ponder this tome! It is useful. Visiting Fellow. or positioning himself in relation to the authorities and to others. and proffers a hand to whoever commits himself to it. It vibrates with the feeling that animates the whole of his religious thought—whether he is explaining the worship of God or veneration of the Prophet. understanding the failings of the believers (collective and individual). its delights evident.
. He is one of the Western world’s leading authorities on Ibn Taymiyya. 2006). notably Ibn Taymiyya: Muslims under non-Muslim Rule (Oxford: Interface.’
Yahya Birt. Whatever has sometimes been said about him. it is obvious that Ibn Taymiyya always was a great spiritual master of the via media. Duke University (USA)
‘This is a wonderful text with careful translations. Having himself tasted this ‘sweetness of faith’. taught Islamic theology at the University of Oxford. He invites to the journey. exploring the labyrinth of vain desires or that of true love. He is now professor of Islamic Studies and Christian-Muslim Relations at Hartford Seminary (Connecticut). Ibn Taymiyya. his balanced understanding of how to live a responsibly Muslim life has an urgent relevance. One year after the Arab Spring. it is the voice of the Shaykh al-Islam himself that one hears. Ibn Taymiyya remains one of the most influential of the classical Islamic thinkers. of immense value to Englishspeaking Muslim readers. signposts the way. the declarations and limits.’
Bruce Lawrence. the middle way that is at the heart of traditional Islam. of the foremost Ḥanbalī theologian and jurist of his time. Markfield Institute of Higher Education (UK)
Nearly seven hundred years after his death in prison in Damascus (728/ 1328).
Yahya Michot lectured at Louvain and. from 1998 to 2008.‘For those who want to delve into the mysteries and motivations. to whom he has devoted several books in French and English. its benefits many. he testifies from experience: such an objective is not unattainable. and it provides not only many clarifications as to Ibn Taymiyya’s positions but also makes available to a wider audience the powerful arguments he makes for the moderate or middle way in all spiritual matters. In this collection of rigorously translated and annotated texts. Professor Emeritus. His abiding concern is to explain how to enliven our everyday life by making God for us ‘more important than water for fish’. Muslims and non-Muslims.
Texts translated.Ibn Taymiyya
(d. annotated and introduced by YAHYA M. MICHOT
with a foreword by
BRUCE B. LAWRENCE
13/5384. Lebanon Distributed by: Albouraq Diffusion Distribution Zone Industrielle. 7.com
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Fatwa on the Qalandars Two astonishing hadiths C. Unity and respect for diversity within the community
A. God hesitating?
‘I do not hesitate…’ What is hesitating? Two kinds of divine will Ontological and religious realities
. The innocents of the steppe
5. B. The religion of the middle way
The ‘saved sect’ A prophetology of the middle way Religious prescriptions of the middle way A theodicy of the middle way An ethic of the middle way A median doctrine about the divine attributes A median doctrine about agency A median doctrine of the faith A median doctrine about the Companions A median position in everything
XI XIII XX
1 2 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 16 19 19 23 24 27 29 31 34 51 58 67 83 85 86 89 91
The duty of unity The duty of tolerance
3. Lawrence Introduction Translations 1. and community unity
The Umma and the relativity of belonging Taqwā and walāya: the fear of God and His Friendship Walāya and ukhuwwa: friendship and brotherhood of Muslims The division of the Umma and its impotence ‘Commanding the proper and forbidding the reprehensible’ Obligations and prohibitions of the Sharī`a
4. Unbelief and forgiveness
List of Illustrations Foreword by Bruce B. Tolerance. strictness.
hope of the Garden.VIII
The wisdom of the divine decision
93 95 96 97 100 103 105 106 108 113 116 121 123 124 124 127 127 128 128 130 131 133 134 136 137 140 142 143 143 145 145 147 148 148
6. Dirham to the Mu`tazilīs: the rejection of the reality of the love of God The friendship of God (khulla). fear of the Fire The highest felicity: seeing the Face of God The living do not act without love and will The foundation: loving God ‘He will love them and they will love Him…’ Loving God. Some human rights on God?
God’s mercy and justice Worshipping God does not give any right over Him Six differences between the Creator and the creatures The servant has. Love and the health of the heart
A. the perfection of love The two friends of God: Abraham and Muḥammad The tawḥīd of love Loving God is not reduced to loving to serve Him No metaphor in the canonical texts concerning the love of God The love of God is inscribed in the primordial nature (fiṭra) of man To deny the love of God is to deny His lordship and His divinity The greatest of the commandments The Jahmī negation of a correspondence between creature and Creator Some Sufis deny that God loves The foundation of the acts of the faith: loving God Appendices A. on God. a right that God has imposed upon Himself
7. and the Companions The love of the Lord for His servants From Ja`d b. the Messenger.
Love (`ishq): a disease of the soul `Ishq and Maḥabba Covetous desire and chastity The finality of the heart: loving (ḥubb) God B. The reality of the love (maḥabba) of God and of man
Love of God. Between the theologians and the Sufis
. Disquiet and serenity of the heart
CONTENTS B. or the conditions and limits to obedience Tawḥīd. is speech and action To believe is more than to hold as true ‘Dedication of the religion to God’: from the heart’s full confessing to visible acts
10. The ‘veneration’ of the Prophet
The straight path. The ‘master of the Children of Adam’
Adam. Servanthood and expectation in God The paradox of master and slave Human love between subjection and drunkenness From satisfying one’s passion to the experience of dedication to God Master and slave True and false needs Perfection of faith The realities of jihad and of love
In the very hearts of the negators… The ḥanīfiyya: knowledge. in the heart…’ The pretensions of the Jews and the Nazarenes to love of God Certain Sufis ‘nazarenize’ Islam
12. Love and the Way (sharī`a)
The excesses of certain Sufis ‘A fire that burns up. Faith and Love: from a theoretical to a practised tawḥīd
The demands of a truthful proclamation of divine unity Love for God. or perfection in the liberty of the heart
A. tawḥīd C. created from clay but superior to the angels Lawlā-ka… ‘Do not exalt me…’
13. love. Corrupt theologies
150 151 152 155 156 157 160 162 166 169 170 172 173 175 175 177 178 180 180 181 183 184 184 186 187 189 191 191 195 199 201 201 203
9. like faith. The servanthood of worship.
Perfection in servanthood At the core of revelation. between the dangers of ‘judaizing’ or ‘nazarenizing’ deviancy ‘The servant of God and His Messenger’
. the call to worship Preserved from evil and elect: the servants of God B.
Obedience to the authorities
A. Seeking clarification in all matters D. there is no love Love of the common people and love of the elite Human loves and love of God
Obeying a perverse and ignorant authority? Obeying within obedience to God C. ‘God has set a measure for all things’
The prohibition of anathematizing (takfīr) The fighting between Muslims Behind whom to pray? Doing what one is capable of
17. groups. B. Being a Muslim among the ‘unbelievers’…
A. B. Following Muḥammad out of love of God
‘If you love God. follow me…’ In anomialism. ‘Sixty years with a tyrannical imam…’
The rights of the Messenger God alone is worshipped and invoked
205 208 211 211 214 215 218 220 221 226 227 228 231 234 237 239 241 244 246 253 257 258 262 263 265 267 270 287 287 289 294 294 295 296 305 326
14. Like Joseph in the service of the pharaoh
True intelligence and the exercice of power Joseph and the pharaoh Weighing the pros and cons… The responsibilities of the ulema A fundamental principle to ponder
Bibliography Indices Qur|ānic quotations Prophetic sayings Biblical books Texts of Ibn Taymiyya translated Geographical terms Persons. doctrines Keywords and concepts Transcribed words
Believing unbelievers Clandestine faith and willing the best for others
GIMARET & MONNOT. believe that he is the imam preserved [from all error]
1 2 3
On the Wa`īdiyya. unbeliever]. God pray over him and grant him peace. see A. GIMARET & MONNOT.  The adherents of the Sunna and the communion believe that the perverts [among the] Muslims have with them a part of the faith and its basis but do not have with them the whole of the necessary faith. and be pleased with them. on the contrary. see J. 419–33. see A. [The exaggerators] exaggerate about `Alī. trans. and [on the other side] the ‘partisans of hope’ (murji|a2) who say that the faith of the perverts (fāsiq) is like that of the Prophets. give to him greater eminence than to Abū Bakr and to `Umar. On the passing away of hellfire according to Ibn Taymiyya. has reserved his intercession for the major sinners of his community. God be pleased with him. from [the Fire] will come out whoever has in his heart the weight of a grain of faith or the weight of a mustard seed of faith.
. On the Murji|a. and who treat the threat and the punishment as a total lie. 112. Milal. AL-SHAHRASTĀNĪ. in virtue of which they would deserve the Garden. [They believe moreover] that they will not be kept eternally in the Fire. God pray over him and grant him peace. F. F. of the promise and the threat [of the hereafter. [the adherents of the Sunna and the communion] hold a median position. and that the virtuous actions do not make up part of the religion and of the faith. i. and treat as a lie the intercession of the Prophet. HOOVER. Religions.3 [They further believe] that the Prophet. i.THE RELIGION OF THE MIDDLE WAY
A MEDIAN DOCTRINE OF THE FAITH
On the topic of the names and statuses [of believer. expel them altogether from the faith. trans. the adherents of the Sunna and the communion] hold a median position between [on the one side] the ‘partisans of the threat’ (wa`īdiyya1) who consider that the Muslims who are authors of major sins are kept eternally in the Fire. God be pleased with them. AL-SHAHRASTĀNĪ. Thus they situate themselves between [on the one side] the ‘exaggerators’ (ghāliya) and [on the other side] the ‘abusers’ (jāfiya). Universalism.
A MEDIAN DOCTRINE ABOUT THE COMPANIONS
About the Companions of God’s Messenger also. God pray over him and grant him peace. Milal. Religions. major sinner. R.
al-`Ankabūt. They shall. MF. ‘The way (shir`a) is the Sharī`a. 29: 69. under certain aspects. reach one of them in other words than those which reach another. without associating any [other] with Him—which is the original. The Most High has said also : ‘From God has come to you a light. likewise. For him. THE DUTY OF TOLERANCE
When. The Prophetic traditions (ḥadīth). from their Lord. 113). li-anna-hu U: lā F
. namely the Sunna. Q. and when they follow that which. regarding that which they hold to. these roads and these policies] are for them. for example. The ways (shir`a) and the pathways (minhāj) of [the scholars.’2
B. their [spiritual] roads (ṭarīqa) and their policies. xix. The pathway (minhāj) is the road (ṭarīq) and the track (sabīl)’ (IBN TAYMIYYA. namely to worship the one and only God. the equivalent of the Ways (shir`a) and of the pathways (minhāj)3 for the Prophets. was sent down to them—the Scripture and the Sunna—as far as possible and after a full exertion of initiative (ijtihād). universal religion—just as the Prophets are recompensed for having worshipped Him alone. ‘Those who struggle (jāhada) regarding Us. al-Mā|ida. be recompensed for having obeyed God and His Messenger. in such a way that they hold to the confession (milla) and the universal religion (al-dīn al-jāmi`). We shall guide them on Our paths’. through their doctrines (madhhab). without associating any [other] with Him. and a Scripture that is evident. They shall be recompensed for having sought the Face of God and for having worshipped Him alone. just as every Prophet is recompensed for having obeyed God according to his way (shir`a) and his pathway (minhāj).16
Prophets have different views. certain verses of the Qur|ān are commented upon in a commentary whose expression differs from that
1 2 3 4
Q. these [doctrines. Exalted is He. Who has no associate. through which God guides whoever seeks after His contentment on the paths of peace. the shaykhs and the emirs] are [indeed] of diverse sorts. the shaykhs and the emirs seek as [their] goal the Face of God.1 the Exalted has said. the scholars. because4 in that [obedience] are [found] the Way (shir`a) of His Messenger and his pathway (minhāj). 5: 15–16. and not some caprices [of their own].
As for joining together the [canonical] texts and deriving from them [juridical] rulings. to his positions as He commanded the Prophets [to hold to their messages]: even if that is what is said by a group of the adherents of kalām theology. one single community—just as that had been commanded to the Messengers. As for the number2 [of matters] about which [the scholars] have disputed. do not hold us strictly to account if we forget or err!’. [that continues] until they hear what is said by another [scholar] and borrow his particular road. they had been commanded not to divide the community (umma)— it being.’5 The Exalted also said: ‘You shall not suffer rigour6 for that which you did in
1 2 3 4 5 6
See the verse. If not. one shall not say that God commanded each of them to hold. al-Baqara. and the other to another hadith or to another verse. Q. al-Baqara. The sayings relating to them and the actions going back to them are accordingly. that of the two [ways that they had hitherto] preferred being then left behind. Ṣaḥīḥ. Likewise for what concerns knowledge. 2: 286. 13: Q. just as that had been commanded [also] to the Messengers. Q: lā junāḥ `alay-kum F
. In the latters’ case. he proceeds according to a sort of ordering and adjustment [of elements of reasoning] that is not the sort  adopted by another.’3 [When hearing this verse. See MUSLIM. laysa `alay-kum junāḥ U. Q. they had been commanded to establish the rule of the religion and not to be divided about it. If he attains it [so much the better]. which is therefore also their way.UNITY AND RESPECT FOR DIVERSITY
of another commentary. i. al-Shūrā. 81. Īmān. Literally.4 and God said: ‘I have done so.] the believers said: ‘Our Lord. 2: 286. inwardly and outwardly.1 Moreover. on the contrary. There are some scholars who tread the way by following the road of such-and-such a scholar. 42: 13. [the injunction] was even more firm on account of the fact that one unique Way and one unique Scripture gathered them together. p. One shall say only that God commanded each of them to seek the truth in the measure of his capacities and his possibilities. Yet. of diverse sorts. ‘God does not burden a soul except with that which it is capable of carrying. from this viewpoint. cited above. ‘the measure’ (al-qadr). Much the same goes for their acts of worship (`ibādāt) and their orientations: one holds to [such-and-such] a verse or [such-and-such] a hadith.
1 2 3
Q. Whoever wishes [conversely] to make their words and their actions equivalent to the word and the action of [the Prophet] preserved [from all error] (ma`ṣūm). al-Baqara. Sh. Textes XII. as an enemy. Q.2 and makes himself their helper in view of their triumph.’1 Whoever then addresses reproaches [to the scholars] and blames them for a matter for which God does not take them to task acts in an excessive manner.3 The matter is indeed conditional upon the capacity (qudra) [of the person]: ‘God does not burden a soul except with that which it is capable of carrying. 30. to go with moderation (iqtiṣād) on a track. see Y. 33: 5. 9). x.
. 77. ‘Submitting his face’ is in fact devoting himself (ikhlāṣ) to God and making his good action beneficent. as an enemy. MF. al-Aḥzāb. to submit his face to God by being beneficent (muḥsin) and to endure in such a submission (islām). 2: 286. B. `Ismah. he borrows the way of justice (`adl)—he is a moderate (muqtaṣid). without guidance coming from God. Textes V. in his fidelity. It is a fundamental that is universal.] the one who does what has been commanded to him.18
error. according to his situation—be it exerting the initiative (ijtihād) of which he is capable or being faithful to a model (taqlīd) when he is not capable of the exertion of initiative and when. MICHOT. beneficial and important.’4 It is incumbent upon a Muslim. 36. trans. [By contrast. he too acts in an excessive manner. On the Prophet’s preservation from error (`iṣma). without guidance  coming from God. and follows his caprice. [on] a route (sunna) is better than to exercise an initiative (ijtihād) [that goes] counter-track and counter-route. ‘Assuredly. in every place. Ponder (tadabbara) this. n. Verses. ABRAHAMOV. AHMED. MICHOT. Therefore be attentive that your actions are [characterized by] moderation and struggling on the pathway (minhāj) of the Prophets and their route (sunna)’ (IBN TAYMIYYA.
necessarily implies denying that He is Lord. there is no Good for it. To deny the love of the servant for his Lord is. except as deriving from Him. to deny His love4 comes necessarily to imply denying that He is the Lord of the worlds and that He is the God of the worlds. which they see as a tradition and an apophthegm coming from Moses and from Jesus.5 The greatest of the commandments That is why there is agreement of the two communities which preceded us6 on this.3 Glorified and Exalted is He. worshippable. to deny that He is God.THE REALITY OF THE LOVE OF GOD AND OF MAN
‘Is it not in the remembrance of God that the hearts find serenity?’
TO DENY THE LOVE OF GOD IS TO DENY HIS LORDSHIP AND HIS DIVINITY
Furthermore. 1372/1952. which is Good relatively to It. see above. Jalī dīwānī calligraphy by the Baghdadī master Hāshim Muḥammad.2 And all that is lovable in other than Him comes from Him. `Ishq. Creator. in it. `Ishq. that is. it is God Who deserves them perfectly. or from it. and for It there is no possibility of existence.’ That is. p. 33. 13: 28. the First Cause possesses fully the Good (khayriyya) as a whole.
. the Jahmīs. 390: ‘That which is caused by Him. al-Ra`d. And that is what the partisans of denudation (ta`ṭīl) and of rejection (juḥūd) say. just as to deny His love for His servant necessarily implies denying His will—that is. upon them be the prayers of God and His peace: ‘The greatest of the commandments is that you love God with all
3 4 5 6
Q. Thus. The partisans of the denudation of the divine essence of its attributes and of the rejection of the latter. the love of God for His servants and theirs for Him. 391: ‘It is clear. It is He Who deserves to be loved really and perfectly. Compare with AVICENNA. The Jews and the Christians.’ Compare with AVICENNA. in reality. all the qualities of perfection that the hearts are predisposed to love.
Shī`īs. G.’5 He also said: ‘I do not love  things that set. EI2. Q. Deuteronomy. see W. 12: 30. and with all your mind. This has become clear in the case of the Ismā`īlī Qarmaṭī3 esotericists (bāṭiniyya). doctors of jurisprudence (fiqh). all those who. To Ibn Taymiyya. Sufis or philosophers. reject the manifest meaning of the Scripture in favour of an esoteric meaning (bāṭin). 6: 5. kalām theologians. the friend. This is the greatest and the first commandment. you and your forefathers? They are an enemy unto me. and with all your might. and with all your soul. ‘Bāṭiniyya’. HODGSON.4 That is why [Abraham]. EI2. Matthew.’6 The Exalted has also said: ‘The Day when neither goods nor sons shall avail. 6: 76.
. of the Gospel and of the Qur|ān. 22: 37–38: ‘And [Jesus] said unto him: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart. art. Luke. save the Lord of the worlds.’ New Testament.’1 Now that is the reality of the original belief (ḥanīfiyya). ‘Ḳarmaṭī’. al-Shu`arā|. One of the Ismā`īlī sects. and those—philosophers. your mind and your intent (qaṣd). said: ‘Have you seen what you have been worshipping. S. the imam of the original believers (ḥanīf). upon him be the prayers of God and His peace. 10: 27. see M. MADELUNG.” ’ See also Mark. innovators—who are in agreement with them on this subject pick it up from them. save him who comes
‘And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart…’
The negation of this is taken up from the associators. 22: 37–38. and with all your soul. 6: 5: ‘And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart. art. Matthew. al-An`ām. the enemies of Abraham. the friend (khalīl). the confession of Abraham which is the foundation of the Way of the Torah. and the Ṣabaeans. 26: 75–77. Q.
. M.  The Negus and his like are happy in the Garden even though. That is why God has placed these [people] among the People of the Book.. COBB. Q. The Umayyad caliph `Umar II (reigned from 99/717 until his death in 101/720) remains famous for his piety. there are those who believe in God. KAMĀL.
For the Negus it was not possible to judge according to the judgement[s] of the Qur|ān. It is also said that he was poisoned for that. there are people there who prevent him from that! ‘God does not burden a soul except with that which it is capable of carrying. see P. it is not possible for him to do so or. as cadi. in what has been sent down to you and in what has been sent down to them. 2: 286. EI2. rather. Sabḥa. ‘`Umar II’. How often a man is invested with authority among the Muslims and the Tatars. or even as imam.
. They are humble before God and do not sell the verses of
1 2 3
Two details from A.. soul for soul. and has in his soul some affairs of justice that he wishes to implement. however. The Most High said: ‘Among the People of the Book.’2 `Umar b. in respect of the prescriptions of Islam. art. 15. they did not observe things that they were not able to observe but. eye for eye. judged according to the judgments according to which it was possible for them to judge. al-Baqara. His people would in fact not have allowed him to do so. rather.BEING A MUSLIM AMONG THE ‘UNBELIEVERS’
equality between the nobility and the vulgar. 11. `Abd al-`Azīz3 was the object of hostility and ill will because of some measures of justice that he put into effect (iqāma). etc.
but only writes: ‘[and the rest of] the verse’.
JOSEPH AND THE PHARAOH
To this subject is also related [the authority] which Joseph the truthful was invested with over the storehouses of the land for the king of Egypt.” ’2 The Exalted also said. then. Now. 202. but you did not cease to be in doubt about what he had brought to you. to the [point] where you have come to?” It was as if he was rebuking him for that. just as the Exalted has said: ‘Certainly Joseph came to you before with manifest proofs. Yūsuf. competent guardian. `Alī al-Riḍā (d.1 even though [this king] and his people were unbelievers. `Azīz of Egypt. Ibn Taymiyya does not cite the end of the verse. ‘Pharaoh’. competent guardian. no. of course. al-Ḥasan AL-ḤURR AL-`ĀMILĪ. ‘A man said to him: “May God make you righteous! How have you come. Yūsuf. give priority to the best of the two goods. the Prophet or the trustee (waṣī)? – The Prophet. 12. Wasā|il.” ’ The word ‘pharaoh’ (fir`awn) does not appear in Q. – Al-`Azīz. you said then: “God will not send a Messenger after him. 3. the Omnipotent?
See Q. vis-à-vis al-Ma|mūn. 40: 34. or obligatory. I am indeed a good. [to assume] another [position] might be [still] more obligatory or more desirable. For Ibn Taymiyya. 22347). 203/818). 12: 55: ‘He said: “Set me over the storehouses of the land. his request that the latter should set him over the storehouses of [his] land.” whereas me. was a Prophet. see above. sometimes desirable. This ruler is of course different from Fir`awn. was criticized by some of his followers for collaborating with the `Abbāsid caliph al-Ma|mūn. would sundry lords be better. whereas al-Ma|mūn is a Muslim and I am [only] a trustee. He shall thus. for him: ‘O my two prison mates.
. Joseph asked al-`Azīz to give him a position of authority when he said: “Set me over the storehouses of the land. However. [to assume] a position of authority (wilāya) may [in general] be permissible. When he died. – And who is more eminent. n. was an associator. the One. Shī`ī traditional sources report that the eighth imam. a Muslim or an associator? – A Muslim.262
Moreover. said to him: – O So-and-so. the Egyptian autocrat often mentioned in the Qur|ān in relation to Moses. peace be upon him. xvii. 246. or God. it is nevertheless a pharaoh. p. Abū l-Ḥasan al-Riḍā. Ghāfir. and Joseph. peace be upon him. of course. for a particular individual. regarding what is sometimes obligatory. who is more eminent. in which the ruler of Egypt is called ‘king’ (malik) and ‘al-`Azīz’. I have been forced’ (Muḥammad b. or rather. I am indeed a good. Q. preferable (mustaḥabb).
the former is called ‘leaving something obligatory’ and the latter is called ‘committing a prohibited thing’. it would not have been possible for him to achieve. 64: 16. but only writes: ‘[and the rest of] the verse’. in the absolute. despite their unbelief. He has commanded that you worship none but Him. and it was not possible for Joseph to implement everything he might have willed. However. or ‘out of
Q. Q.LIKE JOSEPH IN THE SERVICE OF THE PHARAOH
You do not worship beneath Him but only names which you have rigged up. and priority is given to the most urgent. Such is the straight religion. 12: 39–40. of his soldiers and of his subjects. Similarly. Indeed. in order to deal with the most urgent one. this does no harm. If. these functions were not being done according to the Tradition (sunna) of the Prophets and their justice (`adl). in this situation the other is no longer obligatory. Yūsuf. and one who leaves it. the people would not have approved [such a course of action]. eventually treated the believers among the people of his house with a generosity which.’1 We know that. thanks to his power (sulṭān). when two prohibited things present themselves together and it is not possible to abandon the more grave of the two without committing the lesser one. to commit the lesser in this situation is in reality not prohibited. the [Egyptians] must unfailingly have had usages and a procedure (`āda wa sunna) for the collection of taxes and expenditure thereof for the advantage of the king’s entourage and the people of his house. Ibn Taymiyya does not cite the end of verse 40. For a like [situation].
. in reality leaves nothing obligatory. However. Judging (ḥukm) belongs only to God. we shall speak of ‘leaving something obligatory with an excuse’ and ‘committing a prohibited thing because of a preponderant interest (maṣlaḥa rājiḥa)’. and for which God did not send down any enabling authority (sulṭān). al-Taghābun. he implemented what it was possible [to implement] of the [religion’s] justice and beneficence (iḥsān) and. you and your fathers. but most men do not know. All this is included in His words : ‘Fear God as much as you are able to do!’2
WEIGHING THE PROS AND CONS…
When two obligations which it is not possible to fulfil together present themselves at the same time. namely what he considered as part of the religion of God. otherwise.
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