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INTA 2030 Fall 2010 Midterm Exam

(1) Write your name on this sheet. (2) Write your name on the Scantron sheet. (3) Hand in this sheet AND your Scantron sheet. Good Luck! Part I Select the best answer for each of the following questions. Each question is worth 1 point.

1. Cosmopolitanism a. Is a tradition in ethics that sees human beings as a single moral community where

there are some rules that apply to all b. Is the only tradition in ethics that sees see humans as a collection of separate communities with no common morality c. Is a tradition in ethics that sees humans as a collection of separate communities with some minimally shared standards
d. Is a tradition in ethics that upholds the sanctity of life 2. What is sovereignty? a. The right to intervene in another states domestic affairs b. The right to autonomy and independence c. The duty of self-sufficiency d. The right to deny anothers legitimacy e. The right to declare ones self-worth 3. Under what conditions can one discriminate in a moral argument? a. When the harm done is particularly egregious b. When one is in a slippery slope situation c. When the discrimination is shown not to be unacceptably arbitrary d. When lives are at stake e. None of the above 4. In our class reading, to whom does Carr refer as utopian? a. International relations scholars between WWI and WWII b. International relations scholars after WWII c. Adolf Hitler d. Thomas Hobbes e. Hans Morgenthau

5. According to Carr, the morality of states treatment of other states differs from states treatment
of individuals a. Because states are group persons and are the supreme holders of power b. Because individuals are the supreme holder of power c. Because states have the law on their side d. Because individuals can revolt against the state e. None of the above

6. According to George Kennan, The US should a. First and foremost seek to attain its moral ideals internationally b. Pursue its national interest with moral fervor c. Never seek to attain its national interest d. Keep commitments in line with capabilities 7. Realism

a. Sees the primacy in political life of authoritarianism and sovereignty b. Sees the capacity for creativity in all humans c. Sees the primacy in political life of power and security seeking
d. Sees no value in democracy 8. Why does Morgenthau conclude that there must be an international morality? a. Because states never fight each other b. Because states interact in a diplomatic culture c. Because states rarely seek to eliminate one another d. Because states swear to interact in accordance with the UN Charter 9. What is substantive justice? a. Recognition of rules that confer specific rights and duties b. The ability to substantiate a claim of injustice c. The application of substantive rules to like persons d. Equality and morality in general e. The right to a specific portion of the benefit 10. What is arithmetical justice? a. Recognition of rules that confer specific rights and duties b. The ability to substantiate a claim of injustice c. The application of reciprocal rules to ones ally d. Equality and morality in general e. The right to a specific portion of the benefit 11. Which form of justice best describes the reciprocal observation of treaties between states? a. Distributive justice b. Proportionate justice c. Commutative justice d. Collaborative justice e. Arithmetical justice

12. States with a per capita income of greater than $25,000 should give a portion of their wealth to
states with per capita incomes less than $1,000. This sentence expresses a. Distributive justice b. Collaborative justice c. Perambulatory justice d. Commutative justice e. Democratic justice

13. What is the revolutionist view of the relationship between justice and order?
a. Order is commutative with justice b. Order is always primary to justice c. An order that is not anarchical must be established to allow for a just global society to flourish d. Order is distributive with justice e. Sovereign states can cooperate with each other in a society without government 14. Why does Bull turn away from the Hobbesian idea of the state of nature? a. Because states are not living beings b. Because a state doesnt have a conscience like an individual does in the state of nature c. Because state war is total and war between individuals is not d. Because states are productive and have laws even under anarchy 15. What two practices does Hedley Bull think support the rationalist view about international society? a. Hundreds year old legal theory about international society and the practice of power balancing b. Distributive justice and commutative justice c. Commemorative justice and arithmetical justice d. Just war and just peace e. The practice of fighting for ones nation and of revolting against an unjust state

16. Which of the following is an example of how international society is not like Hobbes state of
anarchy? a. There is an ever-present potential for fighting to erupt internationally b. The reluctance of the United States and North Korea to have direct diplomatic relations c. The use of all of a states income on weaponry d. The free trade agreement between the United States and Mexico e. None of the above

17. Which of the following is an example of solidarist international politics?

a. Reciprocal relations of sovereignty b. The norm of nonintervention c. Agreement on minimal purposes d. International belief in and enforcement of international laws against slavery 18. According to Immanuel Kants theses on history,

a. There is a teleology to nature. Teleology tells us that there is an end state to which development is destined b. There is no teleology to nature c. All of nature is destined to eternally remain the same
d. None of the above

19. Why, according to Kant, can only humans produce beyond what nature has already mechanically organized?

a. Because only humans have the ability to process information quickly b. Because other animals are too fearful c. Because humans are bipedal
d. Because humans have the capacity for reason independent of instinct e. Because humans have opposing thumbs 20. For Kant, which if the following is the means by which human capacities can be developed? a. Fear b. Antagonism c. Mutual aid d. Love e. Pity 21. How does Kant think individuals enter into society? a. Through their free will b. Through a love for God c. Through coercion d. Through reason e. Through temptation 22. What is enlightenment? a. Gaining insight b. Having a notion of gestalt about cosmopolitanism c. Emergence from self-imposed immaturity d. Achieving a conscience e. None of the above 23. How can a perfect global civil constitution exist for Kant? a. Through a world state b. Through a federation of peoples c. Through a direct democracy d. Through a legislature of noblemen e. Through the persistent effort of a philosopher king 24. For Kant, when is immaturity self-imposed? a. When we turn a blind eye to new information and are stuck living in the past b. When we cant understand the world we live in without conducting experiments c. When we believe in god(s) d. When we use new knowledge only for our own personal benefit e. When we lack the courage to use our understanding without guidance from another 25. According to Kant, what is freedom? a. The capacity to do whatever we like b. The ability to impose our preferences upon others less well endowed than us c. The desire to change to better people d. The room to use reason publicly in all matters

26. What is the role of the prince in Kantian ethics? a. To ensure that distributive justice is always preserved and to make sure that the senate doesnt legislate according to arithmetical justice b. To provide for the basic needs of the people c. To ensure that the legislative and executive branches are kept separate and to make the deciding vote when the senate is tied d. To prevent anyone from forcibly interfering with anothers work and to see to it that improvements are resonant with civil order 27. By Kants standards, are we enlightened today? a. Yes, because we are each able to decide our own fate b. No, because we still have a fear of democracy c. Yes, because we can carry arms d. No, but we do live in an age of enlightenment e. None of the above 28. What is a republic? a. A form of sovereignty where all societys members possess political authority b. A form of government where legislative and executive powers are combined c. A form of government where legislative and executive powers are separated d. A form of sovereignty where only some members of society possess the highest political authority e. All of the above

29. Why does Kant say that peace is naturally our moral objective, without our having to strive to be
better people? a. Because people are naturally good b. Because people will always try to help others, even during troubled times c. Because people are so afraid of war that they will do anything to keep peace d. Because each individuals private inclinations to exempt themselves from the law is mutually cancelled out in a well-organized society e. Because a philosopher king will naturally be able to coerce the people into peaceful submission through the threat of force 30. What is providence, according to Kant? a. Natures purpose, which can be understood through reflection upon our experienced world b. Recognition of the ultimate futility of living c. The fate of humankind, which can be understood without needing to consider the natural world d. A motivation for despotism e. Love for ones nation above all else

31. Why, according to Kant, do humans live in all parts of the Earth, even inhospitable parts?
a. They are driven there through war b. Humans are naturally curious and like to travel

c. Inhospitable parts of the globe have certain natural resources, like oil in the desert d. Kings send humans to cultivate new lands e. None of the above 32. What are the two opposing forces that make perpetual peace possible, according to Kant? a. Democracy that pulls us apart and theocracy that draws us together b. Law that draws us together and order that pulls us apart c. Separate language and religions that pull us apart, and trade that draws us together d. Love of war that us apart and love of law that draws us together e. All of the above 33. According to Kants secret article a. Senators will always listen to the people no matter what they say b. Kings will always impose the law no matter how despotic c. Decision-makers will never listen to the people d. Decision-makers will listen to philosophers views on governance e. Private citizens will never say anything of use to decision-makers 34. Why is politics about more than prudence for Kant? a. Because states have no decision-making capacities b. Because states are incapable of prudential reasoning c. Because decision-makers are inherently immoral d. Because states swear to interact in accordance with universal morals e. Because individuals are not yet sufficiently enlightened to fully predict the effects of actions 35. What is the difference between Kants moral politician and political moralist? a. A political moralist is only interested in the morality of her actions b. There is no difference, both recognize their own prejudices c. There is no difference, neither recognize their own prejudices d. Only a moral politician acts so as to will that the principle behind the action become a universal law 36. When is a kingdom of ends attained? a. When everyone behaves so as to treat with equal respect the dignity of reason and moral choice in every human being b. When everyone behaves so as to attain their own personal ends c. When everyone behaves so as to end life d. When everyone behaves so as to end inefficiencies in the current monetary system e. None of the above 37. Which of the following does Nussbaum offer as a reason for thinking of oneself as a citizen of the world? a. We can avoid partisan loyalties by solving our problems if we face ourselves as world citizens b. We see ourselves more clearly when we see our ways in relation to those of other reasonable people

c. Only through understanding ourselves as world citizens do we understand what is

fundamental about us d. All of the above e. None of the above

38. Which of the following is the central focus of communitarianism?

a. The single community of all of humanity b. Authoritarian states c. Political communities d. Human individuality e. Global community issues, like the environment

39. Which of the following would be a just cause for going to war according to Walzer?
a. An unjustified military intervention b. Intervening to stop a dictator from poorly managing the extraction of a vital natural resource c. A popular revolution d. Going to war to ensure continued access to a natural resource e. Fighting against religious foes 40. What is the meaning if jus ad bellum? a. The power of balancing b. The justice of going to war c. The power of coercion d. Justice in war e. The laws of reciprocal interstate relations 41. What is the meaning of jus in bello? a. The power of balancing b. The justice of going to war c. The power of coercion d. Justice in war e. The laws of reciprocal interstate relations 42. What two rules make up the war convention, according to Walzer? a. When soldiers can kill in war and why they can kill b. Which soldiers are allowed to kill in war and how they can kill c. Which states can declare war and how they can declare war d. When soldiers can kill in war and who they can kill in war e. The best time to declare war and the best way to do so 43. Why, according to Walzer, is state aggression different from individual aggression? a. State aggression is worse than individual aggression b. States have bigger weapons than individuals c. States are collective actors d. States can declare war while individuals cannot e. State aggression is undifferentiated and there are different degrees of individual aggression

44. To what extent does Walzer say states have a moral standing?
a. b. c. d. e. To the extent that they are sovereign To the extent that they follow universal laws To the extent that they protect the common life of their communities To the extent that they are committed to nonintervention States never have moral standing

45. Which of the following is not true. For Walzer, state boundaries
a. Establish a habitable world b. Can separate the space in which members are safe from attack from the space in which they are not safe c. Are likely to have been made by ignorant, drunken, or corrupt mapmakers d. When disputed, are always a reason for war e. Can make for good neighbors, if they are well considered 46. What is a siege? a. Attack on any army barracks b. A surprise attack upon soldiers as they rest (such as the ancient attack on Troy) c. Military use of a building(s) that results in the exposure of civilians to soldiers risks d. The defense of a fortress that causes a large amount of structural damage 47. Are sieges morally defensible, according to Walzer? a. Yes, always b. No, never c. It depends on whether the civilians came to be in the area of battle by consent or coercion d. Only when the principle of double effect is not at play e. It depends on whether or not women and children are present 48. According to Walzer, terrorism a. Is always wrong but worse when directed against civilians b. Is always justifiable c. Is sometimes morally justifiable d. Is worse when directed against government officials e. Is worse when directed against soldiers 49. What is the core tension between cosmopolitanism and communitarianism, according to Cochran? a. The justice of international politics b. Increasing human freedom c. Whether the state or the individual is subject of international ethics d. Sovereignty e. Power balancing 50. What is particularism? a. The view that political principles can apply to everyone everywhere b. The view that the particular subject of international ethics is the state

c. The view that the particular subject of international ethics is the world d. The view that political principles can only be justified if limited to shared values within a community e. The view that cosmopolitanism and communitarianism is at an impasse Part II Expect to write at around 6 lines for each of the following short answer questions. Each question is worth 5 points, and partial credit will be given. You can use the back of the sheet if you need extra space. 51. What is enlightenment, according to Kant? Define enlightenment, specify what freedom under enlightenment means, and describe the role of the prince in the age of enlightenment. Are we enlightened today? Enlightenment is the emergence of humans from their self-imposed immaturity a. Immaturity is self-imposed by humans when we lack the courage to use our understanding without guidance from another If the public is allowed freedom, it will almost inevitably enlighten itself b. Freedom is to be understood here as the room to use reason publicly in all matters (distinction between pastor as private teacher and public cleric) c. The role of the prince is to prevent anyone from forcibly interfering with anothers work and to see to it that improvements are resonant with civil order d. Caesar is not above the grammarians

52. Provide any 5 of the articles (preliminary or definitive) that Kant advises for attaining perpetual
peace. Six preliminary articles: 1. No treaty of peace that tacitly reserves issues for a future war shall be held valid 2. No independent nation may be acquired by another nation. A nation is not a possession 3. Standing armies shall be gradually abolished, but citizens should still be prepared to fight 4. No foreign debts are to be permitted. Owning loans works like having a war chest 5. No nation should forcibly interfere with the constitution and government of another 6. Nations shall not conduct war in a manner such that (assassination, breach of surrender, instigation of treason) mutual trust in the future becomes impossible Three definitive articles: 1. The civil constitution of every nation should be republican a) Founded on the principles of freedom, dependence and equality b) Republicanism is the only foundation for perpetual peace 2. The right of nations shall be based on a federation of free states a) Not a nation of nations, but a league of peace conducted through the moral legislative power of reason 3. Cosmopolitan right shall be limited to conditions of universal hospitality 53. Why does Kant say that perpetual peace is guaranteed? Describe what providence is and how this concept fits into Kants guarantee of perpetual peace. What two opposing forces make perpetual peace possible, and how are these forces opposing? Nature is purposive, and when we reflect on natures purposiveness, we become aware of providence Providence is not understood by thought alone, but by the attribution of the actual existence of objects in the world through thought.

Thoughtfulness upon objects leads to transcendental ideas as theories, and the application of theories as duties leads to dogmas. Dogmatic ideas properly establish reality Theory is separated from theology when we reach out to the world to understand nature rather than introspectively establishing the character of providence Nature has despotically chosen that humans live everywhere, even in the most inhospitable regions of the world This choice is fulfilled by war, and our motivation for war is ingrained in human nature War ensures that people form themselves into nations to meet military threats Now, the challenge is not to impose duties upon humans to abolish war, but to socially organize our natural inclination for social organization and law The particular organization needed is one that cancels out each persons desire for exemption from law Once nations are formed, two opposing forces make perpetual peace attainable The forces of separate languages and religions keep peoples separated The spirit of trade unites peoples and eventually comes to dominate them, taking the place of war Together, the centrifugal forces of religion and language and the centripetal force of trade practically guarantees perpetual peace by virtue of humans natural inclinations

54. Provide 3 of the 5 outcomes on the morality of sieges given by Walzer.

1. 2. 3. 4. Soldiers are responsible for the death of civilians coerced to remain under siege Soldiers are cleared of responsibility of civilians who choose to remain and be defended by them Soldiers are criminals when they coerce civilians to stay and then kill them Soldiers may be justified when they attack civilians by double effect without coercion to remain under siege 5. Soldiers are justified in attacking civilians who choose to stay without surrendering

55. What are the three issues that Cochran claims follow from the core tension of the cosmopolitancommunitarian debate? Provide the issues and state whether each is ontological or epistemological. Define ontology and epistemology. One of these issues is epistemological describe the two epistemological positions that make up this issue. Three issues follow from the core tension in the cosmopolitan-communitarian debate What is a person? What is the moral relevance of states? These first two are ontological issues Can we form political principles that are Universal, meaning that they apply to everyone everywhere Particular, meaning that they can only be justified if they are limited to the shared value practices within a community This is an epistemological issue Ontology: the study of being and what is Epistemology: the study of the meaning of knowledge and how knowledge is gained

56. Define the following terms: a. Blockade i. The subjection of whole populations to siege conditions, done by denying them access to means of livelihood b. Rationalism (as described by Hedley Bull) i. The view that there is no necessary conflict between order and justice. The present order can be made more just c. Communitarianism i. The view that states are the subject (the moral agent) of international ethics, OR ii. The view that protecting the autonomy of the political community is the most important thing in international ethics d. Realism i. The position that states humans make up a collection of separate communities with no common morality, OR ii. The position that there is a Hobbesian state of international anarchy in which there is no productivity or trade, no law, and an ever-present potential for fighting, OR iii. The view that order has priority over justice and the two are in inherent conflict e. Pragmatism i. The view that claims should be justified on the basis of weak foundations and enforced contingently