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This chapter gives discussion on the National Transmission & Dispatch Company (NTDC) network, its operational problem, and proposed test circuits for economic dispatch studies. Finally there are economic dispatch studies on NTDC test systems.
WAPDA System ---- Brief Overview
Need for the optimum development of water and energy resources can not be over-emphasized in the view of the cardinal role of agriculture in the national economy, therefore water and power take a very high priority. The Federal Ministry of Water and Power with two main functionaries─── Water and Power Wings, besides all policy matters for the developments of theses resources perform certain specific functions. The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) was created in 1958 with power and water wings. The charter of duties, which reads as: investigation, planning and execution of schemes in the fields of Water and Power . WAPDA worked in vertically integrated environment up to 2001. The corporatization of WAPDA’s power wing started in 2002. It was divided into four generation companies, transmission & dispatch-company, nine distribution companies and one itself WAPDA. The public sector hydel and thermal generation are in the control of WAPDA and gencos respectively, Independent power producers (IPPs) are in private sector.
6.3 National Transmission & Dispatch Company
National transmission and dispatch company links the power generation units and load centers dotting the entire country, thus creating one of the largest contiguous grid systems of the world. At present NTDC is operating and maintaining nine 500 kV and
Chashma. and all are almost in the northern areas of Pakistan. Combined cycle power plant stations. NTDC power system has following mainly four types of power stations connected to the national grid system: a. The generating units are loaded according to the merit order determined by their cost of operation and synchronized with system with the rising trend of load curve. A schematic of WAPDA hydel power station system 100 . e. Their total estimated capacity is about 30. Two hydel power stations are presently commissioned in private sector namely Jagran (AJK) and Malakand( NWFP). Nuclear power stations.1 Hydro-Electric Generation Constraints Pakistan is the one of the most fortunate countries of the world having the lot of water potentials. Tarbela and Mangla dams are multi-purpose projects with main emphasis on irrigation under the indus water treaty. Warsak.4 Operational Constraints in NTDC System 6.167 km length of associated transmission lines .000 MW. However sometimes it is necessary to take generation at high operational cost subjected to constraints such as less transmission or transformer capacity. WAPDA's hydel power stations consists of five major station located at Tarbela.twenty four 220 kV grid stations along with 10. thermal units in public and private sectors installed mostly in the central southern regions of the country and to sell power to distribution companies through its large network of transmission lines and grid stations of 500 kV and 220 kV voltage capacities. All the functions of 500/220 kV power system and power houses are monitored by SCADA system through RTUS installed at the grid/power stations. Ghazi Boratha and nine small hydel power stations. Hydro power stations b. Steam power stations c. Mangla.4. Gas turbine power stations d. NTDC is responsible to purchase the power from hydel stations in the north. 6.
water levels in the reservoirs are low. before the reservoirs are filled. first on account of snow melt and then with monsoon rains.1 indicating that the Tarbela and Mangla reservoirs are the major feature of the WAPDA system. Some times it may be necessary to spill water from the reservoirs in order to restrict water levels at the dams and allow space for flood control. The hydro-electric power plant operation is further constrained by the necessary adjustments to planned releases to prevent upstream or downstream flooding or to makeup for deficient rainfalls. however. Seasonal water management schedules are derived on the basis of data of current and historic water levels in the reservoirs. These are the variations in water releases from the reservoirs and in hydraulic heads available for power generation. Water flows to the reservoirs increase rapidly at the beginning of summer.. 2.e. representing the only significant capacity for the seasonal storage of water. 101 . hence the power output capabilities of the turbines are significantly less than the installed capacity. The system experiences shortages of: 1. There are two principal effects of wide seasonal variations in hydel generation capability. Operation of the NTDC system is in practice dominated by these variations. water is usually abundant and plant can run on base load. 2. Prior to the start of the monsoon and snow melting on mountains. Generation capacity and energy during late winter to early summer when reservoir levels are low. Water management i. the use of reservoir storage and planning of water release is dominated by irrigation needs rather than power requirements. About beginning of June for Mangla and ending of July for Tarbela.is shown in Figure 6. The seasonal pattern of reservoir and hydro electric plant operation discussed above has considerable implications for WAPDA system operation in general. Capacity during the period later in summer. 3. Energy during the canal closure period in January to early February when reservoir releases are severely restricted. limited release is required by the essentially rain-fed areas early part of Kharif cropping season. The seasonal variation of the reservoir is briefly analyzed as follows: 1.
The load distribution pattern of NTDC system is such that 75% of the total load is located to the north of the Multan. Power flows on NTDC network are from north to south in summer and from south to north in winter and both the times power transfer is limited by transmission capability subjected to the constraints such as line or transformer overloading. So primary transmission system has to transfer the blocks of power from north to south when full hydel generation capacity is available and from south to north in winter when water is in short supply and reliance has to be placed on thermal generation.Considerable load shedding takes place on NTDC system during the above periods.4. 6.3 Effects of Transmission Constraints Various transmission constraints have effected the system operation in recent years.4. This variation arises principally from increased air-conditioning loads in summer and heating load in winter. Gas turbines are inherently sensitive to ambient temperature. stability problems and difficulty with control of voltage or reactive power.2 Thermal Generation Constraints Seasonal variations in thermal plant capability also have considerable influence on the system operation. 6. 6. 102 .4 Seasonal Variations in Power Demand The seasonal variation in electricity demand also effects the system operation. Hence the power capabilities of gas turbine components of combined cycle plant are significantly lower in summer.4.
and 4 [84-85].Figure 6-1 WAPDA Hydroelectric Generation System 6.5 Test Circuits for NTDC System The following four test circuits close to the original network of NTDC have been prepared: 1. Test System 4: 32-bus system shown in Figure 6. Test System 2: 55-bus system shown in Figure 6. Test systems 2 and 3 may be extended up to 59 and 50 buses respectively. 3. Test System 1: 77-bus system shown in Figure 6. and 4 have been tested for their performance using load flow analysis based on Newton-Rapshon algorithm. Summary of load flow analysis is given in Table 6. presently 55 and 44 buses have been considered. 103 . However.5. Test systems 2. Test System 3: 44-bus system shown in Figure 6. However.1. 3. due to constraints of data the work on test system 1 is left for future exercise.2 2.4 The bus-bar data has been prepared from the original loadings of the system for the Test System 2.3 3. The voltage profiles of these systems are shown in Figure 6.3 4.
Figure 6-2 77-Bus Test System Figure 6-3 55-Bus Test System 104 .
62 25.85 105 5979. Test System Generation (MW) Load (MW) Loss (MW) No.00 7544.Bus 44-Bus 55-Bus 32-Bus 6096.51 162.No.00 1600 117.22 175. of Iterations 1 2 3 4 32.16 7219.Figure 6-4 44-Bus Test System Figure 6-5 32-Bus Test System Table 6-1 Summary of Load Flow Results S.46 7381.96 7719.85 06 09 07 10 .64 1625.
90 0.25 Bus Voltage (pu) 1.05 0.95 0.75 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 Bus Bars Figure 6-8 Voltage Profile NTDC 55-Bus Test Circuit 106 .85 0.75 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 Bus Bars Figure 6-7 Voltage Profile NTDC 44-Bus Test Circuit Voltage Profile NTDC 55-Bus Test Circuit 1.15 1.95 0.00 0.20 1.Voltage Profile NTDC 32-Bus Test Circuit Bus Voltage (pu) 1.80 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Bus Bars Figure 6-6 Voltage Profile NTDC 32-Bus Test Circuit Voltage Profile NTDC 44-Bus Test Circuit 1.10 1.15 1.85 0.25 Bus Voltage (pu) 1.05 0.
3. The loss coefficients have been calculated using steps given in chapter 5.00 0. 2. 15-Machine NTDC Test Circuit with PD = 2400 MW 25-Machine NTDC Test Circuit with PD = 2800 MW 34-Machine NTDC Test Circuit with PD = 3000 MW The potential of the application of AI tools for WAPDA system  has also been explored.10 1. system data and load demand keeping the number of lines and number of generation point same.6. This system has generation at 12 points in the system. of Iterations 10 32-Bus Voltage Profile NTDC Test Circuit Bus Voltage (pu) 1.The test system of NTDC network for economic dispatch using thermal machines has been prepared by selecting 32-bus system. load flow analysis of this system has been carried.90 0.20 1.85 Load (MW) 1600 Loss (MW) 25. The 12-Machines 32–bus test circuit with load demand of 1600 MW is thus proposed for ED dispatch studies The following three test systems with cost curves close to the original machines in the system have also been prepared for ED analysis neglecting transmission losses: 1. Table 6-2 Summary of Load Flow Result: NTDC 32-Bus Test Circuit For ED studies Test System Generation (MW) 1625. Using the tuned bus-bar and system-data. However in the discussion to follow the GA based economic dispatch problem will be investigated.85 No.2 and voltage profile is shown in Figure 6. The system has been scale down in terms of power generation.80 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Bus Bars Figure 6-9 Voltage Profile NTDC Test Circuit 107 . Summary of the load flow analysis is given in Table 6.
The cost curves of the 15.16 and Table C. A. C. The observations are as follows: • • The generation cost is almost the same for λ-Iteration and λ-Search techniques for all test systems.6. C. Maximum increase is 2.4 presents the comparison of the results. The transmission loss has been calculated using B-coefficients. 25-Machines.14. • • • • The execution time is higher in λ-Search techniques and RP-Search from λIteration. 15-Machine.7% with 15-Machine system. In RP-Search the generation cost is higher than the other two techniques.18.12 and A. For GA based economic dispatch each test system runs 20 times for both λ-Search and Real Power-Search and results corresponding to minimum generation cost has been recorded and compared with the λ-iteration method. Evolution Model: Evolution model with GA parameters for four test systems for both λ– Search and RP-Search are given in Table C.20 and C. The detailed output results in tabular form are given in appendix C. The standard deviation is very low in λ-Search as compared to RP-Search The trends for standard test systems in chapter 5 for convex ED studies are almost repeated on the NTDC test circuits. The Table 5.6 Case Studies The cost curves and B-coefficients for 12-Machine system are given in Tables A. 108 .17 respectively placed in appendix C.16 respectively placed in appendix A.19.7% with 12-Machines system and minimum increase is 0. The increasing trend in time varies from system to system.21 placed in appendix C lists the details of output results of the 12-Machine. Output Results: Tables C.15 and A. 25 and 34 machines are given in Tables A. The summary and comparison of results is given in this chapter. 34-Machines system respectively.13 respectively placed in appendix A.
5506 1.0007 4785261.9674 5512088.2968 -0.1081 0.2924 7073116.1588 81079.0000 -0.9370 0.3600 2.7640 12.5870 6654911.03408 0.3851 38343.00000 14.6992 -0.1928 7225943.078 --------------------- 4664527.Table 6-3 Comparison of the Results for NTDC System GA Results After 20 Runs Corresponding to Minimum Test System λ-Iteration λ-Search Cost RP-Search 12-Machines Gen Cost ($/h) 4659491.4690 0.2186 5546108.3123 0. Cost from λ Iteration 15-Machines 25-Machines 34-Machines 12-Machines 15-Machines 25-Machines 34-Machines 109 .9400 5512087 6654911.7916 60195.2504 6712903.3130 0.907 21.8 -2.3440 1.9060 114251.8714 -2.6172 -0.0150 16.062 0.0000 0.1607 15-Machines 25-Machines 34-Machines 12-Machines Execution Time 15-Machines 25-Machines 34-Machines 12-Machines Standard Deviation % Difference in Gen.031 0.3440 13.7586 7073164.
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