IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO.

5, MAY 2009

1267

Digital Combination of Buck and Boost Converters to Control a Positive Buck–Boost Converter and Improve the Output Transients
Young-Joo Lee, Student Member, IEEE, Alireza Khaligh, Member, IEEE, Arindam Chakraborty, and Ali Emadi, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—A highly efficient and novel control strategy for improving the transients in the output voltage of a dc–dc positive buck–boost converter, required for low-power portable electronic applications, is presented in this paper. The proposed control technique can regulate the output voltage for variable input voltage, which is higher, lower, or equal to the output voltage. There are several existing solutions to these problems, and selecting the best approach involves a tradeoff among cost, efficiency, and output noise or ripple. In the proposed method, instead of instantaneous transition from buck to boost mode, intermediate combination modes consisting of several buck modes followed by several boost modes are utilized to distribute the voltage transients. This is unique of its kind from the point of view of improving the efficiency and ripple content in the output voltage. Theoretical considerations are presented. Simulation and experimental results are shown to prove the proposed theory. Index Terms—Control, efficiency, Li-ion battery, positive buck– boost converter, transients.

I. INTRODUCTION

A

VERY common power-handling problem, especially for portable applications, powered by batteries such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), wireless and digital subscriber line (DSL) modems, and digital cameras, is the need to provide a regulated noninverting output voltage from a variable input battery voltage. The battery voltage, when charged or discharged, can be greater than, equal to, or less than the output voltage. But for such small-scale applications, it is very important to regulate the output voltage of the converter with high precision and performance. Thus, a tradeoff among cost, efficiency, and output transients should be considered [1]–[5]. A common power-handling issue for space-restrained applications powered by batteries is the regulation of the output voltage in the midrange of a variable input battery voltage. Some of the common examples are 3.3 V output with a 3–4.2 V Li cell

Manuscript received August 2, 2007; revised May 29, 2008, and January 12, 2009. Current version published May 1, 2009. This paper was presented in part at the 2006 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor J. A. Cobos. The authors are with the Electric Power and Power Electronics Center, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 USA (e-mail: ylee35@iit.edu; khaligh@ece.iit.edu; chakari@iit.edu; emadi@iit.edu). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2009.2014066

input, 5 V output with a 3.6–6 V four-cell alkaline input, or a 12 V output with an 8–15 V lead–acid battery input [6]–[9]. With an input voltage range that is above and below the output voltage, the use of a buck or a boost converter can be ruled out unless cascaded. Cascaded combination of converters results in cascaded losses and costs; therefore, this approach is seldom used. In such a range of power demand, the transition of dc voltage from one level to another is generally accomplished by means of dc/dc power converter circuits, such as step-down (buck) or step-up (boost) converter circuits. There are various topologies such as inverting buck–boost converters, single-ended primary inductance converters (SEPICs), Cuk converters, isolated buck–boost converters, and cascaded buck and boost converters, which can be implemented to maintain a constant output voltage from a variable input voltage [10]–[13]. The important points of concern for such low-voltage-range power supplies are output ripple, efficiency, space, and the cost. The aforementioned topologies are generally not implemented for such power supplies due to their lower efficiency, higher size, and cost factors. The most difficult problem is the spikes in the output voltage, which causes the converter to lose efficiency during the transition from buck mode to the boost mode. Cost, size, switching speed, efficiency, and flexibility all need to be considered in designing such power supplies. The advantage of having higher efficiency is longer runtime at a given brightness level from the same set of batteries [14]–[20]. In this paper, a novel theory is presented in order to fulfill the requirements of energy-efficient power supplies for batterypowered portable applications. This manuscript extends [1] and [2] by adding the experimental results, to justify the theoretical results. The two main important factors, the efficiency and the voltage regulation, which are derived numerically from the experimental results, are shown, and their comparison with the conventional methods is tabulated. The proposed method improves the transition problem and tries to reduce the transients happening during the transition from the buck mode to the boost mode. The paper is organized as follows. Section II discusses the operation of the converter in different modes and issues associated with transition from buck to boost. Existing topologies and solutions to deal with this problem are addressed in Section III. The proposed new method of transient improvement is presented in Section IV. Section V addresses the simulation results applying the conventional and proposed methods of control. Analytical studies for each control technique are shown, and the method of control is elaborated. Experimental results

0885-8993/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE
Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on August 5, 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

NO. . Db o ost = 1 − (Vin /Vout ). Fig. when Vin is equal to Vout . 3. 2 are in reference to those in Fig. II.” and finally in the boost mode for “TC . Duty ratio variation for the buck and boost modes. Restrictions apply.6 V [21]. for the period “TC . Dbuck-boost becomes 0. (b) Operation modes. conclusions are drawn based on each method in Section VII. as shown in Fig. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. the converter needs to operate in the buck mode for the period “TA . 4. the duty cycle will approach to 1. 1.” the converter is in buck–boost mode. The points “A” and “B” in Fig. since Dbuck−b o ost = Vout /Vin + Vout . Vin approaches Vout .1 and 4. and Dbuck approaches 1. This is demonstrated in Fig. In other words.m in = 0. Db o ost = EAout − 1 + ∆.1268 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Dbuck = EAout . finally.5. for the time “TB . as shown in Fig. In the boost operating topology. In buck mode.m ax = 1 to Dbuck-boost = 0. Finally. When Vin is equal to Vout . In the buck–boost operating condition.” The change in the duty ratio for different modes of operation based on different ranges of the input voltage is shown in Fig. MAY 2009 Fig. Instantaneous transition from buck to buck–boost or boost incorporates a sudden change in the duty cycle from Dbuck. when Vin approaches Vout . therefore. and boost converters versus V in − V o u t . VOL. 1. Dbuck = Vout /Vin .m ax from Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. where the duty changes from the minimum value when the input is 6 V to the maximum when the input is approximately between 5.5. 2. 2. Analytical Studies In buck topology.” it is working in the boost mode. Since during a transition from buck to buck– boost the duty cycle changes from 1 to 0.m ax − Vin )/Vout. Fig. This supply needs to continuously provide a steady output of 5 V. to prevent toggling between buck mode and buck–boost mode.5. Thus. Input–output curve for the power supply. Output voltage variations are associated with the sudden changes in the duty cycle change. Fig. the VLS should be less than 0. due to the fact that output voltage is a nonlinear function of the duty cycle. In buck– boost mode.9 V.” followed by the buck–boost mode for “TB . 3.5 for boost and then zero in the boost operating topology. the EA output signal should be level shifted by 0. Variations of duty cycle of buck. However. 2. the duty cycle should follow the pattern of 1 for buck to 0. for Vin equal to Vout . TRANSITION PROBLEM An example for a battery-powered application is shown in Fig.5 Vpp . In boost mode. Downloaded on August 5. the duty cycle moves to- ward zero. for the period “TA .5.5 Vpp . Transition between different modes of operation is a result of comparing the output of the error amplifier (EAout ) and its level shifted value (VLS) with the sawtooth waveform. This is shown in Section III. are presented in Section VI to verify the simulations that are carried out for different control techniques. buck–boost. Referring to Fig. duty cycle becomes 0. The input voltage of the battery when fully charged is 6 V and when discharged is 3. 4. (a) General block diagram of error amplifier and drivers. A. where ∆ = (Vout. Dbuck-boost = EAout − 1 + 0. and. when Vin decreases toward Vout .” the converter works in the buck mode. 24. 5. 1. 1.5 or Db o ost.

the output voltage of the converter in boost and buck–boost modes is a nonlinear function of the duty cycle. increase the size and the cost. which are a combination of buck and boost operating topologies (Figs. In the voltage range V3 and V4 . Demerits of Using SEPIC Converter A very popular buck–boost topology that requires more components but produces a noninverting output is the single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC). threshold voltage. this topological control is not much desired [12]. III. the controller is able to regulate the transient in the output voltage. 5). Downloaded on August 5. Demerits of Using an Ordinary Buck–Boost Converter There are various issues about an ordinary buck–boost converter. the loss of the whole single converter is actually doubled in this case. in each mode. EXISTING SOLUTIONS A. Boost Converter Cascaded to a Low-Dropout (LDO) Voltage Regulator This topology is another cascaded topology composed of two different converter circuits. Combined-method-based control logic for deciding modes of operation. 6. 5. due to the fact that it is a cascaded network of two converters. Restrictions apply.: DIGITAL COMBINATION OF BUCK AND BOOST CONVERTERS TO CONTROL A POSITIVE BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER 1269 buck–boost mode. This means that the direct transition from buck to buck–boost or boost will incorporate output voltage variations. decoupling capacitors. for the input voltages below V4 . ∂Db o ost ∂t (1 − Db o ost )2 (1) (2) (3) Fig. thereby. and the compensation networks needed for both controllers in this case is more. 8. which adds to the cost and space and sacrifices the efficiency of the converter. (∂Dbuck−b o ost /∂t) = (∂EAout /∂t). hence. The biggest disadvantage of an LDO circuit is lower efficiency. thus. In Fig. buck–boost ([Vout /Vin ] = [Dbuck−b o ost /1 − Dbuck−b o ost ]). and boost ([Vout /Vin ] = [1/1 − Db o ost ]) operation topologies. D. By adding the combination modes A and B during the time periods “T1 ” and “T3 ” just before and after the stage. However. The biggest problem associated with such a converter is that the output of such converter is inverted. Another concern here is the cost. where vin ≈ vout . B. The use of these components would add to the losses. 6). 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. including a transformer or two inductors would occupy more space and. followed by an LDO voltage regulator (see Fig. but it requires a transformer. Based on (1). and (∂Db o ost /∂t) = (∂EAout /∂t). However. Of course. [11]. the varying voltage of the battery is stepped up using the boost converter. more space is occupied. which prevents its use for such specific applications. output voltage of the converter in buck mode is a linear function of the duty cycle. the converter operates purely in the boost operating mode. the sensitivity of the control parameter EAout with respect to time is (∂Dbuck /∂t) = (∂EAout /∂t). which results in poor efficiency. the combination mode A comes into operation. SEPIC. IV. The first one is a boost converter. Here. Finally. addition. we have ∂ (Vout /Vin ) ∂Dbuck =1 ∂Dbuck ∂t ∂ (Vout /Vin ) ∂Dbuck-boost 1 = ∂Dbuck-boost ∂t (1 − Dbuck-boost )2 ∂ (Vout /Vin ) ∂Db o ost 1 = . which. the converter operates in purely buck mode. Cascaded boost converter and LDO regulator. Fig. where the input voltage is between V1 and V2 . Disadvantages of a Cascaded Buck and Boost Converter Such a topology applies two dc–dc converters cascaded together (see Fig. PROPOSED NEW METHOD The proposed method is to add interface modes. in turn. and then the output of the boost converter is regulated using the LDO to obtain a voltage in the middle range of the varying battery voltage. which results in higher cost [12]. Therefore. 7. during the time period. In other words. the transient at the output of the converter can Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. The number of external components such as inductors. C. followed by the buck–boost mode for the voltage range V2 and V3 . Due to more components. it can be inverted. Thus. 7 and 8). the converter operates in the combination mode B. Cascaded boost and buck converter.LEE et al. double the number of loss components used in the proposed converter stage. subharmonic problem [22] is another issue. . when the input voltage is considerably higher than V1 . Based on the relationship of the input–output voltage of the buck (Dbuck = Vout /Vin ). and thereby degrade the efficiency of the converter [10]. a popular buck– boost circuit has limited efficiency (usually maximum about 85%) and requires either a transformer or two inductors. As shown in Fig. which prevents utilizing cascaded converters. which cannot be well regulated by conventional control techniques. based on (2) and (3). for the case of switching frequencies higher than natural frequency of the system.

the converter operates in ith topology and for one switching cycle. In order to improve its efficiency. two switches. VOL. β1 . A. 5. D1 and D2 . TCi tries to increase the number of cycles of operation in the (i + 1)th topology and decrease the number of cycles of operation in the ith topology. are switching in the circuit. obtain smoother output waveform. For a specific case. converter operates as a buck converter. in the combination mode B. which is applied to a noninverting buck–boost converter in this paper. it switches to the (i + 1)th topology. For instance. Voltage curves for combined-method-based control. In combination mode A. always. Fig. instead of a sudden transition from buck operating mode to a buck–boost operating mode. time periods T2 will be eliminated and the operation mode will change from buck to the boost through intermediate combination modes. Digital Combination of Power Converters Control approach based on DCPC improves the dynamic response of the converter during transients by switching between different converter topologies to spread out the voltage spikes that are an inevitable part of the transients. As soon as the voltage of the battery drops to a value less than the output reference voltage. a combination of buck and boost operating topologies is applied to distribute the voltage transient and. Similarly. 10. and γ2 from buck–boost to the boost operating conditions. The added advantage of the converter is that the output of such a converter is always positive [16]–[20]. A positive buck–boost converter can operate as a buck converter by controlling switch Q1 and diode D1 . β2 . therefore. It can also work as a boost converter by controlling switch Q2 and diode D2 . 8. DCPC imposes the fact that the proposed converter topology should have the capability of operating in various converter topologies with only controlling the switching components of the circuit. Fig. and then Sections IV-B and IV-C present the analyses and operation of the positive buck–boost converter. it operates in the (i + 1)th topology. buck–boost mode should be eliminated. Then. NO. βi = 1 and γi = mi − 1. In this figure. converter operates in ith topology and for βi switching cycle. 24. In addition. the number of boost operating modes will be higher than buck operations. Block diagram of the theory of digital combination of power converters. Operation with αi and βi switching cycles in transition mode will be repeated for γi times. it operates in the ith topology and. When the voltage of the battery is more than the output reference voltage. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. Finally. Fig. Operation of the converter in buck– boost mode decreases the efficiency of the converter. the number of buck operating topologies is usually higher than the number of boost operations. for the mi switching cycle. where αi = mi .1270 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Table I presents the values of α1 . in the next cycle. for αi switching cycle. the converter should switch to boost mode. Operation of Positive Buck–Boost Converter The circuit topology of a positive buck–boost converter is shown in Fig. and γ1 for the conventional method of transition from buck to buck–boost and the values of α2 . when Q2 is OFF and D2 is conducting. In buck–boost operating mode. Downloaded on August 5. This is another major contribution of this paper. Then. for one switching period. for mi switching cycle. MAY 2009 Fig. 9. In the proposed method. Each combination mode is a combination of several buck and boost operating topologies. Circuit topology of a positive buck–boost converter. instead of instantaneous transition from ith topology to (i + 1)th topology. TCi controls the transition behavior of the converter from the ith converting topology to the (i + 1)th topology. 10. before the complete transition to the (i + 1)th topology. Q1 and Q2 . transition control (TC) units control the transitions between various topologies. The concept of DCPC has been introduced in Section IV-A. be improved significantly. in the transition from the ith topology to the (i + 1)th topology. 9 demonstrates the block diagram of the proposed approach. converter topology control (CTC) controls the operating topologies of the converter. while Q1 is ON and D1 is not conducting. . In that case. Restrictions apply. B. in the next cycle. This is the concept of digital combination of power converters (DCPCs). TCi tries to increase the number of cycles of operation in the (i + 1)th topology and decrease the number of cycles of operation in the ith topology. and two diodes. it switches to the (i + 1)th topology. In the transition from ith topology to the (i + 1)th topology. Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY.

: DIGITAL COMBINATION OF BUCK AND BOOST CONVERTERS TO CONTROL A POSITIVE BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER 1271 TABLE I TRANSITION MODE CONTROL PARAMETERS (α. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. SIMULATION RESULTS C. and buck and boost pulses for a transition from buck to boost with an intermediate buck–boost mode. Finally.buck − (1/R) vout (6) Similarly. A.buck and I0. followed by the buck–boost mode when the voltages are almost equal. both the input and the output voltages are sensed and the proper duty ratios are applied to the switches Q1 and Q2 based on proper duty setting and the desired mode of operation. 13 presents the output voltage waveform. Fig. the ratio of boost and buck pulses can be defined in terms of circuit parameters. i L . when the input voltage is greater than the output voltage.b o ost − vout +β1 (1−db o ost ) 2L R The simulation results have been obtained for the converter based on the parameters shown in Table II. Simulation Results of the Proposed Method     (5) Applying the parameter values from Table II for the calculation of buck and boost samples and using (6). Restrictions apply. s (∂/∂t) vout |CombA = 0 . β. Conventional Method of Solving the Transition Problem Simulations are carried out on the positive buck–boost converter using the conventional methods. Closed loop control strategy for the proposed method. for the output voltage variation to be minimum or zero. Fig.buck − vout α  1 2L R ×  vin 1 db o ost T + I0. 14 shows the output voltage. The simulation results indicate that the presence of spikes in the output voltages during transitions through different modes is about 6%.b o ost − Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. The overall system level closed loop control strategy of the proposed method is shown in Fig. the converter initially works in the buck mode. for the combination mode B. V. 8. Similarly. the rounded ratio of α1 and β1 is 3:1. the ratio of α2 and β2 is found to be 1:2. 12 presents the control signals for the combination modes A and B.buck − + β1 1 vout R 1 vout R (4) where i L . In this method. the converter works in the boost mode when the input voltage is lower than the output voltage. Downloaded on August 5. The control logic for deciding the modes of operation is based on the idea of Fig.LEE et al. 11. AND γ) FOR THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF TRANSITION FROM A BUCK TO BOOST OPERATING TOPOLOGY TABLE II PARAMETERS OF POSITIVE BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER Now.buck .b o ost represent the initial currents of the inductor in the buck and boost modes. Thus. 11. we choose α1 = 3 or three buck cycles and β1 = 1 or one boost cycle for the time period in combination mode A and α2 = 1 Fig. just after vin ≈ vout . buck and boost pulses for a direct transition from buck to boost mode. input voltage. and I0. just before vin ≈ vout .b o ost . CombA (1 − db o ost ) i L . . β1 (1−dbuck ) (vout /2L) T +I0. the output voltage variation can be expressed as ∂ vout ∂t 1 = C(α1 + β1 ) × α1 i L . combining α1 buck samples and β1 boost samples. since transients get almost evenly distributed due to the application of these combined modes. Analysis of the Combined Method In period combination mode A. the output voltage transients will significantly improve. Here. B.b o ost + (1/R) vout = . There is about 12%–14% ripple in the output voltage during direct transition from buck to boost.buck = (vin − vout /2L) dbuck T + I0. By implementing the proposed combination modes. respectively ∂ vout ∂t CombA = 1 C(α1 + β1 )  vin −vout 1 dbuck T + I0. thus α1 − (1−db o ost )2 (vout /2L) db o ost T −I0.b o ost = (vin /2L) db o ost T + I0. Fig.

Downloaded on August 5. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. and (f) transition from combination mode B to boost mode. 24. NO. VOL. MAY 2009 Fig. (e) combination mode B. 5. 12. Restrictions apply. and buck–boost pulses in (a) transition from buck mode to combination mode A. .1272 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. (d) transition from buck–boost mode to combination mode B. boost. (b) combination mode A. Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. Buck. (c) transition from combination mode A to buck–boost mode.

and combination mode A. Fig. 15. Input and output voltages and buck and boost pulses for direct transition from buck to boost mode. Input and output voltages and buck and boost pulses for transition from buck to buck–boost and then to boost mode. Downloaded on August 5. Fig. Proposed number of cycles for the addressed application. 14. 13. 1) Proposed Combination Method With Buck–Boost Mode in the Middle: The simulations were carried out on the converter using the exact combination method along with the buck–boost in the middle. . the results shown in Fig. 17 are obtained. It is seen that the peak transient happening during the transition is about 4%. 15 for solving the addressed problem. canceling the buck–boost operating mode in between Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY.LEE et al. Restrictions apply. 16. both the switches are operated simultaneously. 16. in the middle. This method improves the ripple content in the output voltage of the converter when the input voltage becomes almost equal to the output voltage and during other transition modes. By applying this combination method of control and simulating the converter. This ratio is presented in terms of block diagram in Fig. The waveforms are shown in Fig. was neglected to save the efficiency of the converter.: DIGITAL COMBINATION OF BUCK AND BOOST CONVERTERS TO CONTROL A POSITIVE BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER 1273 Fig. 2) Without Buck–Boost Mode in the Middle: The buck– boost mode. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. This voltage variation in this method is about 4%. or one buck cycle and β2 = 2 or two boost cycles for the time period in combination mode B. The simulation results show that output voltage transients during transition from combination mode A to combination mode B are somehow similar to transients available in transition from combination mode A to buck–boost mode. Input and output voltages for the transition from buck to boost through combination mode A. Fig. however. since during this mode of operation. buck–boost.

Fig. buck–boost. 19. Two high-side gate drivers are designed for IRF540.1274 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. combination mode A. This is also proved through the measurements in Section VI. In this case. MD_SEL0. Fig. buck–boost. Input and output voltages and buck and boost pulses during transition from buck to combined mode A and then to combined mode B and boost without buck–boost mode. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. The MOSFET switches and diodes are IRF540 and 1N5817. Experimental circuit configuration. The overall configuration of converter and controller is shown in Fig. VI. Output voltage has a considerable variation during the transition from buck to boost. significantly improves the efficiency of the converter. Restrictions apply.0 V. transition from buck to boost is a combination of four different operating modes. 19. G1 and G2 are buck pulse and boost pulse. MD_SEL1. 18. Controller has been implemented using a Texas Instrument digital signal processor (DSP) (320F2812). followed by a transition from buck–boost to boost mode. Two n-type MOSFET switches and two Schottky barrier diodes are used for positive buck–boost converter configuration. Output voltages for all four different transition methods.6 V. and boost pulses during a direct transition from buck mode to boost mode. Fig. and boost converters. Figs. Output voltage is tightly regulated at 5 V. 21 demonstrates the output voltage of the converter. 17. gating logic. 5. The output voltage reference is set to 5. sequentially. 21 and 22 present the output voltage of the converter. gate driver. respectively.6 V. and boost. 24. . NO. Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. 12(b) demonstrates the buck and boost pulses Fig. combination mode B. and converter. in each control period. 12(a) demonstrates the output voltage variation as well as buck and boost pulses in transition from buck to combination mode A. 23 presents the input and output voltages of the converter in a whole range of operation. The operating modes are dependent on mode selection signals. 12. VOL. as shown in Fig. transition from buck to boost is carried out through a transition from buck to buck– boost mode. 18 presents the output voltages for all different transition methods discussed. and buck–boost pulses for an indirect transition from buck to boost. boost pulses. Fig. buck pulses. MAY 2009 Fig. and MD_SEL2 determine operation modes: buck. In this experiment. The dedicated gating logic is applied to the converter for proper operation as buck.0 to 3. Input voltage decreases from 6 to 3. Fig. 20 presents the experimental setup that is composed of DSP controller. applied from DSP. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The hardware of a positive buck–boost converter is designed based on the parameters listed in Table II. Downloaded on August 5. Then the converter operates at 100 kHz switching frequency. and input voltage varies from 6. Fig. Fig. buck pulses.

(a) Output voltage. buck. 20. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. Experimental setup composed of (a) converter. Restrictions apply. and (c) gate drivers.: DIGITAL COMBINATION OF BUCK AND BOOST CONVERTERS TO CONTROL A POSITIVE BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER 1275 Fig. Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. 21. Downloaded on August 5. .LEE et al. Fig. (b) DSP controller. and boost pulses in a direct transition from buck to boost and (b) zoomed view of the waveforms.

12(c). buck pulses. boost. Restrictions apply. Similarly. Fig. NO. . 12(e) illustrates the buck and boost pulses in combination mode B before transition to boost mode is complete. and buck–boost pulses in transition from buck– boost mode to combination mode B. 23. In addition.1276 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. (a) Output voltage. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. 24. 12(d) shows the buck. VOL. boost. buck. Fig. 22. where each three buck pulses are associated with one boost pulse. Downloaded on August 5. buck. and boost pulses in transition from combination mode A to combination mode B. Output voltage. Fig. and buck–boost pulses in transition from combination mode A to buck–boost mode are demonstrated. 5. In Fig. in combination mode A. 24. In combination Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. Fig. Input and output voltages for the transition from buck to boost mode through proposed method. and buck–boost pulses in transition from buck to buck–boost and (b) zoomed view of the waveforms. MAY 2009 Fig.

Efficiency is a function of load profile. 26 presents the efficiency of the converter versus the input voltage variations for various transition modes for different loads. (a) Output voltage.: DIGITAL COMBINATION OF BUCK AND BOOST CONVERTERS TO CONTROL A POSITIVE BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER 1277 Fig.1 Ω and R = 19. Downloaded on August 5. and 25. and boost pulses in transition from buck–boost to boost and (b) zoomed view of the waveforms. This ripple can be descended by adding the interface buck–boost mode. 24 presents the output voltage.08 Ω. Restrictions apply. dynamic behavior of the system for a direct transition from combination mode A to combination mode B is investigated. 20). Table III summarizes the output voltage ripple during transients from different modes of operation. 23. staying in buck–boost mode for a long time sacrifices the efficiency of the converter. transition from buck to combination mode A and then buck–boost mode sacrifices the efficiency when input voltage is about 5. Fig. Efficiency of the converter in the region where input voltage is approximately equal to output voltage plus diode voltage drop descends to 73% due to the operation of the converter in buck–boost mode. 26(a) presents the efficiency of the converter in the transition from buck to buck–boost and then boost mode. as shown in Figs. 12 and 23–25 and the efficiency plots of Fig. Eliminating the buck–boost mode in Fig. Fig. TABLE III SUMMARY OF THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE TRANSIENTS DURING TRANSITION FROM DIFFERENT MODES OF OPERATION mode B. The voltage ripple is defined as the peak– peak ripple as a percentage of the output voltage of the converter. Increasing the load power decreases the efficiency because of increasing the ohmic and switching losses. in the cases of R = 5. however. and boost pulses in a direct transition from combination mode A to combination mode B. 12.4 V. 26 demonstrates that the proposed methodology improves the efficiency and output voltage regulation during transition from one operating mode Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. respectively. . Fig. 12(d) shows the output voltage for a transition from combination mode B to boost mode. Adding combination modes A and B between buck and boost modes significantly improves the voltage transients. The ripple during direct transition from buck to boost mode is about 12% (Fig. Addition of the buck–boost mode improves the voltage transient to about 4% in transition from buck to buck–boost (Fig. buck pulses. 25). buck–boost. Similarly. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. Finally. In order to improve the efficiency of the converter in addition to improving the output voltage transients. Fig. 22) and decreases the ripple transient from buck–boost to boost to about 6% (Fig. Comparing the voltage regulation plots of Figs. each buck pulse is associated with two boost pulses. 26(c) improves the efficiency by about 17% and 20%.LEE et al. 25.

. vol. Thottuvelil. F. 2008. and R. Power Electron. Moussa. Ind. Fig. C. Restrictions apply. boost.. In this manuscript. Electron. 24. vol. Int. [2] A. MAY 2009 to the other. 2000.” IEEE Trans. which changes based on the charge status of the battery supply. IEEE Appl. Conf. 2006. Control signals in (a) combination mode A and (b) combination mode B. 2003.. Yang. vol. . X. pp. A. “Combination of buck and boost modes to minimize transients in the output of a positive buck–boost converter. Rincon-Mora. Efficiency plot versus the input voltage variations for (a) transition from buck to buck–boost and then boost mode. IEEE Power Electron. 707–714. In addition. Appl. pp. 702–706. Chen. The technique introduced in this paper is unique of its kind in improving the efficiency and the ripple content of the output voltage for a positive buck–boost converter whenever smooth transition is needed from the buck mode to the boost mode. Circuits Syst. pp.. Zhang and P. In this method. Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Pfaelzer. Z. “Digital combination of buck and boost converters to control a positive buck–boost converter.S. IEEE 32nd Ind.. Khaligh. “Four switch buck–boost converter for telecom DC–DC power supply applications. [11] W. [4] Y. 1527–1530. Norwell. 1. and A. Sahu and G.. [7] B. Jun. “Buck–boost PWM converters having two independently controlled switches. (b) transition from buck to boost through buck–boost and combination modes. S. 2004. Nov. 1997. 841–844.” U. Lett. T. Erickson.” in Proc. pp. Spec. Conf. 39. pp. Annu. “Analysis and design of a novel three-phase AC–DC buck–boost converter. Paris.” IEEE Trans. A. Ruan. 441–446. Bryant and M. “A low voltage. the proposed theory has been utilized to improve the output voltage transients in transition from buck to boost mode. vol.. Mar. G.1278 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. dynamic. The proposed control scheme can regulate the output voltage for an input voltage. 1. Power Electron. [13] X. IEEE 23rd Appl. and S. J. vol. Mar. This is an enabling technology to improve voltage transients in any applications that require transition between different converter topologies. 2. 6. Nov. 2001. 5. Jun. J.” in Proc. 23. Hengchun and V. Fig. Rahav. Spec. Mar. 2372–2377. Chakraborty. Kazimierezuk. 1995. and G. noninverting. 14.” Electron. vol. VII. France. Huang. CONCLUSION A highly efficient control strategy to control a pulsewidth modulation (PWM) dc/dc positive buck–boost switching converter has been illustrated in this paper. Conf. REFERENCES [1] A. Chakraborty. Jan. [6] B. J. Konishi and Y. MA: Kluwer. no. 2. VOL. [8] Y.. pp. [9] C. Adar. [3] R. Maksimovic. 43. Conf. W. pp. Downloaded on August 5. Jun. 26. 127–128. 1775–1782. 19. Spec. Feb. and A. Emadi. [10] D.” in Proc. and buck–boost converters. Power Electron. Symp. Liang. synchronous buck–boost converter for portable applications. The presented simulations and experimental results validate the proposed theory and its merits. Emadi./Dec. Sen. “A unified behavioral average model of SEPIC converters with coupled inductors. IEEE 32nd Power Electron.” in Proc. “Modeling and performance evaluation of a dc/dc SEPIC converter. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore.” in Proc. the concept of DCPC is introduced. “Derivation of the buck–boost PWM DC–DC converter circuit topology. Patent 6 037 755. Conf. 27 demonstrates the control signals in combination mode A and combination mode B. Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. Ren. Jingquan. 27. which improves the transition ripple by distributing the voltage transients..” in Proc. NO. IEEE Power Electron. 2006. no. 2007. Ben-Yaakov. M. pp. no. Khaligh. 2. Fig. 1–6. A. “Soft-switching buck boost converter using pulse current regenerative resonant snubber. and (c) transition from buck to boost without buck–boost mode. Power Electron. Wei. Expo. Tang. Conf.. K.” in Proc. vol. 736–741. 5. May 2002. 2008. the capability of skipping over higher loss interface stages such as buck–boost mode in the case of a positive buck–boost converter significantly improves the efficiency of the circuit topology. A. Mar. pp. vol. “A new soft-switching technique for buck. pp. 4th ed. “Switching controller for a buck+boost converter and method of operation thereof. 2.. F. vol. pp. [5] L. 443–452. D. 1999. Hua. and J.” IEEE Trans. Erickson. [12] M.

Tehran.S.S. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). He is the author/coauthor of over 180 journal and conference papers as well as several books. “Discrete circuit protects Li-ion battery charger. Tehran. IEEE Appl. MA. degree at the Illinois Institute of Technology. pp.” in Proc. degree in electrical engineering from Korea University of Technology and Education. Arindam Chakraborty received the M.” U. FL: CRC Press. and control of power electronics converters and motor drives.D. Torres. “Control circuit and method for maintaining high efficiency in a buck–boost switching regulator. Maksimovic. Mag. and Technology and the President of Sharif University. Conf. and A. Urbana-Champaign.” U. biomechanical energy conversion. . Director. Korea. [16] D. 2004.D. Power Propulsion Conf.” U. 1. Hybrid Electric. S. [19] B. pp. Mar. Chicago. Prof. Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Active Filters (Boca Raton. 2004. in 2003.and power electronics and digital control of power electronic converters. Iran. Technol. 2004). Chicago.” in Proc. and IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Gaboriault and A. College Station. 2009 at 23:42 from IEEE Xplore. He is also the Editor of the Handbook of Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives (New York. degrees in electrical engineering with highest distinction from the Sharif University of Technology. E. induction motors. Khaligh. IEEE Veh. Young-Joo Lee (S’07) received the B. pp. Dwelley and T. [17] A. India. and D. Chicago. and the Ph.. Weissbach and K. NY: Marcel Dekker. W.K. a Siemens company. IEEE Appl. degrees (with highest distinction) in electrical engineering from the Sharif University of Technology. “Bi-directional buck/boost dc/dc converter.S. and vehicular power systems. during which he published several papers in micro-.D. 2004). “Sub-harmonic production in multi-converter systems. design. electric and hybrid electric vehicles. he was selected as the Best Professor of the Year by the students at IIT. 2. He is also the Founder. TX. Chicago.” in Proc. [22] A. and the M. “Buck/boost regulator. He also received the 2005 Richard M. Kolkata. 2005). Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society. Then he joined Genoray Company. which is highly specialized in industrial sewing machines and controllers. Seongnam..S. 1–5. vol.S. W. He is a Principal Design Engineer in the Electronics and Controls (R&D) of OSI. Patent 6 166 527. and other electric–pneumatic actuators. M. Sci.S. “A noninverting buck–boost converter with reduced components uses a microcontroller. E. 2007. he joined SunStar R&C. X-ray electron tubes. 2005. Seoul. He is also a Guest Editor for a special section of IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS on energy harvesting. NY: Marcel Dekker. U. 60–66.S. His major research interests include modeling. buck– boost DC–DC converter.S. Rahimi. 2006. Downloaded on August 5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. 3. Emadi. including Vehicular Electric Power Systems (New York. degree in electrical engineering from the Texas A&M University. His Ph. pp. 79–84.” in Proc.. He is the recipient of the Distinguished Undergraduate Student Award. [15] M. Cheonan. presented jointly by the Minister of Science.. degree from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). Sep. IEEE Southeast Conf. where he has established courses.S. Technol. “Digital PWM controller with feed-forward compensation. and the Ph. M.. Restrictions apply. He is the recipient of the 2002 University Excellence in Teaching Award from IIT as well as the 2004 Sigma Xi/IIT Award for Excellence in University Research.. In 1995. Research. and the M. Barcelo. Korea.S. vol. [18] V. [21] Z. and Chairman of the Board of the Industry/Multiuniversity Consortium on Advanced Automotive Systems (IMCAAS). He is a Guest Editor for a special section of IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY on vehicular energy storage systems. stepper motors. 50–51. M. NY: Marcel Dekker. He was a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. A. nano. FL: CRC Press. degree in electrical engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). Dishner. Energy Efficient Electric Motors (New York. 2001. Shameem.” in Proc. motor drives. He is currently an Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at IIT. noninverting. degree in electrical engineering from Jadavpur University. Dr. Alireza Khaligh (S’04–M’06) received the B. 741–745. 2003).LEE et al. for the past two years in Boston. curriculum. high-frequency full-bridge converters. Ali Emadi (S’98–M’00–SM’03) received the B. [20] J. 1411–1415. which manufactures X-ray fluoroscopy equipment for medical surgery.” in Proc. He is the recipient of numerous awards and recognitions. IIT. Rodriguez. Korea.: DIGITAL COMBINATION OF BUCK AND BOOST CONVERTERS TO CONTROL A POSITIVE BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER 1279 [14] R. He was a Research Fellow at the Grainger Power Electronics and Motor Drives Laboratory. Conf. Ahmed. in 1996. and research in energy harvesting and renewable energy systems. and Fuel Cell Vehicles (Boca Raton. “Design of controller for buck–boost converter. In 2005. Khaligh is an Associate Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY.. Patent 4 245 286. and motors and controllers for industrial sewing machines. He is a Professor of electrical engineering and the Director of the Electric Power and Power Electronics Center (EPPEC).D..D. permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). He has been named the Eta Kappa Nu Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer of the Year 2003 by virtue of his outstanding contributions to hybrid electric vehicle conversion. research has been focused on integrated bidirectional converter for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. Notman. Korea. energy scavenging. Power Electron. “A high efficiency. Incheon. Patent 4 736 151. Ltd. pp. Windsor. He holds one U. Expo. He directed a team of students to design and build a novel motor drive. 2004). D. University of Illinois (UIUC). Iran. analyses. and the Ph. which won the First Place Overall Award of the 2003 IEEE/DOE/DOD International Future Energy Challenge for Motor Competition. Currently. where he has established research and teaching facilities as well as courses in power electronics. degree from Gwang-Woon University. and the M. for three years. Apr. Power Electron.S. and Exceptional Talents Fellowship from the Sharif University of Technology. He is also the recipient of the Highest Standards of Academic Achievement Award at IIT. Paulkovich and G. He has ten years or more of experience in the industrial field and has developed many commercial system controllers for sewing machines and medical X-ray fluoroscopy equipment that require control over brushless dc (BLDC) motors. pp. patent issued and three pending to his credit. Power Electron. and Modern Electric. and power management for portable electronics. Chicago. vol. Emadi was the General Chair of the 2005 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion and SAE Future Transportation Technology Joint Conference. Yurkevich. he is working toward the Ph. Syed.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful