Music, Women, and Technology: 7 Essays Written by Sabrina Peña Young Copyright 2011. S. Pena Young.

All Rights Reserved. Contents: Intermedia: Redefining American Music at the Turn of the Third Millennium. The Composer's Daughter. The Failure of Superwoman. Decomposing Composers. In Defense of Music Technology. Music Technology: The Great Democratizer The Silent Noise of John Cage (excerpt) Appendix: Resources on Women in Technology About the Author Intermedia: Redefining American Music at the Turn of the Third Millennium This article is a condensed version of: The Feminine Musique': Multimedia and Women Today (2004)

Outside the realms of traditional art forms, intermedia incorporates digital video, sound synthesis, virtual reality, interactive audiovisual installations, the Internet, and a limitless array of technological innovation. With such a broad range of technological possibility at the composer’s fingertips, creativity reaches to the far ends of the imagination. Artists like Maryanne Amacher and Brenda Hutchinson create sound environments that evolve as participants interact with them. Carla Scarletti’s Internet gallery, Public Organ, invites Internet users to participate by submitting original artwork. Kristine H. Burns uses video generation and sound synthesis to create fluid visual images that captivate the audience, and Laurie Anderson performs large-scale multimedia operas wearing a multi-sensory suit that emits percussive sounds with each movement she makes. With such diverse artistic output, multimedia crosses over disciplines indiscriminately.

The history of intermedia stems from unique philosophical movements that mocked the establishment by an outrageousness and unorthodox approach to the craft. Futurism, Surrealism, and Dadaism birthed the idea of taking art outside of the gallery and into the streets. The Fluxists acted against the materialistic art business. They borrowed from Dada and Surrealism, creating performances of simultaneous unrelated events. Musicians, painters, poets, and a motley of other artists orchestrated these “Happenings.” Events ranged from Charlotte Moorman’s nude cello performance of Nam June Paik’s Sextronique to Yoko Ono’s Cutting Piece, where she invited the audience to slowly cut apart the clothing she wore. Performance art pieces, besides shocking art connoisseurs, stole unabashedly from visual art, electroacoustic music, and theater. A handful of artists contributed to the birth of Fluxism, including Alison Knowles. Both she and her

husband Dick Higgins conceptualized the idea of the simple over the extravagant, a major premise of this artistic phenomena. (1) Meredith Monk grew up under the shadow of Fluxism. While a young dancer Monk performed in numerous “Happenings.” She fully plunged herself into performance art with her work, Juice (1969). The work showcased her unique choreography with the 85 performers and constantly played with “different spaces and changing sensibilities." (2) Each of the three parts took place in a different location, with one section involving the spiraling staircase of the Guggenheim Museum. In 1968 Monk founded “The House,” a performance art group. Incorporating her fascination with extended vocal techniques and her penchant for choreography, Monk directed the company’s interdisciplinary ensemble throughout the 1970s. In 1978 the newly created Meredith Monk Vocal Ensemble

presented concerts using African and Asian techniques, such as chanting, clucking, and ululating. (3) Monk turned her talents toward film in the 1980s, directing both Ellis Island and Book of Days. The 1990s watched her return to her theatrical roots, as she created operatic events, and the Houston Grand Opera premiered her full-length opera, Atlas: An Opera in Three Parts in 1991. In the late 1970s soundscape artist Liz Phillips used interactive sculptures and sonic environments to explore the relationship of the audience to time and space. Her combination of the visual and audio resulted in a “multidimensional space that responds to the audience." (4) Sunspots I and Sunspots II (1979–1981), involved an installation with a copper tube and screen acting as a theremin, triggering a nearby synthesizer based on the proximity of passersby. (5) Other works involved sensors that directed sonic events towards detected body movement. Phillips’ installations allow

the audience to evaluate the correlation of their own actions and the resulting auditory experience. (6) Bridging the gap between popular culture and the musical community, Laurie Anderson uses music technology, pop culture, and references to the current political atmosphere in her compositions. Often described as a type of opera, Anderson's multimedia narratives shift from the immediate and real to personal musings. The dichotomy of her work “moves between being an exhibition of technology and live (bodily) performance, between being auditory and visual, between being authentic and inauthentic, real and unreal." (7) Anderson explains that “…electronics have always been connected to storytelling. Maybe because storytelling began when people used to sit around fires and because fire is magic, compelling, and dangerous. We are transfixed by its light and by its destructive power. Electronics are modern

fires.” (8)In the early 1980s Warner Brothers elevated Anderson to a cultural icon by contracting her to do several albums, starting with Big Science (1982). The relationship with Warner Brothers continued through several albums, including Home of the Brave. Eventually the contract expired, ostensibly because Anderson’s work did not generate enough revenue. Anderson continued creating multimedia works, including Empty Places (1989), the CDROM Puppet Motel (1995), and End of the Moon (2004), a narrative exploration of her experiences as NASA's first artist-inresidence. (9) As the United States approached the 1990s, new technologies challenged artists to extend their creativity beyond the existent boundaries. The Internet and virtual reality moved the performance space into a virtual world, leaving concreteness behind. Video editing programs, priced within the ranges of the consumer, gave anyone the ability to

edit visual imagery like professionals. Realtime performances, run by Max or SuperCollider, enabled musicians to synthesize produced sounds as they played. Robotics, biology, and genetics joined with composers to develop music using scientific tools. An exciting world of limitless possibility had opened up and composers discovered that the realization of their imagination might be only a click away. With the final decade of the 20th century coming to a close, a cyberculture developed, one which became, “…increasingly comfortable with substituting representations of reality for the real." (10) Instant gratification transformed societal expectations as the digital age exploded exponentially. The “death of the author" (11) promulgated by the advent of superior computer systems, changed the notion of “artistic genius” as “originality and creativity [became] a matter of software engineering." (12) The computer, once

simply a tool used in the creation of a piece, became integral to the compositional process. Ironically, in some instances, the computer took on the role of composer as it ran programs input by the artist. Combining previous techniques with recent digital advances, composers produced a new generation of masterpieces. Science and music joined forces in the works of composers at the turn of the millennium such as the works of San Francisco-based vocalist and composer Pamela Z, who used her technological skills to engineer the BodySynthTM, a MIDI controller triggered by body movements. A seasoned singer, she performs with extended vocal technique and bel canto, in conjunction with spoken word, percussion, digital delay and MAX/MSP. (13) Part of her inspiration for the BodySynthTM came from the freedom she felt as she layered percussive sounds and extended vocal technique with digital delays, saying that

“ hands and my body were freed up for gesture and movement, and I became more focused on the performance aspect of my work. I came to see the sound I was making, and my physical behavior while making it, as an integrated whole..." (14)Wanting to utilize this free motion, Pamela Z developed the BodySynthTM to compose in realtime using movement and gestures. Pamela Z composes in several mediums, including large-scale multimedia works, film music, and performance pieces. She produces Z Programs, dedicated to interdisciplinary events, and she performs in the interdisciplinary ensembles sensorChip and The Qube Chix. Composers have discovered that the inherently interactive Internet provides more than an advertising venue and instead creates opportunities for online installations and virtual exhibits. Though composers typically limit their sites with links to their music, biographical materials, and

publication information, Brenda Hutchinson, well-known for her instrument The Tube and her narrative pieces, has attempted to transform her web page into a work in its own right. Brenda Hutchinson’s Internet page, found at <>, opens with Sonic Portraits, a dizzying array of repetitive noise and white segmented lines moving in time to the looped sounds. Button selection triggers samples of her vocalizations. She takes the site one step further with the piece Sold (2004, in progress). Sold suggests scathing political commentary of America’s economic and foreign policy. Set in an interface representing the United States, disturbingly out-of-tune recordings of God Bless America permeating throughout, Sold gives the user the opportunity to explore some of Hutchinson’s own exploits into the streets of New York. Selecting a state adds another croaked voice to the dizzying strain of

disembodied voices. Hutchinson uses recordings of mental patients and homeless men to sing about the “land that I love.” The poignant irony, lies in the bold truth that the nation has failed these citizens. They must “stand beside her,” the country which relegates them to white walls and cardboard boxes. Sold exemplifies how a composer can use the Internet to proclaim a message through the cybercommunity. As web design becomes an integral component of music education more composers will use the Internet to both promote and produce new compositions. Digital video editing software gave more freedom to visual artists by the end of the 20th century, and within the next decade, electroacoustic composers were regularly incorporating digital video into their compositional output. Ostensibly unrelated to popular music videos, a number of these works balanced electroacoustic music with visual imagery, sometimes in conjunction

with a narrator or live musicians. Thematic elements differed greatly from artist to artist. Abstract forms, scathing political commentary, and personal documentaries number among the diverse collection of digital video compositions. Alicyn Warren, Assistant Professor in the School of Music at the University of Michigan, combines video, electronic music, and spoken word to create moving mixed media narratives. Two such pieces are Molly (1997) and Mirror Story: Graveside (2004), the first scene of an electronic opera. Mirror Story: Graveside intertwines live voice, video, spoken word, and music into an impressive multimedia experience. Director of the Electronic Music Studios at Florida International University, Dr. Kristine H. Burns’ treats the electronic score and the digital video as musical motifs that counter each other not unlike two themes in a classical work. (15) In Copper Islands, liquid metal entrances the audience with its circular undulations. Burns clearly

delineates each section, interspersing small motifs between longer audiovisual phrases. Copper Islands begins with an amorphous blurred patch of metallic yellow that teasingly appears and disappears from the screen, ending with waves of color subsiding and the piece resolving into a solitary line. At the University of North Texas, Elizabeth Hinkle-Turner’s intermedia works focus on her themes related to her personal life. (16) Her approach to composition derives its materials from introspection. Having conquered cancer as a young woman, she pulls from the strength she gained through the illness to develop works sharing her experiences. Her CDROM, Full Circle, meticulously documents her struggles, and having dealt with a number of obstacles as a cancer survivor, Hinkle-Turner reviews the societal and emotional issues related to the illness. The next generation of composers, such as Hsiao-Lan Wang, Maria Del Carmen

Montoya, Sabrina Peña Young, and Angela Veomett, continue to find innovative ways of incorporating video into traditional musical art forms. The Amiga computer system processes realtime movement and displays visual patterns based on the input information, and many composers have used AMIGA in creating exciting interactive works. Using video, electroacoustic music, and logarithms calculated by the AMIGA computer system, Maggie Payne focuses on “[taking] natural sounds and transform them using equalization, convolution, phase vocoding [with] whatever resources are available. (17) For Liquid Metal (1994), Payne collected samples of “unpleasant” sounds she recorded while on a canoeing trip. Using her prowess in the studio, Payne distorts and morphs the harsh sounds into pleasing tones. (18) In both Chromosonics: Alexander Lake (1991) and Chromosonics: The Lady That is Known (1993) she uses the AMIGA

computer’s ability to calculate logarithms based on changing video tint. Many of Sylvia Pengilly’s works utilize AMIGA’s Mandala 3000 computer system. In her work, Elemental Chaos (1992), the AMIGA computer calculates logarithms based on chaos theory. The end result splashes the video screen with mesmerizing fractals. Alternate Spaces (1999) uses the AMIGA computer to generate a video using the recorded figures of the dancers, a commonly used practice of contemporary dance concerts. By allowing the computer to generate these forms, Pengilly gives up full control over the piece, depending on the performers and the AMIGA to produce a cohesive work. Interactive programs, such as those produced by the AMIGA, have a definitive advantage over standard tape pieces in that they have flexibility. While tape pieces cannot pause without disrupting the concert, the AMIGA creates with live bodily movement. If the performer tires, the

AMIGA detects the slowed motions and produces video imagery accordingly. The unpredictability of each performance adds to the anticipation makes each performance fresh and interesting. (19) Contemporary multimedia involves composers that incorporate computers into complex interactive installations and performances. In Lynn Hershman-Neeson’s 1992 installation, Room of One’s Own, she connects the user’s choice of object, say a telephone or a bed, to an erotic icon. (20) The viewer has unwittingly became a voyeur and a victim. (21)The McLean Mix, Priscilla Anne McLean and her husband Barton, use their expertise in electroacoustic to envelope the audience in an interactive sonic nature environment. The McLean Mix deals with the subject of nature and environmental awareness in their works. In Rainforest recorded sounds and pictures of the rainforest filled the room. The audience participated by playing acoustic and

electronic instruments provided, including didgeridoos. (22,23) Raymond Ghirado and Megan Roberts collaborate in large-scale video installations involving sculpture and electronic music such as Badlands (1988), where the pair constructed a dry and eroded mountain with a path leading to the summit 12 feet above the ground. Looking into the crater at the center of the summit, the observer sees the form of a person pounding the ground, an illusion constructed by three television sets partially buried below. Accompanying sound effects mimicking the sound of pounding fists further add to the believability of the construction. Soundscape artist Maryanne Amacher uses a combination of psychoacoustics and ambient sounds to create sonic environments. (24) Live mixing and speaker placement play an integral part in her soundscapes. (25) Amacher sometimes adds slides and other visual elements to enhance the space. Visitors often find themselves embarking on

an adventure as they explore one area and then another. Her works are considered “site-specific” because the installation conforms to the physical space it occupies. Current developments in digital technology have challenged composers to further stretch their imaginations and expand the definition of music to include virtual reality, artificial intelligence, software design, 3D animation, and Internet art. Cutting edge artists find themselves flooded by constantly burgeoning media developments. A significant number of these works actively engage the user with intricate environments and inviting interactive computer interfaces. Public Organ: An Interactive, Networked Sound Installation (1995) made its debut at the International Computer Music Conference. Created by computer programmer Carla Scaletti, Public Organ commented on the impact of the world wide Internet through the user’s choice of selected objects, such as a radio, telephone, or spray

can. (26) Scaletti co-invented KYMA, a sound design computer language, for the Public Organ project in which Scaletti designed an Internet gallery inviting participants to submit graphics of themselves, along with original graffiti. The installation instantly added the materials to the online gallery. Other composers, such as Sarah Peebles and Rebecca Allen, have experimented with the Internet and its use as a public space. (27,28). Interactive virtual environments, cyberspace galleries, and music composed by artificial intelligence sound like features of a science fiction film, but such advances are soon becoming the archaic relics of yesterday. Intermedia has left behind pencil and paper, assimilating materializing technologies. The contemporary intermedia composer discovers creative uses for scientific innovation, from Pamela Z’s BodySynthTM to Carla Scaletti’s cyber Public Organ and Sylvia Pengilly’s algorithm-based video.

These composers have extended their craft beyond the horizon, “foreshadowing in their art the social impact of technological change. (29) Already composers have begun to cross the next frontier — biotechnology, virtual worlds, artificial intelligence, and neuroscience. Inspiration balances between invention and imagination. --SOURCES: 1. Higgin, Dick. Horizons: The Poetics and Theory of the Intermedia. Cabondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984, pg 87. 2. Goldberg, Roselle. Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1988, 143-144. 3. Jeffrey Byrd. "Meredith Monk." In Women and Music in America Since 1900: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-2. Kristine H. Burns, ed. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). 4. Mary Simoni. "Liz Phillips." In Women and Music in America Since 1900: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-2. Kristine H. Burns, ed. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). 5. Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River:

Prentice Hall, 1997, 327-328. 6. Mary Simoni. "Liz Phillips." In Women and Music in America Since 1900: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-2. Kristine H. Burns, ed. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). 7. MacArthur, Sally. Feminist Aesthetics in Music. Westport, N.J.: Greenwood Press, 2002, 179-180. 8. Borchert, Gavin. "American Women in Electronic Music, 1984-1994." Contemporary Music Review 16, no. 1-2. (1997), 89-97. 9. Laurie Anderson. The End of the Moon. Gusman Hall, Miami. 23 October 2004. 10. Rene' T.A. Lysloff., "Musical Life in Softcity: An Internet Ethnography." Music and Technoculture. Lysloff Rene T. A. and Leslie C. Gay, Jr., eds. (Middletown: Wesleyen University Press, 2003). 31. 11. Ibid. 12. Sarah Chaplin. "Cyberfeminism." In Feminist Visual Culture. Carson, Fiona and Clair Pajaczkowska, eds., (Routledge: Edinburgh University Press, 1993), 270. 13. Pamela Z. "Bio". ,>, October 2004. 14. CDeMUSIC. "Pamela Z." ,>, (Electronica Music Foundation, Ltd., 2003.) 15. Elizabeth Hinkle-Turner. "Multimedia." In

Women and Music in America Since 1900: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-2. Kristine H. Burns, ed. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). 16. Ibid. 17. Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997, 78-79. 18. Elizabeth Hinkle-Turner. "Multimedia." In Women and Music in America Since 1900: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-2. Kristine H. Burns, ed. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). 19. Sylvia Pengilly. "Sylvia Pengilly." <>, 14 9 2004. 20. Michael Rush. New Media in the Late 20th Century. (New York: Thams & Hudson, Inc., 1999.), 204. 21. Carol Gigliotti. "Women and the Aesthetics of New Media." <>, 20 June 2003. 22. Mary Simoni. "Priscilla McLean." In Women and Music in America Since 1900: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-2. Kristine H. Burns, ed. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). 23. Michael Rush. New Media in the Late 20th Century. (New York: Thams & Hudson, Inc., 1999.), 204. 24. Kristine H. Burns. "Maryanne Amacher." In Women and Music in America Since 1900: An

Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-2. Kristine H. Burns, ed. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002). 25. Borchert, Gavin. "American Women in Electronic Music, 1984-1994." Contemporary Music Review. vol. 16. Parts 1 & 2. (1997), 93. 26. Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 337. 27. Sarah Peebles. <>, October 2004. 28. Art Interactive. "Rebecca Allen, Bush Soul #3." < oul.shtml>, 13 3 2004. 29. Andrew Murphie and John Potts. Culture and Technology. (Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003), 39.

The Composer's Daughter Strangers say she has the slender fingers of a pianist. She grimaces at minor seconds and is lulled to sleep by the rhythm of the pounding drums. She cries as cluster chords play electronic strains and is fascinated by the simple strumming of the mandolin. She smiles as her mother sings a half-forgotten

lullaby and shuts her eyes at the clash of cymbals. She is the composer's daughter. As I hold her tiny, pink, pillowy body closely to my gently beating heart, I wonder if the nearly ten months she spent in my womb has left any permanent musical impressions on her. I remember the kicks she gave me from within when I stubbornly insisted on playing drum set seven months into the pregnancy, my bulging belly only a centimeter's distance from the piercing snare drum. I think of the hours I performed on the congas, each tap and slap creating a rhythmic lullaby for my sleeping unborn, unseen, child, and I think of her tiny ears hearing sorrowful ballades when hormones and stress and nausea brought me to tears. I remember giving composition lessons in the music studio and her abrupt kicks when a student's dissonant electroacoustic piece roused her from deep slumber. Experts say that Mozart increases a child's intelligence, but the study is still out on Stockhausen,

Reich, Oliveros, and Varese. What symphony did she hear in the peaceful chamber within me? Synthesized external sound waves, the gentle beating of her mother's heart, the churning and gurgling of the stomach, the quick rhythms of her own tiny heart, the subtle sucking of a microscopic thumb, and the gentle rush of amniotic fluid - not even Mozart could create music so divine. Yesterday, at three months of age, my daughter had her first piano lesson. Holding her high above an electronic keyboard, I laughed as she pounded out her first improvisation with her chubby feet. Perhaps she would have enjoyed the exercise more if her big toe could reach the major third instead of just a second. For her first drum lesson, she seemed more interested in throwing the makeshift instrument than playing it. My hope for this child, born out of love and music - that she enjoys each musical moment of her existence, that she

learns to love and be loved in perfect harmony, and that she experiences to the fullest this symphony we call life. The Failure of Superwoman? My friends call me Superwoman. Singlehandedly I juggle work, music, and motherhood, and still manage to get dinner on the table before my husband comes home at night. You can find me lecturing on Baroque Music and Beethoven in the university, composing electronic music until the late hours of the night, teaching my baby girl proper fingering on the piano, and trying to find ways to buy organic vegetables while cutting my grocery budget by another ten percent. I appreciate the empowerment my mother's generation gave to Generations X and Y. We grew up believing that we could have it all. Despite all of the bad publicity for being "slackers", we believed that a woman could perfectly balance work, her dreams, and her

family without a cost. My parents taught both my sister and I that we could be the best, and that we were the best. I am the overachieving product of an immigrant family, another alien wondering about this lost land. I am Superwoman. I am tired. Several months of putting in full time hours in my spare time has sucked me dry. I want to hang up my superhero cape, put away the neat utility belt, and just blend in with everyone else. Musical ideas nag me constantly, but who has time for a symphony when baby has an ear infection, there are fifty papers to grade, and time with hubby is already nonexistent? So many notes flying around in my head, floating and dying, with no creative outlet, like a million snowflakes in a blizzard. They disappear, and I hope that someday I will again have the time to write something great, or just have time to breathe. I am Superwoman. I am not alone.

As the economies of the world crumble to dust, and millions more join the short path to poverty, billions of Superwomen keep each nation alive. They feed the world's children, till the barren soil, attempt to help the fledgling generation that is our children have a fighting chance in a rapidly decaying environment. How much longer can the Superwomen fight before kryptonitic exhaustion robs them of their waning powers? Are we the shadows of women's liberation, or are we the soldiers of the New Great Depression? Are we forging a new path or are we simply trudging along a well-beaten trail? Only the herstory books a century from today can tell. Look in the mirror, my sister. You might find the face of a Superwoman staring back at you. Decomposing Composers "So, what do you do?" With reverential mystery I answer, "I

compose." Invariably eyebrows raise. I used to think that being a composer surprised people because I generally defy the stereotypical idea of a composer - a white-haired European corpse. Being a young Latina composer with an obsession for science fiction, drums, zombie makeup, and computers, I am already used to sticking out in a crowd. Just add on experimental composition to my list of costly addictions. But it is not my gender, ethnicity, or passion for Star Wars that makes my being a composer surprising. It is that I am a living composer. Period. The average Joe or Nicole has difficulty naming three classical composers outside of the Big Three - Beethoven, Bach, and Mozart. Work in any economically ravaged arts-deprived school today, and you will find that many students believe that all classical composers died centuries ago, with the exception of John Williams. Even our

university music schools have encouraged this notion about decomposing composers by ending college music courses at the year 1930. (Thank goodness our medical schools don't follow the same model. I would hate to have an operation using the techniques of eighty years ago!) Hollywood movies further romanticize long gone musical geniuses with schlock like Immortal Beloved or Amadeus, entirely ignoring the amazing triumphs of contemporary composers. "Yes, I am a composer. And no, I am not dead. PS. I do not wear a powdered wig." Many non-musicians regard composers with a reverent awe akin to how I might regard a nuclear physicist or epidemiologist (I will let you Google that one). By some bizarre "magic," composers create symphonies and operas in our heads. Hiding in our virtual music labs, we sketch little dots on paper which give birth to musical masterpieces. We experiment constantly with sounds,

notes, timbre, color, instruments, melody, and harmony. Many, if not most, of us succumb to eccentricities and think on planes of thought that make little sense to someone who has not heard an entire chorus play constantly in their mind's ear for weeks on end. Our loved ones know better than to interrupt when inspiration strikes, and often we are accused of being mentally absent when our inner workings begin exploring a new musical avenue. Some composers are so content to create masterworks in an intellectually exclusive vacuum that they further promulgate this notion of the composer as the mad scientist of classical music. Are composers a dying breed? Or is it simply the antiquated definition of the "composer" that has been buried by the last century of the diversified technological globalization of music? While I do enjoy proselytizing the wonders of avant-garde music and contemporary

composition, sometimes I wonder if I myself have put up an imaginary wall. The Information Age has morphed the very definition of composition. Maybe the problem is not that there are too little living composers but that there are millions and millions of living composers creating music on laptops, the internet, i-Phones, electronic instruments, and desktop computers. Maybe by limiting the scope of composition to traditional classical music I have in fact selfimposed this exclusive view of music making, leaving me prey to all of its misconceptions and false assumptions. If I define myself as an "electronic musician," I soon find kindred spirits that may never have taken Theory III or Orchestration, but create innovative music all the same. Perhaps I need to forget about writing "electroacoustic," "experimental," "classical," "avant-garde," or "intermedia" compositions, and just concentrate on writing, well, just plain old music. Then I

might find myself no longer confined to patriarchal stereotypes and instead part of a larger collective of music lovers that includes every culture, generation, and gender. So what do I really do? I make music. In Defense of Music Technology Last year after an electronic music concert, I found myself defending electroacoustic music to a fellow composer who did not understand why composers in my field insisted on using multimedia in their works. Her companion agreed, and as both verbally snubbed composers who use electronics, I realized that music technology divides even the most knowledgeable of musicians. In my mind, there are not composers in “my” field of electroacoustic music and “their” field of strictly acoustic (and presumably better) music. Electroacoustic composers simply compose

for electronics like they compose for a choir or orchestra, and many can just as easily create a symphony as a computer music piece. Critics have always shunned innovation, whether it be the pianoforte, the record player, radio, the internet, virtual reality, or electroacoustic music. Whatever their motives – fear, ignorance, embarrassment – these critics wish to maintain the status quo, until their stalwart stance dooms them to obscurity. Unless a composer hides in a cave armed only with a pencil and manuscript, he or she will succumb to the digital revolution. The contemporary composer knows that posting one’s latest clarinet trio on YouTube is as important as learning how to write a string quartet, that a collaboration can mean anything from working with an alternative band down the street to jamming with a Kenyan drumming ensemble over i-Chat, and that publishing a score globally takes

only a few clicks and broadband. The musician who chooses to ignore technology may find that his or her music quickly becomes obsolete, though not for lack of quality. Competition committees pass over works with sloppy handwritten scores and noisy analog recordings, instead accepting polished computer scores with MIDI realizations. Music enthusiasts swipe audio files off an artist’s website instead of attending a live recital. Traditional mediums like physical recordings, music magazines, and terrestrial radio fail as, vlogs and blogs, and Pandora become the music distributors of choice. Composers who insist that they do not embrace technology still need to record their performances digitally, depend on Finale to publish their scores, and use e-mail to communicate with other musicians. Even the artist who reads this blog has chosen to accept new technology.

Today successful composers exploit electronic innovation by self-promoting their music through blogs and internet radio, hosting concert premieres through virtual worlds like Second Life, collaborating internationally through video chat, and composing new hybrid works with live performers and Max/MSP. Revolutionary composers not only utilize existing contemporary technology, but push the artistic envelope by inventing new digital marvels that further transform music. Cutting edge musicians turn to independent companies hosted by a single CPU in a music fan’s basement, and performers reach new audiences as advanced communications shrink the market. A digital tsunami has struck the world and only the technologically evolved will survive. Music Technology: The Great Democratizer

Lecture from the November 9th Lecture/Recital Murray State University IAWM Electronic Music Concert 2010 Today I had several different routes I could follow for this electronic music concert. 1) Number 1. I could hum, hah, and harangue about the injustices in the world. I could give you one example after another about how difficult it is being a composer who is also a woman, who is also young, who is also Latina. I could whine and weep and exhort you to understand the plight of young girls and talented women who face adversity each day when they attempt to convince professional orchestras and opera companies to play their music. But the truth is: who cares about the few hundred women who have difficulty having a symphony performed when there are billions of women being denied basic inalienable human rights, even the right to be born. Their only crime? XX not XY.

2) Option Number 2. I could give you a historical overview of electronic music. We could sit here and trace the birth of electronic music, from the record player and ondes martenot and theremin all the way through the whacked out 80s with MTV and Laurie Anderson's drum suit. We could talk about France's IRCAM electronic Studios and the contributions of women like composers Pauline Oliveros and Alice Shields. I could mention younger generations of electronic music composers like Kristine H. Burns and Alex Shapiro. But to be honest, you can Google or Wiki almost anything I have to say about electronic music history. So if you are interested in electronic music history, here is a quick list (quick, write them down): Electroacoustic Electronica Theremin Ondes Martenot

Pauline Oliveros EIS System MAX/MSP Supercollider Multimedia Intermedia Mixed media Dick Higgins Tape Music John Cage Sound Silence O Superman Wendy Carlos Louis Barron Alice Shields Alicyn Warren Alex Shapiro Recording Char Davies Beth Anderson Mixing Brenda Hutchinson

Joan La Barbara Ione Laurie Anderson Laurie Spiegal Rebecca Allen IRCAM Virtual Reality Bell Labs Fluxus Futurist Performance Art Forbidden Planet Graphic Notation Yoko Ono Noise Synthesizer Science Fiction Moog Njinga What are we going to talk about today? Electronic music? Yes. Technology? Yes. Women? Maybe.

We are going to talk about YOU. What is happening now in technology, where it's going, what you can do with it. Technology is the great Democratizer. If I don't want someone to judge me based on my appearance, gender, or age, I can create a new avatar, an identity, all linked to a valid e-mail account and website which tout my achievements without giving away a single personal detail. I can contact someone across the ocean (or even just two blocks away) via text or FB or Twitter, collaborate on a project, distribute it, and never have to meet a living, breathing soul. What is beautiful about this? If you, or you, or you want to create a great piece of art, whether it is music, or visual art, or an ebook, all you have to do it create it and hit SEND. It doesn't matter if you are ten, or twenty, or one hundred and ten. It doesn't matter if you speak Spanish, or Mandarin, or Arabic. If the music is good, if you know what you are doing, you can share your

creations with the world. Even if your music is bad, someone is bound to like it out there. (Look how many people love Kesha and Katie Perry). Here is the crux of today's talk: 1. Say Something There is a massively huge world out there. In case you didn't get the memo, the economy tanked, people around the world are starving to death, corporations are raking in billions, and the media keeps shoving expensive plastic toys down our throats. Say something. Don't waste your talent, whether it's in music, or art, or writing, or math, or whatever. Don't waste it. Use it. And make a difference. Musicians, there are thousands of songs out there about tweeny bop crushes and partying. Are we really that lame? There are tens of thousands of string quartets, thousands of symphonies, and tens of thousands of piano solos. Is that what we are about? Tiny little notes on scraps of tree

bark? Make a difference with your music, your art. Change the world one note at a time. 2. Get with the program. Which program? Garageband, Audacity, Acid, Fruity Loops, Cubase, Cakewalk, Ableton, Logic, ProTools, Finale, Sibelius, PC, Mac, or doesn't matter. The program is just the tool, the creator of great music is you. Don't worry if you can't read a note, never wrote a lyric in your life, or don't know a major dominant from a majordomo. Music is sequential and exponential. You learn one new skill today, you will know two tomorrow, and four the next. I wish I could tell you that I have a top of the line studio back home, or I run everything on only the best equipment in the world and have tens of thousands of dollars of engineering goods at my disposal. Truth is, my studio used to be the most basic of studios. For years I composed using a destroyed kid's keyboard hooked to a decade

old MOTU and used a demo version of Pro Tools. The tools didn't matter. During that same time, one of my film scores made it to the NY International Independent Film Festival, another was a finalist in Miramax's Greenlight Competion, and an electronic track was chosen for an international sound festival. My studio was garbage. I am not. Don't stress what program, just get the program - any program - and start making music. 3. Get it out there What's the point of writing the most amazing symphony, love song, or beat in the world if you keep it all to yourself? Get the music out there. You don't need to wait for a contract or someone's permission. Get your music out there. How are you going to know if it is good or bad or just plain ugly if you keep it safe at home? Set your music free, and wait to see where it lands (or crashes), then write some more. One day you will find that you

actually are good at what you do, and you won't even realize it until people start asking you for advice. 4. Keep at it Figure out why you do what you do. And I am not just talking about music. Why do you study what you study? Find what you are passionate about, whatever it is, and pursue it like a starving wolf hunts its prey. Thirst and hunger for what you do. If you don't care about what you do (what you write), then no one else will care about it. Be passionate, and forget everything else. 5. Share the wealth Once you get to the point where you are doing what you love and actually living your dream, and you will if you work hard, then share the wealth. Share your knowledge and your experiences. Help those around you get to where you are. It makes you a better person, it helps someone else, and it makes this crazy world just that much more livable. Now we are going to listen to experimental

electronic music by several talented women. These women share nothing but their love of music. They are from different countries with different backgrounds, use different tools, and have entirely different approaches to music. As you listen, close your eyes and immerse yourself in the sounds. Forget that you are sitting in a lecture hall at Murray State, and enter into an altered state of mind. The Silent Noise of John Cage - Essay Excerpt When John Cage asked Aragon, how one created history, he replied, "You have to invent it." Cage then set out to create his own musical history, that of experimentalism (Cage, Autobiographical 1). This movement included composers Morton Feldman, Pauline Oliveros, Christian Wolff, Earle Brown, and many others who, along with Cage, stretched the boundaries of music composition and broke

away from the East Coast post serialists. Largely because of geographical location, rock music and Oriental thought influenced experimental music. They revolted against Occidental music, embracing the plurality and percussive nature of Eastern Music. Cage believed that "IN THE UNITED STATES THERE ARE AS MANY WAYS OF WRITING AS THERE ARE COMPOSERS" (Cage, Silence 52). Cage did not study music in a formal institution and was unable to hear melodies in his head. For him, listening to a performance of his compositions and the actual composing involved two different processes. Arnold Schoenberg discouraged the young Cage, telling him, "You'll come to a wall and never be able to get through." To which Cage replied, "Then I'll spend my life knocking my head against the wall." (Cage, Autobiographical 2). Zen Buddhism entered Cage's life after the failure of "The city wears a slouch hat".

Dejected, he fled to Seattle and taught at the Cornish School of Design, where "he tempered his worldly ambition and sought tranquility through a more modest art of acceptance." (Pritchett, Story 3). Unlike other postmodernists, who endeavored to achieve success by assimilating into popular culture, Cage fought against "THE DUALISTIC TERMS OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE OR THE BEAUTIFUL AND THE UGLY OR GOOD AND EVIL." (Cage, Silence 47). The Eastern idea of a goal-less society left Cage to introduce a type of music that lacked a tonal center (not unlike Schoenberg's serial music ) and lacked exact rhythmic meter. As Pritchett stated, " he's following a system -- but he has no idea where he's going (Six 40). Cage rejected the evaluation of music because it defeated its overall purpose. He saw music as "processes essentially purposeless, " where "sounds are just sounds" (French 391).

Cage and his followers refused to imitate Westen composers who "write...the same piece over and over again" (Willaims 63). He decided to base his music on rhythm. Excited with the unlimited possibilities unleashed with this new concept, quickly began radical experiments in rhythm and sound. Complex mathematical patterns gave birth to micro-macrocosmic structure, in which the "large parts of a composition had the same proportion as the phrases of a single unit." (Cage, Autobiographical 2). Once he discovered this musical form at the Cornish School, he began to employ other complex mathematical theorems to music. Reactions to his music were mixed. After a performance at the Chicago Arts Club, the Chicago Daily News stated, "People call it noise--but he calls it music." In a sense, both Cage and the audience had the right idea, for Cage utilized noise and created music out of it (Pritchett, Story 20.) Cage discovered the beauty of silence in

percussion, whether through the rustle of leaves or the footsteps at a child at play. He utilized the "power of the pause", embracing Ananda K. Coomaraswamy's belief that "the purpose of music is to sober and quiet the mind, thus making it susceptible to divine influence." (Cage, Autobiographical 1). Cage's 4'33" epitomized this quest for simplicity. The bewildered audience created the music in this piece by random coughing, shuffling of feet, or snickering as the whir of the air conditioner painted the musical context of the piece. 4'33" reached the final frontiers of silence. This quote from Cage's book Silence states it best: I HAVE NOTHING TO SAY AND I AM SAYING IT ---------SOURCES:
Born, Geogina. Rationalizing Culture. Cage, John. An Autobiography. Cage, John. Silence. French, Richard F., Twentieth Century Views of

Music History. Kostelanetz, Richard. John Cage: Writer. Otto, Allen. "Speaking to and through around and about for and against John Cage-A Musical Tribute." Percussive Notes, June 1993. Pritchett, James. Six Views of Sonatas and Interludes. Pritchett, James. The story of John Cage's "The city wears a slouched hat" Williams, Michael. The Early Percussion Music of John Cage.

Appendix: Resources for Women in Technology RECENT RESOURCES This is a select list of resources published since 2005 on a variety of topics related to women and technology. This list is by no means exhaustive, but is meant to provide a general overview of current research topics on the subject of women, music, and technology. Journal of the IAWM (International Alliance for Women in Music) Editor-in-Chief, Eve R. Meyer (

Women & Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture. Nebraska Press. Women Composers and Music Technology in the United States: Crossing the Line by Elizabeth Hinkle-Turner. Women, Music, Culture: An Introduction by Julie C. Dunbar. Pink Noises: Women in Electronic Music and Sound by Tara Rodgers. Women Who Dared: Trailblazing 20th Century Musicians by Susan Fleet. Women in Music: An Anthology of Source Readings from the Middle Ages to the Present by Carol Neuls-Bates. RESOURCES BEFORE 2005
Ahtila, Eija-Liisa, Vanessa Beecroft, Willie Doherty, Douglas Gordon, Aernout Mik, Tony Oursler, Sam Samore, Georgiana Starr, and Gillian Wearing. ID: An International Survey on the Notion of Identity in Contemporary Art. Eindhoven: Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, 1996. Ammer, Christine. Unsung: A History of Women in

American Music. Portland: Amadeus Press, 2001. Anderson, Laurie. The End of the Moon. Gusman Center for the Performing Arts, Miami, 23 October 2004. Armstrong, Simon and Joan Rothfuss. In the Spirit of Fluxus. Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1993. Berberian, Cathy. Stripsody. New York: C.F. Peters Corporation, 1966. Born, Georgina. Rationalizing Culture: IRCAM, Boulez, and the Institutionalization of the Musical Avante-Garde. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1995. Bortez, Benjamin and Edward T. Cone, eds. Perspectives on Contemporary Music Theory. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., 1972. Borchert, Gavin. "American Women in Electronic Music, 1984-1994." Contemporary Music Review. vol. 16. Parts 1 & 2. (1997), 89-97. Bosse, Joanna. "Creating Options, Creating Music; An Interview with Laurie Spiegel." Contemporary Music Review. vol. 16. Parts 1 &2. (1997). 81-87. Bosseur, Jean-Iyves. Sound and the Visual Arts: Intersections Between Music and Plastic Arts Today. Paris: Dis Voir. 1993.

Bowcott, Peter. "Interfaces for Composition - What About the Composer?" Contemporary Music Review. vol 15 Parts 3-4. (1996). 27-37. Boutoux, Thomes, ed. Hans Ulrich Obrist: Interviews. Vol. 1. Milan: Edzioni Charta, 2003. Braun, Hans-Joachim, ed. Music and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins U.P., 2000. Briscoe, James R., ed. Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women. Bloomington: Indiana U.P., 1997. Burns, Kristine H. "An Emerging Digital Community: The CD-ROM Artist," In Organised Sound. Vol. 2, (1997): 13-18. _____, ed. Women and Music in America Since 1900: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 12, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002. Burton, Andrew. Madonna. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001. Cage, John. Aria. New York: C.F. Peters Corporation, 1960. _____. Radio Music. New York: Henmar Press, Inc., 1961. Candy, Linda and Ernest Edmonds. Explorations in Art and Technology. London: Springer-Verlag London, Ltd., 2002.

Cardew, Cornelius, ed. Scratch Music. London: Latimer New Dimensions, Ltd., 1972. Carlson, Marvin. Performance: A Critical Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 2004. Carr, Cynthi. On Edge: Performance at the End of the Twentieth Century. Hanover: Wesleyan U.P, 1993. Carson, Fiona and Claire Pajaczkowska, eds. Feminist Visual Culture. Routledge: Edinburgh U.P., 2001. Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997. Chaplin, Sarah. “Cyberfeminism.” Feminist Visual Culture. Carson, Fiona and Clair Pajaczkowska, eds., 270. Routledge: Edinburgh U.P., 1993. Cook, Nicholas. Analysing Musical Multimedia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Cope, David. The Algorithmic Composer. Madison: A-R Editions, Inc., 2000. _____. New Directions in Music. 7th ed. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press, Inc., 2001. _____. Techniques of the Contemporary Composer. London: Schirmer Books, 1997. Dodge, Charles and Thomas A. Jerse. Computer

Music: Synthesis, Composition, and Performance. 2nd ed. New York: Schirmer Books, 1997. Duckworth, William, ed. Talking Music: Conversations with John Cage, Philip Glass, Lauie Anderson, and Five Generations of American Experimental Composers. New York: Da Capo Press, 1999. Dusman, Linda. “No Bodies There: Absence and Presences in Acousmatic Performance.” Musicand Gender. Moisala, Pirkko and Beverley Diamond, eds. 336-346.Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000. Elliot, Anthony. The Mourning of John Lennon. Berkeley: University of California Press.1999. Gaburo, Kenneth. Dante’s Joynte. ?:Lingua Press, 1976. ______. Twenty Sensing [Instruction] Compositions. ?:Lingua Press, 1976. Goldberg, Roselee. Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,1988. Goodman, Cynthia. Digital Visions: Computers and Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1987. Graham, Rob. Theater: A Crash Course. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1999.

Hall, Charles J. A Chronicle of American Music: 1700-1995. New York: Schirmer Books, 1996. Halstead, Jill. The Woman Composer. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1997. Hedges, Elaine and Ingrid Wendt. In Her Own Image: Women Working in the Arts. New York: The Feminist Press, 1980. Higgins, Dick. Horizons: The Poetics and Theory of the Intermedia. Carbondale: Southern Illinois U.P., 1984. Johnson, Deborah and Wendy Oliver, eds. Women Making Art: Women in the Visual and Performing Arts since 1960. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc., 2001. Lebrecht, Norman. Who Killed Classical Music?: Maestros, Managers, and Corporate Politics. London: Carol Publishing Group Edition, 1997. Le Page, Jane Weiner. Women Composers, Conductors, and Musicians of the Twentieth Century: Selected Biographies. Metuchen: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1980. Liestol, Gunnar, Andrew Morrison, and Terje Rasmussen, eds. Digital Media Revisited: Theoretical and Conceptual Innovation in Digital Domains. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2003.

Lovejoy, Margot. Postmodern Currents: Art and Artists in the Age of Electronic Media. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Lysoff, Rene’ T. and Leslie C. Gay, Jr., eds. Music and Technoculture. Middletown: Wesleyen U.P., 2003. MacArthur, Sally. Feminist Aesthetics in Music. Westport; Greenwood Press., 2002.0 McClary, Susan. Feminist Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. Miranda, Eduardo Reck and Francis Rumsey, ed. Composing with Computers. Oxford: Focal Press, 2001. Moisala, Pirkko and Beverley Diamond, eds. Music and Gender. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000. Murphie, Andrew and Joh Potts. Culture & Technology.Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003. Nicholls, David. American Experimental Music; 1890-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 1990. Neuls-Bates, Carol, ed., "Marcia J. Cintron: Musicologist" Women in Music. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996. _____. "Nancy van de Vate." Women in Music.

Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996. Nyman, Michael. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 1999. Oliveros, Pauline. "Acoustic and Virtual Space as a Dynamic Element of Music." Leonardo Music Journal: Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology. vol. 5 (1995), 19-22. _____ . Deep Listening Pieces. Kingston: Deep Listening Publications, 1990. _____. Sonic Meditations. Smith Publications, 1974. Paul, Christiane. Digital Art. New York: Thames & Hudson Inc., 2003. Pendell, Karin, ed. Women & Music: A History. 2nd ed. Bloomington: Indiana U.P., 2001. Randall, Annie Janeiro. "Eyes on the Composition Prize." Contemporary Music Review. vol. 16. Parts 1 &2. (1997). 105-111. Ravenal, John B., ed. Outer & Inner Space: Pipilorri Rist, Shirin Neshat, Jane & Louise Wilson, and the History of Video Art. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Richmond: University of Washington Press, 2002. Reich, Steve. Pendulum Music. London: Universal Edition, Ltd., 1980.

Read, Gardner. Pictographic Score Notation: A Compendium. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1998. Rollig, Stella, ed. Her: Video as a Female Terrain. New York: Springer Wein NewYork, ?. Rosemont, Penelope, ed. Surrealist Women: An International Anthology. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998. Rowe, Robert. Interactive Music Systems: Machine Listening and Composing. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1993. Rush, Michael. New Media in the Late 20th Century. New York: Thames & Hudson Inc., 1999. Rzewski, Frederic. Les Moutons de Panurge. Tokyo: Zen-On Music Co., 1980. Sawelson-Gorse, Naomi, ed. Women in Dada: Essays on Sex, Gender, and Identity. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1998. Schimmel, Paul, ed. Out of Actions: Between Performance and the Object 1949-1979. The Geffen Contemporary at the Museum of Contemporary Art. Los Angeles:Thames and Hudson, 1998. Schwartz, Elliot and Barney Childs with Jim Fox, eds. Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music, Expanded Edition. New York:

De Capo Press, 1998. Seashore, Carl E. "Why No Great Women Composers?" Music Educator’s Journal, 1940. Women in Music. Carol Neuls-Bates, ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996. Sewell, Gilber T., ed. The Eighties: A Reader. Reading: Perseus Books, 1997. Shapiro, Andrew. "Catching Up with Meredith Monk." 21rst Century Music. vol. 9. Num. 5. (May 2002). 1-3. Smyth, Ethel. "Female Pipings in Eden." Women in Music. Carol Neuls-Bates, ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996. Stolba, K. Marie. The Development of Western Music: A History. Vol. II. Dubuque: McGraw Hill. 1990. Stone, Kurt. Music Notation in the Twentieth Century: A Practical Guidebook. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1980. Thome, Diane. “Reflections on Collaborative Process and Compositional Revolution.” Leonardo Music Journal: Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology. vol. 5 (1995), 29-32. Walker Art Center. Let’s Entertain Life’s Guilty Pleasures. Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 2000.

Warren, Alycin. Molly. 1997. Whiting, John. "The Deconstructing of Society and the Restructuring of Art." Contemporary Music Review. vol 15 Parts 3-4. (1996).71-76.. Zurbrugg, Nicholas, ed. Art, Performance , Media, 31 Interviews. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 2004. SELECT ELECTRONIC RESOURCES Anderson, Laurie. Puppet Motel. CD-ROM. Paris: Gallimard, 1995. _____. Laurie Anderson.Com. <>, 07 11 2004. Ars Electronica. . 9 23 04. Art Interactive. “Rebecca Allen, Bush Soul #3.” , 13 3 2004. Barnett, Bekah. “Interview with Kim Baker.” , Women in Creative Music. 9 23 04. “Biographies.” , Archived in Ars Electronica. , 13 3 2004. Burns, Kristine H. “Biography.” , 3 30 2004. _____. “History of Electronic and Computer Music Including Automatic Instruments and Composition Machines.” , 14 3 04. Byrd, Jeffrey. “Women in Performance Art.”, WOW/EM. 4 4 1998. Carlos, Wendy. “Photo Archive.” , 1996-2000. CDeMUSIC. “Pamela Z.” , Electronic Music

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Intermedia composer, percussionist, author, and obsessive sci-fi buff, Young composes mind-numbing electroacoustic works heard in Asia, North America, Australia, and Europe. Her music has been heard in film festivals, radio, electronic dance clubs, random boom boxes in France, and as notso-pleasant background music. Her multimedia works have been performed at venues like the Beijing Conservatory, the International Computer Music Conference, Miramax's Project Greenlight, the Athena Festival, the New York International Independent Film Festival, Art Basil Miami, Turkey's Cinema for Peace, and Pulsefield International Exhibition of Sound Art. Origins, a riveting album of cinematic soundscapes, pulsating rhythms and

enigmatic vocals, was released on CD Baby and i-Tunes in 2008. Origins includes World Order #1, a pounding dance piece about nuclear war and Looking Glass, a nightmarish musical poem. Recent projects include World Order #5, an apocalyptic tale about the decimation of the human race by a viral mutation written for the Kansas State University percussion ensemble, 3D animation, and electronic music, and the Creation, a CGI multimedia oratorio composed for the Millikin University Women's Chorus and percussion ensemble. Creation won the New Genre Prize from the IAWM Search for New Music Competition in 2011. Young is currently working on Libertaria: The Virtual Opera, a sci-fi animated opera starring an international cast and set in year AD2139. In 2009 Young published The Feminine Musique: Multimedia and Women Today.

TheFeminine Musique traces the intersection of experimental music and new media through the works of innovative composers and artists who embraced social change, technology, and music. Young has written for the Kapralova Society Journal, Percussive Notes, Panpipes, the IAWM Music Journal, the SEAMUS Music Journal, and various fine arts websites.

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