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It encompasses a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior utilized to improve performance. More generally, competence is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance, management competency includes the traits of systems thinking and emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. A person possesses a competence as long as the skills, abilities, and knowledge that constitute that competence are a part of them, enabling the person to perform effective action within a certain workplace environment. Therefore, one might not lose knowledge, a skill, or an ability, but still lose a competence if what is needed to do a job well changes. The competencies have five characteristics, namely: * Motives: Things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action, motives drive, direct and select behavior towards certain actions. Example achievement motivation people consistently set challenging goals for themselves, take responsibility for accomplishing them and use the feedback to do better * Traits: Physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations. Good eyesight is physical traits of a pilot. Emotional Self Control and initiative are more complex consistent responses to situations. * Self Concept: A person's attitude value or self image. A person's values are reactive or respondent motives that predict what a person would do in the short run. Example: A person who values being a leader would be more likely to exhibit leadership behavior. * Knowledge (Information a person has in a specific work area) Example: An accountant's knowledge of various accounting procedures. * Skill (is the ability to perform certain mental or physical tasks) Example: Mental competency includes analytical thinking. The ability to establish cause and affect relationship. The four general competences are:
Meaning Competence: Identifying with the purpose of the organization or community and acting from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community. Relation Competence: Creating and nurturing connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks. Learning Competence: Creating and looking for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to solve the primary tasks and reflect on the experience. Change Competence: Acting in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life.
Types of competencies
or output Types of competencies MANAGERIAL Competencies which are considered essential for staff with managerial or supervisory responsibility in any service or program area. Job/Role competencies things an individual must demonstrate to be effective in a job. environmental management. however they are applied horizontally across the Organization. GENERIC Competencies which are considered essential for all staff. including directors and senior posts. Foundational competence . analysis and decision-making. etc. processing tools. Some managerial competencies could be more relevant for specific occupations. role.An employee's demonstrated understanding of what and why he / she is doing. 2. Can perform adviser or trainer roles. Work activities are carried out consistently with high quality standards. communication.An employee's demonstrated ability to perform a set of tasks. finance and administration.e. 3. regardless of their function or level. Personal competencies aspects of an individual that imply a level of skill. industrial process sectors. . 3. Applied competence . or in the entire organization. or duty. change management. an organizational level. i. investment management.An employee's demonstrated ability to perform a set of tasks with understanding and reflexivity. Levels of Competency 1. i. Practical competency . i.1. task. Organizational competencies unique factors that make an organization competitive 2. program execution. Frequently demonstrates application that indicates profound level of expertise. etc. function. team leadership. 4. linguistic. Application levels of a competency ADVANCED Demonstrates high level of understanding of the particular competency to perform fully and independently related tasks. human resource management. achievement. Reflexive competence (An employee's ability to integrate actions with the understanding of the action so that he / she learn from those actions and adapts to the changes as and when they are required. etc.e.e. TECHNICAL/FUNCTIONAL Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in the Organization within a defined technical or functional area of work.
Measurement of competency. This stage requires preparation for assessment. Required levels of competency for each job family. SECOND STAGE: Second stage requires understanding from the superior performers the behavioural as well as the functional aspects required to perform job effectively. Large organizations frequently employ some form of competency mapping to understand how to most effectively employ the competencies of strengths of workers. The following are the five stages discussed in detail. leadership. Care should be taken that the indicators should be measurable and gives objective judgment. MAPPING PROCESS: There are about five stages while performing competency mapping. practically without guidance. FOURTH STAGE: a. Development of dictionary which involves detail description of the competency based on the indicators. as part of an organization. FIRST STAGE: The first stage of mapping requires understanding the vision and mission of the organization. and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure. Work activities are performed effectively within quality standards. KNOWLEDGEABLE Demonstrates a sufficient understanding of the particular competency to be used in the work place. and decision-making. They may also use competency mapping to analyze the combination of strengths in different workers to produce the most effective teams and the highest quality work. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ). THIRD STAGE: Third stage involves thorough study of the Structured Interview Reports. COMPETENCY MAPPING Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines one's strengths as an individual worker and in some cases. . y y y y y Identification of the competency based on competency frame work.PROFICIENT Demonstrates a sound level of understanding of the particular competency to adequately perform related tasks. but requires guidance Tasks or work activities are generally carried out under direction.
ii. and employees as well. Provide common. Tools should objectively measure the entire competency required. . FOR THE COMPANY y y y y y y Reinforce corporate strategy. culture.e. managers. Increase the effectiveness of training and professional development programs by linking them to the success criteria (i. resulting in a systematic approach to professional development. Provide more objective performance standards. FOR MANAGERS: y y y Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the hiring and selection process. Determine the type of the tools for measuring competency Prepare the schedule for assessment iv. SIXTH STAGE: Sixth stage involves detailed report of the competencies assessed and also the development plan for the developmental areas. and vision. Provide a common understanding of the scope and requirements of a specific role. Establish expectations for performance excellence. BENEFITS OF USING COMPETENCY MODEL There are some useful benefits of using competency model for the company. FIFTH STAGE: This stage involves conducting assessment centre. ii.. If assessment centre is the choice for assessment then tools has to be ready beforehand i. and better employee retention. organization-wide standards for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries. behavioral standards of excellence). Clarify standards of excellence for easier communication of performance expectations to direct reports. improved job satisfaction. Methods of assessment can be either through assessment centers or 360 Degree Feedback c. Usually it is a two day program which would involve giving a brief feedback to the participant about the competencies that has been assessed and where they stand to.b. Training to the assessor should indicate their thorough understanding of the competencies and the tools and also as to how the behavior has to be documented. Provide a common framework and language for discussing how to implement and communicate key strategies.
Job Enlargement Defined What Is Job Enlargement? Job enlargement is horizontal restructuring of the job profile to provide the worker with additional work duties of the same scope. but while job enlargement ensures that the additional duties remain at the same level. development. unlike job enlargement that does not find any basis in psychological theories. whereas enriching the same job might mean that same machine operator is given the additional task of supervising the work of new trainees. behavioral standards of performance excellence) required to be successful in their role. enlarging the job of a machine operator might mean the operator is entrusted with assembling two parts instead of one.e. and the major elements of such job design are job rotation. For instance. For instance. Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or team about performance. and job enlargement. Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills. It ranks among the earliest approaches to reduce boredom. like job enlargement. Job Enrichment Job enrichment. _______________________________________________________________________________ _ One way of improving motivation is through job design. The very definition of Job enlargement suggests that the concept involves extending the range of job duties and responsibilities within the same level and periphery of existing duties. and is widely regarded as an . and career-related issues. development. Support a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and specify targeted areas for professional development. and also add to the role of foremen and supervisors. job enrichment is vertical loading or the addition of tasks at a higher level or responsibility. job enrichment. job enrichment. means adding to the work duties. and career related issues. job enrichment bases itself on Frederick Herzeberg s Two Factor Theory and finds support in McClelland s Need achievement theory. and causes efficiency to fall. instead of an assembly line layout where each worker engages in a specific process.. FOR EMPLOYEES: y y y y Identify the success criteria (i. job enlargement brings modular work where the employee performs several tasks on a single item. When comparing job enlargement vs. The first noteworthy application of job enlargement in the industry was in the 1960s. when IBM made changes in the production structure to include both machine setting and inspection in their machine operator s job profile. and bases itself as a solution to motivational theories that suggest division of labor causes boredom and alienation.y Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the manager and employee about performance.
cities. they must have this type of training. job rotation takes on different perspectives. Implementing a successful suggestion scheme is not an easy process. Research seems to suggest a positive correlation between job enrichment and job satisfaction. and abilities by working in different departments. For managers being developed for executive roles. Employees may also feel that management cares and listens to them. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. functions. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments. skills. business units. it encourages management to listen to employees' ideas. Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: y y y y It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge. Job Rotation For the executive. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. or improve working conditions. rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out. A successful scheme has many positive effects on an organisation. business units. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive s outlook on the process of the organization. Careful . cut costs. skills.improvement over the concept of job enlargement. and attitudes (KSAs) required It determines the areas where improvement is required Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position Suggestion Schemes Suggestion schemes have been used by organisations for a number of years as a way of gathering ideas from their employees to increase productivity. job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. and countries. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. for example. and countries Identification of Knowledge. where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary. most importantly. If someone is to be a corporate leader. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. In some vertically integrated organizations.
and if so utilise their experience. but someone with project management experience who commands respect and can get things done) to oversee the project. The co-ordinator should. however. from cost savings and operational improvements to new product ideas and better customer service. Identify alternative schemes Ascertain whether members of the SSC have been involved in this type of scheme before. undertake a literature search to find similar case studies. is needed throughout. Definition A suggestion scheme is a planned procedure which enables employees to make known ideas which will affect any aspect of work. Designate a Suggestion Scheme Committee The members of the Suggestion Scheme Committee (SSC) should be drawn from all levels of the organisation. who can often see problems and solutions that management do not. Suggestion schemes should not be seen as an alternative to regular communication and hands-on management. Action checklist 1. for example. Appoint a co-ordinator (not necessarily from senior management. involving much staff time. as ideas may be communicated to the relevant person easily enough anyway. 2. Remember. and which may reward them for their initiative if the suggestion is implemented. that a suggestion scheme which works for one organisation may not work for another.planning. Points to include when formulating the scheme are: . 3. to be heard. Draw up a scheme After examples of suggestion schemes and the characteristics of the organisation are taken into account a scheme can be drawn up. The SSC will help manage the scheme and provide input from its conception to its end. Advantages Employee suggestion schemes: * can lead to a reduction in costs and greater efficiency * encourage employee involvement. A small organisation. which in turn improves morale and motivation * help foster an environment in which creativity and innovation can flourish * enable employees at "ground level". but rather as a supplement to them. if possible. may not require a scheme at all.
Consider any possible effects on external stakeholders. whether successful or not. The Inland Revenue has rules on the amount that can be awarded to an employee which should be checked carefully. originality. . ease of implementation. The detail can be filled out later. A brief "thank you" note should be sent to all originators. Suggestions do not. Design a logo for the scheme that can be used for posters. leaflets and suggestion forms. for example after Christmas shutdowns. depending on availability of resources. for example. Consider what re-training or re-tooling may be required and how or when this could be implemented. technical ideas. such as customers or suppliers. * Format for suggestions Keep it simple. however.* Name of the scheme The scheme should be given a name that will make it instantly recognisable to employees. * Length of scheme Running a scheme for set periods of time throughout the year has the advantage that publicity can be geared towards specific dates of start-up and so is more efficient. The SSC should discuss individual suggestions and develop them where appropriate. or it could be a standard gift for each successfully implemented suggestion. occur only at certain times of the year so. Some suggestions may impact widely on administrative or production procedures. It can be difficult to advertise a continuous scheme effectively. and overall costs. with dates set for re-advertising. * Rewards/awards Monetary rewards or gifts can be given to suggestors. * Assessing the suggestions Assessments should take place on a regular basis. Have centrally available suggestions boxes and use the company's intranet for sending suggestions to a central address. keeping it fresh in the employee's mind. These should include assessing the benefits to the organisation or department. Encourage the description of ideas in simple language for even complex. it is advisable that a continuous scheme is implemented. affecting many staff. Some schemes require the originator's name and do not accept anonymous suggestions. The amount can be linked to any cost savings or improvements in efficiency. In such cases. a cost benefit analysis may be useful. It might be helpful to prepare guidelines for the evaluation process. monthly.
Where a number of sites are involved. 5. The improvements made as a result of a successful suggestion should be communicated to the employees. Implement the scheme The full scheme should be implemented. 4. Consider providing an award that recognises the initiative of making a suggestion. Any problems in administering it should be reviewed and modifications made. Evaluate the scheme At the end of a set period of time the scheme should be evaluated. Methods to use include: * posters and leaflets on notice boards and on the company intranet * articles in staff newsletters and magazines (including details of "winners" when there are any) * inclusion as part of the induction training for new staff. 6. Any problems which occur in the running of the scheme should be noted by the co-ordinator.The award can also be linked to the type of suggestion made: * production--methods for reducing costs or increasing efficiency * health and safety--ideas for improving health and safety in the workplace * environmental--suggestions to make the organisation "environmentally friendly". Publicity The scheme should be widely publicised. a "Suggestion of the Year" award could be made which covers the whole organisation. Details should be included in the staff handbook. 7. Points to look out for include: * the number and types of suggestions made * the number of suggestions taken up and implemented . whether it is implemented or not. The initial publicity for the scheme should communicate the advantages for the employees and dispel any fears they may have. Run a pilot A small scale pilot scheme should be implemented.
shared and implemented.from upper management to the cleaning crew. materials and supervision that is needed for employees to achieve the higher standards and maintain their ability to meet those standards on an on-going basis. such as Toyota and Canon. It comes from the Japanese words ("kai") which means "change" or "to correct" and ("zen") which means "good". safety and effectiveness while reducing waste. Suggestions are not limited to a specific area such as production or marketing. The word Kaizen means "continuous improvement". Kanban and 5S are all included within the Kaizen system of running a business." The Kaizen philosophy is to "do it better. suggestion systems. In business Kaizen encompasses many of the components of Japanese businesses that have been seen as a part of their success. KAIZEN Kaizen was created in Japan following World War II. This is not a once a month or once a year activity. Japanese companies. automation. It is a concept that is applied in every aspect of a person's life. don't fix it. just-in-time delivery. Kaizen even includes social activities. Kaizen is based on making changes anywhere that improvements can be made. Kaizen is based on making little changes on a regular basis: always improving productivity. make it better. a total of 60 to 70 suggestions per employee per year are written down." Kaizen in Japan is a system of improvement that includes both home and business life. we can't compete with those who do. improve it even if it isn't broken. Kaizen is a system that involves every employee . In most cases these are not ideas for major changes. Western philosophy may be summarized as. "if it ain't broke. To support the higher standards Kaizen also involves providing the training. Everyone is encouraged to come up with small improvement suggestions on a regular basis. It is continuous. Kaizen involves setting standards and then continually improving those standards.* financial savings made * increases in efficiency * costs incurred * rewards/awards made * problems noted * feedback from employees. because if we don't. The five main elements of kaizen y y y y Teamwork Personal discipline Improved morale Quality circles . Quality circles.
y Suggestions for improvement .
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