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History Notes on The causes, course and outcomes of World War Two by John Plowright Ferenc Gutai 11HBa

Chapter 2 How was Mein Kampf a blueprint for Nazi foreign policy? Hitler believed that it was a mistake to antagonize the British Empire because She was a great maritime and imperial power with interests different to Germanys (acquisition of living space to the East) An alliance between Germany and Britain would be vital to isolate France, which was an obstacle as It was wary of Germany seeking revenge for AlsaceLorraine after the Franco Prussian war and the Great War It was the guardian of the Paris Peace settlement, which restricted Germanys military power and land space And a conflict against France would be important to Protect Germany from the rear while she fought with Russia Hitler believed that an alliance with Italy would also be desirable as Germany would then be able to direct Italys expansion towards the Mediterranean, towards Britain and France to the South instead of Germany Hitlers ideas were motivated, not by ideology, but by geographical reasoning. This is evident in his choice for An Alliance with Italy, which would mean the acceptance of Italys territorial gain of South Tyrol a German speaking region regardless of the face that the first point in the 25 point programme demands that all Germans be united An alliance with Japan, which would threaten the Soviet Union with a war on two fronts, encouraging the United States to focus on the Pacific and Asian conflict, allowing Hitler some freedom to conduct his own affairs in Europe with decreased resistance. In conclusion, Hitler wanted to isolate France and recreate the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, depriving Russia of her most important lands. Germanys alliance with Japan, the signing of the Anglo-German agreement (a manifestation of Hitlers desire to seek understanding with Britain) and the invasion of the USSR provide evidence that support Hitlers goals, showing that Mein Kampf may have indeed been a blueprint for Nazi foreign policy and its long-term goals How was Hitlers foreign policy implemented? In two phases: 1933-37 and 1938-39 1933-37 January 1933, When Hitler was appointed Chancellor, Germany was industrially weak Due to the loss of the Saarland and other industrial pieces of its former Empire due to the Treaty of Versailles Economically weak Due to the Wall Street Crash and the weakened industry

And filled with hate against the Treaty. Hitler posed as a leader who intended to bring peace to Germany, however, his secret agenda was still that which was outlined in Mein Kampf July 1933, A concordat with the Vatican in which Hitler promised not to interfere with church matters if the church did not interfere with politics gave the Nazis prestige As it made them seem respectful to not interfere with the church And legitimacy As they were gaining acceptance and understanding from a high power, highly respected organization (the Vatican), making them seem respected and genuine as well Around this time, Germany also withdrew from the League of Nations, under the excuse that it wanted peace and this was seen as reasonable because The increasingly flawed perspective of the League had been gaining popularity after its failure to solve the Manchurian crisis. January 1934, Germany formed a ten year non aggression pact with Poland. This caused the following results A loss in the strength of the French Maginot line in the event of war with Germany, French forces, alongside Polish and Czechoslovakian forces, would form a defensive line to the South of Germany. However, in the event of war between Germany and Poland/Czechoslovakia, France declared that it would stay defensive and not intervene. Thus, the Polish pact was necessary to prevent Poland from being attacked by Germany without any support. Also, it gave the Nazi party a peaceful look as opposed to Hitlers plans for the seizure of power July 1934, a failed Austrian Nazi coup kills the Austrian Chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuss. Mussolini, due to his growing distrust of Germany, sent his troops to the Brenner pass (between Austria and Italy), as a defensive safeguard against the possibly Nazi Austria, and also joined Britain and France in the Stresa Front to condemn Germanys actions Of recreating the Luftwaffe and reintroducing conscription, both of which were not allowed according to the TOV However, Stresa Front agreement did not last because Britain signed the Anglo-German Naval agreement, which also violated the TOV As it allowed for Germanys navy to increase in force and size Britain and France, as leaders of the LON, felt obliged to condemn Italys action in the invasion of Abyssinia Hitler supported Italys actions to distract the LON while he remilitarized the Rhineland. This was popular to the German public because

German military power was now reaching the level of France, meaning that Germany would soon be able to defend/attack France if needed. 1936, the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War drew Germany and Italy closer together as they had to both assist Franco. October 1936, the signing of the Rome-Berlin axis makes Germany and Italy allies November 1936, the Anti-Comintern Pact makes Germany and Japan allies 1937, threats of a Jewish-Bolshevik World Conspiracy shown by the increasing support by Moscow to the republican forces in Spain and the fact that the Germany would slowly lose the rearmament race if she did not act by 1943-45 (as stated in the Hossbach Memorandum) o 1938-39 February 1938, a meeting between Hitler and Kurt von Schusnigg (the Austrian chancellor) is conducted in which Hitler forces his guest to accept a role for the Austrian Nazis in government. March 1938, Kurt von Schusnigg calls for a plebiscite (a referendum in which there are only 2 possibilities: accept or disagree) on Anschluss in a manner which may allow for the proposal to be rejected. Hitler did not think of direct military intervention, however he needed to know if Italy would be alright with his intervening (like what happened in 1934). Italy agrees and allows Hitler to mass his German troops on the border. Kurt von Schusnigg resigns, appoints the Austrian Nazi Seyss-Inquart in his place and Hitler rolls in on 12 March with his Anschluss. May 1938, after a mobilization from Czechoslovakia (with support from Britain and France) due to fears of an attack from Hitler, along with a humiliation by the international press after stating that his denial of invasion was a climb down, Hitler changes the objective of Operation Green to smash Czechoslovakia by military action August 1939, Hitler signs the Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact to temporarily buy peace with Russia and deter Britain and France from honouring their commitment to Warsaw.