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StreetHauntingi:SoundingtheInvisibleCity Icouldtellyouhowmanystepsmakeupthestreetsrisinglikestairways, andthedegreeofthearcadescurves,andwhatkindofzincscalescoverthe roofs;butIalreadyknowthatthiswouldbethesameastellingyounothing. Thecitydoesnotconsistofthis,butofrelationshipsbetweenthe measurementsofspaceandtheeventsofitspast.(ItaloCalvino,Invisible Cities,1974) Introduction InItaloCalvinosInvisibleCities,fluidassemblagesofsignsandimageslittera subterraneanlandscape,markingthedestinationstowhichMarcoPolohas travelled.PolorecountsthesedestinationstohisEmperorKublaiKhanwithout recoursetoamaporawayfaringguide;heofferslittlebywayoftheirgeography, oranysenseofthespatialconnectionsbetweeneachrecalledlocation.Instead thereareonlyfragments;theimprobableexceptionsofremembranceand experience.

e.Theseinvisiblecitiesareallgivennames,womensnameslikeIrene, Chloe,Raissa,Adelma.Irene,forexample,isthecityvisiblewhenyouleanout fromtheedgeoftheplateauatthehourwhenthelightscomeon(1974:112). Therearemanycities,butinfacttheyarealwaystheone:Venice.Thisisthe Venicecollapsedorhiddenbehinditscontemporary,overexposedtourist faade,whoseinvisibilityCalvinocultivatesastheimaginativepotentialityof everydayencounterswithafamiliarspace.OfthisVenicetherearenogeneral claimsmade,instead,fromthesingularityofthisonecityareteasedprovisional

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citiesthatcaptureamood,amemory,afleetinggesture,orthetraceryofahalf glimpsedpattern. WhatmightCalvinospeculiartreatmentofurbanspatialityofferto todayspractitionersofurbancomputing?Boyer(1996:142)hasnoticedthe wayInvisibleCitiesrepresentsanetworkmuchlikethematrixofahypertext,in whichthereadercanselectmultipleroutesanddrawavarietyofconclusions. Calvino,duringthe1960s,wasinterestedinhowthecombinatorycomplexities ofcyberneticsofferedanewwayofperceivingtheworld,asaseriesofdiscrete, divisiblepartsratherthanbeingmorecontinuousinform.iiInvisibleCitiescanin thissensebeunderstoodasanattemptbyCalvinotoengagethenarrative potentialsofcyberneticsrecombinatorylogic,allowingforanimaginary projectionofurbanspacetobeshapedaccordingtoasetofalgorithmic relationships.Here,asCalvinorecounts,placesandexperiencesexchangetheir qualitiesofform,order,anddistances,astheybecomevariouslyassortedlike thelettersinaname(Calvino1974:164). Byintroducingthequotientofexperiencetheeventsofthepastto hisrepresentationofthecity,Calvinoconsideredtheapplicationofthis recombinatorylogicnotonlytodiscretespatialentities,butalsotoanintimately temporalsphereaswell.Buthere,timeisnotcontinuous,ratheritisexperienced asdiscontinuousandelliptical.Justasthereisnoclearlinearpassagethrough thespatialenvironmentofthecityofVenice,sotoothereisnoclearpassage throughitsshiftingtemporalities,orthediscretestagesandeventsofMarco Polosjourney.AllthefutureBerenices,hewrites,arealreadypresentinthis

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instant(1974:146).Thisisatemporalitythatfiguresliketheexperienceof memory,inwhichrecollectionsemergewithoutwarning,asdiscrete,embodied momentsthatmightflashupatanygiventimesuchas,perhaps,whenyoulean outofawindowintheearlyevening. Ashewasattractedtothenarrativepotentialsofcybernetics,Calvinoalso remainedambivalentabouttheimplicationsofitsabstractedmodeof knowledge.Atonepoint,CalvinodescribesthewayKublaiKhanhadfocusedso narrowlyonachessboardofblackandwhitesquaresthatthegamesmeaning hadeludedhim,asithadsimplybecomeanabstractpieceofwood(Boyer1996: 143).ButwhenMarcoPoloremindedhimthatthischessboardwasinlaidwith twowoods,ebonyandmapleKhansimaginationtookflight.AsBoyerhas suggested,inthiswayCalvinoteachesusalesson:wemightreduceeventsto abstractpatternsthatfacilitatetheproceduresoflogicaloperations,orwecan worktoengenderorreviveimaginaryprojectionsinthiscase,makingwords revealtheverytangiblequalitiesofagivenobjectwhichinturnmightallowfor whatBoyercallsthecontinuedpresenceoftheunfathomable,theinvisible (ibid). ThisChapterretrievesCalvinosimaginativeconceptionofinvisiblecities andconsidersitsplacewithinthecontemporary,emergentterrainofurban computing.Itexploreshowanenduringattractiontothatwhichremains invisiblewithinthecontemporarycityhashistoricallyinspiredalternative, sometimesradicalurbaninterventions,whichhavesoughtoutdifferentwaysof knowingandexperiencingcities,againstthepredominanceofvisual

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representationsandabstractedschemas.Thesehaveinspiredsituated, embodied,andsensoryaccountsofurbanspatialexperience,whichhaveresisted atendencytorelyonvisualurbanabstractionsasameanstoimprovecities. Returningtothenowwelltoldstoryofurbanmodernismsfailuretorealizeits utopianprojectofurbansocialreform,theChapterrevisitssomeimaginative conceptionsofinvisiblecities,particularlyastheyemergedinresponsetothe failuresoftwentiethcenturyurbanmodernism.Itthenmovesontodiscussa specificprojectthathastakenupsomeoftheseconcernsandappliedthemtoa mobileproductionproject.Thisproject,releasedin2008bytheAustralian BroadcastingCorporation(ABC)asSydneySidetracks,hasmadeextensiveuseof soundarchivestogeneratedifferentwaysofseeingcontemporaryspacesin centralSydney,Australia.Soundhasbeenusedinthisprojectinawaythat foregroundsanembodied,experientialapproachtonavigatingnetworkeddigital environments,againstthemoredominantvisualrepresentationaltechniquesof networkmappinganddatavisualisation.Asithasofferedacreativeresponseto thepotentialsofmobileurbancomputingtoday,theSidetracksprojecthasalso exploredthepotentialforinvisiblecitiestoinspiredifferentspatialpractices withintheemergingenvironmentsofurbancomputing. Forgetoldwaystodescribecities!iiiPicturingtheinvisibleintherealtime city Today,theabilitytographicallyenhanceourimagingofcitiesasmultiscalar, networkedenvironmentsoffersprofoundpotentials,introducinganarrayofnew urbanmanagementanddesigntechniquesthatmakeuseofmoredetailed,real

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timeurbandata.JustasashapelessdustcloudinvadedthecontinentsofInvisible Cities,todaysrealtimecitiesareunderpinnedbyaninformationarchitectureof sensorsandapplications,whosedatabasesexpressthemutating,multiscalar complexitiesofthematerialworld.Embeddedsensornetworksrevealthat whichmightotherwisebeinvisibletothenakedeye;likecoinsrubbedoverwax paper,theymakevisibleamyriadoffluid,complexexchangesbetweenmaterial, socialandinformationaluniverses. Formany,thiscomputationalintensificationofthematerialworld retrieveshidden,hithertobanishedpossibilities,andcanbeputtodisruptive uses(Foth2008:19).ToFoth,practitionersofurbaninformaticscanactas urbananatomists,dissectingurbanenvironmentsandinfrastructurebytrying tomicroscopicallyuncovertheconnectionsandinterrelationsofcityelements, seekingtopicturetheinvisibleandtozoomintoafinegrainedresolutionof urbanenvironments.ivPeterHallandJanetAbramshavesuggested[m]apping hasemergedintheinformationageasameanstomakethecomplexaccessible, thehiddenvisible,theunmappablemappable(2006:12).Theapplicationof hyperlocal,multiscalarandrealtimemappingtechniques,itisargued,presents opportunitiestoexposehiddenorhithertoinvisiblerelationships,includingthe relationshipsbetweencentreandperiphery,powerandinfluence(seeSassen 2008;Boyer2006). ForHill,thereisthepotentialtoavoidgrandinfrastructuralinterventions, whichinevitablybecomehardwiredintotheurbanfabricforsubsequent generations,andtoinsteaddevelopamoreiterative,responsivefieldof'urban

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acupunctures.vLocationawarecomputinghasalsobeenseentogreatlyexpand therangeofpossibilitiesforartists,architectsanddesignerstoreenchantthe world,offeringawayofmakingvisibleallthesehiddenstoriesofplace(Crang andGraham2007:815;seealsoShirvanee2006).Theembeddingof microprocessorsviasensorwebnetworksinphysicalenvironmentsalsoenables theinformationallifeworldsofmillionsofusers,humanorotherwise,tobe madevisible,suchthattheneedsnotonlyofhumansbutalsoofnatural environmentscanberevealedasdiffuse,complexsystemsofinteraction. Inmanyways,thepotentialsassociatedwithrealtimemobilenetworks arepredicatedupontheabilitytomakevisiblethatwhichhashithertoremained unseenwhethertheenhancedvisibilityoftrafficflows,socialusagepatterns, environmentaldata,orthosehiddenstoriesofplace.Butwhenconsideringthe kindsofdisruptiveusesthesevisualisationtoolsmightbeputto,towards enhancedmodesofpoliticalandcreativeengagement,orimprovedtechniquesof urbanmanagement,weneedalsotoremainmindfuloftheirlimitations.Ithelps torememberthattodaysrealtimecitiesarenotthemselvesnew,butemerge withtheirownhistoricalgeographyofsorts.Andthishistoricalgeography remindsusthattherearelimitationsassociatedwithrelyingtooheavilyon technologiesofvisualabstractionasabasisfromwhichtoprogressapolitically reformistagendaforthecity. Whiletodayscomputationalcapacityfaroutstripsthatwhichhas precededit,neverthelessmanycontemporaryclaimsmadefortheprogression ofnewpolitical,environmentalandsocietalreformsusingnetworkedurban

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computingdevicesechoearlierclaimsmadewhenoldtechnologieswerenew (Marvin1988).Indeed,whencurrentshiftstowardenhancedspeed,mobility andinformationprocessingareplacedinahistoricalperspective,wecansee theyareanintensificationofprocessesthathaveahistoryaslongasthemodern, industrialcityitself(GrahamandMarvin1996:74;Townsend2009;Mumford 1961).AsScottMcQuire(2008:4)hasalsonoted,thewideningofthegap betweenwaysoflifeprimarilygroundedinplace,andemergentwaysoflifein whichspatialexperienceisincreasinglyopenedtoeventsoccurringelsewhere, hasbeenaprimarycharacteristicsinceindustrialmodernity.Byconnecting distantpeoplesandplaces,theestablishmentoftrainnetworksduringthe nineteenthcenturyprofoundlyrestructuredpeoplesunderstandingsof everydayspaceandtime,andwasanticipatedtoprovidethebasisfora universalbondamongsthithertodisparatesocietiesand(Mattelart2002:179; Galloway2008:112).TheinstallationofthefirstopticaltelegraphlineinFrance in1794waslikewiseaccordedanemancipatorycapacitytoorganizehumansin onegreatfamilyinpursuitofthesameobjective:theestablishmentofaconcord thattranscendedsocialandnationaldivision(Mattelart2002:180).

TheinstallationofthefirstwirelessradionetworksintheUnitedStatesin 1912wasexpectedtobringmutualunderstandingtoallsectionsofthecountry, unifyingourthoughts,idealsandpurposes,makingusastrongandwellknit country(Douglas1986:54).AsEricGordon(2005:252)writes,unlikeother elementsoftheurbanenvironment,likecrowdsofpeopleandthecongestionof buildingsthatwereincreasinglyassociatedwithcrimeanddangerinthepopular press,thecrowdingofinvisiblemessagesonradiowavescarriedredemptive

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possibilities.Gordonsuggeststhatradiosemergenceasapopularmedium broughttheinvisibletotheforefrontofeverydaylifeandsignificantlyaltered howacitycouldbeimagined:Itdeemphasiseditscentreandplaced importanceonthehubssurroundingitinaradialfashion(ibid). Historicaladvancesinthetoolsusedtovisualiseurbanspacehave likewisehadaprofoundimpactonclaimstorestructureandimprovecities,from thefirstmapstothelatestinsatelliteimagery(Townsend2009:20).Theaerial perspectiveunleashedawaveofrethinkingabouturbanism,enablingthecityto berevealedintheminutestofdetail(Campanella2001inTownsend2009:22). Newwaysofvisualisingurbanspaceencouragedthereworkingofcitiesas abstracted,unifiedentities,whoseefficientreorganisationwouldridexisting urbangeographiesoftheirunwanted,disorganised,unhealthyelements.As technologiesofspeedandmotionalteredthesenseofproximityanddistance, theaccomplishmentofmoreabstractedurbanschemasencouragedhighly utopianfantasiesabouttheroleofurbanplanninginreformingurbansociety. Thesepresumedthattheillsofurbansocietycouldbereformedthroughthe developmentofnewurbanschemas;GeddesRegionalismandHowardsGarden Cityconceptswereeachpredicatedonclassificatoryschemasforthecity devisedasanabstractedandgeneralisableform(Hall1988;Walter2002:86). WheredidIloseyou,mytrampledfantasies?1

Bachelard, 1994, p.57.

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Today,manyofthemodernurbanvisionsinspiredbynewtechnologiesof seeingarerememberedastragic(BuckMorss1991:89;Pinder2005:46), particularlyfortheirfailuretoaccountforthematerialproductionofspatiality, includingthesocialrelationshipsandeconomiesofproductionthatwouldgive risetospecificurbanformations.DuringwhatEdSoja(2000:95)hascalledthe urbancrisisofthe1960s,thecritiqueofurbanmodernismwasparticularly acute,ascriticslamentedthetendencytoassumethaturbanismsprogressive potentiallayinridingthewavesoftechnologicalandeconomicdevelopment, andpersistentlyignoringspecificsocialandhistoricalcontexts(seealsoScott 2007:24). In1961,forexample,JaneJacobspublishedTheDeathandLifeofGreat AmericanCities,nowaclassicurbanplanningtextbook,inwhichshechallenged themodernisturbandesignsofurbanplanning,whichresortedtoabstracted schemasorblueprintsthedishonestmaskofpretendedorderasabasis fromwhichtorepresent,andrenew,cities.Inherstraightforwardprose,her evocativerenderingofGreenwichstreetlife,andherpointedemphasisonthe importanceoflocal,unplanneddiversitytothecity,Jacobssuccessfullyunsettled theplanningestablishmentdespiteherpositionasarelativeoutsider(Sennett 1970).ToJacobsthecitywasntaplan,agrid,orahighwaynetwork,itwasa disorganisedcollectionofhaphazardincidentsandaccidentalencounters betweenstrangers.JacobslaterreflectedthatinwritingDeathandLife,learning andthinkingaboutcitystreetsandthetrickinessofcityparkslaunchedmeinto anunexpectedtreasurehunt.viItwasthroughdailyintimateobservationthat

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Jacobsrevealedthecomplexitiesofurbanlifeinawaythatmanytraditional planningdesigns,informedmorebyabstractedaerialviews,didnottendtodo. InEuropeofthatyear,thereweredifferentkindsoftreasurehuntsgoing on,whichalsosoughtalternatespatialrepresentationsofthecity,though articulatedasamoreovertlyradicalprogrammeofaction.viiIn1961Raoul VaneigmpublishedCommentsagainstUrbanismintheInternationale Situationnisteinwhichhedecriedurbanismasthemostconcreteandperfect fulfillmentofnightmareandnotedtheincredibledullnessineverythinghaving todowithurbanism(1961:120).ThatsameyeartheFrenchleaderofthe SituationistsGuyDeborddeliveredviataperecorderalectureonthe'Prospects forConsciousModificationsofEverydayLifethatdrewattentiontothe scandalouspovertyofeverydaylife.DebordhadbeenapartoftheLettrist Internationaloftheearly1950s,whichhadbeendevotingthemselvestoa certainkindofurbanexplorationthatofthederive.Driftingthroughthecityfor days,weeks,ormonthsatatime,thegroupsoughtoutwhattheycalledthecitys psychogeograhy,tofindsignsofwhatChtcheglovcalledforgottendesires imagesofplay,eccentricity,secretrebellionandcreativityagainstthedominant practicesofthecity(Marcus2002:4).Throughpracticesofpsychogeographyit wasarguedthatthehistoricalabsencesproducedbyurbanplanningcouldbe retrieved. TheseFrenchSituationistssoughttorevivethespacesofthecitynot simplythroughtheproductionoftracts,orbooks,ortheradicalredesignor representationofenvironments,butsimplybywanderingthecity(errant)

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(Pinder2005:149).TheirideaswerestronglyinfluencedbytheideasofHenri Lefebvre,sometimesdescribedasaMarxistphenomenologist,who,likeJane Jacobs,wascriticalofattemptstoprogresspurelyvisualabstractionsofthecity inwaysthatwerenotgroundedintherealityofeverydayurbanexistence.InThe RighttotheCityLefebvreconsideredplanningasideology,specificallyurban ideology,whichformulatesalltheproblemsofsocietyintoquestionsofspace andtransposesallthatcomesfromhistoryandconsciousnessintospatialterms (1996:138).Hearguedthatsuchspatialterms,rationallyorderedinto circulatorypatternsforexample,thecityasanetworkofcirculationand communications,orofinformationanddecisionmakingpresentastruthand totaldogma,enablingthespatialplanner,andthearchitect,toposition themselvesasarchitectoftheworld,humanimageofGodtheCreator(ibid: 137). Againstthesetendencies,Lefebvresoughttoreclaimspaceasnotonly conceptualbutalsoexperiential.LikeCalvino,hedrewontheresourcesof memorytochallengespatialabstractions,thinkingofspaceandtimetogether,by usingauditorymetaphorssuchasthatofrhythm(Lefebvre,2004:ix).Healso turnedtowriterssuchasBachelard,whosespatialterrainwasthepoetic, eulogisedspaceoftheimagination,atopophiliaoffelicitousspace,thespaces weloveandinhabit(1994:xxxv).ToBachelard,allreallyinhabitedspace containsanotionofhome;asinhabitedspaces,suchsitesbecomeplacesof memory,anchoringthepastinthepresent,andthepresentinthepast.

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ImportantlyforbothLefebvreandBachelard,theactivationofthe resourcesofmemorywasnotsimplyarecoursetonostalgia.Insteadtheyturned toideasaboutintimate,everydayspatialityasameansbywhichtoretrieve hiddensourcesofpossibilityandprogressivechange,byarticulatinga phenomenologyofexperiencefromwhichtheimpulseforchangemightemerge. ToBachelard,ifwehaveretainedanelementofdreaminourmemories,ifwe havegonebeyondmerelyassemblingexactrecollections,bitbybitthehouse thatwaslostinthemidstoftimewillappearfromoutoftheshadow(1994:57). LikeCalvino,Bachelardwantedtoestablishawayofthinkingaboutspacethat includedthatwhichcannotbeseen,takingintoaccounttheroleofmemoryand imaginationinshapingthewayweexperiencespaceasanembodiedencounter. CrangandTravlouhavemorerecentlysuggestedthatsuchtacticsresembleless atheoryofrepresentation(asoriginal,copy,simulation)asthatofspatial practicesassociatedwithtemporalfoldingandmarkingwithinamemorytopi, wherethepastfeaturesliterallyandfiguratively,[as]apresence(Crangand Travlou2001:163). Inseekingoutdifferentwaysofknowingandexperiencingthecity,the formationofthesedifferentspatialepistemologieschallengedtheprimacyof abstractedvisualschemasandtheirmobilizationasabasisforurbanreform. Againstthebackdropoftechnologicalmodernization,theymaintainedaplacefor invisiblecitiescitiesofmemory,oftopophilia,ofauditoryreverberations,of psychogeographicambiencesoraccidentaltreasurehuntsinordertodisrupt therelianceonvisualmodesofrepresentationinunderstanding,andinturn reforming,cities.

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Suchalternatespatialepistemologiesareworthrememberingwhenwe considerthepotentialsofmobileurbancomputingintherealtimecitiesof today.Ofcourse,thepromisesoftodaysrealtimecitiesareverymuch predicatedontheabilitytodisruptthesemodernist,abstracted,urbanviews, throughrecoursetomorecontextuallyaware,embeddeddatascapeswhichare muchbetteratcapturingcomplexdata.Andyet,realtimemobilenetworksare notnecessarilyneutralinthewaytheyactivatehiddendata.CrangandGraham (2007:789)haveexpressedconcernthatembeddedwithintheeverydaylife worldsofsentientcitiesiswhattheycallapoliticsofvisibility,whichrelatesto thewaysinwhichtechnologiesaremadevisibletous,andhowwearemade visibletothem.Theyhavesuggestedthatanincreasingsaturationofurban spaceswithanticipatorytechnologies,whichprofileusersinmoreandmore sophisticatedways,maypotentiallypacifyusersbycreatingasenseofdelegated agency.Bylinkingimaginationsandanticipationsoffuturebehaviour(s)to categoricalrenderingsfromcomputerizedmemory,itmaybethatdigital urbaniststodayriskdelegatingwholesetsofdecisionsand,alongwiththat,the ethicsandpoliticsofthosedecisions,toinvisibleandsentientsystems.They arguethatastheybecomeseamlesslyintegratedthroughmobiledevicesinto local,urbanenvironments,suchpracticesmayinfactenactandorganizeglobal andtransactionalflowsproducinganongoinggeographyofdistanciated, technologicalperformance(ibid). Criticalreflectionsliketheseremindusthaturbancomputingdoesnot simplyactivatetheinvisible,dormantpotentialitiesofurbanspaces.Toargue

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thissuggeststhatthesespacessomehowexistasemptyorneutralcontainersfor action,andmightotherwiseremainstagnantandalienatingplaceswithoutthe enhancedvitalityofinteractioncharacteristicofmobilenetworks.This instrumentalisttreatmentofurbanspatialityunfortunatelysharesmuchin commonwiththeviewsoftheurbanmodernists,thoughthegeometricalforms maynolongerbeEuclidian.Whenpractitionersofurbancomputingtherefore claimthebenefitsassociatedwithpicturingtheinvisible,itsworth rememberingthattosome,thismaybe,asCalvinosuggested,thesameas tellingyounothing. Listeningintothe(invisible)pastwithinthepresent:archivaldetoursand auditorydetournements ThisChapterreturnstotheimaginedspacesofinvisiblecitiesastheinspiration foranalternativewayofengagingthecreativeandpoliticalpotentialsofurban computingtoday.Arecentmobileplotproject,releasedbytheABCin2008as SydneySidetracks,drewfromtheseideasasawayofexploringthespacesof centralSydneyviamobileplatform.ItreimaginedthespacesofcentralSydney aswirelessgeographies,fillednotjustwithcontemporarymobileusagedatabut historicalwirelessbroadcastsaswell,drawingontheABCssoundarchives recordedonlocationduringdifferentmomentsofasiteshistory.Theproject tookwhatauditorytracesremainedofthesehistoricalmomentsandusedthem toframeaparticularauditoryencounterwiththesamesitestoday,diggingthe archivesoutofobscurityandmakingthemavailablefordigitaldownloadto mobiledevice.Inthisway,theinvisibilityofanauditorytraceofthepastwas

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usedtoframeavisualencounterwiththepresentday.Inthisway,theSydney SidetracksprojectsawCalvinosnarrativetechniqueadoptedasatoolforaudio productionusingthemobiledevice,asthemeasurementsofspacewere calibratedbytheauditorytracesassociatedwiththeeventsofitspast. Theprojectwasnotconfinedtoitsuseofsoundarchivesbutalsolocated extensiveamountsofdocumentaryfilm,televisionandphotographicarchival materialaswell,whichwerefeaturedaspartofover50pointsofinterest acrosscentralSydney.Neverthelessitsoriginalfocuswasonmakingparticular useofsoundarchivesforamobilelisteningexperience,makinguseofthe qualitiesofmobilelisteninginframingcontemporaryurbanexperience.To MichaelBull,theproliferationofmobilelisteningdevicesmobilephones, iphones,ipodsandsoonmeansthatsoundhasbecomeawayofperceiving theworld(2007:6),andmeansthatmobileuserstodayhaveoverpowering resourcestoconstructurbanspacestowhatevertheirliking(2004:122).Bullis criticaloftheroleofmobiledevicesinshapingalistenersexperienceofthecity, andarguesthatlisteningtoanipodpromotesanidealizedoraetheticised experienceofpublicspacesofthecitywhichmimicthelistenersdesires, enablingmobilelistenerstobecomeenclosedinpleasurableandprivatized soundbubbles(2004:122).ButtheSidetracksprojectalsorecognizedthat mobiledevicesdontonlydistancepeoplefromtheirenvironments;theymight alsopromotedifferentwaysoflisteningtourbanspaces.Thesoundwalksof JanetCardiffhave,forexample,overcodedthepresentcitywithmemoriesofthe past,enablinglistenerstoexperienceaspacethatisnotquiteofthenowbutis ratherhauntedbyghostly,technologicallypreservedorrecalledpresences.The

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UKartistgroupProboscis,developedUrbanandSonicTapestriestoencourage userstocreatetheirownrecordingsoftheireverydayhabitats(see urbantapestries.net).InSydneytheUKartsgroupBlastTheoryintroducedtheir RiderSpokegameintotheRocksin2009,offeringparticipantsGPSequipped bikestoexploreanddocumentthepsycheofthecityanditsinhabitants,as riderssearchforundiscoveredhidingplacesandrecordtheirownresponsesto theterrain. TheSidetracksprojectwasdifferentfromthesemobilesoundprojects, becauseinsteadofgeneratingnewrecordingsitexcavatedarchivalradio recordingsasinvisiblesubstrataofthewirelesscity.Researchtowardsthis projectwasparticularlyfocusedonidentifyingsoundtracesthatamplifiedhow muchhadchangedtotheurbanenvironmentovertime,makingextensiveuseof recordingsofbuildingsnowdemolished,raucouscrowdsnowdispersed,and detailed,historicdescriptionsofplaceslonggone,annihilatedbytherelentless modernizationofSydneyduringthedecadesofthe1960sand1970s.The recordingsidentifiedincludedstreetrecordingsoftheBuildersLabourers Federation(B.L.F.)GreenBansprotestsastheyheldupdevelopmentwork aroundtheRocksandWoolloomollooduring19734;ofVietnamWarprotesters gatheringoutsidetheoldCommonwealthCentre(nowChifleySquare);andthe muffledsoundsofformerPrimeMinisterRobertMenziesbeingheckledby communistsatthenowdemolishedSydneyStadiumin1948.Theprojectalso featuredshortaudiocompilationsorsoundwalksthatcontaincollectionsof interviewsandarchivalfieldrecordingscapturingchangingstreetscapesand locations.TheseincludearecordingoftheauctioninganddemolitionoftheHotel

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Australia,thedemolitionofthePyrmontIncineratordesignedbyWalterBurley Griffin,andacollectionofrecordingsaboutthedecadelongconstructionofthe SydneyOperaHouseatBennelongPoint,includingthesoundsofshipsonSydney harbourthedayofitsopeningin1973byQueenElizabethII2. Asauserexperience,thesidetrackthereforeofferedajourneythat chartedlocationsandeventsmostlyinvisibletothenakedeye.Inthisway,the projectforegroundedalisteningexperiencethatmightestablishakindofcertain displacement:listeningtoarecordedeventorlostsiteasitwasoriginally documentedinsitucouldontheonehandaffectasenseofdistancebeingfrom anothertimeandcapturingwhatcannolongerbeenseenjustasitrevisited theeventhereasitreallyhappened.Ratherthanpromotingascreenbased mobilephoneexperience,Sidetracksthereforeusedthebuiltenvironmentasa spatialcontextorplatformfromwhichtoexcavateitsinvisiblehistory,through theactoflisteningintothetracesofitsrecordeddocumentation. Conclusion Tosome,theideaofgettinglostincitiespresentsacertainallure.ToGerman sociologistWalterBenjamin,writinginthefirstdecadesoflastcentury,itwasan aspiration.Nottofindoneselfinacitymaywellbeuninterestingandbanal,he wrote,[i]trequiresignorancenothingmore.Buttoloseoneselfinacityas
Individual audio recordings discussed in this paper can be found at http://www.sitesandsounds.net.au or through ABC Sydney Sidetracks at http://www.abc.net.au/sidetracks which offers access to recordings online or through a mobile application which can be downloaded direct to the phone. Note that the mobile application does not make use of GPS technology but rather includes all content in the phone application itself, to save users any potentially unpleasant data charges.
2

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onelosesoneselfinaforestthatcallsforquiteadifferentschooling(Benjamin 1932).BenjaminexploredthemetropolitanspacesofParisandBerlinfortheir labyrinthinequalities,inwhichallkindsoflostdreams,hopes,andartifacts, oftensweptasideinaccountsofmoderndevelopmentandHaussmannlike disencumbering,mightbeunwittinglystumbledon.Likemanyofthewriters andtheoristsdiscussedinthisChapter,Benjaminsapproachsoughtakindof urbanengagementthatretrievedthehidden,invisiblecitiesnestledinamongst theproliferatingspacesoftechnologicalmodernity. AsthisChapterhasdiscussed,throughoutthetwentiethcenturyideas aboutinvisiblecitieshavebeenrecalledasabasisfromwhichtoexplore differentwaysofunderstandingcities,whichextendbeyondtheactivationof advancedvisualizationtechniquestoencompassothersenses,andotherspaces; poetic,imagined,orperhapsonlyhalfrecalled.TheprojectSydneySidetracks hasexploredhowtheexcavationofhistoricwirelessbroadcastsmightenablea wayoflisteningintoadifferenthistoricalterraintothatwhichmightbeseen withinthecitytoday.Asacreativeresponsetothepotentialitiesofmobilephone usetoday,itremindsusthatwhiletheincreasingcomputationalintensification ofurbanspacemayradicallyenhanceourcapacitytopicturetheinvisibleand revealthatwhichhashithertoremainedhiddenfromview,thereremainother pathways,otherspatialepistemologies,thatcontinuetoconfirmtheenduring potencyofthatwhichcannotbeseen.

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References Bachelard,G.(1994)ThePoeticsofSpace,1994edition,Boston,BeaconPress. Benjamin,W.(1932)ABerlinChronicle,publishedinJennings,M.,ed.(1999) SelectedWritings,Harvard,HarvardUP. Boyer,M.Christine(1996)CyberCites:VisualPerceptionintheAgeofElectronic Communication,NewYork,PrincetonArchitecturalPress. Boyer,M.Christine(1996a)TheCityofCollectiveMemory:TheHistoricalImagery anditsArchitecturalEntertainments,London,EnglandandCambridge, Mass:MITPress. Boyer,M.Christine(2006).TheUrbanQuestioninthe21stCentury: EpistemologicalandSpatialTraumas,inGraafland,A.andKavanagh,L.J., (eds)Crossover:Architecture,UrbanismandTechnology,Rotterdam.010 Publishers:312332 BuckMorss,S.(1991).TheDialecticsofSeeing:WalterBenjaminandtheArcades Project,Chicago,UniversityofChicagoPress. Bull,M.(2004)SoundingOuttheCity:PersonalStereosandtheManagementof EverydayLife,Oxford:Berg. Bull,M.(2007)SoundMoves:iPodcultureandurbanexperience,NewYork: Routledge. Calvino,I.(1974)InvisibleCities,trans.WilliamWeaver,NewYork,Harcourt BraceJovanovich. Crang,M.andTravlou,P.S.(2001)Thecityandtopologiesofmemory. EnvironmentandPlanningDSociety&Space19(2):161177.

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Crang,M.andGraham,S.(2007)SentientCities:Ambientintelligenceandthe politicsofurbanspaceinInformation,Communication&Society,Volume 10,Issue6December2007:789817.ArticleaccessedonlineatJanuary 192009,pdfversiondamaged. Douglas,S.(1986)AmateuroperationsandAmericanbroadcasting:Shapingthe futureofradioinJ.Korn(ed)ImaginingTomorrow:History,Technology andtheAmericanfuture,Cambridge,MA:MITPress,p.p.3557. Foth,M.(ed.)(2009).HandbookofResearchonUrbanInformatics:ThePractice andPromiseoftheRealTimeCity.Hershey,PA:InformationScience Reference,IGIGlobal. Galloway,A.(2008)ABriefHistoryoftheFutureofUrbanComputingandLocative Media,PhD.Unpublisheddoctoraldissertation.Accessed19Januaryat http://www.purselipsquarejaw.org/dissertation.html. Gordon,E.(2005).TowardsaNetworkedUrbanism:HughFerris,Rockefeller Centre,andtheInvisibleEmpireoftheAir,SpaceandCulture,8:247. Graham,S.andMarvin,S.(1996)TelecommunicationsandtheCity:Electronic spaces,urbanplaces,OxonandNewYork,Routledge. Hall,P.(1988)CitiesofTomorrow:AnIntellectualHistoryofUrbanPlanningand DesignintheTwentiethCentury.Oxford:BasilBlackwell. Hall,P.&Abrams,J.,(2006)(eds)Else/whereMapping.NewCartographiesof NetworksandTerritories,UniversityofMinnesotaDesignInstitute, Minneapolis Jacobs,J.(1961)TheDeathandLifeofGreatAmericanCities,NewYork,Random HouseandVintageBooks.

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Kunstler,J.(1993)TheGeographyofNowhere:TheRiseandDeclineofAmericas ManMadeLandscape,NewYork,TouchstonePress. Lefebvre,H.(1994)Rhythmanalysis:Time,SpaceandEverydayLife,English translation.London,Continuum. Lefebvre,H.(1996)WritingsonCities,Englishtrans.Kofman,E.andLebas,E. Oxford,Blackwell. McQuire,S.(2008)TheMediaCity:MediaArchitectureandUrbanSpace,London, Sage. Marcus,G.(2002)TheLongWalkoftheSituationistInternationalin McDonough,T.(ed)(2002)GuyDebordandtheSituationistInternational: TextsandDocuments,MITPress,pp125. Marvin,C.(1988)WhenOldTechnologiesWereNew:ThinkingaboutElectric CommunicationintheLateNineteenthCentury,NewYork&Oxford,Oxford UniversityPress. Mattelart,A.(2002)MappingModernity:UtopiaandCommunicationNetworks inCosgrove,D.(ed)Mapping,2ndedition,London:ReaktionBooks,pp169 192. Mumford,L.(1961)TheCityinHistory:ItsOrigins,ItsTransformationsandIts Prospects,London,Penguin. Pinder,D.(2005)VisionsoftheCity,Edinburgh:EdinburghUniversityPress. Sassen,S.(2008)NewYorkCitysTwoGlobalGeographiesofTalkinRatti,C. (ed)NewYorkTalkExchange:TheBook,NewYork:SA&PPress.Accessed 19Januaryathttp://senseable.mit.edu/nyte/publications.html Shirvanee,L.(2006)Locativeviscosity:tracesofsocialhistoriesinpublicspace, LeonardoElectronicAlmanac,vol.14,no.3.

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Soja,E.(2000)Postmetropolis:CriticalStudiesofCitiesandRegions,Oxford, Blackwell. Sennett,R.(1970)AnUrbanAnarchistinTheNewYorkReviewofBooks,Vol.13, No.12,January11970. Scott,F.(2007)ArchitectureorTechnoutopia.PoliticsafterModernism. Cambridge,MIT. Soja,E.(2000)Postmetropolis.CriticalStudiesofCitiesandRegions,Oxford, Blackwell. Vaneigm,R.(1961)CommentsagainstUrbanisminMcDonough,T.(ed)(2002) GuyDebordandtheSituationistInternational:TextsandDocuments,MIT Press,pp.119129. Woolf.V.(2005)StreetHaunting:ALondonAdventureLondon,PocketPenguin. Winterson,J.(2001)ReviewofInvisibleCitiesaccessedonline23October2009at http://tinyurl.com/yg83cj9. Abouttheauthor SarahBarnsisaresearcherandproducerwithabackgroundthatincludes interactivemediaproductionandstrategicpolicyandplanningacrossareas includingtelecommunications,broadcastingandcreativeindustries.Her dissertationTheDeathandLifeoftheRealTimeCityisinitsfinalstagesof completionthroughtheUniversityofTechnology,Sydney(UTS).Themobile projectSydneySidetracks,whichsheconceivedof,researchedandproduced,was releasedinNovember2008astheABCsfirstlocationbasedmobilecontent offering,andcanbeviewedathttp://abc.net.au/sidetracks.Elementsofthe

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ABCssoundarchivesdrawnonforthisprojectareintheprocessofbeingre releasedunderCreativeCommonslicensesthroughtheABCssocialmedia websitePool(seehttp://pool.org.au).Specificsoundexcerptsreferredtointhis Chaptercanalsobeaccessedathttp://sitesandsounds.net.au. iStreetHauntingisthetitleofashortstorybyVirginiaWoolf.SeeWoolf,2005.


iiCalvinodiscussedcyberneticsina1967talkcalledCyberneticsandGhosts.

SeeBoyer,1996;p142.
iiiSeeprojectnotesforMobileLandscape:GrazinRealTimebytheSENSEable

CityLab.Seehttp://senseable.mit.edu/graz/#city
ivSeeWorkshopdescriptionforDigitalCities6:Concepts,MethodsandSystemsof

UrbanInformatics,accessedOctober23at http://cct2009.ist.psu.edu/workshops.cfm.
vSeeHillspredictionfor2009atArchinectonline.AccessedOctober23at

http://tinyurl.com/yhpp2r3.
viSeetheForwardtotheModernLibraryEdition,1993,accessed23October

2009athttp://www.walksf.org/essays/janejacobs.html
viiManycriticalresponsestourbanizationduringthe1960sdrewheavilyonthe

writingsofMarxandEngels,anintellectualtraditionattunedtoconditionsof disorder,upheavaldiscontinuityandeconomiccrisisifnotdirectlyconcerned withcities(seeSoja2000:97).