH – IOL and 10 Gigabit Ethernet Alliance (10GEA) created documentation specifying the means and metrics by which 10 Gigabit Attachment Unit Interface (XAUI) devices should be tested. 10 Gigabit Ethernet. nor are they always defined as realistic conditions. Recently. While a standard may not always explicitly define these criteria. The set of criteria may include: definitions of the communications channel over which interoperability testing will take place.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) usually based off of the PICS. This is usually written in such a manner as to define a particular Bit Error Ratio (BER) that must be supported over these conditions. the standard will define the worst-case conditions over which a device must be able to properly operate. it is necessary to first establish an accepted set of criteria that will be used to judge these claims. it is imperative that all PICS items are re-evaluated to ensure that conformance has not been compromised due to board layout. Additionally. SERDES chip. MAC chip. tear down a link while maintaining a certain level of performance. specifications of the type or amount of data that will be transmitted and received over the channel. events that trigger when certain defined states or conditions have been reached or completed. or other problems that may arise when the components are incorporated into the system. and thus allowing the end-user to fairly evaluate one product over another. during the development of IEEE 802. When all of the components are put together into a full system.3 as an example. This definition is somewhat more problematic and complicated than the definition of conformance. the devices are able to successfully establish. testing must be done to verify that the individual components conform to the standard.2 Definition of Interoperability Two or more devices are said to be interoperable if. it is typically an external organization that defines an initial set of interoperability criteria.

among other reasons. with a higher split ratio. 6. This document was used as the basis for all XAUI interoperability testing.3ah specifies an optional mechanism for Forward Error Correction (FEC) that can be implemented on an EPON. so. will have no impact on interoperability. does the risk of having interoperability problems. Various implementations are allowed to exist to. All frames transmitted in this protocol must not exceed a size of 64-bytes. and the two devices will interoperate over the greatest length of fiber. the ability to interoperate over the same conditions as previously stated will have been altered. are not interoperable.3 – 2002 defines a frame-based flow control protocol. Although the standard may define the interfaces of a layer and its requirements. one of the two devices. A device that claims to be conformant should. These four different options would provide for four very different examples of interoperability. and thus supplying the industry with a common set of criteria from which to judge interoperability. have implemented all of the mandatory portions of the standard. the data that will be sent over the channel. the duration of the test. by definition. or similarly. In the other cases. when both the OLT and ONU have implemented FEC. Other options may exist that do have a large impact on the interoperability of two devices. too. With the ability and desire to have multiple implementations comes the potential to have implementations that although conformant.3 Annex 31B within IEEE Std. it does not define nor make an attempt to define how such interfaces and requirements are implemented by a designer. there will be no problems observed due to this difference. There are some options that. For example.3 Interoperability and Conformance As previously stated. When a device is receiving one of these frames however. it may optionally accept protocol frames that are larger than 64-bytes in length. when one or fewer of the two devices has implemented FEC. The draft implies that the FEC may be used by the both the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU). having either conformance or interoperability does not necessarily imply that the other also exists. It is likely that a shorter length of fiber or a fewer number of splits Copyright © 2011. A-PLUSCSI Page 20 of 80 . A recent draft of IEEE P802. the results will be the best. promote competition and in many cases it is necessary for designs and implementations to be available from multiple sources before a technology can be successful. whether implemented or not. In the first example.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) channel over which testing is to be performed. IEEE 802. 802. It is possible for two conformant devices that have implemented options differently to have interoperability problems. The ability to implement multiple options is another inhibitor of interoperability. having been defined and agreed upon by a large group of participating companies and individuals. If one device does accept the larger frames and the other device does not. or neither of them. and the pass/fail criteria of the test. The implementation of such an option will not impede on the interoperability between two conformant devices that only transmit 64-byte frames. As the number of optional features increases.

3 Clause 57 the Operations Administration and Maintenance (OAM) protocol. This introduces the concept that not all mandatory portions of a standard need to be treated equally. in IEEE 802. and to predict conformance problems based on interoperability results. There are multiple scenarios in which this statement can be made true. That being said. it is often difficult to determine what features need to be implemented as specified in the standard so that interoperability problems will not arise. requires that at most ten OAM frames be sent each second in order to keep the OAM link alive and provide the periodic feedback of information from one device to another. It is also possible to have two devices. Over time. the database of information gained from collecting conformance results of a variety of products will allow testers and users to not only determine which conformance issues will affect interoperability. this option has the potential to significantly impact the link between the OLT and ONU. the two devices would interoperate as if they both were conformant to the same standard. As shown above. If one device. For example. the two devices would still interoperate perfectly fine. There is no part of the OAM protocol itself that would break or cease to function if additional frames were received each second. were to violate the maximum count of ten OAM frames per second and increased that value to eleven or twelve. observations were made between certain devices that roughly half of all frames transmitted from one device to another across the same optical link were dropped. An additional scenario could be that the two devices were able to interoperate but were non-conformant with features that were unrelated to interoperability. A-PLUSCSI Page 21 of 80 . one of the first steps in debugging the problem is to evaluate the results of the conformance testing. and therefore great care must be taken when deploying a network of this type such that the number of available options is either reduced or clearly presented to the end-users. when connected to each other. in the early days of Gigabit Ethernet. it is possible for two different devices to have implemented a very important mandatory feature wrongly. then they would be obviously nonconformant and highly unlikely to interoperate with other conformant devices. For example. For example. then although strictly non-conformant. it is clear that the proper implementation of some of these features is more important than others. 6. However. which are able to interoperate but are not conformant to the standard. Both devices were observed to interoperate perfectly Copyright © 2011. there are hundreds if not thousands of compliance checks that need to be validated. and it is possible that the users may not even recognize the non-conformant behavior.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) would be necessary in order to operate at the same BER as in the first case. First. but to also predict certain interoperability problems based on conformance results. but in the in a similar way.4 Necessity of Conformance Throughout the development of a complete system. or both of them. Obviously. The answers to these questions can only be found through exhaustive conformance and interoperability testing of a wide range of products and implementations. When two devices fail to interoperate with each other. if two devices both reversed the bit ordering of their frames.

For those features that are clearly defined in the standard. For various political and technical reasons. On a link that sent randomly sized traffic. while not interchangeable concepts. and in cases that the conformance issue existed. conformance testing is fairly straightforward and interoperability issues that arise from those features can usually be explained in a timely fashion. The IEEE 802.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) with other devices. and products that are unable to interoperate with others or conform to the defined standard are usually weeded out as more and more implementations become available. it may be considered out of the scope of what the standards body is allowed to do. but not with each other. the interoperability problem was observed. a single standards body may not define some features of a technology. however. however. which was an observable interoperability problem. which are the beginning bytes of the frame that have traditionally been used for synchronization of the receiving clock. that as a technology matures. It has been shown that conformance and interoperability. approximately half of the transmitted frames could be sent with six bytes of preamble. that one of the keys to identifying and solving interoperability problems is defining and implementing a comprehensive set of both conformance and interoperability tests. The conformance testing provided the cause of the lost frames. Additionally. thus accounting for the large frame loss. Certain devices implementing this PCS. the number of device pairs that were tested since then Copyright © 2011. It is clear. An environment that has a large number of vendors competing to make similar products is more likely to lend itself to an interoperable and conformant technology than an environment with only a small number of players. and solution of various interoperability problems. the development of pluggable optics modules. One such example. After this discovery. are nonetheless related to each other in an often strange and difficult to define manner. A-PLUSCSI Page 22 of 80 . The cause of the problem was discovered through the conformance testing. can be shown through a number of Multi-Source Agreements (MSA). Early implementations are often replaced by more rugged and stable implementations. The development and acceptance of these test procedures and the observations of the test results can be powerful tools to aid in the documentation. In many cases. analysis. It can be expected. the conformance issue also existed. it was observed that in most instances that the frame loss occurred. It is important to note that even though the number of interoperability problems virtually disappeared by the end of 1999. were not capable of receiving frames with six bytes of preamble and would discard those frames. it is important that all interested parties come together to define implementation agreements that can be tested against and followed to maximize the likelihood of interoperability. the number of interoperability and conformance problems should decrease. An even greater problem lies within those features that are not dealt with by the standard.3 Clause 36 PCS allowed for frames to be transmitted with either six or seven bytes of preamble. When this occurs. a strong push from the community to require vendors to demonstrate interoperability and conformance helps to foster this type of environment.

The need for proven interoperability does not diminish as time goes on. Our test methodology will address multiple layers. The ability to perform prioritization based on QoS markings. This test determines the DUT's maximum IPv4 Layer 3 forwarding rate with packet loss and latency for different packet sizes. Layer 2 throughput. In the real world.1p priority bit value on the ingress port. The DUT must perform packet parsing and route look-ups for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 packets on the ingress port and then modify the header Copyright © 2011. The DUT must perform a Layer 2 address lookup. because companies are constantly developing new devices. The ability to filter packets at wire-speed based on MAC addresses. Wire speed multicast performance. and then modify the header before forwarding the packet on the egress port. check the 802. firmware. 3. 2. it is necessary for the supplier to demonstrate its interoperability and conformance before it will be purchased and placed into the existing network architecture. and will include test parameters for: Wire speed unicast data throughput and latency for Layer 2/3 traffic.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) shows there was a strong desire from the Gigabit Ethernet community to continue to demonstrate interoperability. 1. or a combination of these (N-tuple). Layer 2 bidirectional throughput and latency test. This test determines the Device Under Test’s (DUT’s) maximum Layer 2 forwarding rate without traffic loss as well as average latency for different packet sizes. When a new product is introduced to an environment where interoperability and conformance are expected. contending for backplane capacity and causing over-subscription. and upgrading hardware. this is the best-case scenario for switch performance. Our test methodology is broken out into component and system-level testing. because there is no contention for the switching fabric. This test is performed full duplex with traffic transmitting in both directions. The ability to police traffic based on user-defined rate limits. QoS. send it to the designated queue. and software on their existing equipment. The ability to handle Head-of-Line blocking (HOL). The worst-case scenario is when all traffic entering the switch must traverse the switching fabric. TCP or UDP ports. local switching occurs on the module. IP addresses. 7 Developing the Right Test Methodology Understanding the stress points within a network allows the development of a test methodology that can focus on testing of these areas. and latency test. Layer 3 (IPv4) performance test with ACL and latency. This test determines the DUT's maximum Layer 2 forwarding rate with packet loss and latency for different packet sizes. This is significant. A-PLUSCSI Page 23 of 80 . The DUT must perform packet parsing and Layer 2 address look-ups on the ingress port and then modify the header before forwarding the packet on the egress port.

On the ingress side. The simulation calls for groups of simulated hosts to respond to IGMP/MLD router-generated queries and to generate reports automatically at regular intervals. The ACL test involves blocking or allowing traffic through. packet metering. Layer 3 (IPv6) performance test with ACL. OSPF emulation is used to generate OSPF LSAs to construct topological databases. This is because we know that the switch is designed to handle wire-speed Layer 3 IPv4 packets. and policing. QoS values in each header force the classification of the traffic. In addition to test 5 above. based on the TOS field setting. This may mean that packet classification for IPv6 addresses may take more clock cycles. the classification and table look-up functions will require more bandwidth and processing. Layer 3 (IPv4) performance test with ACL. 6. Copyright © 2011. 7. it could be used for packet shaping. Stress Points 1 and 2 show that a high level of strain is to be expected. QoS. except that it runs IPv6 traffic with a minimum-size packet of 84 bytes instead of 64 bytes. A-PLUSCSI Page 24 of 80 . this QoS policy could also be used for assigning a packet to a specific queue. on the egress side. this QoS policy could also be used for assigning a packet to a specific queue. which points to the line card function that services the different priority queues. packet metering. 4.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) before forwarding the packet on the egress port. Ixia routing emulation software is used to populate the DUT's routing table. Layer 3 (IPv6) performance test with ACL and latency. QoS values in each header will force the classification of the traffic based on IP Type of Service (TOS) field settings. and latency. based on user-defined classifiers such as IP addresses or Layer 4 port numbers. In addition to test 3 above. For example. in Row 6 (Layer 3 IPv6 performance. Row 1 (Component-level. This test methodology is the same as the previous Layer 3 IPv4 with ACL performance test. it could be used for packet shaping. As an example. and policing.. but not IPv6. addresses its expected impact on the different stress points mentioned earlier in this document. on the egress side. On the ingress side. which may require more buffering on the ingress. except for Stress Point 3. ACL and QoS). in Table 1. Full duplex Layer 2 performance and latency. This test uses a multicast protocol such as IGMP (IPv4) or MLD (IPv6) to set up multicast sessions between a multicast transmitter and groups of receivers. with prioritization): all stress points show low or no stress. A multicast protocol emulation can be used to simulate one or more hosts while the DUTs function as IGMP/MLD routers. A number of IGMP groups are randomly shared across a group of hosts. However. A-PLUSCSI anticipants performing test procedures based on the following tables which represents our test methodology. and baseline reports based on the network's design criteria. Due to the larger IPv6 header. Multicast test. 5. and latency. QoS.

it needs to modify the routing table as packets continue to arrive on each interface. A-PLUSCSI Page 25 of 80 . but also in Stress Point 6 (the control processor). Copyright © 2011.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Table 1 – Component-level test methodology and stress points With system-level testing. additional strain will occur with the traffic management and switching functions (Stress Points 3 and 4) because of a high level of traffic contending for backplane switching capacity. with route flapping). Because of route flapping. row 4 (Mesh Layer 3 IPv6. shows additional strain not only in Stress Points 3 and 4. For example.

A-PLUSCSI Page 26 of 80 . However. To justify equipment choices and offer the highest quality services. the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. By testing at Layer 2 before Layer 3. Layer 2 Ethernet switches forward traffic. NEMs market their equipment to service providers and enterprises. network equipment manufacturers increase their success rate in development testing and quality assurance while using in-house tools. NEMs also need third-party tools for unbiased. Layer 2 switches are simple compared with sophisticated switches and routers operating at Layer 3 and higher.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Table 2 – System-level test methodology and stress points 8 8. also called network frames. existing equipment can be retested in the lab using the same RFC-based test Copyright © 2011. But even Layer 3+ switches usually have a “Layer 2 mode. it is often preferable to assure that switches and networks operate at lower layers before testing at upper layers of the OSI stack. Layer 2 switching is associated with the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) of the standard of network programming. across various network segments. service providers and enterprises should test according to accepted standards. hard results of switch performance. After the equipment is deployed in live networks.1 The A-PLUS Test Methodologies The Basis for Layer 2 and Layer 3 Testing The Layer 2 Ethernet switch is one of the most common networking devices.” In fact. Once assured of an acceptable level of performance and scalability. Forwarding is based on information in the frame’s Ethernet header.

hard results of switch performance. Since routing is associated with the Network Layer (Layer 3) in the standard model of network programming. A-PLUSCSI Page 27 of 80 . along with different frame sizes and traffic loads.2 Assuredness and Interoperability Utilizing Industry Standards NEMs. manufacturers make their equipment available to their customers: service providers and business customers. also called routers. also referred to as enterprises. the RFCs together define reliable. Typically. A router may create or maintain a table of available routes and their conditions and use this information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a packet.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) tools. RFC 2285 (Benchmarking Terminology for LAN Switching Devices). The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet based on its current understanding of the networks. 8. They also need third-party tools for unbiased. RFC 2889 (Benchmarking Methodology for LAN Switching Devices) is for local area switch testing. network equipment manufacturers increase their success rate with in-house tools for development testing and quality assurance. the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. service providers and enterprises should quantify the performance of the Layer 2 switch by following industry standards. Port patterns such as full mesh and partial mesh (backbone) are specified. The tester must introduce simulated network traffic to the Layer 2 switch and take measurements on ports that receive traffic. With its companion. The best test tools easily create these “traffic prescriptions” and provide intuitive. By understanding the techniques to test. After deployment into live networks. Copyright © 2011. existing equipment can be re-tested in lab environments using the same RFC-based test tools. To justify their equipment choices and have the best network services possible. Regression testing allows users to compare baseline results with results obtained after the equipment or switch is updated with the latest firmware. Layer 3 switch manufacturers are not always sure how to test according to the wellestablished methodologies. repeatable methods for evaluating Layer 2 switch performance in 10/100/1000 Mbps and 10Gig Ethernet. users can compare baseline test results with results after equipment is updated with new versions of switch firmware. Once assured of an acceptable level of performance and scalability. meaningful results for accurate and timely reporting. By performing regression testing. determine the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination. a packet may travel through many network points with routers before arriving at its destination. Layer 3 switches. service providers and enterprises need to test per accepted standards before purchasing decisions are made.

Please refer directly to these documents as needed. 2. Both RFC 2544 and this document refer to terms defined in RFC 1242. Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address. 9 9. With its companion. The throughput test will determine the maximum load at which the DUT/SUT will forward traffic without frame loss. From all test ports. This test is more stressful and exacting than a simple forwarding rate test.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) One of the first steps to quantify the performance of the Layer 3 switch is to follow industry standards. RFC 2544 (Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices) is for Layer 3 switch testing. Test Steps 1.1 Layer 2 Testing with RFC 2889 Fully Meshed Throughput. using various loads. round-robin fashion through the DUT/SUT to every other test port. Frame Loss and Forwarding Rates Objective To determine the throughput. 3. and verify them. send L2 Learning frames to the DUT. frame loss and forwarding rates of the DUT/SUT’s offered fully meshed traffic as defined in RFC 2285. fully exercises the forwarding tables and reveals weaknesses in resource allocation mechanisms. The forwarding rate test will determine the maximum number of frames per second the DUT/SUT can forward. Traffic pattern shown below: Copyright © 2011. It measures the DUT/SUT’s forwarding rate and throughput on each of the recommended RFC 2889 frames sizes. Overview This test will determine if the L2 switch can handle a full mesh of traffic (from all-ports to all-ports) at various traffic loads. Fully meshed traffic stresses the switch fabric. Benchmarking Terminology for Network Interconnection Devices. repeatable methods for evaluation of Layer 3 switch performance using 10/100/1000 Mbps and 10 Gig Ethernet. the RFCs together define reliable. Traffic will then be sent from every test port in a full mesh. Ensure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. which does not penalize a switch that drops an occasional packet at all offered loads. A-PLUSCSI Page 28 of 80 . RFC 1242 (Benchmarking Terminology for Network Interconnect Devices).

Continue binary search until maximum traffic load is achieved without frame loss. e. Port #7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 1 2 . • Flood count. 1280 and 1518.. increase traffic load if no frame loss. Increase the load and rerun the test. d. Port #8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 . a starting traffic load and a 30-second test duration. Port #5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 . • Throughput (maximum load with no frame loss) for each frame size.. c.. A-PLUSCSI Page 29 of 80 . and a 30-second test duration. 512. Observe the number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards. 256.. Determine if all packets are received. Repeat steps 1 to 5 for each remaining recommended frame size: 128. Test Parameters • Frame sizes (including CRC): Recommended are 64.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Source Port Destination Ports (order of transmission) Port #1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 … Port #2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 3 4 5 … Port #3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 4 5 6 … Port #4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 5 6 7 . d.. 512. Test Output • Forwarding rate (maximum frames per second) for each frame size and for each load.. Repeat steps b and c until the maximum configured load is completed. a relatively low traffic load. 5.. Using 64-byte packets. 1024. Port #6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 1 . Report the maximum number of test frames per second that the device is observed to successfully forward to the correct destination interface at each specified load. Using a binary search algorithm. Report the maximum load (throughput) the device successfully forwards without frame loss. 6.. 1518. 1280. 128. Run throughput test: a. • Burst size between 1–930 frames (1 = constant load). 1024.. • Load per port in percentage (%).. b. b. Run forwarding rate test: a. Using 64-byte test packets. • Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300). send packets as described in Step 3. 4. • Full or half duplex (10M/100M). 256. send packets as described in Step 3. c. Copyright © 2011. and decrease traffic load if frame loss occurs.

00% util) Maximum Forwarding Rate (MFR) = 22.203% util) ILoad = 33.324 frames/sec (40.237. such as allowing small amounts of acceptable frame loss.0 Max = 100.322 (frames/sec) Forwarding Rate at Maximum Offered Load (FR-MOL) = 22.190.00 (% util) Starting Full Mesh Throughput Test (Start = 100.083.190.0 Min = 0.000% util Frame Loss Rate = 0.878 bps (40.848 bps (50.000% util) ILoad = 50.083.813% util Frame Loss Rate = 0. • Use different frame sizes from 64 to 1518 bytes.305 bps (33. A-PLUSCSI Page 30 of 80 .475.094.813% util) 9.203% util Frame Loss Rate = 0.5 Offered load = 76.322 (frames/sec) at MOL of 76.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 833.936 bps (32. • IP/UDP header (TOS/TTL/Port#).South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Longer trial/iteration duration.000% util) ILoad = 100.0 Res = 0. • Define Pass/Fail criteria.999.00% util) Offered Load = 76.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 416. • Tagged frames (802. Sample Results Starting Full Mesh Forwarding Rate Test Frame Length = 64 Offered Load = 15.084 bps (100.190.999.2 Partially Meshed: One-to-Many/Many-to-One Copyright © 2011.936 bps (32.000003 (1 frame) Offered load = 24.000000 (0 frames) Offered load = 25.5) Frame Length = 64 Throughput test parameters: Start = 100.656 frames/sec (20.083.0 Min = 0.000002 (1 frame) Offered load = 38.000% util Frame Loss Rate = 0.084 (bps) 100.084 bps (100.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 2.1p&Q).813% util) ILoad = 32.000005 (1 frame) Binary search complete: Throughput is 224.939 bps (20.00% util) Offered Load = 30. • Use multiple frame sizes in the same test/iteration to simulate realistic traffic.0 Resolution = 0.297.322 frames/sec (100.0 Max = 100.

Caution should be used in the many-to-one test to avoid oversubscribing the “one” port.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Objective To determine the throughput when transmitting from one-to-many ports or from many-toone port. 6. or from many-to-one. 1280. b. c. 256. Increase the load and rerun the test. • Test type – One port to many ports. The port patterns provide a unique challenge to each of the three main logic sections of the switch: the ingress data path interface. 7. Test Steps 1. 2. To measure the capability to switch frames without frame loss and determine the ability to utilize a port when switching traffic from multiple ports. The test port(s) will send traffic through the DUT/SUT to the other test port(s). 256. 512. One-to-many – One port to many ports. 4. Report the maximum number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards to the correct destination interface at each specified load. send packets as determined by steps 3. 5. 512. 1280 and 1518. Run forwarding rate test: a. Many-to-one – Many ports to one-port. 1518. c. b. Test Parameters • Frame sizes (including CRC): Recommended are 64. send L2 learning frames to the DUT and verify them. 4 and 5. 128. Repeat steps b and c until the maximum configured load has been completed. and. 3. Copyright © 2011. Reverse – Opposite direction of one-way. Determine direction of traffic flow: a. the switch fabric that connects the ingress ports to egress ports. Overview This test will determine the forwarding rate of the L2 switch when traffic is sent from oneto-many ports. Repeat steps 1 to 6 for each remaining recommended frame size: 128. Bi-directionally – Both directions simultaneously. • Traffic direction – One direction. 1024. The traffic patterns used are one-way. Observe the number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards. d. The traffic load will be stepped up on each iteration to determine the maximum forwarding rate of the DUT. a relatively low traffic load and a 30-second test duration. the egress data path interface. reverse or bidirectional. From all test ports. or many ports to one port. reverse direction or both directions. One-way – Unidirectional traffic flow. Determine test type: a. Using 64-byte test packets. e. The test will be run for each of the RFC 2889 recommended frame sizes. Ensure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. A-PLUSCSI Page 31 of 80 . Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address. 1024. b.

Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300).88% util) Offered Load = 2.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 148.150 bps (100.00% util) Offered Load = 5. • IP/UDP (TOS/TTL/Port#).00% util) MFR = 1148.385 frames/sec (1. • Use multiple frame sizes in the same test/iteration to simulate realistic traffic.00% util) Offered Load = 1. such as allowing for a small amount of acceptable frame loss. Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Longer trial/iteration duration.212 bps (10.829.00 (% util) Starting Forwarding Rate Test Direction = One (Many to One) Frame Length = 64 Offered Load = 1. Load per port in percentage (%).442.875 bps (2.329 frames/sec (3.642 frames/sec (30.808 (frames/sec) FRMOL = 1148.880 frames/sec (10. A-PLUSCSI Page 32 of 80 . • Tagged frames (802.808 frames/sec (100.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 74.150 (bps) 100.1p&Q).00% util) Forwarding Rate = 14.750 bps (4.84% util) Copyright © 2011.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) • • • • Burst size between 1–930 frames (1 = constant load). • Flood count. Test Output • Forwarding rate (maximum frames per second) for each frame size and for each load.442. • Use different frame sizes from 64 to 1518 bytes.636 bps (30.632.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 36. Sample Results Starting Forwarding Rate Test Direction = Reverse (One to Many) Frame Length = 64 Offered Load = 544. Full or half duplex (10M/100M).414.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 44. • Define Pass/Fail criteria.808 (frames/sec) at MOL of 55.

659. as described in Step 3 of the first test on Page 1 (Fully Meshed Throughput. ON indicates traffic will be sent from every test port in a full mesh. Frame Loss and Forwarding Rates).587 frames/sec (7. frame loss and forwarding rates of two switching devices equipped with multiple ports and one high speed backbone uplink. A-PLUSCSI Page 33 of 80 . The forwarding rate test will determine the maximum number of frames per second the DUT/SUT can forward using various loads.428 frames/sec (5. can handle traffic from all ports on the “local” DUT across the backbone link to all ports on the “remote” DUT.244. send L2 learning frames to the DUT and verify them.76% util) Offered Load = 5.626 bps (6. b. Ensure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. This serialization delay is incurred for every hop along the path. Using 64-byte test packets.587 (frames/sec) Forwarding Rate at Maximum Offered Load (FR-MOL) = 1145. Run forwarding rate test: a. Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address. a relatively low traffic load and a 30-second test Copyright © 2011.53% util) Maximum Forwarding Rate (MFR) = 1145. and vice versa. Determine local traffic ON or OFF: a. Overview This test will determine if two L2 switches. From all test ports. OFF indicates traffic will be sent in a round robin fashion from every test port on the “local” DUT to all ports on the “remote” DUT. Test Steps 1. 4. round-robin fashion through the DUT/SUT to every other test port. RFC 2889 permits turning local traffic ON to create a full mesh traffic pattern (from all ports to all ports).659.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 111. This test measures the DUT/SUT’s forwarding rate and throughput on each of the recommended RFC 2889 frames sizes.3 Partially Meshed: Multiple Devices Objective To determine the throughput.587 (frames/sec) at MOL of 5.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 145. connected by one high-speed backbone link. Forwarding rates can be affected by the serialization time or packet transmission time per switch hop if packets are stored several times between source and destination. 2.501(bps) 8. 3.00 (% util) 9.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Offered Load = 4. The throughput test will determine the maximum load at which the DUT/SUT will forward traffic without frame loss.501 bps (8.

1280 and 1518. Increase the load and rerun the test. • Throughput (maximum load with no frame loss) for each frame size. • IP/UDP header (TOS/TTL/Port#). Test Outcome • Forwarding rate (maximum frames per second) for each frame size and for each load. Continue binary search until maximum traffic load is achieved without frame loss. such as allowing for a small amount of acceptable frame loss. a starting traffic load and a 30-second test duration. 512. e. 1518. 128. • Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300). • Use different frame sizes from 64 to 1518 bytes. 6. d. Sample Results Starting Partial Mesh Multiple Devices Forwarding Rate Test Local Traffic = Yes Copyright © 2011. • Define Pass/Fail criteria. • Tagged frames (802. send packets as described in Step 3. • Burst size from 1–930 frames (1 = constant load). 1024. b. Observe the number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards. • Use multiple frame sizes in the same test/iteration to simulate realistic traffic. c. Repeat steps 1 to 5 for each remaining recommended frame size: 128. Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Longer trial/iteration duration. • Flood count. Determine if all packets are received. 256. • Load per port in percentage (%). A-PLUSCSI Page 34 of 80 . Using a binary search algorithm. c.1p&Q). d. increase traffic load if no frame loss and decrease traffic load if frame loss occurs. Run throughput test: a Using 64-byte packets. Test Parameters • Frame sizes (including CRC): Recommended 64. 1024. 512.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) duration. • Full or half duplex (10M/100M). Report the maximum load (throughput) the device successfully forwards without frame loss. 256. 5. send packets as described in Step 3. 1280. Report the maximum number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards to the correct destination interface at each specified load. Repeat steps b and c until the maximum configured load has been completed. b.

475.190.000% util Frame Loss Rate = 0.368.322 frames/sec (100.864 frames) Offered load = 38.00% util) MFR = 22.662 frames/sec (20.237.047. Copyright © 2011.190.000% util) ILoad = 50.00% util) Offered Load = 30.084 (bps) 1100.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 2.00 (% util) Starting Partial Mesh Multiple Devices Throughput Test Local Traffic=No Frame Length = 64 Throughput Test Parameters: Start = 100.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Frame Length = 64 Offered Load = 15.083.324 frames/sec (40.484% util) ILoad = 21.844 bps (21.484% util Frame Loss Rate = 0.500% util Frame Loss Rate = 0.000% util Frame Loss Rate = 0.000006 (1 frames) Offered load = 9.4 Partially Meshed: Unidirectional Traffic Objective To determine the throughput of the DUT/SUT when multiple streams of one-way traffic using half of the ports on the DUT/SUT are sending frames to the other half of the ports.5 (17.5 Offered load = 76.084 bps (100.500% util) ILoad = 12.084 bps (100.083.094.000% util) ILoad = 25.000013 (4 frames) Offered load = 19.844 bps (21.000% util Frame Loss Rate = 28.609 bps (12.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 833.939 bps (20.000000 (0 frames) Binary search complete: Throughput is 116.368.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 416.083.190.855. A-PLUSCSI Page 35 of 80 .0 Max = 100.322 (frames/sec) at MOL of 776.000000 (0 frames) Offered load = 16.219 bps (25.484% util) 9.00% util) Offered Load = 76.878 bps (40.848 bps (50.0 Min = 0.0 Resolution = 0.000% util) Intended Load (ILoad) = 100.322 (frames/sec) FRMOL = 22.523.

South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Overview This test will determine how the L2 switch handles traffic in one direction from one half of the test ports destined to the other half of the test ports. send packets as described in Step 3. Ensure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. and determine if all packets are received. Repeat steps 1 to 5 for each remaining recommended frame size: 128. and a 30-second test duration. The forwarding rate test determines the maximum number of frames per second the DUT/SUT can forward. d. 1024. Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address. a relatively low traffic load. send packets as described in Step 3. 6. Traffic is then sent in one direction from one half of the test ports destined to the other half of the test ports. using various loads. b. Using 64-byte test packets. Traffic must be sent in a round-robin fashion. c. b. Using 64-byte packets. Increase the load and rerun the test. 256. Copyright © 2011. e. and verify them. a starting traffic load and a 30-second test duration. Using a binary search algorithm. This test measures the forwarding rate and throughput of the DUT/SUT for each recommended RFC 2889 frames size. c. Observe the number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards. A-PLUSCSI Page 36 of 80 . Test Steps 1. From all test ports. 3. Report the maximum load (throughput) the device successfully forwards without frame loss. 1280 and 1518. as shown below: Source Test Ports Destination Test Ports (transmission order) Port #1 567856… Port #2 678567… Port #3 785678… Port #4 956785… 4. Run forwarding rate test: a. d. This traffic pattern simulates a common network topology in which half of the users on a network are transmitting to each of the other half of users. increase traffic load if no frame loss and decrease traffic load if frame loss occurs. Continue binary search until maximum traffic load is achieved without frame loss. Run throughput test: a. 512. The throughput test determines the maximum load at which the DUT/SUT forwards traffic without frame loss. 5. Repeat steps b and c until the maximum configured load has been completed. 2. send L2 Learning frames to the DUT. Report the maximum number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards to the correct destination interface at each specified load.

00% util) Offered Load = 15. A-PLUSCSI Page 37 of 80 . Sample Results Starting Partial Mesh Unidirectional Forwarding Rate Test Frame Length = 64 Offered Load = 7.00% util) Offered Load = 38. 512.095.095.0 Min = 0. • Full or half duplex (10M/100M). 1280. • Flood count. 1518. 256.237.052 bps (99. • IP/UDP header (TOS/TTL/Port#). • Define Pass/Fail criteria.095. • Burst size from 1–930 frames (1 = constant load).00% util) Forwarding Rate = 208. • Use different frame sizes from 64–1518 bytes. such as allowing for a small amount of acceptable frame loss.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 1. • Tagged frames (802. • Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300).052 (bps) 100.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Test Parameters • Frame sizes (including CRC): Recommended are 64.0 Max = 100.000% util Copyright © 2011. • Throughput (maximum load with no frame loss) for each frame size.052 bps (100.1p&Q). 1024. • Use multiple frame sizes in the same test/iteration to simulate realistic traffic.00% util) Forwarding Rate = 416.661 frames/sec (100.00% util) MFR == 11041661 (frames/sec) FRMOL == 11041661 (frames/sec) at MOL of 338. Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Longer trial/iteration duration.5 Offered load = 38. Test Outcome • Forwarding rate (maximum frames per second) for each frame size and for each load.00 (% uutil) Starting Partial Mesh Unidirectional Throughput Test Frame Length = 64 Throughput Test Parameters: Start = 100.041.662 frames/sec (40. • Load per port in percentage (%).969 bps (20.618. 128.0 Resolution = 0.999% util) Intended Load (ILoad) = 100.331 frames/sec (20.939 bps (40.

HOLB can restrict the switch’s average forwarding performance. send L2 Learning frames to the DUT. whether the device implements congestion control and whether congestion on one port affects an uncongested port. A minimum of four test ports and four DUT ports are required.” It is present if there is no loss on the congested port.3x flow control or sending preamble bits. frame loss from the receiving ports and maximum forwarding rate per frame size.095. and verify them. A switch without HOLB will not drop packets destined for uncongested ports. Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address. Make sure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration.5 Congestion Control Objective To determine how a DUT handles congestion. Copyright © 2011. but by throwing away the majority of traffic destined for the congested port. the other two are receivers Note: Multiple groups of four ports can be added to the test. This results in buffer overflow and packet loss for traffic streams forwarded over uncongested and congested ports. If HOLB is present. Two egress DUT ports will receive the traffic. A-PLUSCSI Page 38 of 80 . one (uncongested port) receiving 50 percent of the total 200 percent.999% util) 9. The DUT may be trying to impede the test equipment from transmitting the frames as by using 802. Back pressure is defined in RFC 2285 as “any technique used by a DUT/SUT to attempt to avoid frame loss by impeding external sources of traffic from transmitting frames to congested interfaces. A packet destined for an uncongested output port can be forwarded only after all packets ahead of it in the queue are forwarded.052 bps (99. regardless of congestion on other ports. Head of line blocking (HOLB) is present if the DUT is losing frames destined for the uncongested port. Overview The DUT’s ability to handle oversubscription on an egress port will be determined.00 (0 frames) Binary search complete: Throughput is 338. Measurements provided comprise offered load from the transmitting ports. 2. Full duplex testing is assumed. packets are queued in a buffer at the input port or within the switch fabric. The DUT correctly handles this by not having HOLB or back pressure. From all test ports.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Frame Loss Rate = 0. and the other (congested port) receiving the remaining 150 percent. 3. Test Steps 1. Two test ports will transmit at 100 percent wire rate into the DUT. Two test ports are transmitters.

Test Outcome • Frame loss percentage. 1518. • Use multiple frame sizes in the same test/iteration to simulate realistic traffic. for example using 802. Run forwarding rate/frame loss test: a. 128. • Load per Tx port = 100 percent. One transmitter will send all of its traffic to one of the receiver ports. • Define Pass/Fail criteria. 1024. Using 64-byte test packets for 30-second test duration. 512. If frame loss is present on the uncongested port. • Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300). 512. Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Longer trial/iteration duration. If no frame loss is present on the congested port. 256. then “head of line” blocking is present. The DUT is unable to to forward traffic to the congested port and. and the other half to the other receiver port. 1280 and 1518. • Full or half duplex (10M/100M). 256. The second transmitter will send half of its traffic to one receiver port. c. as a result. Report the number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards. a. 8. Traffic is then sent from both transmitter test ports at 100 percent load. send packets as in Step 4.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 4. This will produce one of the 2 receiver DUT ports (the uncongested port) receiving 50 percent traffic from one transmitter. • IP/UDP header (TOS/TTL/Port#). it is also losing frames destined for the uncongested port. 6. A-PLUSCSI Page 39 of 80 . then back pressure is present and must be reported.1p&Q). and must be reported. b. • Tagged frames (802. 1280. and the second receiver DUT port (the congested port) receiving 150 percent of the traffic. • Use different frame sizes from 64–1518 bytes. The DUT may be trying to impede the test equipment from transmitting the frames. Report the frame loss rate (% of loss) on both the congested and uncongested port(s). Repeat steps 2 to 7 for each remaining recommended frame size: 128. on both the congested and uncongested port(s). Test Parameters • Frame sizes (including CRC): Recommended are 64. b.3x flow control or sending preamble bits. 1024. 7. • Minimum interframe gap must be used between frames in single burst. 5. • Forwarding rate (maximum frames per second) for each frame size. Copyright © 2011.

in this test. is similar to the forwarding rate test as described in the methodology on Page 28 of this journal.618 fps FLR = 885. Switches that transmit with less than a 96-bit interframe gap violate the IEEE 802. The first part of the test. Overview This section of the RFC comprises two tests. 9. maximum forwarding rate. the minimum forwarding rate used should be the result of the throughput test as derived from the test on Page 28. However.3 standard allows for no less than 96 bits.13% Head of line blocking not observed in any port blocks.3 standard and gain an unfair advantage over other devices on the network.00% Port 1 → Port 4 (congested) FR = 110. Note: Groups of two ports can be added to the test.190. stresses the DUT by sending it traffic at higher than wire rate load. Copyright © 2011.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Sample Results Starting Congestion Control Test Frame Length = 64 Intended Load (ILoad) = 100.190.105 bps (100. Back pressure not observed in any port blocks. should properly transmit per the standard with a 96-bit interfame gap.73% Port 2 → Port 4 (congested) FR = 1138. forward pressure.197 fps FLR = 77.6 Forward Pressure and Maximum Forwarding Rate Objective The forward pressure test overloads a DUT/SUT port and measures the output for forward pressure. Other switches may not interoperate properly with the switch in violation. If the DUT transmits at less than 96 bits. Measurements are taken of the maximum forwarding rate per frame size. then forward pressure is detected. A-PLUSCSI Page 40 of 80 . then forward pressure is detected and must be reported. using an interframe gap of 88 bits when the IEEE 802. Port 3 and Port 4) Transmit Port 1 Offered Load = 76.00% util) Port 1 → Port 3 (uncongested) FR = 774.00% util) Transmit Port 2 Offered Load = 76. The second part of the test.105 bps (100. The maximum forwarding rate test measures the peak value of the forwarding rate when the load is varied between the throughput value derived from the first test on Page 28 (Fully Meshed Throughput. Test Steps 1. Port 2. If the DUT/SUT transmits with an interframe gap less than 96 bits.A minimum of two test ports and two DUT ports are required. The DUT.0 Port Block 1 (Ports: Port 1. on the egress port.404 fps FLR = 00. Frame Loss and Forwarding Rates) and the maximum load.

128. 1280 and 1518. • Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300). Report the maximum number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards to the correct destination interface at each specified load. 1024. 1280. send unidirectional traffic from one test port through the DUT/SUT to the other test port. Copyright © 2011. c. A-PLUSCSI Page 41 of 80 . e. 512. Using 64-byte test packets and a 30-second test duration. send unidirectional traffic from one test port through the DUT/SUT to the other test port. d. and verify them. using an interframe gap of 88 bits. If the throughput value equals the maximum load (100 percent). then the maximum forwarding rate is equal to maximum load (100 percent). • Iteration step size as small as possible (increments of 1 percent). Repeat steps b and c until the maximum load has been completed. 256. and a 30-second test duration. Therefore. Using 64-byte test packets. From each test port. this test is not necessary to complete. a. Forward pressure test: a. include: • Starting load equal to result from throughput test in the first test (Fully Meshed Throughput. • Full or half duplex (10M/100M). 3. 1024. The rate should not exceed the link’s theoretical (96-bit gap) utilization or else forward pressure must be reported. Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 2. b. 1518. Frame Loss and Forwarding Rates) on Page 28 of this journal. Measurements of maximum forwarding rate per frame size are taken Note: Results per port pair should be reported if using multiple groups of two ports. b. Ensure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. 512. 256. The forwarding rate on the receiving port is measured. Maximum forwarding rate test: Note: The Fully Meshed Throughput test starting on Page 1 must be run first to achieve the throughput value for each frame size. Increase the load using as small a load increment as possible and re-run the test. 6. Observe the number of test frames per second the device successfully forwards. The load for each frame size is greater than the link’s theoretical utilization. send L2 Learning frames to the DUT. c. 4. Repeat steps 2 to 7 for each remaining recommended frame size: 128. • For forwarding rate test. 6. Test Parameters • Frame sizes (including CRC): Recommended are 64. the traffic load equal to the throughput value achieved in Step 1.

Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Longer trial/iteration duration.309.81% util) Forwarding Rate = 393.00% util) Forwarding Rate == 11. This should be derived for each frame size.81% util) Offered Load = 37.81% util) Forwarding Rate = 341. • Use different frame sizes from 64 to 1518 bytes.357. • Use multiple frame sizes in the same test/iteration to simulate realistic traffic.041.876 frames/sec (37. • Define Pass/Fail criteria.961 frames/sec (42.796 frames/sec (32. • Tagged frames (802.261.721 bps (97.452 bps (42. per RFC 2889.000% util) Note: Starting “Offered load” (in this case 32.00% util) MFR == 11.499.1p&Q).608 bps (37. A-PLUSCSI Page 42 of 80 .041. • Flood count.018. such as allowing for a small amount of acceptable frame loss.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Test Outcome • Forwarding rate (maximum frames per second) for each frame size and for each load.795 frames/sec (92.81% util) Forwarding Rate = 445.81% util) Offered Load = 14. Copyright © 2011. Frame Loss and Forwarding Rates).875 frames/sec (97.81% util) Offered Load = 35.661 frames/sec (100.81% util) Offered Load = 38.81% for 64 byte frames) is equal to result of throughput test in the test starting on Page 28 (Fully Meshed Throughput.032 bps (100. • Forward pressure detected – True or false.404.968 bps (32.661 frames/sec (100.81% util) Offered Load = 16.095.81% util) Forwarding Rate = 966. Test Results Summary Starting Forwarding Rate Test Frame Length = 64 Offered Load = 12. • Use different or multiple DUT port pairs.081 bps (92.81% util) Forwarding Rate = 1.

7 Address Caching Capacity Objective To determine in the address caching capacity of a LAN switching device as defined in RFC 2285.439 fps Forward pressure not observed.8. other ports can successfully transmit to the port that was “sourced. A minimum of three test ports and three DUT ports are required. L2 learning frames are sent from the test equipment to the DUT and then verified. The maximum size of the switch forwarding table can vary from switch to switch.602 fps Max Theoretical ILoad = 148. another is the test port. b. This test will provide this maximum size and insight on preventing flooding on the network. Test packets will then be forwarded through the DUT. These tables can be built manually (hardcoded) or by the process of sourcing traffic from a port. the switch will “flood” the frames by broadcasting them to all ports on the switch (not just the intended port). This flooded traffic can cause devastating network conditions. received and flooded. When traffic is sourced from a port. the test iteration is successful. the switch updates the table with the frame’s source MAC address and the port number.” If the switch tries to transmit frames with a MAC address not found in the MAC table. A-PLUSCSI Page 43 of 80 . The binary search algorithm will determine the maximum number of addresses the DUT can handle. Section 3. Each has the same destination address. checking for flooding or misforwarding frames. 2. are created dynamically in the switch. Once in the table. Measurements are taken of learning frames sent. One of the test ports is the learning port. and the third is the monitor port. One learning frame is sent from the “test” port. If flooding of the frames is received on a third port (the monitor port). usually in the form of dropped packets. Overview Layer 2 switches forward traffic based on the destination MAC address in the Ethernet frame. If no such flooding occurs. then the DUT cannot handle the number of addresses sent. These tables provide a correlation between the MAC address and a given port on the switch. a. ‘N’ learning frames are sent from the “learning” port. Test Steps 1.1.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Starting Forwarding Pressure Test Port Pair: Port1 → Port2 ILoad = 150. 9.809 fps FR = 146. but unique source addresses. Forwarding tables. Copyright © 2011. or any other port. This test also will determine the maximum number of addresses correctly learned by the DUT. Send frames at an acceptable fps rate to the DUT. also called MAC tables.

Using a binary search algorithm. Test Parameters • DUT Age time – Time DUT will keep learned addresses in forwarding table. If the number of test frames forwarded to the learning port does not match the number sent by the test port.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Note: Make sure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. then the iteration passes. 3. then the iteration fails. ‘N’ – Number of unique address frames used per iteration. 6. if necessary. • Flood count. This will determine the size of the address cache. Copyright © 2011. of the DUT. • 50 fps or less. 4. Select the next lower ‘N’ number of addresses in the binary search algorithm and repeat steps 2 to 5. Test Outcome • DUT address caching capacity (maximum addresses cached) using search algorithm. or forwarding database. • DUT address caching capacity – Theoretical maximum. and there are no flooded frames on any port. to guarantee successful learning. destined for the learning port. • Address learning rate – Rate at which new addresses are offered to the DUT. and/or there there are flooded frames on any port. Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Source addresses sequential or non-sequential. At an acceptable rate to the DUT. • Increment by 2 or 3 ports. except with the source/destination addresses reversed (a single source address. but unique destination address). a. If the number of test frames forwarded to the learning port matches the number sent by the test port. the test port will then transmit ‘N’ test frames using the same addresses from Step 2b. Select the next higher ‘N’ number of addresses in the binary search algorithm and repeat steps 2-5. without flooding. • Initial addresses. determine the maximum number of addresses that are correctly learned and forwarded by the DUT without flooding or misforwarding any frames. The monitoring port listens for flooded or misforwarded frames. Note: A pause for x amount of seconds should be inserted before each next iteration (Step 2) so the DUT can purge/age the existing addresses. Continue with the binary search until the maximum number of addresses is found. b. A-PLUSCSI Page 44 of 80 . • Learning frames per second (higher or lower than 50 fps). • Turn off all other protocols on DUT (or you must account for them in results). 5.

Define pass/fail criteria.1p&Q). Overview Before a switch can forward L2 traffic it must learn the MAC address of the destination port. • • Sample Results Starting Address Caching Capacity Test Address Caching Loads is 2000:100:4096:1 (start:min:max:resolution) Learning rate (Intended Load) is 50 fps . This test will determine the rate. test and monitor ports. o 3 ports include additional learning.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) o 2 ports include additional learning and test ports. at which addresses are correctly learned by the DUT.048 573 810 929 988 961 960 Lport Receive 1.Age time is 300 seconds Number of Addresses 2. Optimal address learning rates reduce traffic delays and promote efficient use of bandwidth.998 1. Copyright © 2011.998 1.931 81 0 0 0 6 3 0 DUT is capable of learning 962 addresses (including the 2 test port addresses) Number of addresses = Number of addresses total Tport Tx = Test port Tx addresses Lport Rx = Learning port Rx adds Tport Flood = Test port Rx flooded adds Mport Flood = Monitor port Rx adds 9. expressed in frames per second (fps). Test packets will then be forwarded through the DUT.000 1. checking for flooding or misforwarding frames. A-PLUSCSI Page 45 of 80 . o Each broadcast (VLAN) domain requires a monitor port.050 575 812 931 990 963 962 Tport Transmit 1.048 573 810 929 988 961 960 Tport Flood 977 27 0 0 0 2 1 0 Mport Flood 2.8 Address Learning Rate Objective To determine the rate of address learning of a LAN switching device. Tagged frames (802.

Select the next higher learning rate (fps) in the binary search algorithm and repeat steps 3 to 6. a. Note: Ensure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. Test Steps 1. the test port will transmit ‘N’ test frames using the same addresses from Step 3b. Note: The ‘N’ number of learning frames should be the same. 3. Determine an initial rate (fps) at which learning frames are sent to the DUT. or less. except with the source/destination addresses reversed (a single source address. 6. One test port is the learning port. and/or there are flooded frames on any port. but unique destination address) destined for the learning port. A minimum of three test ports and three DUT ports are required. If the number of test frames forwarded to the learning port does not match the number sent by the test port. b. b. Measurements are taken of learning frames sent per second. or any other port. The rate (fps) of learning frames can be increased for the next iteration. ‘N’ learning frames are sent from the “learning” port. followed by test frames. Each has the same destination address but unique source addresses. Send L2 learning frames from the test equipment to the DUT. determine the maximum learning rate (in fps) of the DUT. then the iteration fails. The number of test frames received must match the number sent. Using a binary search algorithm. 4. At an acceptable rate to the DUT. The monitoring port listens for flooded or misforwarded frames. then the iteration passes. than the maximum address capacity of the DUT as determined in the previous test (Address Caching Capacity) on Page 43.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Learning frames will first be sent into the DUT at a given rate (fps). Select the next lower learning rate (fps) in the binary search algorithm and repeat steps 3 to 6. then the DUT cannot handle the rate at which learning frames were sent. then the test iteration is successful. If flooding of the frames is received on a third port (the monitor port). Copyright © 2011. without flooding. One learning frame is sent from the “test” port. 5. A-PLUSCSI Page 46 of 80 . and there are no flooded frames on any port. a. # of addresses used. If no flooding of the frames occurs. The binary search algorithm will determine the maximum rate (fps) for which the DUT learns addresses. If the number of test frames forwarded to the learning port matches the number sent by the test port. 2. another is the test port and the third is the monitor port. # of addresses received and # of addresses flooded.

• Initial addresses – Number of initial addresses at beginning of test.500 6. o 2 ports include additional learning and test ports. • Try wire rate address learning rate.875 6. • Flood count. Continue with the binary search until the maximum learning rate (in fps) of addresses is found without flooding. • Increment by 2 or 3 ports. 7.334 6.333 Tport Transmit 962 962 962 962 962 962 962 962 Lport Receive 962 962 962 962 962 962 962 962 Tport Flood 131 56 0 27 13 0 1 0 Mport Flood 393 168 0 81 39 0 3 0 Copyright © 2011. • Tagged frames (802. Test Results Summary Starting Address Learning Rate Test Address Learning Loads is 10000:5000:10000:1 (start:min:max:resolution) Number of Learning frames is 962.000 7. Test Outcome • DUT Address learning rate (in frames per second) using search algorithm.1p&Q). o Each broadcast (VLAN) domain requires a monitor port. o 3 ports include additional learning. A-PLUSCSI Page 47 of 80 . • Use more addresses than found in Address Caching Capacity (test just prior). • Define pass/fail criteria.250 6.562 6. • The maximum addresses used should not exceed the result of the Address Caching Capacity test (test just prior) starting on Page 43.Age time is 300 seconds Learning Rate 10. test and monitor ports. o Also try less than test just prior to see if result (fps) is higher.332 6. or lowest rate (1 fps). • Address learning rate – Rate (in fps) at which new addresses are offered to DUT. Test Parameters • DUT age time – Time DUT will keep learned addresses in forwarding table.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Note: A pause for x amount of seconds should be inserted before each next iteration (Step 3) so the DUT can purge/age the existing addresses. Test Variables (Some variables not RFC 2889 compliant) • Source addresses sequential or non-sequential.

The errored packet types are: • • • • • Oversize frames – Frames above 1518 (or 1522 if VLAN tagged) in length.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) DUT is capable of learning addresses at a rate of 6. Dribble bit errors – Frames without proper byte boundary. A minimum of two test ports and two DUT ports are required. 3. Undersize frames – Frames less than 64 bytes in length. CRC errored frames – Frames with invalid CRC. CRC errored frames – Frames with invalid CRC that fail the Frame Check Sequence Validation. c. or filtered. This test will determine if errored packets are correctly forwarded. Undersize frames – Frames less than 64 bytes in length. Alignment errors – Combination of CRC errored and dribble bit errored frames. 2. Test Steps 1. Measurements will be taken of errored frames transmitted and received for each errored packet type and frame size. send unidirectional test traffic from one test port through the DUT/SUT to the other test port with the following errored frames: a. CRC errors can cause retries and delays in upper layer protocol exchanges.333 ffps. Using a predetermined load and a 30-second test duration. Learning Rate = fps rate Tport Tx = Test port Tx addresses Lport Rx = Learning Port Rx adds Tport Flood = Test port Rx flooded adds Mport Flood = Monitor port Rx adds 9. send L2 learning frames to the DUT and verify them. The results of the test indicate whether the DUT filters or forwards errored frames. A-PLUSCSI Page 48 of 80 . b. From each test port.9 Errored Frame Filtering Objective To determine the behavior of the DUT under error or abnormal frame conditions. Oversize frames – Frames above 1518 (or 1522 if VLAN tagged) in length. Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address. Overview Layer 1 and 2 switch errors can cause performance degradation. through the DUT. Note: Groups of two ports can be added to the test if desired. Note: Make sure the DUT will not “time out” addresses before the end of each test iteration. Copyright © 2011. 4.

e. o CRC errored frames – Frames with invalid CRC. type of errored packet and Tx/Rx statistics. e. 1518.1p&Q). • Use errored packet frame sizes: 64. Test Outcome • Pass/Fail – Fames size used. b. o Alignment errors – Combination of CRC errored and dribble bit errored frames. A ‘Pass’ or ‘Fail’ for each errored packet type must be reported. 6. d. The DUT must take the following actions for the above errored frames: a. 5. CRC errored frames should not be forwarded. Take measurements on the receive side. Undersize Frames must not be forwarded. Repeat steps 3 to 6 using various port loads. load. 512. • Full or half duplex (10M/100M). 1024. • IP/UDP header (TOS/TTL/Port#). 1280. b. 128. Dribble bit errors – Frames without proper byte boundary. 20. o Dribble bit errors – Frames without proper byte boundary. Test Variables (Some variables are not RFC 2889 compliant) • Tagged frames (802. • Add multiple port pairs. Test Parameters • Errored frames: o Oversize – Frames above 1518 (or 1522 if VLAN tagged) in length. measurements of frames transmitted and received are recorded.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) d. o Undersize – Frames less than 64 bytes in length. Oversize Frames should not be forwarded. Alignment errors – Combination of CRC errored and dribble bit errored frames. 7. Alignment errors must not be forwarded. 256. • Load per port in percentage (%). Dribble bit errors must be corrected and forwarded. For each errored packet type. • Use non-errored packets. a. c.0% utilization No-Error Frames Test: Passed Undersize Frames Test: Passed Oversize Frames Test: Passed CRC Errors Test: Passed Copyright © 2011. A-PLUSCSI Page 49 of 80 . • Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300). Test Results Summary Starting Errored Frames Test Frame Length = 64.

One of the test ports will transmit broadcast frames and the remaining port(s) will receive the broadcast frames. increase traffic load if no frame loss and decrease traffic load if frame loss occurs. b. The throughput test will determine the maximum load at which the DUT/SUT will forward Broadcast traffic without frame loss.10 Broadcast Frame Forwarding and Latency Objective To determine the throughput and latency of the DUT when forwarding broadcast traffic. Continue binary search until maximum traffic load is achieved without frame Copyright © 2011. Overview This test will determine if the Layer 2 switch can handle broadcast traffic from one-tomany ports at various traffic loads. A-PLUSCSI Page 50 of 80 .0% utilization No-Error Frames Test: Passed Undersize Frames Test: Passed Oversize Frames Test: Passed CRC Errors Test: Passed Alignment Errors Test: Passed Dribble Bits Test: Passed 9. are sent as broadcasts with a MAC destination address of all Frames. Network traffic. Each test port will emulate a single L2 MAC address. 4. Using a binary search algorithm. send L2 learning frames to the DUT and verify them. such as some ARPs. 3. and a 30-second test duration. Test Steps 1. as well as the latency of the traffic. Send broadcast test frames from one test port into the DUT. c. These broadcasts are intended to be received by every port on the DUT. The performance of broadcast traffic on a switch may be different than the performance of unicast traffic. 5. a starting traffic load. These frames should be forwarded through the DUT to every other test port. Run throughput test: a. 2. From each test port. send broadcast packets as described in Step 4 and determine if all packets are received.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Alignment Errors Test: Passed Dribble Bits Test: Passed Frame Length = 64. 30. for each of the recommended RFC 2889 frames sizes. A minimum of two test ports and two DUT ports are required. Using 64-byte packets. Broadcasts are necessary for a station to reach multiple stations with a single packet when the specific address of each intended recipient is not known by the sending node.

00% util) Binary search complete: Throughput is 76.190. • IP/UDP header (TOS/TTL/Port#). 6.00% util) Frame Loss Rate = (0 frames) Forwarding Rate = 148. 1024. • Each trial (or iteration) is 30 seconds (adjustable from 1–300).105 bps (100. e. • Use multiple frame sizes in the same test/iteration to simulate realistic traffic. 1518. Test Variables (Some variables not RFC compliant) • Longer trial/iteration duration. • Full or half duplex (10M/100M).1p&Q). Sample Results Starting Broadcast Frames Throughput and Latency Test Throughput Test Parameters: Start = 100.00% util) Copyright © 2011.105 bps (100. Test Outcome • Broadcast frame throughput and latency.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) loss.0 Min = 0. • Define Pass/Fail criteria.0 Max = 100. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for each remaining recommended frame size: 128. • Tagged frames (802. o Latency – Average latency. Test Parameters • Frame sizes (including CRC): Recommended are 64. 1280. • Load per port in percentage (%).190. d. Report the maximum load (throughput) the device successfully forwards without frame loss.5 Frame Length = 64 Offered Load = 76.486. 128. such as allowing for a small amount of acceptable frame loss. Report the latency of the traffic. 1280 and 1518.00% util) Avg Latency is 183. 512. 1024. o Throughput – Maximum load with no frame loss. A-PLUSCSI Page 51 of 80 .585 microseconds Frame Length = 128 Offered Load = 86. • Per frame size and load.220 bps (100.808 fps (100. 256. 512. • Burst size between 1–930 frames (1 = constant load). 256. • Use different frame sizes from 64–1518 bytes.0 Res = 0.

South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Frame Loss Rate = (0 frames) Forwarding Rate = 84,459 fps (100.00% util) Binary search complete: Throughput is 86,486,220 bps (100.00% uutil) Avg Latency is 172.883 microseconds

10
10.1

Layer 3 Testing with RFC 2544
RFC2544/1242 Concepts and Terminology

This section provides an overview of RFC 2544 and RFC 1242 concepts and terminology that are commonly used throughout the benchmark test. Device Under Test (DUT) The DUT is the network interconnect device being tested. This is typically a device that forwards traffic based on the addresses contained in the Layer 3 header, such as a gateway, router or Layer 3 switch. The actual physical configuration of the DUT could be a single chassis with one or more blades or multiple chassis with multiple blades interconnected in some way. Regardless of the physical configuration, these tests view the DUT as a single unit with multiple ports. Test results are aggregated over all ports. Topologies A test port generates traffic that simulates one or more sources. The simulated source may be on the same physical network as the DUT port (as in test ports 3 and 4 in the diagram below) in which case direct delivery is be used. Test ports may also simulate traffic that originated on a different physical network than the DUT port, so the test port simulates a network interconnect device (such as a gateway) that forwarded the message (as test ports 1 and 2 in the diagram below). In the second case, the DUT will require routing table entries to implement indirect delivery. RFC 2544 recommends the DUT immediately learn these routes using a routing protocol enabled on the DUT. This should be done prior to testing. RFC 2544 also recommends using the IP address pool 198.18.0.0 through 198.19.255.255, which have been assigned to the benchmark working group by the IANA. It has further instructions for assigning DUT port addresses and simulated router addresses on test ports. Please refer to RFC 2544, Appendix C, for a discussion of IP address assignments. Another recommendation from RFC 2544 is that tests be run with a single “stream” of traffic (single Layer 3 source and single Layer 3 destination) and then repeated using Layer 3 destination addresses randomly chosen from a pool. This is reasonable for exercising the DUT’s route lookup engine.

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South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Traffic Patterns RFC 2544 indicates that the ports on the DUT are to be divided into 2 groups, one referred to as the input port(s) and the other referred to as the output port(s). In the diagram on page 1, DUT ports 1 and 2 have been designated input ports and ports 3 and 4 have been designated output ports. RFC 2544 Traffic has the following characteristics: • For uni-directional traffic, the source and destination addresses in each test frame should result in frames being routed in an even distribution from each input port to each output port, and vice versa. This is known as a unidirectional partial mesh. • For bi-directional traffic, each port is considered a member of both the input and output groups of ports, so frames from each port are routed in an even distribution to all other ports. This is known as a bi-directional full mesh. • The test frames should be routed to the same output port in the same order. For example, the first test frame arriving at all input ports should all be routed to the first output port, the second test frame arriving at all input ports should be routed to the second output port and so on. This ensures that the DUT can handle multiple frames routed to the same port at the same time. • If a DUT blade has multiple ports, the ports should be evenly distributed between the input and output groups Traffic Content RFC 2544 specifies the use of UDP echo datagrams (destination Port 7) for IPv4 traffic. UDP echo datagrams could also be used for IPv6 traffic. Modifiers RFC 2544 identifies four modifiers to the benchmark tests. Each modifier describes a condition likely to exist in “real world” traffic. Each benchmark test defined in RFC 2544 should be run without any modifiers and then repeated under each condition separately. The modifiers listed are the following: • Broadcast Frames • Management Frames • Routing Update Frames • Traffic Filters Network traffic from a modifier should be evenly mixed with test traffic and not supplied to the DUT through a separate port. The following is a brief description of the four modifiers listed above. See RFC 2544, Section 1, for more details. Broadcast Frames Augment the test frames with 1 percent frames addressed to the hardware broadcast address. The broadcast frames should be of a type that the DUT will not need to process internally.
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South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Management Frames Augment the test frames with 1 management query at the beginning of each second of test traffic (such as an SNMP GET for one or more of the MIB-II objects: sysUpTime, ifInOctets, ifOutOctets, ifInUcastPkts and ifOutUcastPkts). The result of the query should fit into a single response frame and should be verified by the test equipment. Routing Update Frames Augment the test with routing update frames that will change the routing table in the DUT for routes that will not affect the forwarding of the test traffic. A routing update is sent as the first frame of each trial. RFC 2544 recommends sending routing update frames every 30 seconds for RIP and each 90 seconds for OSPF. The test should ensure the DUT processes the routing updates. Filters The following should be defined on the DUT. Separate tests should be run for each of the following two filter conditions: • Define a single filter on the DUT that permits the forwarding of the test traffic. This tests basic filter functionality. • Define 25 filters on the DUT. The first 24 block traffic that will not occur in the test traffic. The last filter permits the forwarding of test traffic. This ensures filters not participating in the forwarding test traffic do not negatively impact performance.
10.2

Throughput

Overview The objective of the throughput test is to determine the throughput of the DUT. Throughput is defined in RFC 1242 as the maximum rate at which none of the offered frames are dropped by the device. Objective The throughput test determines how well suited a device is to applications in which minimal frame loss is critical. Some applications, such as voice over IP or video conferencing require minimal frame loss to be useable. Other applications may be more tolerant of frame loss, although loss of a single frame may cause response time to suffer while the upper layer protocols recover from timeouts. With each trial of the throughput test, test frames are sent at a specific frame rate and the number of frames forwarded by the DUT is counted. If there is any frame loss, the rate is decreased; otherwise, the rate is increased. The trials are repeated until the maximum rate is found at which there is no frame loss. RFC 2544 does not specify an algorithm to implement, however the most common approach is a binary search algorithm. With the binary search algorithm, the first trial uses a configured initial frame rate (or percent utilization). If there is frame loss with a specific trial, the next trial uses a rate calculated as
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South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) the midpoint between the current rate and a configured minimum; otherwise, the next trial uses a rate calculated as the midpoint between the current rate and a configured maximum. The test is stopped when the difference between the frame rate of the current and previous trial is less than or equal to a configured delta. Test Steps 1. Advertise any routes required by the DUT to allow it to forward test traffic using a routing protocol supported and enabled on the DUT. Pause several seconds to allow the routes to update. If all of the destinations reside on physical networks connected to the DUT, or the DUT has static routes defined, this step may be skipped. 2. Set the current frame length to the first configured frame length. 3. Determine throughput. A typical binary search based algorithm follows: a. Set current rate to the configured initial frame rate. Set high to the configured maximum rate and low to the configured minimum rate. b. Send learning frames (IPv4 ARP or IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, for example). c. Send test traffic of the current frame length from all test ports for the configured trial duration at the rate current rate. d. Calculate frame loss as the number of frames transmitted minus the number of frames received (aggregated across all test ports). e. If frame loss is greater than zero (loss occurred), set high to current rate; otherwise, set throughput and low to current rate. f. Set delta as (high — low). g. Set current rate as low + (delta/2). h. Repeat steps “b” through “g” until either: delta is less than or equal to the configured precision, or current rate is greater than or equal to high. 4. Report the throughput for the current frame length. 5. Repeat steps 3 through 4 for the remaining configured frame lengths 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 for each desired modifier. See the Modifiers section above for a discussion of modifiers. Variations on RFC 2544 Several common variations exist to RFC 2544 procedures, which include: • Use a stepwise search, pausing the stepwise search when loss is first encountered to binary search for throughput. This variation gives a more complete profile of the DUT in a possibly shorter time (combines the frame loss rate test with the throughput test). • Allow a low level of acceptable packet loss instead of requiring zero loss. This may be used to level the playing field if a particular DUT, due to its architecture, always loses a small number of frames initially with each trial. • Add a test iteration with multiple frame lengths that simulate realistic traffic. • Identify pass/fail criteria and report a general pass or fail indicator.

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in frames per second. Samples of tabular format and graphical formatted results are shown below.349 1. autonegotiation. note the sample throughput tabular results on a DUT with 10 Mbps interfaces. the throughput value obtained using the smallest frame size should be used. An implementation of this test may also save the detailed results from each trial to allow the test engineer to investigate anomalies. • Maximum frame rate. In addition the data in the table or graph.500 2. • Minimum frame rate. uni-directional from input to output and unidirectional from output to input. Typically 100. A-PLUSCSI Page 56 of 80 . This may also be expressed as a percent of theoretical maximum.528 2. Test Outcome Throughput results reported include the frame length.197 958 812 Copyright © 2011.445 4. This may also be expressed as a percent of theoretical maximum.024 1. including IP addresses. Minimum of 60 seconds. in frames per second. • Test port configuration including speed. • Test port to DUT port mapping. data stream format. in frames per second. • Initial frame rate. Frame Length (bytes) 64 128 256 512 1. In the diagram below.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Test Parameters • Trial duration in seconds. There are 3 possibilities: bi-directional. If a single value is required to represent throughput. duplex. This identifies the number of frames sent with minimum interframe gap as a “burst” to simulate real-world bursty traffic. Typically 100. Typically 0. This may also be expressed as a percent of theoretical maximum. and type of media used in the test should also be reported.197 958 812 Throughput 13. • Set of frame lengths in bytes.200 4.280 1. etc.5. Typically 0.880 8.518 Theoretical Maximum Rate 14. the theoretical maximum rate and the observed throughput. • IP Addresses to be used in test traffic.349 1.000 8. This is often expressed as a percent of theoretical maximum. • Precision in frames per second. • Traffic direction. • Burst size. the protocol.

T2 is taken when the first bit of the frame is received by the DUT. Copyright © 2011. 11. The time at which the tagged frame is fully transmitted from the test port is recorded as Timestamp A. Header options that require processing may exist. 9. For a bit forwarding device. Overview There is a significant amount of processing that a router or Layer 3 switch must perform on each frame. A-PLUSCSI Page 57 of 80 . The latency is simply T2 . Send learning frames (IPv4 ARP or IPv6 Neighbor Discovery. For bit forwarding devices. Repeat steps 2 through 10 for each desired modifier. Transmit for the remaining duration of the trial. Repeat steps 2 through 9 for the remaining configured frame lengths. The latency is the amount of time it takes the DUT to start forwarding the frame (first bit of frame is transmitted) after receiving it. The destination address must be found in the routing table. Pause several seconds to allow the routes to update. subtract the time it takes to transmit the frame (number of bits x time for one bit). 2. Send traffic at a rate of the throughput value (determined in the throughput test) for this frame length to a specific destination. Repeat steps 3 to 8 the configured number of trials and average the latencies from each trial to get an average. this step may be skipped.T1. Advertise any routes required by the DUT to allow it to forward test traffic using a routing protocol supported and enabled on the DUT. Latency is calculated as B — A and should be adjusted for the type of device (bit forwarding or store and forward). There are fields in the Layer 3 header that must be maintained (such as the Time To Live) and verified (such as the checksum). See the Modifiers section on Page 53 for a discussion of modifiers. Timestamp T1 is taken when the frame is received by the DUT and timestamp T2 is taken when the first bit of the frame appears on the output port. After 60 seconds. 7. a frame with an identifying tag is included in the transmission. 4. T1 is taken when the last bit of the frame is received by the DUT.3 Frame Latency Objective The objective of the latency test is to determine the latency of a frame traversing the DUT. Set the current frame length to the first configured frame length. This test helps to ensure that with the ever increasing processing requirements. 8. such as record route. 5. Test Steps 1. The time at which the frame was received at the test port is recorded as Timestamp B. 6. 3. the time it takes a DUT to forward a frame is within acceptable limits. If all of the destinations reside on physical networks connected to the DUT. For a store and forward device. 10. or the DUT has static routes defined.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 10. for example).

This capability makes the RFC 2544 requirement to average 20 trials unnecessary. The chart shows sample latency tabular results.024 1. Test Outcome Latency results are to be reported in a table with one row per frame length.280 1.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Variations on RFC 2544 There are several common variations to the RFC 2544 procedures. A-PLUSCSI Page 58 of 80 . • Add a test iteration with multiple frame lengths that simulate realistic traffic. and possibly combine the latency test with the throughput test. calculating actual latency of each frame and tracking minimum. maximum and average latency of all frames transmitted in a trial. Note that the frame rates are taken from the throughput table.500 2. The latency units reported depend on the resolution of the test equipment.000 8. A typical variation on the RFC 2544 procedure is to test with a single trial. Additional columns for maximum and minimum latency may be added if supported by the test equipment.200 4. • Identify pass/fail criteria and report a general pass or fail indicator.518 10.4 Frame Rate 13. The latency measurement mechanism (store and forward or bit forwarding) must be cited.” It is typically reported as a percentage of offered frames that are dropped.197 958 812 Store & Forward Latency (microseconds) 450 480 502 562 658 704 775 Frame Loss Rate Objective The objective of the frame loss rate test is to determine the frame loss rate of the DUT over various loads and frame lengths.349 1. Frame Length (bytes) 64 128 256 512 1. Overview Frame loss rate is defined in RFC 1242 as a “percentage of frames that should have been forwarded by a network device under steady state (constant) load that were not forwarded due to lack of resources. which include: • Modern network testers are capable of “tagging” each frame. Copyright © 2011.

9. Calculate frame loss rate as: ((frames transmitted — frames received) x 100/frames transmitted). Less than 10 percent is recommended. 5. Send a specific number of frames at the current rate for this frame length for the configured duration (frame count may be calculated from duration or vice versa). Minimum of 60 seconds. • Number of frames to transmit. • Step frame rate in frames per second. A-PLUSCSI Page 59 of 80 . the trial duration is calculated. This may also be expressed as a percent of theoretical maximum. Repeat steps 2 through 8 for each desired modifier. 3. the number of frames to transmit is calculated. • Test port to DUT port mapping including IP addresses. Repeat steps 4 through 6 decrementing the current frame rate by the configured step value until either the current rate is less than the configured minimum rate or there are two successive trials during which no frames are lost. • Set of frame lengths in bytes. Pause several seconds to allow the routes to update. If this value is configured. • Identify pass/fail criteria and report a general pass or fail indicator. Test Parameters • Trial duration in seconds. Repeat steps 3 through 7 for the remaining configured frame lengths. Advertise any routes required by the DUT to allow it to forward test traffic using a routing protocol supported and enabled on the DUT. Frame counts are aggregated over all test ports. uni-directional from input to output and unidirectional from output to input. Minimum is the number of frames that result in a 60second trial duration. Copyright © 2011. • Minimum frame rate in frames per second. Set the current frame length to the first configured frame length. 6. which include: • Add a test iteration with multiple frame lengths that simulate realistic traffic. for example). See the Modifiers section on Page 2 for a discussion of modifiers. Maximum of 10 percent of maximum rate. Test Steps 1. or the DUT has static routes defined. 4. This may also be expressed as a percent of theoretical maximum. Typically 0.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) This frame loss test is useful for establishing a profile of the DUT performance over a range of frame lengths and loads to ensure consistent performance and graceful degradation. If all destinations reside on physical networks connected to the DUT. 2. If this value is configured. 7. 8. For example. • Traffic direction. Variations on RFC 2544 There are several common variations to the RFC 2544 procedures. There are 3 possibilities: bi-directional. Send learning frames (IPv4 ARP or IPv6 Neighbor Discovery. a DUT may have a throughput of 90 percent of maximum theoretical bandwidth but degrade to unacceptable performance at 92 percent. Set the current frame rate to 100 percent of the maximum rate for the current frame size. this step may be skipped.

b. Burst size. otherwise. The test is stopped when the difference between the frame count of the current and previous trial is less than or equal to a configured delta. the first trial uses a configured initial frame count. Send current count test frames of the current frame length from all test ports for the configured trial duration with minimum interframe gap. this step may be skipped. otherwise. A-PLUSCSI Page 60 of 80 .South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) • • • 10. 3. Calculate frame loss as the number of frames transmitted minus the number of Copyright © 2011. A typical binary search based algorithm follows: a. duplex. the next trial uses a frame count calculated as the midpoint between the current frame count and a configured maximum. for example). Test Steps 1. If all of the destinations reside on physical networks connected to the DUT. however the most common approach is a binary search algorithm. 2. Overview The back-to-back frames test exposes any weakness in the ability of the DUT to handle large bursts of traffic at maximum rate. If there is frame loss with a specific trial. or the DUT has static routes defined. d. With the binary search algorithm. the next trial uses a frame count calculated as the midpoint between the current frame count and a configured minimum. Set high to the configured maximum count and low to the configured minimum count. With each trial of the back-to-back frames test. Advertise any routes required by the DUT to allow it to forward test traffic using a routing protocol supported and enabled on the DUT. auto-negotiation.5 Test port configuration including speed. such as voice over IP. Back-to-Back Frames Objective The objective of the back-to-back frames test is to determine the largest burst of frames with minimum interframe gap (back-to-back frames) the DUT can handle with zero loss. This may be useful if the DUT must transport traffic that is sensitive to frame loss. If there is any frame loss. etc. Set current count to the configured initial frame count. IP Addresses to be used in test traffic. Set the current frame length to the first configured frame length. c. the frame count (or trial duration) is increased. Send learning frames (IPv4 ARP or IPv6 Neighbor Discovery. RFC 2544 does not specify an algorithm to implement. The trials are repeated until the maximum frame count is found at which there is no frame loss. Pause several seconds to allow the routes to update. the frame count (or trial duration) is decreased. This identifies the number of frames sent with minimum interframe gap as a “burst” to simulate real-world bursty traffic. a specific number of test frames are sent at the maximum frame rate and the number of frames forwarded by the DUT is counted. Determine back-to-back value (frame count).

Repeat Step 3 the configured number of iterations and average the back-to-back values.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) frames received (aggregated across all test ports). • Precision frame count. which include: • Add a test iteration with multiple frame lengths that simulate realistic traffic. There is a column in the table for the frame length and another column for the average frame count. in bytes. • Number of test iterations. • Traffic direction. 7. h. Recommended minimum is 2 seconds. auto-negotiation. Set current count as low + (delta/2). uni-directional from input to output and unidirectional from output to input. Recommended minimum is 50. There are 3 possibilities: bi-directional. including IP addresses. Test Parameters • Set of frame lengths. Set delta as (high — low). The table shows back-to-back tabular results from a DUT with 10 Mbps interfaces. 4. If frame loss is greater than zero (loss occurred). f. Repeat steps 3 through 5 for the remaining configured frame lengths. This is often expressed as a duration in seconds and the application converts it to a frame count based on the frame length and link speed. e. • Minimum frame count. duplex. Copyright © 2011. g. or current rate is greater than or equal to high. Test Outcome Back-to-back test results are reported in a table with a row for each frame length. This is often expressed as a minimum trial duration in seconds and the application converts it to a frame count based on the frame length and link speed. A-PLUSCSI Page 61 of 80 . • Test port configuration including speed. 6. Repeat steps b through g until either: delta is less than or equal to the configured precision. otherwise. This is often expressed as a maximum trial duration in seconds and the application converts it to a frame count based on the frame length and link speed. The back-to-back test is repeated this many times per frame length and the results are averaged. See the Modifiers section on Page 53 for a discussion of modifiers. This is often expressed as an initial trial duration in seconds and the application converts it to a frame count based on the frame length and link speed. 5. set back-to-back and low to current count. set high to current count. • Test port to DUT port mapping. • Identify pass/fail criteria and report a general pass or fail indicator. etc. • Initial frame count. Variations on RFC 2544 There are several common variations to the RFC 2544 procedures. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for each desired modifier. • IP Addresses to be used in test traffic. Report the averaged back-to-back value for the current frame length. • Maximum frame count.

395 2.Timestamp A. Send traffic at a rate of either (a) 110 percent of the throughput value (determined in the throughput test). Overview As the load on a DUT increases beyond normal to an overload condition. Send learning frames (IPv4 ARP or IPv6 Neighbor Discovery. After at least 60 seconds.200 21.112 11. 7. See the Modifiers section on Page Copyright © 2011. Advertise any routes required by the DUT to allow it to forward test traffic using a routing protocol supported and enabled on the DUT. 5. for example). Repeat steps 2 through 10 for each desired modifier. this test may be skipped.030 System Recovery Objective The objective of the system recovery test is to characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from an overload condition. Repeat steps 4 through 7 multiple times and average the results.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Frame Length (bytes) 64 128 256 512 1. the DUT may exercise algorithms that reallocate resources to minimize the impact of the increased load.024 1. 6. Pause several seconds to allow the routes to update. Record the time of the last frame lost as Timestamp B.6 Frame Count 37. or (b) the maximum rate for the media for this frame length to a specific destination. If all of the destinations reside on physical networks connected to the DUT. 10. Test Steps 1. resource allocations should eventually return to normal.280 1. Calculate the system recovery time as Timestamp B . take Timestamp A and reduce the frame rate by 50 percent. 3. Repeat steps 3 through 8 for the remaining configured frame lengths. When the load returns to normal. 2. This test helps to ensure that the DUT recovers from an overload condition in a reasonable time.518 10. Set the current frame length to the first configured frame length. If the DUT throughput test results were near 100 percent of maximum rate for the media. 9.320 5. which ever is less. 4.872 2. or the DUT has static routes defined. this step may be skipped. 8.992 2. A-PLUSCSI Page 62 of 80 .

This may be due to the need to load an alternate configuration. unidirectional from input to output and unidirectional from output to input.7 Reset Objective The objective of the reset test is to characterize the speed at which a DUT recovers from a device or software reset. This test helps to ensure that the DUT resets in a reasonable time.750 2. • Test port to DUT port mapping. • IP Addresses to be used in test traffic.024 1. An asterisk (*) next to the frame rate indicates that the maximum rate for the media was used. frame rate and recovery time.445 * 4. 10.518 Frame Rate 14. Test Parameters • Set of frame lengths in bytes.300 8. Copyright © 2011. There are three possibilities: bi-directional. Overview In the course of normal operations it may be necessary to restart a device. Test Outcome System recovery results are to be reported in a table with one row per frame length. auto-negotiation. • Test port configuration including speed. • Traffic direction. A recovery time of N/A indicates that the test was skipped for this frame size because the observed throughput at the frame length was equal to the maximum rate. Frame Length (Bytes) 64 128 256 513 1. duplex.800 2.730 N/A N/A N/A N/A The table shows sample system recovery test results. including IP addresses.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 53 for a discussion of modifiers. add or swap blades or to clear an error condition. The time units reported depend on the resolution of the test equipment. There are columns for the frame length. A-PLUSCSI Page 63 of 80 .349 * 1. All frame lengths for this test must have been used in the throughput test.197 * 958 * 812 * Recovery Time (ms) 2.280 1.528 * 2. etc.

including specifications Copyright © 2011.7 11 IEEE EFM Overview The IEEE 802. This frame length should be the smallest used in the throughput test. Repeat steps 1 through 6 using a 10-second power interruption to reset the DUT in Step 4. 4. Test Parameters • Single frame length. etc. duplex. The destination must be on a subnet that is locally attached to the DUT. 2. Send learning frames (IPv4 ARP or IPv6 Neighbor Discovery. A-PLUSCSI Page 64 of 80 . New PMD sublayers have been defined for various technologies. Repeat steps 1 through 6 using a hardware reset in step 4. Record Timestamp B as the time the first first frame was received on the test port after the reset. • Test port to DUT port mapping. Set the current frame length to the smallest configured frame length used in the throughput test.3ah Task Force has finalized a complete set of specifications for Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM). 3. and minor modifications have been made to the existing PCS for both 100BASE-X and 1000BASE-X to support the new optical PMD’s. Send unidirectional traffic at a rate of the throughput value (determined in the throughput test). 7. Included in this documentation are specifications for several new optical and copper Physical Layer Devices (PHY). The diagram below shows sample reset test results.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Test Steps 1. 5. Monitor the frames from the DUT and record Timestamp A as the time the last test frame was received before the reset on the test port. in bytes.1 6. Extensions of the Reconciliation Sublayer. auto-negotiation. Calculate the reset time as Timestamp B — Timestamp A. 6. Cause a software reset on the DUT. A single new PCS has been defined for both of the copper PMD’s. 8. • IP addresses to be used in test traffic. and management functions. Reset Type Hardware Reset Software Reset Power Interruption Reset Time (sec) 6. • Test port configuration including speed. for example).4 3. Test Outcome System recovery results are to be reported as simple statements or in a table with one row per type of reset tested. for this frame length to a specific destination. or the saved DUT configuration must have static routes defined to allow the traffic to be delivered without receiving routing updates. including IP addresses.

3 devices.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) for FEC. The experience gained by the UNH-IOL from testing these technologies can be applied to the EFM technologies. have all been created to provide forums for the discussion and demonstration of EFM technologies. a new section of the document specifies OAM functions and operations that can be supported by both new EFM devices and traditional 802. xDSL testing since 1997 and DOCSIS testing since 1999. including various forms of Ethernet testing since 1993. These documents may be used as the framework for the testing of EFM devices. Once these specifications are complete. once the final draft has been approved and compliant products are ready to be deployed.3ah components and systems. yet the development of testing strategies should take a top priority for these or other organizations. there is a clear relation between existing Ethernet products and EFM. A complete list of interoperability and conformance test suites previously developed by the UNH-IOL can be found at the UNH-IOL website. Several papers have been written to describe the forthcoming EFM specification but there has not yet been much of a focus on the testing of EFM. and the IEEE EPON Forum. In order to prepare both the vendor and user communities for the successful deployment of EFM products. Finally. because although all EFM devices are Copyright © 2011. The inherent similarities between EFM and existing technologies can be exploited such that similar methodologies and metrics may be used to develop tests for EFM devices. Each of these groups needs to be approached with a slightly different point of view. it is necessary to first separate the different aspects of EFM into several distinct groups. should be initiated while the standard is still in its draft form. 12 IEEE EFM Testing In order to formulate a set of strategies for EFM conformance and interoperability testing.3. These three sets of technologies are the areas that are the most applicable EFM. and a Multi-Point MAC Control Protocol (MPCP) have been written for the P2MP PMD. Organizations such as the Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (EFMA). such an effort needs to be initiated with input from all involved parties. and related testing. and then continued with an even stronger effort. A set of test suites should be made publicly available for review and comment that thoroughly describe a group of conformance and interoperability tests that should be performed on all EFM products. Such a study. vendors will start selling and marketing compliant IEEE 802. the PON Forum. The two EFM copper PMD’s are built upon existing SHDSL and VDSL technology and parts of the control protocol for the EPON PHY is similar in scope to that used by DOCSIS. The UNH-IOL has been performing interoperability and conformance testing on various products for over fifteen years. A-PLUSCSI Page 65 of 80 . It is important that a comprehensive study be done to show that interoperability and compliance can and does exist in EFM devices. each covering a particular aspect of the technology. Since the set of EFM specification are being added to IEEE 802.

3 is that of OAM.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) ultimately transmitting and receiving the same IEEE 802. it is necessary to separate the concepts of both conformance and interoperability testing. The tool must be able to exhaustively test a P2MP device’s ability to receive any valid and invalid bit pattern. Although a test suite for OAM conformance testing must be created. test scripts used to verify the operation of the PCS will be handled differently than those used to verify the operation of the OAM sublayer. including: remote fault. through a frame based protocol that lies above the MAC sublayer. Copyright © 2011. The transmit emulator will prepare the actual bit patterns to be transmitted to the Device Under Test (DUT). Each layer of the EFM specification is presented separately. and statistics gathering.2 EFM P2P Protocol Conformance Testing Both the 100Mb/s and 1000Mb/s P2P EFM solutions are entirely based on existing specifications. and all received bit patterns will be stored and analyzed to determine whether or not the DUT is operating properly. In many instances. For example. the means by which these frames are communicated can be tested in very different ways. A similar emulator will exist on the receive side of the test tool. A-PLUSCSI Page 66 of 80 . the test equipment used to perform conformance testing is quite different if testing the specifications of an optical transceiver or if testing the specifications of a frame-based protocol. there will exist the ability to trigger on various patterns that are received by the test tool. The only modification that needs to be made to existing test equipment is to replace the existing PMD with one of the newly defined ones. the implementation of such a test suite should be relatively straightforward. and considerations are made for the test tools needed to perform conformance testing and the conditions necessary for interoperability testing. For example. Existing test suites and test tools can completely characterize the protocol and coding sublayers of EFM P2P optical devices.1 EFM OAM Conformance Testing One of the new features being added to IEEE 802. These triggering capabilities will also feedback into the processing engine so that additional patterns may be sent if necessary. 12. Additionally. Since OAM is a frame-based protocol. 12. OAM provides a mechanism for the monitoring of an Ethernet network. any piece of test equipment that implements the appropriate physical layer may be used to test the OAM functionality. which can be run automatically or by a manual process. remote loopback. The tester should be able to define test scripts.3 EFM EPON Protocol Conformance Testing The proposed test tools are for conformance verification of EFM P2MP devices. 12. Additionally. The scripts will enter the processing engine and be placed into the appropriate format.3 MAC frames. this could be as simple as replacing a pluggable optics module on the test equipment.

In order to test each defined interface in a comprehensive manner. in a typical shared ethernet network. A repeater or switch will forward a frame out all ports other than the port on which it was received. and the ability to modify the contents of the frames should allow for any frame based protocol testing that needs to occur. the most effective test tool will allow for the generation of any one of these test vectors. it is necessary and easiest to create OAM. or MAC Client frames that can be transmitted to the DUT. Doing this will mean that the initiating ONU will receive its own frame. Even though an EPON device uses a PCS and MAC that are identical to the ones used by 1000BASE-X devices. a device that transmits a frame will not receive the exact frame that it transmitted. It is because of the existence of this different sublayer that traditional gigabit ethernet test equipment cannot be used to properly test an EPON frame. In a traditional device. the EPON test tool will need the ability to set the contents of the preamble to an arbitrary value. the EPON device does have a different RS. The nature of the PON makes this impossible. the preamble. Although most of the fields are identical to that of a 1000BASE-X frame. Although most existing test equipment does not allow the user to modify these fields. In order to test frame level conformance. allowing for the ability to thoroughly test the coding layers of the DUT. The ability to generate such frames. This was a necessary feature to add to the EFM specifications in order to allow for the architecture of the PON. allow the test tool to generate any valid or invalid frame necessary for testing aspects of the MPCP. and the appropriate timestamps that are necessary for the protocol. including REPORT and GATE messages. MAC Control. For EPON devices. as shown in Figure 3. The OLT and/or ONU functions. it is necessary for the test tool to allow access to each layer. For example. A-PLUSCSI Page 67 of 80 . Four bytes of the preamble have been left unaltered and will still be transmitted as 0x55. The block containing the MAC functions has the ability to behave like a valid or invalid MAC. Although additional tools may have the ability to test one or more of these interfaces. Whereas this could potentially cause problems in a traditional ethernet network. The sixth and seventh bytes are replaced with a Logical Link ID (LLID) that contains the LLID and mode bit associated with either an ONU or the OLT. the filtering that takes place in the RS using the modified preamble will prevent the originating MAC from receiving its own frames. The third byte of preamble contains a Start of Packet Delimiter (SPD) that is transmitted as 0xD5. The RS of the ONU will filter frames based on the value of the LLID field in the preamble. Copyright © 2011. there is a significant difference in the contents of the first part of the frame. The PHY part of the test tool needs the ability to generate arbitrary 8-bit or 10-bit streams to be sent to the DUT. which allow the ONU to request and the OLT to grant access to the network. A unique LLID is assigned by the OLT to each ONU once the registration process is complete.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) The transmit emulator of the EPON test tool will be able to create test vectors that can be inserted at any of the sublayers contained within tool. including modifying the contents of the preamble fields. the preamble contains a significant amount of information. this field would contain seven bytes of 0x55 and a single eighth byte of 0xD5. The OLT can be placed in a mode that will force it to forward all frames it receives from one ONU to all other ONU’s.

and at the frame level on the receive side. and statistics gathering. As previously stated. The EFM specifications continue this trend. including jitter test frames that have user defined fields to allow for their propagation through the network. One new addition to the EFM set of specifications is the definition of user-definable test frames.3 has traditionally provided detailed descriptions or references for making the necessary optical PMD measurements. and the ability to receive and decode the DUT’s transmissions at variety of interfaces including raw 10-bit.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) All of these features will be necessary for the creation of the EPON test tool. PICS items. the EPON test tool will allow the tester to thoroughly test any of the protocol and coding aspects of an EPON device. jitter. Other tests may be made while generating normal idle patterns or validly formed frames instead of placing the DUT into a special test mode that may or may not be available to the tester. Following the discovery process. 12.4 EFM Optical PMD Conformance Testing IEEE 802. Separate test conditions will exist for each of these functions in order to properly verify interoperability. From the ability to modify the preamble of the data frame to defining specific 10-bit streams to send to the DUT on the transmit side. by specifying test patterns and methodologies for each of the conformance tests.5 EFM OAM Interoperability Testing OAM interoperability testing may be performed between any set of devices that share the same physical layer. The numerous state machines. A-PLUSCSI Page 68 of 80 . the three main functions of OAM are: remote fault indication. eye mask. which have not been patterns normally allowed on a functioning link. the two devices exchange OAM frames indicating the OAM features and capabilities that are supported by each device. it is allowed to indicate a remote fault to its link partner. and others. remote loopback. During this process. The monitoring stations should observe both link partners going through the discovery process. Traditionally. When both devices are satisfied with each other. 12. to configure and initialize the OAM link. including Transmit Dispersion Penalty (TDP). The test setup is as simple as connecting the devices over the appropriate channel and attaching monitoring stations so that the transmissions from each device can be observed. When the link conditions deteriorate. an Ethernet Copyright © 2011. Previous IEEE 802. the OAM protocol goes through a handshaking protocol. Two devices that support OAM should be able to complete the discovery process with each other. When two devices are first connected together. and other mandatory portions of the specification can be tested with this tool. decoded 8-bit. the remote loopback and statistics querying functionalities can be initiated. stressed receiver. The new specifications allow for all of the PMD measurements to be made on patterns that can readily be found and generated on an active network. such that one of the devices loses link on its receive side.3 specifications have specified specific test sequences or frames. called the discovery process. the discovery process ends and the rest of the protocol takes over.

Once the link has been acquired. For full interoperability to exist. there exists the ability for a local device to query the variables and registers of the remote device. one device must be able to successfully query and receive a response from its remote link partner. Such a full system test is inherently more effective at establishing interoperability for the whole system than a simpler component-to-component test. Using validly formed frames allow for each part of the system to be tested. This optical channel can be characterized by the attenuation and dispersion of the fiber lengths. Since placing a remote device into a loopback mode is such an invasive feature of OAM.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) device has not been able to send frames unless a full link has been established with its link partner. All data frames sent from the local device to the remote device will be looped back at the OAM sublayer to the local device where the frames can be analyzed to provide information about the quality of the link. MAC Control frames and OAM frames may be transmitted as necessary. however. Under the worst-case conditions. the easiest way to measure the BER is to transmit a set of frames between the two devices. to the coding and framing chips. For devices that do support the loopback feature. A-PLUSCSI Page 69 of 80 . error thresholds that have been crossed. and others. if a problem existed in the receive path of one of the two devices. Copyright © 2011. and by the insertion loss and return loss characteristics of the connectors. not all devices are allowed to be placed into such a mode. The various events that can be signaled include: errored symbols and frames in a given window. Event notification allows the local device to signal to the remote device when certain events have occurred. The test setup can then be reversed to check operation for the other device.6 EFM P2P Interoperability Testing Interoperability of EFM P2P optical devices should be verified over the worst-case optical channel that is defined within the specification. although no MAC Client frames may be transmitted. new additions have been made to allow this type of unidirectional traffic to exist on the link. For EFM. no other information would be made available to the network operator other than the fact that the link had not been established. To test remote fault indication interoperability. Remote loopback provides a mechanism for the remote device to be placed in a frame level loopback mode. The remote fault indication may be advertised in the management entities available for each device. Therefore. from the optical modules. it is necessary to degrade the receive path of one of the link partners and verify whether or not the other link partner has been successfully made aware of the remote fault. it is important to verify that the remote link partner can place them into this mode. total number of errors. the two link partners are required to establish and maintain the link with a BER of at least 10-12. Whereas many of the conformance measurements are made over a short length of fiber. The other main objectives of OAM are those of event notification and the request and response of variables. In addition to the event notification. While a device is placed in loopback mode. to the higher layer capabilities of the device. 12. the interoperability tests should be performed over this worst-case channel.

Thus. Apart from interoperability at the protocol layer. The mechanism by which the bandwidth of the EPON is allocated is again undefined by the specification and left up to the implementers. the OLT will open registration periods during which all new or currently unregistered ONU’s may attempt to join or rejoin the network. each ONU will be connected to the EPON and will have the ability to transmit and receive data frames. a significant amount of testing also needs to be done at the physical layer. Testing must be done to ensure that any ONU can properly communicate with any OLT and that the ability for the ONU to transmit frames is granted as necessary. All other ONU transmissions occur during time slots that are granted individually to the ONU by the OLT. including single splitter. When an ONU is first connected to the EPON. This registration.3 Clause 66 the OLT and ONU may be connected in one of several topologies. In such a worst-case scenario. process is the only time that more than one ONU is allowed to transmit at the same time. Although certain measures are taken to reduce the number of collisions that may occur during this process. thus introducing the first potential interoperability problem. it is possible that certain implementation may be more prone to interoperability problems than others. This process of the OLT granting the ONU time to transmit and the ONU asking for time to transmit is the underlying protocol that keeps the EPON running and allows for data frames to be transmitted by the ONU. Each OLT can be connected to the available ONU devices that are present. the OLT needs to allow each ONU to register.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 12. including both physical layer and protocol layer tests. it is possible that the ONU may not be able to register with the OLT and join the EPON. The OLT will periodically transmit grant. tree and branch. Since the algorithms defining when and for how long each registration period will exist are left up to the implementer. or GATE. Instead. or REPORT. and the ONU needs to be able to properly register with the OLT. It is only during this period that the ONU is allowed to transmit frames to the OLT. As described in IEEE 802. attempting to connect the maximum number of ONU’s to the EPON at the same time should be one condition that is tested for. There are a number of important tests to be performed to verify interoperability. Copyright © 2011. Once the registration process is complete. it cannot immediately begin transmitting data. The ONU may transmit data frames along with request. If collisions occur too frequently. Periodically. it is inevitable that they will occur.7 EPON Interoperability Testing Once conformance testing has been completed on an EPON OLT or ONU. as would potentially happen if a given EPON were to lose and then regain power. or discovery. and each ONU will be connected to the available OLT devices. interoperability testing should be completed between the DUT and other available link partners. frames that ask for a future blocks of time during which additional data frames may be transmitted. it must first wait for a registration period to begin and attempt to register itself with the OLT. A-PLUSCSI Page 70 of 80 . as it would be able to do on a P2P network. frames to each ONU that indicate one or more time slots during which the particular ONU may transmit frames.

a hardware loopback might not be the perfect test approach. either near or far. as generic tools may not have Copyright © 2011. to test the ability of an ONU to communicate with an OLT over a channel providing the worst-case physical signaling. The development of specific test tools is necessary to fully test the conformance of a particular technology or protocol. Since multiple topologies will be deployed. the standard BER test is no longer sufficient for performance testing of Ethernet networks. The errored bit will never get to the analyzer and the analyzer will declare a frame loss. Unfortunately. 13 Conclusion In the days of time-division multiplexing (TDM) and DS1/DS3/2M dedicated circuits. For example. and care should be made to stress the environment so that the worst-case BER can be achieved. For this reason. there are multiple issues related to using BER testing in Ethernet-based networks. a high split ratio long length of fiber should be used. In order to test interoperability between an ONU and OLT that support the optional FEC. RFC 2544-based Ethernet test solutions provide service providers with the means to fully validate and benchmark their Ethernet network through comprehensive testing and reporting—critical components when establishing performance metrics for customer SLAs and when troubleshooting or maintaining deployed circuits. Tradeoffs may be made between the fiber length and number of splitters. biterror-rate (BER) testing was the methodology of choice because the quality of a circuit was easily judged by its capability to deliver error-free bits. today’s test equipment automates test sequences and is easily configured to provide pass/fail criteria. It is well understood that the success of any technology depends. The most effective way to demonstrate interoperability and conformance is through comprehensive testing that is based on accepted methodologies and conditions. or to be positioned so that they are maximally far apart from each other.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) and serial. Other tests may call for ONU’s to be all situated at the same length from the OLT. A-PLUSCSI Page 71 of 80 . and a single bit error will result in the entire frame being discarded. and network element manufacturers and service providers quickly adopted the RFC 2544 methodology as the de facto standard for Ethernet-based testing. The worst-case optical channel can then include a variety of different topologies depending on which test is being performed. This will allow for the greatest deterioration of the signal. Although testing Ethernet services according to the RFC 2544 standard can be timeconsuming. The integrity of an Ethernet frame is verified at each switching element. this is precisely the necessary environment. in part. on the ability of the components to interoperate with each other and the ability of the components to conform to a defined specification. provided that the overall link budget is met. it is important that all ONU and OLT devices be tested over a variety of network structures and verified to properly implement the protocol and allow data transmission at the required BER. Because Ethernet is a Layer 2 switched technology.

Although the successful testing of conformance and interoperability for EFM devices will not guarantee the success of the technology.com/Products/9000Family/9700S/Pages/default. quality of service. and bandwidth allocation.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) the ability to do this.airspan.net/ Carrier Ethernet World Congress http://www. so does the need for interoperability testing.arin. as it is to know how the device reacts to the data it should not receive.carrierethernetworld. It is recognized that the EFM specifications do not cover all necessary features of the technology including but not limited to security. it is an important first and continual step towards that end.org/ Airspan http://www.3ah Task Force define the behavior of multiple sublayers and the interfaces these layers have with each other. A-PLUSCSI Page 72 of 80 . As the number of implementations increases. it is imperative for the industry to come together and set forth specific guidelines and test requirements that need to be followed.10gea. Specialized test tools allow the tester to generate arbitrary bit patterns to fully test the conformance of coding and protocol layers. 14 References 10 Gigabit Ethernet Alliance http://www. For those aspects of EFM that are not currently defined.enablence. When testing for conformance. The EFM specifications being written by the IEEE 802.aspx Enablence http://www. while maintaining a minimum level of performance. Interoperability testing demonstrates whether or not sets of devices can operate with each other under specified conditions.com/ American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) https://www.com/access/product-lines/trident7 Copyright © 2011.com/ ECI Telecom http://www. Tests can be drawn up from these specifications as the initial documents by which to judge conformance and interoperability. it is just as important to determine how a device reacts to the data it should receive.ecitele.

South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) European Advanced Networking Test Center http://www.com/solutions/testing_carrier_ethernet/library/index.fcc.ixiacom.mil/ Metro Ethernet Forum http://metroethernetforum.com/ Federal Communications Commission (FCC) http://www.edu/ IXIA Carrier Ethernet Library http://www.gov/ Copyright © 2011.nviot-forum.unh.org/index.org/ Inter-Operability Lab at The University of New Hampshire http://www. A-PLUSCSI Page 73 of 80 .iol.org/index.php Joint Interoperability Test Community http://jitc.ieee.org/ Public Safety Communications Research (PSCR) http://www.html Internet Engineering Task Force http://www.disa.pscr.ietf.gov/ IEEE Standards Association http://standards.fhu.eantc.php Network Vendors Interoperability Testing Forum (NVIOT) http://www.

B Backpressure . Broadcast Latency .A device that begins to forward a frame before the entire frame has been received.The highest rate that a switch can learn new MAC addresses without flooding or dropping frames. From RFC 1242: Fixed length frames presented at a rate where the minimum legal separation for a given medium between frames over a short to medium period of time. starting from an idle state.The number of MAC addresses a DUT/SUT can cache and successfully forward frames to without flooding or dropping frames. Bit Forwarding Device .The number of frames sent back-to-back at the minimum legal IFG.Any technique used by a DUT/SUT to attempt to avoid frame loss by hindering external traffic sources from transmitting frames to congested interfaces. Burst Size .A device that forwards data frames based on information in the data link layer. Back-to-Back . C Copyright © 2011. with every receiving interface also transmitting. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) . Typically this is called a switch. Bridge .The time required by a DUT/SUT to forward a broadcast frame to each interface.A bridge/router is a network device that can function as a router and/or a bridge based on the protocol of a specific packet. Bidirectional Traffic . Address Learning Rate .The number of broadcast frames per second that a DUT/SUT can be observed to successfully deliver to all interfaces in response to a specified offered load of frames directed to the broadcast MAC address. Bridge/Router.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) 15 Glossary A Address Caching Capacity .A mechanism used with IPv4 to translate an IP address into a MAC address.Frames presented to a DUT/SUT from all directions. Broadcast Forwarding Rate .Frames presented “back-to-back” have a minimum legal IFG for the given medium over a small-to-medium period of time. A-PLUSCSI Page 74 of 80 .

The forwarding device to which test packets are offered and the response measured. F Flood Count .Fixed length frames at a fixed interval time. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) .The observed FR at the maximum OLoad. This mechanism should only be used when the DUT is not allowed to implement any congestion control mechanism and there are no half duplex links that will carry bidirectional traffic. Direct Delivery . Forward Pressure . Time-Based Load. these are back-toback frames sent at the minimum IFG for the duration of the test. Copyright © 2011. The frame based load mechanism is limited in this implementation because the OLoad cannot be properly calculated.The forwarding rate is reported as the number of test frames per second the DUT successfully forwarded. This can be accomplished by using a smaller IFG than the protocol calls out.An IP delivery mechanism in which the sender may deliver a frame directly to the receiver. misaligned or with an errored Frame Check Sequence. regardless of the elapsed time. These conditions could include oversized. Also see: Port Loading. Typically.Methods that violate a protocol to increase the forwarding performance of a DUT/SUT. D Device Under Test (DUT) . The frames are then transmitted and the transmission is allowed to complete. E Errored Frames .The device being tested. Forwarding Rate (FR) .The frame based load mechanism calculates the number of frames that should be transmitted given the port load (percent utilization) and test duration. Constant Load . Note that the maximum OLoad may not have occurred in the test iteration with the maximum ILoad. A-PLUSCSI Page 75 of 80 . thus reducing the probability of a second collision on retry.The flood count is the number of frames output from a DUT port that are not specifically addressed (destination MAC) to a device connected to the port.A number derived from. and stored or transmitted with. Frame Based Load . undersized.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Carrier-Sensing Multiple-Access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) . The OLoad reported with this mechanism will always equal the ILoad.Frames having errored conditions.CSMA/CD is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected. a block of data in order to detect corruption. Forwarding Rate as Maximum Offered Load (FRMOL) .

For bit forwarding devices: The time interval starting when the end of the first bit of the input frame reaches the input DUT port and ending when the start Copyright © 2011.A network interconnect device that typically forwards frames based on network (Layer 3) addressing. Fully Meshed Traffic .Interframe Gap. but only in one direction at a time.Frames offered to a DUT/SUT such that each interfaces receives frames addressed to all other interfaces in the test.Interburst Gap.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Frame Loss Rate (FLR) .The network (Layer 3) protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite.An IP delivery mechanism in which the sender may not deliver a frame directly to the receiver but instead delivers it to the next network interconnect device in the path. Indirect Delivery . A-PLUSCSI Page 76 of 80 . Head Of Line Blocking (HOLB) .For store and forward devices: The time starting when the last bit of the input frame reaches the input DUT port and ending when the first bit of the output frame is seen on the output DUT port. The gap between bursts. ILoad .Intended Load. The number of frames per second that the test equipment attempts to transmit to a DUT/SUT. G Gateway . IFG .Percentage of frames that were not forwarded by the DUT. that were not forwarded due to lack of resources.A transmission path capable of transmitting signals in both directions. Full Duplex . Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) . Similar to a router.A transmission path able to transmit signals in both directions simultaneously. The gap between frames on the Ethernet wire.Frame loss or increased delay on an uncongested output port when frames are received from an input port that is also attempting to forward frames to a congested output port. Internet Protocol (IP) . I IBG .An organization responsible for managing all numbers assigned to Internet protocols. L Latency . H Half Duplex .

A network interconnect device that forwards frames based on network (Layer 3) addressing using the bit forwarding mechanism.The highest forwarding rate of a DUT/SUT taken from iterations of forwarding rate measurement tests. Non-Meshed Traffic .A specification of management objects.When demand exceeds available system resources. Maximum Offered Load (MOL) . Media Access Control (MAC) . The OLoad may be less than the ILoad if the DUT implements a congestion control mechanism such as pause frames. M Management Information Base II (MIB-II) .Frames offered to a single DUT port and addressed to a single output DUT port.The highest number of frames per second that an external source can transmit to a DUT/SUT for forwarding to a specified output interface(s). A-PLUSCSI Page 77 of 80 . Overloaded Behavior . P Packet Buffer A temporary repository for arriving packets while they wait to be processed.A link-state routing protocol.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) of the first bit of the output frame is seen on the output DUT port. Layer 3 Switch . Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) . O OLoad .The number of frames per second that the test equipment can be observed or measured to transmit to a DUT/SUT for forwarding to a specified output interface or interfaces. Overhead Behavior .A mechanism used with IPv6 to translate an IP address into a MAC address. N Neighbor Discovery . The interface between a node’s Logical Link Control and the network’s physical layer. Packet Processor Optimized application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or programmable device (NPU) Copyright © 2011.The lower sublayer of the OSI data link layer. Maximum Forwarding Rate (MFR) .Processing performed for other than normal data frames. or if one or more links are running in half duplex mode with bidirectional traffic.

The PON consists of an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) at the service provider’s central office and a number of Optical Network Units (ONUs) near the End Users. Physical Coding Sublayers (PCS) Defines the physical layer specifications(speed and Duplex modes etc.A document published by the Internet Engineering Task Force that may define a standard after passing through several phases of acceptance. signal encoding.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) for processing and forwarding packets in the data plane or fast path. Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. It is responsible for the transmission and reception of individual bits on a physical medium.Frames offered to one or more DUT ports and addressed to one or more output DUT ports. Passive Optical Network (PON) A point-to-multipoint.RFC 2889 defines two approaches to loading a DUT port with test traffic.Send a specific number of frames. fiber to the premises network architecture in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple premises. The two methods are (a) Time Based Load – Send test traffic for a specific time interval. Copyright © 2011. PMA represents that portion of the physical layer implemented by the functional circuitry of the Medium Attachment Unit (MAU).. and packet forwarding. Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) Defines the physical layer specifications in Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet transmissions. R Request For Comments (RFC) . Port Loading . This sublayer performs auto-negotiation and coding such as 8b and 10b encoding which is a telecom line code that maps 8-bit symbols to 10-bit symbols in order to achieve balance and bounded disparity to provide enough state changes to allow reasonable clock recovery. Partially Meshed Traffic . In a local area network. It performs specific key tasks such as parsing the header. many-to-one or many-to-many.) for networking protocols like Fast Ethernet. and (b) Frame Based Load . PMA sends and receives serialised bits to and from the Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sublayer in Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) line coding. PMA also recovers the clock from the data signal received. The objective of these modes is to be able to measure the OLoad. pattern matching or classification. packet modification. These responsibilities encompass bit timing. interacting with the physical medium. ideally at wire speed. and the cable or wire itself. Physical Media Attachments (PMA) Provides the physical media independence necessary to support various physical media. A-PLUSCSI Page 78 of 80 . table lookups. where input and output ports are mutually exclusive and mapped one-to-many.

The length of time test packets are sent to the DUT/SUT.Virtual LAN.Frames sent to DUT in one direction but not in received in reverse direction.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) Reset . the test duration is strictly enforced.A network device that forwards frames based on network (Layer 3) addressing. each having a very short duration. Also see: Port Loading. A logical grouping of two or more devices which are not necessarily on the same physical link but which share the same IP network address. V VLAN . Two or more DUTs networked together to which test packets are offered and the response measured. It allows different types of formats to be transmitted on one line. Synchronized Optical Network (SONET) SONET is a standard for optical transport. RFC 2889 recommends 30 seconds. Each individual data stream is reassembled at the receiving end. the OLoad may be less than the ILoad. T Throughput . Routing Information Protocol (RIP) .A distance-vector interior routing protocol. Frame-Based Load Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) A method of putting multiple data streams in a single signal by separating the signal into many segments. Copyright © 2011.The time based load mechanism is the preferred mechanism if there is any possibility of the DUT using a congestion control mechanism.An action resulting in the re-initialization of a device.A connectionless transport protocol in the TCP/IP suite. Router . With this mechanism. A-PLUSCSI Page 79 of 80 . U Unidirectional Traffic .The device/system being tested. Trial Duration . Time-Based Load .A network interconnect device that receives an entire frame before beginning to forward it. If any congestion control mechanism is used by the DUT or any links are half duplex with bidirectional traffic. S Store and Forward Device .The maximum rate at which none of the offered frames are dropped by the device. System Under Test (SUT) . User Datagram Protocol (UDP) .

Copyright © 2011.South Central Alabama Broadband Commission (SCABC) W Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) A type of multiplexing developed for use on optical fiber. WDM modulates each of several data streams onto a different part of the light spectrum. A-PLUSCSI Page 80 of 80 .

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