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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILIAL AND EXTRAFAMILIAL VOICE AND SUPPORT FOR VOICE AND IDENTITY EXPLORATION IN AFRICAN AMERICAN EMERGING ADULTS
By AMBER GOLDEN-THOMPSON
A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Family and Child Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2006
Copyright © 2006 Amber Golden-Thompson All Rights Reserved
The members of the Committee approve the dissertation of Amber Golden-Thompson defended on March 24, 2006.
Ann K. Mullis Professor Directing Dissertation
Stephen A. Rollin, Outside Committee Member
Mary W. Hicks Committee Member
Ronald L. Mullis Committee Member Received:
___________________________________________________ Kay Pasley, Chair, Department of Family and Child Sciences
____________________________________________________ Penny Ralston, Dean, College of Human Sciences
The Office of Graduate Studies has verified and approved the above named committee members.
I would first like to give honor and thanks to my ancestors whom have helped to guide me on this journey. This project was funded by the American Association for University Women American Fellowship. Support for this project was also received from Florida State University. Dr. Ann Mullis, I truly appreciated your constant support and responsiveness. Thank you for the personal touch you gave to every meeting. Drs. Hicks, R. Mullis, and Rollin, thank you for your time and commitment to helping me complete this process. I have a deep and heartfelt appreciation for my family. I could not have done it without you. Mommy, thank you for providing a safe haven, encouragement, and superb childcare. Donna, your creativity and passion for your art are a constant source of inspiration. Seymour, I could not have made through these final miles without your teamwork and support. Kymani and Amarachi, you two are my shining jewels. Your hugs, kisses, and bedtime rituals kept my heart open and helped me to relax during the most stressful of times. To my bundle of joy on the way, thank you for keeping me motivated, focused, and health conscious. To my soul sister, Maria, your friendship and sisterhood have been an invaluable source of strength. Thank you for being such a wonderful Auntie and consistently helping to enrich my children’s lives. To the Elephant House, Onye, Maria, and Nzinga, thank you for being there through everything! Judith, thank you for helping me find that lost crown and encouraging me to continue to aspire for the very best in everything. Ayana, my late night telephone study partner, thank you for being a constant source of positive affirmations and encouragement. Taiye, thank you for all those late night talks and helping me to manage the mommy juggling act too. I have a heart full of love and gratitude for the many professors across the FAMU campus for sharing your entire class period with me. Thank you to Ms. Abdullah and Drs. Drum, Robertson, Hobbs, Chambers, Singleton, Sherrod, Jackson-Lowman, Jackson, and Shotwell. I would like to thank Cheidu Ozuzu for your editorial comments. Special thanks also goes to Isaiah and Patrick of the All Saints Café. You two provided superb service and all of the amenities a pregnant student needs in an office away from home.
. 15 Application of Erikson/Marcia and Symbolic Interactionism............................................................................................ 4 Cultural Relevance of Erikson and Marcia........................................................... 16 Authenticity................................... 37 Familial Relationships ............................. 24 African American Identity and Family Context............ 23 Support and Identity .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Delimitations............................................................................................................................................... 36 Support for Voice ................................................................................................................................................................ 26 The Contemporary African American Family: Influential Networks of Extended Family and Non-familial Adults in the Lives of African American Youth ........ 20 Identity Development and African American Youth......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 iv .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Theoretical Perspective...................... 31 CHAPTER 3 METHODS ............................................................ 12 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................... 9 Definitions......................................................................................... 7 The Role of Extended Family ...................................................................................................... 38 Demographic Sheet . vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 26 Conclusions................................................................................... 35 Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity (EOM-EIS II)....................... 17 Conclusions .... 33 Sample........... vi ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Identity and Interpersonal Relationships .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Abbreviations..................................... 35 Level of Voice ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Assumptions. 14 Symbolic Interactionism.................. 1 Sample Rationale .................................................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES.................................................... 8 Focus of Study and Research Questions..... 23 Communication and Identity .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Instrumentation ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 Erik Erikson and James Marcia’s Identity Status Model ........................................
............. 58 Limitations......................................................................................................................... 73 APPENDIX E Scantron Form ....................................................................................................... 71 APPENDIX D Survey Packet........................................................................................ 104 REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 52 Ancillary Findings ............................................................... 44 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION.................................................................................................................. and Practical ................... 61 APPENDIX A Human Subject Approval ................................................................................. 85 APPENDIX F Permission for Measurement Use .........................Data Collection ................................................................................................... 42 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS ..... 94 APPENDIX I Informed Consent Cover Letter ........................................................ 39 Data Analyses ............................. 115 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................ 57 Summary ................................................................... 59 Implications: Theoretical.............................................................................................................................. 88 APPENDIX G Personal Communication with Dr.................................................................................................................. 97 APPENDIX J Tables – Scale Psychometric Properties................... 67 APPENDIX C Scale Summary Sheet With Factors & Corresponding Survey Item Numbers ............................................................................................................................. 99 APPENDIX K Tables – Research Questions................................................................................... 122 v ........................................ Empirical........................................................................................... 40 Scale Psychometrics .......................................................................................... 40 Research Questions ......................................... 92 APPENDIX H Verbal Script ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Susan Harter .................................................................... 64 APPENDIX B Tables – Sample Demographics ...................................... 50 Explanatory Factors...
................................................. Sample Demographic Characteristics ...... Summary of Scale and Factor Structure by Survey Packet Item Numbers ...............LIST OF TABLES 1........ 110 15. 103 9................................................. 5................................ Percentage of Roles Identified as Adult Relatives and Fictive Kin.................... 111 16.................................. Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis of Extrafamilial and Familial LOV Variables Entered as Sets for Predicting Ideological Exploration by Gender ...................................................... 113 vi ..... 106 11........... 107 12........ 101 7................. 69 3........................................... Means...................................... Summary of Regression Analysis for Extrafamilial SFV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender ............................. 105 10......... 68 2............ Hypotheses and Findings..... 109 14... 102 8..... Correlation of LOV scales with Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender................................. Correlation of SFV Scales with Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender............................................................................................................. Scale Reliability Coefficients................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.......... and Standard Deviations .. EOM-EIS II Subscale Intercorrelations ...... Percentage of Family Roles Identified as Parental Figures and Primary Caregivers .............................................................. 100 6............................... 70 4......................... Correlation of SFV with LOV in each Relational Context............ LOV Factor Loadings for Total Sample ... Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis of Extrafamilial and Familial LOV and Familial SFV Variables Entered as Sets for Predicting Ideological Exploration for Females ........................................................... Summary of Regression Analysis for Familial SFV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender ..... 112 17........................................................................... Summary of Regression Analysis for Extrafamilial LOV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender ................................................................................... Summary of Regression Analysis for Familial LOV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender ........................... 108 13............... Summary of the Research Questions......................
Examining ideological identity and various socialization forces in African Americans was an expansion on the wider body of identity literature that predominantly focuses on racial/ethnic identity in this population. and the corresponding levels of support received from each parent. that established a relationship between ideological exploration. and b) to expand the theoretical and empirical discussion regarding identity development and socialization forces in African American emerging adults. was also drawn from this body of literature. the expression of one’s thoughts and opinions to parents. father (figures). Support. The ability to be true to oneself. conceptualized and measured as Level of Voice (LOV) or the ability to express one’s thoughts and opinions. vii . conceptualized and measured as the perception of respect and interest in what one has to say or support for voice (SFV). The relationships of peers and instructors/advisors included in this investigation were selected based on the theoretical writings of Erikson (1968). ideological identity exploration was conceptualized in the current study using Marcia’s (1966) identity status model. adult relatives. the inclusion of extrafamilial socialization forces expanded the broader body of identity literature. as well as fictive kin. In keeping with Grotevant and Cooper’s study. The study built on the empirical work of Grotevant and Cooper (1985). was based on Harter’s empirical work on authentic self-behavior. The conceptualization of familial socialization forces was expanded to include mother (figures).ABSTRACT The purposes of the study were to a) examine the relationship between level of voice (LOV) and support for voice (SFV) and ideological identity exploration. Furthermore.
7% male) of whom 92. Females with higher exploration levels indicated increased LOV with fictive kin but lower LOV with adult relatives when controlling for the effects of familial SFV.The final sample included 373 participants (67.4% were between the ages of 18 and 23. Males with higher levels of exploration had higher LOV with father (figures) and lower LOV with instructors/advisors. Gender differences emerged relative to the collective influence of LOV and SFV on exploration. viii . as well as to the influence of the various relational contexts under investigation.3% female and 32.
1998). Late adolescents begin to establish a more balanced understanding of self. Whitesell. Whitesell. Additionally. The recognition of opposing attributes often leads to cognitive conflicts within middle adolescents. & Cobbs. Harter. 1996. There is a tendency for early adolescents to base self-generalizations on in-the-moment attention given to either positive or negative attributes. The ability to display true self-behavior is nurtured in supportive interpersonal interactions and varies across relational contexts. such as boisterous versus shy (Harter. father. This understanding. the likelihood of false self-behavior is influenced by the adolescent’s perception of support and respect from the other person (Harter et al. Waters. as they are able to process that different attributes emerge in different relational contexts and that this can be normal and desirable. Marold. Consequently. adolescents who believe that the other person respects them as they are indicate that they are more likely to 1 . Harter & Monsour. 1998). An adolescent’s engagement in behavior not in line with their true self (false self-behavior) is dependent upon with whom they interact. does not eliminate the internal conflict that arises when youth are unable to align their behavior with their true thoughts and intentions (Harter & Monsour. Harter & Monsour. For example. That is. & Kastelic. 1992.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The expansion of social networks and social roles in adolescence is accompanied by increasingly differentiated descriptions of self-attributes across relational contexts (Harter. As adolescents mature.. cognitive developments allow for an increase in the ability to cognitively process attributes that appear to be contradictory. peers. 2003. interactions with close friends may elicit descriptions of irresponsibility and boisterous behavior. many young people indicate an increasing concern with determining which attributes are authentic representations of their true thoughts/emotions as they seek to develop a coherent sense of self (true self-behavior. such as a mother. 1992). 1992). or instructors. however. while one is shy on dates and moody with parents. 1996). Harter. In contrast. young people are more likely to engage in false self-behavior with someone who is not perceived to be supportive or accepting of who they are.
1998. 2002. developmental.. and relational propositions asserted by 2 . Support for voice is the extent to which the youth perceives that a person respects and wants to hear what he/she has to say (Harter et al. females who were engaged in identity exploration were more likely to have parents challenge their contributions.. & Hock. Previous research by Harter (Harter et al. Harter & Monsour. 1996. 1996. As with the broader construct. Perosa. teachers) and age ranges (e. Conversely.g. it is considered by most adolescents to be an act of false self-behavior (Harter et al.. Harter et al.. 893). 1993. 1997. peers.. Brucker. These results underscore the importance of examining the relational context in conjunction with the gender of the youth as has been demonstrated in both true self-behavior and identity status research (Bartle-Haring. reflecting on and considering ones values and beliefs. level of voice and support for voice were implicated in adolescent identity development. Thus.” which is the ability to verbally express one’s true feelings and opinions (Harter et al.. was linked to an adolescent’s expression of their thoughts and opinions to their parents and the corresponding levels of support they received. 1985. The identified gender differences suggested that males higher in identity exploration were assertive in expressing their views and had fathers who acknowledged and provided the opportunity for the son’s opinion to be heard. 9th – 11th graders & adults aged 18 – 55. Harter et al. Grotevant and Cooper (1985) conducted a study grounded in the works of Erikson (1968) and Marcia (1966) and found that identity exploration. Imbimbo. Harter et al.. 1995. 1985). Bartle-Haring. parents. Low level of voice is equated with the suppression of one’s thoughts and emotions. Harter. level of voice is mediated by relational context and the perception of support. Grotevant & Cooper. & Tam. false self-behavior... One manifestation of true self-behavior is “level of voice. 1998. 1992. 1998). 1998) supports several conceptual. Fullinwider-Bush & Jacobvitz. 1997).g. 1998).engage in behavior consistent with their true thoughts and emotions. 1996). The relationship of true/false self-behavior and perceived support were consistent across a variety of relational contexts (e. Grotevant and Cooper (1985) observed adolescents and their parents were observed during a family planning task and the conversations were analyzed across parent-child dyads. Prior to Harter’s research. It was hypothesized that challenging females was a tool used by parents to foster agency and counteract traditional feminine gender roles where displays of self-expression are suppressed (Grotevant & Cooper. p. classmates.. Waters et al. Perosa.
Identity. The strength of one’s sense of self and commitments are influenced by the support received by the community of one’s peers and leaders (Erikson. 1998). has been the focus 3 . is a multifaceted task that becomes increasingly salient throughout adolescence. economic. This level of selfunderstanding provides the foundation for individuals to successfully manage their eventual integration into adult society and handle the associated tasks and responsibilities of adulthood. and support in various relational contexts in the lives of adolescents. and identity exploration. 1968) propositions on the developmental timing and the conceptual importance of developing of a coherent sense of self. The insights Harter (2002. specifically non-family members. 1985). as characterized by Erikson (1968). Grotevant and Cooper chose exploration as they believed it to be the status category most amenable to development in relational contexts (Grotevant & Cooper. perceived support also influenced authenticity in adults’ aged 18-55+ (Harter. Although this process peaks during adolescence. The age related increase in the recognition of various self-attributes across relational contexts and attempts to develop a balanced and holistic understanding of how these self-representations are in line with one’s true-thoughts and emotions parallel Erikson’s comments on age related developments. in a general sense. The overarching task during this period is to develop a coherent sense of self. Two dimensions of this stage of development include exploring and committing to ideological values and beliefs and being true to one’s self in the presence of significant others. Grotevant and Cooper (1985) established a relationship between the expression of one’s thoughts and opinions. sense of authenticity. is essential to identity. Waters et al. level of voice was highest in contexts with one’s peers and instructors (Harter et al. 1997). particularly as youth approach adulthood. As will be discussed in more depth in chapter 2. support. The positive correlation between context specific support and true self-behavior provides initial validation to Erikson’s idea that support and acceptance from others. 1968). 2003) gained through her research program on selfrepresentations and authenticity corroborate Erikson’s (1959. in a study of authentic behavior in intimate relationships.Erikson (1968) related to the tasks and social involvement that work in concert to facilitate identity development. Support. and environmental conditions. Furthermore... These findings underscore the importance of peer support and the continued importance of authenticity and support throughout adulthood. it is continuously revisited throughout one’s lifetime as necessary by changes in social.
In the studies reviewed. specifically African-Americans. & Lewis. support for voice. However. In press). and occupational identity in a Dutch sample of adolescents and emerging adults aged 12-24. Chatters. Tucker. and grouping methods do not allow definitive statements regarding the relationship between support and identity exploration. and identity status is of interest to further test the validity of Erikson’s assertions. In a systematic review of the literature related to identity rooted in Erikson’s works published between 1993 and 2003 slightly less than half of the researchers reported the ethnic diversity of the sample (Sneed. The important components facilitating the development of identity include community integration as evidenced by sustained commitments and role validation (Côté & Levine. 1985. Taylor. 63% of the studies were comprised of samples where Caucasians made up 70% of the sample or more. Samples of the studies not documenting the respondent’s ethnic composition were primarily drawn from university settings where ethnic diversity tends to be low (Sneed et al.of few inquiries (Adams. Meeus & Dekovic. In general. The inquiry into the connection between level of voice as a manifestation of true selfbehavior. Intimate friend. 1995. 1990. Sample Rationale Research on adolescent development in African-American youth and their families has focused on low-income or at-risk populations and/or centered on self-esteem or ethnic/racial identity (Spencer & Markstrom-Adams. 1995. it is also of interest to determine if the relationships previously described are replicable in other racial/ethnic groups. 1990). 2002). Erikson believed that any person could develop a viable identity regardless of their culture of origin (Côté & Levine. & Cross. 2002). school. research including African Americans has primarily taken the form of comparison studies with whites. O'Connor. Schwartz. 1995.. the differences in sampling. 4 . Sartor & Youniss. In press). Of the studies with an account of sample ethnicity. Meeus and Dekovic (1995) supported Erikson’s (1959) argument that extrafamilial support is most important to the process of identity exploration and commitment. Imbimbo. rarely is a sample completely comprised of African Americans. measurement. and collegial support were the strongest predictors in various identity domains including relational. 2002). classmate. Therefore.
value. Boykin. Tayal.In a targeted search of this body of literature published between 1990 and 2005 only two studies investigating the influence of the parent-child relationship that discuss the results by race/ethnicity in studies (Mullis. Although “race” is a defining characteristic embedded in the institutional structure of this society. As previously mentioned.W. there was no correlation between the total ethnic identity score and composite identity status (ideological and interpersonal). 1999. & Mullis. Brailsford. Tucker.a. it is only one aspect of an individual’s self-concept.k. 1988). The relationship between these two variables differed based on ethnicity. prejudice. Biased information and invalid interpretations are often the result as such practices do not account for cultural differences in the interpretation. Jackson. S. data aggregation masks within group variability and does not allow for the exploration of important relationships that may be population specific (Caldwell et al. Great variability is possible in the degree of exploration and integration of racial/ethnic identity with other aspects of one’s selfdefinition. A. Phinney (1989) developed a multiethnic measure of ethnic identity exploring the levels of related exploration and commitment based on Marcia’s (1966) identity status categories. and J. and Triplett (2000) compared ego identity to ethnic identity in a multiethnic sample of adolescents and emerging adults aged 13 years and older from a large northeastern city. 2003.K. E. Spencer & Markstrom-Adams. socialization practices. Watson & Protinsky. For African Americans. 1999. J. However.K. there has been a concentrated focus on self-esteem and racial identity in African American populations for over forty years in effort to shed light on how these aspects of identity develop and impact psychosocial functioning given the overwhelming exposure to negative stereotyping. Several theorists have advanced the fields understanding of the processes. K. Using this measure. Phinney).. Spencer & Markstrom-Adams. Branch. Aggregating the data in either fashion assumes that the hypothesized relationship between the observed variables universally apply to all of the ethnic groups in the sample. Kambon a. Akbar. Baldwin. 1990). and challenges involved with African-Americans developing a positive sense of self in this society (see works of N. W. In addition. 1990). Many racial/ethnic identity theories focus on the content or content/process of one’s racial identity and do not address other identity developmental domains. & Bowman. Cross. or construct validity of variables (Caldwell. Researchers of studies with a sampling of people of color often aggregate the data of all racial/ethnic groups or create a ‘minority’ category to compare to Caucasian participants. and racism pervasive throughout the country. in a separate study 5 .
internalized values emanate from the dominant white American culture (mainstream). peers. It may also be the case that identity development is not a straightforward task for African American youth.e. In press). Expressive individualism. Socialization messages and.. 1968). Racial/ethnic identity is now being discussed as one aspect a composite identity in the same vein as political. and the media).. etc. Boykin and Ellison consider emotional and supportive bonds integral to the process and looked beyond the family for agencies of socialization (i. intergenerational transmission of African traditions (Afrocultural). domains (Sneed et al. and from the demands and burdens of oppression (minority). beliefs. ethnic identity was moderately related to ideological identity achievement (Markstrom & Hunter. dating.of African American adolescents from rural. Ethnic identity may be more salient in rural areas where minority status in terms of representation and treatment does not parallel that found in a diverse metropolitan area. each of which has its own set of values. Another relevant similarity to Erikson is Boykin and Ellison’s notion of expressive individualism. 1999). Boykin and Ellison (1995) argued with the Triple Quandary Theory that African Americans engage in three social realms: mainstream. in time. Cognitively processing these three social realities leads to a state of triple consciousness. They suggested that this effort should begin by examining what makes socialization effective.. there is a dearth of empirical work examining a wider array of identity domains and the influence of various socialization agents in African American youth and emerging adults. and behavioral patterns. 1995). The dilemma lies in how to integrate or balance the psychosocial expressions of each social experience as some expressions may be deemed inappropriate and penalized if crossutilized. and minority. Boykin and Ellison (1995) focused their discussion on cultural or racial socialization and suggested that future research must address a wide array of socialization pathways. reflects the importance of genuine self-expression (Boykin & Ellison. Similar to Erikson (1959. The means of comparison may account for the differences found between these two studies. occupational. Afrocultural. The striking difference in the diversity of the populations from which the samples were drawn may also be a confounding variable. one of the nine dimensions associated with the Afrocultural realm. schools. Even though there are numerous investigations on parental racial socialization. 6 . Erikson’s work is pivotal in this respect as both intrapersonal and social/societal factors are identified as reciprocal contributors to healthy identity development in a variety of domains. low-income areas.
Factor structures were compared by gender and immigration generation status. particularly ego identity. and others. & Kellam. & Costa. 2002). Erikson’s works have been criticized as being Eurocentric. followed by Caucasian. and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire) based on Marcia’s model with an aggregated multiethnic sample comprised predominantly of Hispanic/Latino students. 1999. Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity – EOM-EIS II. androcentric. Cross-cultural validation of exploration and commitment to various values and beliefs has been established through studies using Marcia’s (1966) identity status model (e. Matos. However. & Boerger. on observations of Europeans. Schwartz & Montgomery.g. Ialongo. Milheiro de Almeida. there are empirical studies of adolescent and adult retrospective accounts that corroborate the important influence of family and nonfamilial relationships on development and academic/ professional achievement (Hirsch. 1995. Barbosa. 1998.. Hunter. O'Connor. Schwartz and Montgomery (2002) examined the factor structure of the several measures (i. 2002). Mickus. and the commitments to values and belief are salient concerns for African Americans? Parallels drawn from Boykin and Ellison’s (1995) Triple Quandary Theory in the previous section provide theoretical backing that authentic self-expression and support from both familial and extrafamilial relationships are important socialization forces for African Americans. Manns. 1997).Cultural Relevance of Erikson and Marcia Erikson based his theory of human development. African American. Americans. Côté and Levine believe that a person of any culture can develop an coherent sense of self provided there is integration within a community via stable commitments and corresponding validation of an individuals chosen roles. 2002). and class based (see Côté & Levine. Because there are few studies directly focused on Erikson’s work to support or refute his propositions on identity. Pearson. Asian. As will be discussed in detail in chapter 2. Identity Style Inventory.e. being true to self. and American Indians in both natural and clinical settings (Côté & Levine. The resulting factor structure and intercorrelations between the status categories followed the predicted patterns and did not differ based on the aforementioned 7 . how can it then be determined that support from others outside the family system. Côté and Levine (2002) have continued to support Erickson assertions that his propositions are applicable across cultures. 2002.
First. 1999.. 1999.characteristics. Taylor et al. Second. Current research on the extended family has focused on support to parents. 2002. The incorporation of such individuals into the family system is based on the reciprocal 8 . the elderly. Societal changes resulting since the civil rights era has included an expansion of the African American middle and upper classes. Research including ethnically diverse samples is necessary to further assess the applicability of Erikson and Marcia as universal development theories and as theories applicable to specific aspects of Western culture (Côté & Levine. 1990. there is a cultural legacy of role flexibility in many African American families such that if a biological mother or father is unable to fulfill her/his parental responsibilities another family member may assume the role of mother/father (Hill. 1989). 1995.. 1990).. ideological. It is also important to note that African American family networks often include individuals that are not related by blood or marriage yet are still treated as family (Taylor. normative samples of emerging adults and those navigating socially sanctioned pathways such as college attendees have become the silent populations for this group (Taylor et al. 2000). Wilson. & Jackson. Chatters. and interpersonal values and beliefs previously believed to be limited to middle and upper class Caucasians.. or the family as a whole. there are few studies linking extended family support to the development and well-being of late adolescents (Taylor & Roberts. extended kin often are the nucleus of a family’s social network and are relied upon for multiple forms of social support (Ellison. 1990). Given the predominant focus of research on problem groups in the African American community. However. Taylor. 1997). 1993). However. there has been a call for an expansion of the nuclear family model to include members of the extended family system (Caldwell et al. In press). This is particularly important for African American families for two reasons. The Role of Extended Family Investigations of the relational influences on identity development typically focus on both parents. increases in post-secondary educational access and funding opportunities has opened the doors for many African Americans from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds to explore a wider range of occupational. In addition. Sneed et al. It is also important to note the relevance of changes in the broader social milieu. Watts-Jones.
fictive/functional) of extended family members.. Therefore. There was no statistically significant relationship between the daughter’s perceptions and her father’s selfreported behavior. and instructors/advisors using a sample of African American emerging adults. LaRossa & Reitzes. 1996. These family members are affectionately referred to as play family in conversation and fictive or functional kin in academic writing. Fictive kin have been recognized as influential in writing on family therapy but have received little attention in empirical studies (Watts-Jones. selfworth) have an equal or stronger relationship to one’s perceptions of an actor than to the actor’s self-reports (Adams.involvement meeting in the emotional and instrumental needs of others in the system. as operationalized by Marcia’s (1966) identity status model. 2003). 1985. This led Adams (1985) to conduct separate analyses for the mother and father’s self-reported behavior and the daughter’s perceptions of their behavior. and the use of a normative sample from an underrepresented research population (Spencer & Markstrom-Adams. Focus of Study and Research Questions The proposed study will examine the relationship of ideological identity exploration.g. Whereas Grotevant and Cooper (1985) employed outside observers to classify the behavior and interactions of the parents and their children. Tice & Wallace. Although the perceptions of the behavior or intentions of others may not be completely accurate. the extension of the nuclear family model must consider both the role and relation (biological vs. this study will rely solely upon the youth’s self-perceptions and their perceptions of the opinions of others (looking-glass self. 1990). Adams (1985) examined adolescent daughter’s perceptions and parent self-reports of various parent-child relational characteristics such as support and rejection. research has demonstrated that associated outcomes (e. 1902/1956). fictive kin. peers. Cooley. adult relatives. 1993. identity. 1997). the inclusion of extended and extra-familial relational contexts. Unique contributions of this study include the investigation of the relationship of the looking-glass self to identity development. Harter et al. to level of voice and support for voice in the contexts of one’s mother. For two of the five variables under investigation. there was a modest positive relationship between the mother’s self-reports and her daughter’s perceptions. There were a greater number of statistically significant relationships between parental behavior and identity identified using of the perceptions of the 9 . father. For example.
adolescents. What was the combined influence of SFV and LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts on ideological identity exploration? Definitions 1. and fictive kin. 3. The relational contexts under investigation were familial: mother (figures). father (figures).g. 2. 2000). and increased identity exploration that occurs prior to the perception and adoption of adult roles and responsibilities (Arnett. and b) to expand the theoretical and empirical discussion regarding identity development and socialization forces in African American emerging adults. diverse demographic characteristics (e. This period is considered to be different from adolescence and young adulthood because by the age of 18 many people are transitioning from secondary school and moving away from home. 10 . work. education). this is a constantly changing time characterized by semi-autonomy. Were support for voice (SFV) and level of voice (LOV) in familial and extrafamilial contexts determinants of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? B. and extrafamilial: peers and instructors/advisors. Extrafamilial context – is inclusive of the relationships with one’s peers and instructors/advisors. A. the significant results based on the parent’s self-reports corroborated these findings. adult relatives. Were SFV and LOV in extrafamilial contexts stronger determinants of ideological exploration than SFV and LOV in familial contexts? Were there differences by gender? D. Which familial and extrafamilial relational contexts of SFV and LOV were important determinants of ideological exploration? C. Exploration – See Identity Moratorium. However. The purposes of the study were to a) examine the relationship of level of voice (LOV) and support for voice (SFV) to ideological identity exploration. Although fewer in number. residence. Emerging Adult – is a distinct developmental period of people between the ages of 18-25.
Familial context . or opportunities but has made commitments most likely endorsed by a parent or other authority figure (Marcia..4. beliefs. 1966). 1966). formal or informal adoption. Fictive-kin – this is a term coined by anthropoligists to denote non-biologically related individuals given the status of kin (a. emotions. 1997). 1998). beliefs.includes the relationships with one’s mother (figure). 8. (Adams. 1998). and fictive kin. 11. 12. 13. and opinions (Harter et al. marriage. see family. values. values or opportunities and has not commited to a set of beliefs and values at this time (Marcia. and opportunities to adopt (Marcia. chosed to highlight the functional and emotional ties associated with family role functions rather than only biology (WattsJones. adult relatives. Identity Achieved/Achieved is characterized by a person having considered a range of possible beliefs. 7. Family – “…an intimate association of two or more people related to each other by blood. father (figure). Functional-kin – This is an alternative term for fictive kin. Play-family – see fictive-kin 11 . 1966). or appropriation. or opportunities and adopting a personal set of values and beliefs (Marcia. functional kin or ‘play-family’.” (Taylor. (Taylor. 9. 10. 2000). 1966). Harter’s (1995) measure entitled “Teenage Voice” will serve as the index for this construct. Identity Moratorium/Exploration is characterized by a person in the process of considering alternative values. Identity Foreclosed/Foreclosed is characterized by a person who has not considered alternative values. 2000) 6. This will be measured for ideological domains using the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Scale (EOMEIS II. Level of Voice is the ability to express one’s true thoughts.a.k. Identity Diffused/Diffused is characterized by an individual who has given little to no consideration of possible beliefs. The latter term refers to the incorporation of persons in the family who are unrelated by blood or marital ties but are treated as though they were family. 5.
). 1998). 3. Only the influence of social relationship on ideological identity exploration will be investigated as opposed to contextual influences. James (1892/1984). Harter’s (1995) measure by the same name will serve as the index for this construct.14. music. Abbreviations 1. SI – Symbolic Interaction Theory Delimitations 1. The quality and frequency of involvement with extended family members will not be included as control variables. etc. HBCU – Historically Black College or University 3. The respondents will answer questions honestly and with their full attention. SFV – Support for Voice 5. 1968 ).. and Cooley (1902/1956) are appropriate explanations for development and interaction among African American college students. print. EOM-EIS II– The Revised Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status 2. such as media (e. Assumptions 1. 12 . 3. Support for Voice is the perceived level of respect for or interest in what one has to say (Harter et al. The sample will be limited to African Americans college student respondants.g.. 2. 2. The theoretical propositions set forth by Erikson (1959. LOV – Level of Voice 4. The participants will interpret the questionnaire items in the manner intended by the authors. television. cinema.
identity and interpersonal relationships. Developing a sense of identity involves weaving together the many role-related characteristics that emerge in interpersonal relationships to form a personally recognized authentic self. Marcia 13 . The proceeding sections commence with the theoretical foundation of this research followed by a review of authentic self-behavior research. 1968) and James Marcia (1966). The affective bonds and encouragement provided by family members throughout childhood are essential to helping an individual navigate and find a place in the larger social order. 1968. 1959. 1968). The next sections reviews the literature pertaining to identity development in African Americans. 2002). 1968). Erikson’s work highlights the impact of the social influences on psychological development but does not clearly delineate the mechanisms of this process. Healthy adult functioning involves self-reflection. and conclude with a discussion on the contemporary African American family and the influence of familial and non-familial adults in the lives of African American youth. Gaining awareness of one’s true self is accompanied by the need act in a manner consistent with this understanding (Erikson. Harter. and commitments to personal beliefs and aspirations (Erikson.CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Adolescence is a time where young people are continuing to define themselves as unique individuals and prepare for autonomous functioning of adult life. The ability to internalize values and standards related to ideological and interpersonal ideals is inextricably tied to experiences shaped by one’s family and community (Erikson. exploration. 1959). Theoretical Perspective The concept of identity will be grounded in the works of Erik Erikson (1959. However. it is the affirmation and support of the community that is most sought after by emerging adults when forming a sense of identity (Erikson.
Youth must synthesize previous experiences and relationships to develop a personal sense of individuality. emerging adults are looking to embrace and commit to values and beliefs related to ideological ideals (i. identity versus identity confusion. This theoretical framework provides a fitting set of propositions and concepts to explore how the perceived evaluation of others may influence self-concept and behavior. and validation to facilitate the healthy development and integration into adult society of younger generations (Erikson. determine their place in the larger social arena. Erik Erikson and James Marcia’s Identity Status Model Erikson. 1959). In the process of forming a sense of identity. 1959). Erikson (1959) recognized that both the familial and social milieu supported human growth and development. philosophy of life. and maintain a sense of continuity between who they were as children and who they have the potential to become as an adult (Erikson. is a multifaceted task associated with adolescence. Erikson’s fifth stage. The complimentary component aiding the resolution of this stage is the recognition and acceptance of the individual’s chosen commitments by the community of one’s peers and leaders (Erikson. It is adult society’s collective responsibility to provide structure. Marcia’s research expanded Erikson’s idea of ideological identity commitment to include the additional process of exploration. The presence or absence of 14 . In addition. Erikson emphasized that identity is a process of mutual recognition between an adolescent and his/her community. which serve as the foundation of healthy interactions with others. 1959). The adolescent acknowledges and validates the community/society by seeking a meaningful place therein. which taps whether young people are in the process evaluating/reflecting upon their values and beliefs (Marcia. individuals mature in and must be prepared to adapt to ever-changing natural. historical. and initiative. Symbolic Interactionism (Kline & White. one must learn how to be true to self in the presence of those who are most important in their lives. a psychoanalyst. trust. religion.e. autonomy.expands and operationalizes Erikson’s ideological identity concept with the identity status model. Families provide grounding in emotional attachment. However. 1968). and politics) and occupational pursuits (Erikson. expanded the psychosexual stages formulated by Sigmund Freud to address the ecological factors that affect the development of the human psyche. 1996) focuses on human interaction and the creation of shared meanings. continuity. and technological aspects of society. 1966).
Research over the past 20-30 years has shown a developmental shift in identity status beginning in the senior year of high school and a marked change in college students. Diffusion is the identity status where the youth have made little to no attempt to evaluate their beliefs or make commitments. Waterman. Marcia. Even though possibilities are explored and commitments are made. Erikson recommended that studies of identity include samples of older adolescents. as they are most active in resolving this stage (Erikson. SI is a family of theorists 15 . 1966). This change results in a shift toward a more balanced distribution in each the status category than is common in high school students who are predominantly in the foreclosed status (Erikson. 1968. moratorium. 1993). college students have been central figures in the research because they are in a social environment where they are expected to make ideological commitments and develop a sense of identity (Marcia. foreclosure. 1982). 1968. Thus.each process. and diffusion (Marcia. Moratorium reflects the process of exploring the different possibilities. it is important to note that Marcia’s terms and/or the ability to categorize individuals may imply that identity is fixed. 1968). exploration and commitment. Marcia. Foreclosed youth have made commitments without having explored alternative beliefs or values. maintaining this perception would be theoretically inaccurate. The number of college youth classified in achieved and moratorium status increases and there is a decrease in foreclosed status. Erikson did not believe that identity is something that is ever “achieved” in a static sense (Erikson. forming a sense of identity evolves as possibilities and commitments are revisited and revised throughout one’s life. yields four categories: identity achievement. however clear or stable commitments have not been made. Symbolic Interactionism Erikson (1959. 1968) highlighted the need for members of the community to accept and validate the meaning and identity an individual adopts. 1993). Identity achievement characterizes an adolescent who has explored his/her beliefs as well as alternatives and has made commitments in various domains. 1993. How the interaction with others is translated into personal meaning and motivation for behavior is a line of inquiry evaluated by those following the Symbolic Interactionist (SI) theoretical tradition. Research on Marcia’s statuses has extended from early adolescence to emerging young adulthood. For identity status researchers. However. It is most likely that this group has adopted the values and beliefs of their parents or other respected individuals.
This type of self-idea has three main elements: (a) the perception of one’s appearance to another. With this term. identity is a multidimensional process that involves mutual recognition between the individual and their community. Weigert & Gecas. humans recognize how their actions inspire changes or consistent reactions in others. It is in the process of interaction that human beings come to understand their world and gain a sense of whom they are (LaRossa & Reitzes. and (c) an emotional reaction such as self-esteem and honor or shame and humiliation (Cooley. Consequently. such as material acquisitions. As children. McCall. considered the first symbolic interactionist. 1993. Application of Erikson/Marcia and Symbolic Interactionism To Erikson. The Me-self is not limited to the physical body and mental abilities but includes the things over which one may claim possession.exploring the connection between shared meanings created as humans communicate through a series of verbal and nonverbal gestures (LaRossa & Reitzes. and work (James. Cooley suggested that a person constructs a sense of self in part by reflecting the opinions and views that are attributed to those with whom he/she interacts. There is an extensive body of literature examining 16 . 1996. Me-self. Harter. built upon the work of James and introduced the concept of the reflected or looking-glass self. (b) the perception of the other’s judgment of that appearance. intimate partners and offspring. Not until adulthood is one expected to maintain a positive sense of self that is robust to the influence of the fluctuating opinions of others. James believed that the various constituents of the Me-self have the power to arouse feelings of self-appreciation and self-dissatisfaction based upon one’s perception of success and social standing. This duality is also interpreted where the I-self represents the active agent and processor of self. reputation. I-self. 2003). these emotions prompt people to act in ways to develop and enhance the various aspects of the Me-self. 1993. 2003). 1988. The me-self is the observed. 2003). 1988). 1892/1984). a psychologist. Cooley (1902/1956) asserts that both children and adults use this personal power over others to elicit the visible displays and mental states of positive regard. Tice & Wallace. William James. James (1892/1984) conceptualized the self in terms of that which is known. Cooley (1902/1956). family. the object of one’s knowledge and evaluation (Harter. 1902/1956). and that which knows. The dependence of one’s self concept on the esteem perceived from others is most notable in early to late adolescents (Cooley. is credited with introducing the concept of the self as a social object (Hart. 1902/1956).
There was a curvilinear relationship between grade and both the identified number of opposing attributes and the conflict experienced..e. With a primary interest in negative responses. The premises asserted by symbolic interaction theorists. and 11th graders created a list of selfattributes in variety of contexts (i. Susan Harter serendipitously came across the importance of authentic self-behavior to adolescents when researching self-representations in various relational contexts. however he does not outline how community support affects the psychological processes within the individual. caring. and there was only a slight decline for 11th graders. a good student vs.the individual’s effort at finding a place in society and the associated antecedents and consequences as evidenced by nearly four decades of research on Marcia’s (1966) identity status model. in the classroom. Harter presents authentic or true self-behavior as a dual process: the acceptance of one’s thoughts and experiences and engaging in behavior and self-expression in accordance with those thoughts and beliefs (Harter. with parents. sarcastic vs. are a useful supplement to explain how the perceived support from others may be internalized and incorporated into one’s sense of self. and confusion. Questions were posed about conflict and the affective reactions experienced in relation to the opposing attributes. not open. There is empirical evidence providing preliminary support for this premise. In Harter and Montour’s (1992) study. Ninth graders were most sensitive to opposing attributes. 1968). Harter and Monsour queried the youth using internal conflict descriptors for emotional and cognitive reactions such as anger. 9th. with friends. Drawing on Symbolic Interactionism and empirical research. lazy). 10th. embarrassment. However. Participants then identified self-attributes personally considered to be in opposition with each other (e. Erikson is clear that there is an interrelationship. shame. particularly Charles Cooley. research examining concurrent levels of perceived support from the community in response to the individual’s identity development is virtually absent. Authenticity Erikson believed that it was essential for young people to learn how to be themselves in the presence of significant others (Erikson. Ninth graders had a higher mean number of opposing attributes and mean number of attributes identified as conflicting with each 17 . anxiety. and in romantic relationships).g. 2002). open vs.
The lowest means on these indices were for 7th graders. There was slight decline in mean number of opposites and conflicts for 11th graders in comparison with the 9th graders. 1998). In regards to cognitive conflict. shy) but not identified as such.. Harter began a systematic inquiry into how youth defined behaving in a manner consistent with their true self (Harter et al. a specific measure of verbally expressing one’s authentic thoughts and opinions. LOV was higher with close friends than any other relational context. Both false self-behavior and LOV are relationship specific and related to support received in the corresponding relational context (Harter.. & Whitesell. carefree. parents. and teachers (Harter et al... a general measure authentic behavior. 18 . Buddin. The protocols for this group indicated that there were several pairs that could be labeled as oppositional (e. There was no difference between the 11th graders and either the 7th or the 9th graders on the mean number of opposites identified. parents. Harter & Monsour. 1996. Harter et al. parents. talkative vs. 1996).other than 7th graders (Harter & Monsour. Forty-eight percent of ninth graders found that the contradictions were confusing or left them feeling mixed-up. female classmates. and level of voice (LOV). conflicts were attributed to the perception that one’s overt behavior did not match their intentions or there was an internal conflict regarding what one “wanted” to do and what “should” be done (Harter & Monsour. 1998).g. Gender. grade. 1992). 1992). emerged out of these responses. 1997. Measures and models of false self-behavior. Females had higher LOV scores than males. This percentage was significantly higher than both the 7th (29%) and 11th (40%) graders. Non-clashing attributes were considered normative in the sense that different relational contexts may elicit divergent responses from an individual. and a close friend (Harter et al. Within the male participants. Harter et al. and context differences were evaluated in a study examining LOV in a sample of 307 high school students. 79% of the 9th graders and 70% of the 11th graders reported experiencing conflict in relation to the opposing pairs identified. Their responses centered on behaving and speaking in a manner that reflected internally based thoughts and emotions as opposed to acting in a manner consistent with someone else’s desires. However. 1992. The relational contexts under investigation were teachers. Females also endorsed higher LOV with female classmates and close friends than males. 1998). and male classmates.. Females voice was higher with close friends than all other contexts and higher with female classmates than with male classmates. There were no gender differences for teachers. From this research. male classmates.. uptight vs.
Self-focused individuals have clearly defined personal boundaries. The remaining respondents may have felt that suppression of voice was an act of true self-behavior due to shyness or fear of saying something disrespectful or socially inappropriate (Harter et al. Authentic self-behavior and partner validation were positively correlated (r = . They often let their partner make decisions for them and place the needs and desires of their partner above their own. and often the dominant person in the relationship. other-focused connection.Support for voice (SFV) scores were found to be significantly correlated with LOV scores in the same relational context (rs between 0.70.34 years old comprised 25. The study evaluated relationship styles among partners: selffocused autonomy.46 and 0. or mutuality. the researchers found a positive relationship between the ability to show one’s authentic self within the relationship and the level of validation received from their partner (Harter. To examine mean levels of SFV.01). For other-focused individuals connection is most important in the relationship. Individuals with a style of mutuality have a good balance of intimacy and independence in relation to their partner. participants with lower levels of voice reported significantly lower levels of support than those who receive moderate support. Participants 18 .. 1998). Those receiving high levels of support had higher LOV than those with moderate support. ps > 0. 1997).7% were individuals 55 years or older. p = < 0.. participants were divided into one of three levels of support: low. Waters et al. The age of the respondents ranged from 18 years to over 55 years. respondents answered a set of objective items to verify this association. Within each relational context. The suppression of voice was equated with false self-behavior by nearly threefourths of youth surveyed. Additional support for this hypothesis was garnered through 19 .4% of the sample and 20. The relationship between support and authentic self-behavior was replicated in a study on autonomy and connection among adult couples (Harter. are extremely independent. Waters et al. These results were replicated using an objective measure created to assess if suppression of voice is considered as act of false self-behavior (Buddin.. The sample consisted of 2527 women and 755 men solicited through the local newspaper. The effects for support were the same for males and females (Harter et al. Because level of voice emerged as a type of true/false self-behavior through student interviews. moderate.55. As predicted. Over half of the sample (53%) was between the ages of 35 – 54. 1997). 1997).. and high. 1998).001).
Harter et al. Correspondingly. the resolution of such issues is a process that continues throughout adulthood. Identity Development and African American Youth There is a limited understanding of the processes of exploration and commitment in African Americans. Harter et al. Second. Only 2% of the sample could be classified as foreclosed. Nearly 47$ of the sample was classified as transitional. Bouchey. 1992. Watson & Protinsky.. Watson and Protinsky (1991) studied 237 low-income African American high school students using the Ideological subscale of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Scale (EOM-EIS II). Third. The researchers found that few students had solidified their identity commitments. 1998. Moratoriums or low-profile moratoriums comprised 21% of the sample. the perceived recognition and acceptance of others influences the behavior of both adolescents and adults.. First. Bresnick. 2002. On the ideological subscale. Harter & Monsour. Conclusions Harter et al. Levels of authentic self-behavior did not vary among self-focused individuals when their partner’s relationship style was considered (Harter. any person paired with a selffocused partner perceived less validation than those with those with mutual or self-focused partners. 1996. they scored above the cut-off score (1 standard deviation above the mean) on two or more of the four status scale scores. 1997.mean comparisons made for authentic self-behavior and validation based on pairings of relationship style.. mutual and other-focused individuals displayed less authentic selfbehavior if partnered with a self-focused person than with someone with one of the other two relationship styles.. only 19 % of the high school students sampled could be considered 20 . Waters et al. Harter. Harter. Regardless of the respondent’s perceived style. the task of representing one’s authentic self became increasingly important in the successive adolescent age groups investigated. Waters et al. & Whitesell. 1997. That is. Forbes and Ashton (1998) conducted a replication study with 49 middle adolescents.’s work on authenticity provides empirical support for Erikson’s (1968) propositions regarding identity development (Harter. Only two studies found to date have evaluated within group differences on identity status for African Americans (Forbes & Ashton. 1991). Low-profile moratorium youth have scale scores that are below the specified cut-off on each status scale. 1998). due in part to a dearth of literature. 1997).
transitional. The majority of the students (60%) were classified as moratoriums or low-profile moratoriums. More students were classified as foreclosed (6.8%) than in Watson and Protinsky’s (1991) study. Nineteen percent of the sample was in the transitional status on interpersonal issues. Exploration of interpersonal issues was most common as 68% of the sample were either moratoriums or low-profile moratoriums. The remaining 12% were in the achieved (6%), foreclosed (2%), and diffusion (4%) statuses. Gender differences also emerged in these two studies. There were relatively few youth classified as identity achieved; females were significantly more likely than males to be classified as such (Forbes & Ashton, 1998; Watson & Protinsky, 1991). There was a pattern of age-based increases in youth classified as identity achieved and decreases of identity diffuse (Watson & Protinsky, 1991). Tests to assess age differences did not reach the significance criterion. However, this may have been a result of an untested gender by age interaction. Rotheram-Borus (1989) examined identity development in black, Filipino, Puerto Rican, and white high school students. The EOM-EIS II ideological subscale served as the index for identity development. Observation of the mean scale scores by gender for African Americans reflected higher identity achieved scores in 11th and 12th grade females than females in the 9th and 10th grades. Moratorium and foreclosed scores were lower for upper-grade girls and diffuse scores appeared consistent. A different pattern emerged in the males. Identity achieved, moratorium, and diffuse scores were higher for males in lower-grades. Foreclosure scores were higher in upper-grade males. No statistical tests were run for age or gender-based comparisons within ethnic groups. The focus of Rotheram-Borus’ (1989) study was ethnic differences in identity status and other psychosocial measures. Tests for between group differences on status scale scores did not detect any main effects by race/ethnicity. Only one ethnicity by grade interaction emerged where white students in the 11th or 12th grades had higher Ideological Moratorium scores and the reverse was true for each of the other ethnic groups. When classified into status categories, 46% of the total sample scored as low-profile moratoriums, and 14% were transitional. These participants were excluded from further analyses. As with the scale scores, no differences were detected in the distribution of identity statuses by ethnicity (Rotheram-Borus, 1989). The occurrence of differences in identity status based on ethnicity generally finds no differences for the achieved, moratorium or diffuse scale scores. Results indicating similarity
across all identity status scores for various ethnic groups (African American, Asian/Asian American, Caucasians, Latino/Hispanic, and other) have been presented by Branch, Tayal & Triplett (2000) in a sample of emerging adults students. Streitmatter (1988) found that White early adolescents had lower ideological and interpersonal foreclosure scores than the aggregated sample of all other ethnic groups (Hispanic, Black, Native American, Asian, and other). There were no differences found on any of the other status scale scores in Streitmatter’s study. Contrary to these studies, it is often reported that African Americans are over represented in the foreclosure status, less likely than whites to engage in exploration and attain identity achieved status, or have a negative and impoverished sense of self (Markstrom-Adams & Adams, 1995; Rotheram-Borus, 1989; Waterman, 1993). Hauser’s (1972) study was used to support these comments without a discussion of the caveats of his research. Hauser (1972) conducted a 4-year longitudinal study of 22 Black and White nondelinquent males with no college aspirations from poor working-class families. Participants were excluded from the study if there was a change in their socioeconomic status or college aspirations. Hauser used the terms diffusion, foreclosure, and moratorium, among others; he operationalized these constructs in terms of structural integration and temporal stability of one’s self-attributes. The importance of structural integration and temporal stability to healthy identity development was drawn from an early publication of Erikson’s work The problem of ego identity (see Erikson, 1968). Interviews served as one form of data collection, and Hauser (1972) described his interview as “loosely structured…[focusing on areas of] work, family relations, future plans, significant relationships, and peer relationships” (p. 115). These interviews were not said to be based on Marcia’s identity status interview nor designed to capture the aspects of Marcia’s status model. It has been reported that Hauser (1972) used Marcia’s status interview (Forbes & Ashton, 1998; Watson & Protinsky, 1991) and that he conducted two studies (Hauser, 1972, 1973) to support prevalence of identity foreclosure in African Americans (Markstrom & Hunter, 1999). Hauser (1973) compared psychiatric patients and college students. The inclusion of African Americans in the sample was not overtly stated in the paper. In each of the aforementioned studies/reviews, Hauser’s (1972) results were generalized to all African Americans without mention of the differences in operation definitions or sampling limitations. There was an 18-year
lapse between the publication of Hauser’s study and another study on African American identity development was identified in the literature (i.e., Rotheram-Borus, 1989; Streitmatter, 1988). One critique of the identity status model is that it is often presented in the literature as an operationalization of Erikson’s identity construct even though many aspects are not assessed by the model (van Hoof, 1999a, 1999b). The status model does not explicitly address concepts such as temporal stability or ego synthesis. The idea that the status model is an underrepresentation of Erikson’s full construct has been acknowledged by leading proponents (Berzonsky & Adams, 1999; Waterman, 1999). However, Marcia’s work is useful as it does attend to the processes of exploration and commitment (Berzonsky & Adams, 1999). In addition, the status model highlights that commitments can be made with or without the exploration of one’s options.
Identity and Interpersonal Relationships
Research linking identity formation and interpersonal relationships predominately focuses on parent-child characteristics such as attachment, differentiation, autonomy, rejection, and rigid/balanced emotional boundaries. The expression of one’s true thoughts and opinions and the corresponding support received has theoretical importance but has not received attention in this body of literature. There are a few national or international studies examining the effects of communication, support, or rejection. In spite of the importance Erikson placed on acceptance by peers and community leaders, research lead by Meeus et al. (1995; 2002) has been the only work found to date to explore the conjoint influence of parent and peer support. This section will commence with a discussion of identity literature pertaining to family communication and support/rejection. A review of the family correlates of African American identity development will follow. Communication and Identity Three studies were identified that link parent-child communication and identity development. It is generally believed that family environments encouraging of self-expression and respect for the youth’s unique viewpoints enhance adolescent development (Adams, Dyk, & Bennion, 1990). Findings of North American research on the relationship between expressive family environments and identity have yielded no support for this proposition (Willemsen & Waterman, 1991). Conversely, male youth from India with higher levels of identity achievement
Adams (1985) compared the perceptions of 45 female college students and both of their parents on the relationship of parental behavior and identity status. In their model. Because of the low intercorrelations between each parent’s self-reported behavior and the daughter’s perceptions of parental behavior. it is expected that higher levels of support lead to advanced adolescent development (Adams et al. Their fathers also refrained from asserting their own views or disagreeing with the views of his son. Males with higher levels of exploration were more likely to have fathers who frequently expressed respect and sensitivity to their son’s views. However. each perspective was analyzed separately. however the perception of parental rejection was positively associated with moratorium (O'Connor. Males in the diffuse status received less support from both parents In females. 1985). The young women were classified 24 . emotional support from both parents was associated with greater foreclosure. Support and Identity The conceptualization of support in the identified studies was holistically rather than to specified behaviors as in Grotevant and Cooper’s (1985) study. 1985). the expression of one’s viewpoints is an integral part of an adolescent’s developmental process (Grotevant & Cooper.. Mother-son communication did not emerge as a significant influence. 1995). Grotevant and Cooper (1985) examined displays of individuation and connectedness in the communication patterns of 84 families with high school students. Sartor and Youniss (2002) found that maternal support was related to identity achievement in both males and females.indicate more openness and better overall communication with both their mother and father than those with lower levels of identity achievement (Bhushan & Shirali. Using the rating score for exploration from their Identity Status Interview. exploration was more likely in daughters whose mothers and fathers frequently disagreed with their views. 1992). 1990). The researchers focused on exploration as they viewed it as a process that could be facilitated through interpersonal relationships (Grotevant & Cooper. Generally. O’Connor (1995) detected a positive relationship between maternal and paternal support and achieved identity for males only. the researchers found that the level of exploration was related to the support/criticism received in response to the verbalization of the youth’s ideas and opinions. On the contrary. The support for this proposition is equivocal due to gender differences.
into three groups: crisis (achieved and moratorium), noncrisis (diffuse and foreclosure), and lowprofile (scores of 1 standard deviation below the mean on all status scale scores). The daughters in Adams (1985) study who had not undergone a period of crisis perceived significantly less support (i.e. trust, interest, general support) from their fathers than those in the crisis and low-profile groups. In addition, noncrisis youth felt that both parents were significantly more rejecting and controlling (Adams, 1985). That it is their mothers and fathers were more critical and tried to dictate their behavior. Crisis and low-profile youth believed that their fathers were more involved in their lives in the form of companionship, physical affection, and support than non-exploratory youth. Parental reports of behavior were not as telling of their daughters identity development (Adams, 1985). Mothers of noncrisis daughters reported that they were less likely to talk and spend time (companionship) together than mothers of participants in the two other groups. In addition, noncrisis daughters were more likely to have attention and support withdrawn if they disappointed their fathers than crisis and low-profile daughters. Imbimbo (1995) evaluated identity development and maternal behavior in college students whose parents were divorced. Males reported mothers to be more accepting than females; however, maternal acceptance had no bearing on their identity development. Mothers were most accepting of foreclosed daughters and least accepting of daughters in moratorium. The studies on nonfamilial support and identity are limited. Erikson’s (1959) assertion that peer support is more important during late adolescence than parental support is bolstered by the results. In a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents ages 12 to 24, the magnitude of the influence of intimate friend and general peer support was larger than parental support and in each identity domain investigated (Meeus & Dekovic, 1995). Best friends or partners had the strongest influence on relational identity commitment and exploration accounting for 52% and 36% of the variance respectively. School identity commitment was best predicted by classmate support with 17% of the variance predicted followed by a positive additive affect of parental support, which accounted for an additional 6% of the variance. This pattern was consistent for school exploration as well. Classmates accounted for 19% of the variance and parents an additional 7%. Intimate friends only accounted for an addition 1% of the variance in school exploration scores. Occupational identity commitment was predicted by support from one’s colleagues (35%) and parents (an additional 4%). Finally, colleagues and intimate friends
collectively accounted for 26% of the variance in occupational exploration with colleagues accounting for 21% alone. Parents explained an additional 2% of the variance. African American Identity and Family Context Mullis, Brailsford, and Mullis (2003) and Watson and Protinsky (1988) were the only published studies found to date to examine familial characteristics and identity status in African American youth. Both studies evaluated family cohesion (closeness) and adaptability (flexibility) in relation to identity development using the EOM-EIS II. Watson and Protinsky (1988) found that family cohesion was positively related to both ideological foreclosure and commitment in high school students. The inclusion of self-esteem in regression analyses highlighted personality differences between these two groups. Youth with higher foreclosure scores had low self-esteem, whereas high self-esteem scores were characteristic of youth with higher levels of identity achieved scores (Watson & Protinsky, 1988). Mullis et al. (2003) measured concurrent levels of commitment and exploration in Black and White college students using the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire (EIPQ). The EIPQ is comprised of two subscales: exploration and commitment. Foreclosure and diffusion statuses are not measured directly but derived based on cut of scores on each of the subscales. These researchers found that Black emergent adults with cohesive families were more likely to be engaged in ideological exploration and have higher levels of interpersonal commitment. High levels of family cohesion and family adaptability were associated with lower levels of interpersonal exploration. This pattern was not the same for White youth. For White emerging adults, there was no relationship between family flexibility and commitment or exploration levels, although family cohesion was important for both interpersonal and ideological commitment (Mullis et al., 2003). Racial differences are highlighted here to draw attention to the differences in developmental outcomes across ethnic groups with apparently similar family characteristics.
The Contemporary African American Family: Influential Networks of Extended Family and Nonfamilial Adults in the Lives of African American Youth
The African American family is historically rooted in a consanguine family system that traces back to their ancestral African civilizations (Hill, 1999). A conjugal family unit was
embedded both structurally and residentially within the paramount extended family network. The extended family worked together to provide for the socialization, economic, emotional, and material needs of all its members. Conjugal family units were provided housing within the family compound of either spouse depending on the matrilineal or patrilineal traditions of the culture. Membership to the clan came with expectations of reciprocity and contributions to the stability and fortification of the group – not just an individual family unit (Hill, 1999). The shared caring and rearing of the children was a benefit of this extended family system that extended to the larger community. The concept of communal care giving is the foundation of a now popularized African proverb ‘It takes a village to raise a child’ (Somé, 1998). As a result, any adult in the community may serve as a surrogate parent and affectionately be acknowledged by the youth as if there was a biological role relation. Africans enslaved in the United States recreated this complex system of community and family care. The extended networks of kin and nonkin were an invaluable resource to provide for the emotional, educational, recreational, and material needs in the face of the harsh realities of enslavement (Taylor, 2000). This care giving system helped to protect individuals against the impacts of death or the sale and relocation of a loved one, either child or family member. Family roles were both adaptable and flexible (Taylor, 2000). Specifically, roles and responsibilities could be assumed as needed by members of the network and were not dictated by gender roles or biological ties (Hill, 1999; Taylor, 2000). Therefore, any female or male member of the network could assume or share the responsibility for the care and guidance of a young child, for example, if the biological parents were unable to fulfill their responsibilities. This could result in an individual having a biological or nonrelated family member filling the role of mother figure. Under this type of family system, it is also possible that an individual has multiple mother figures as a result of shared parenting efforts from kin and nonkin alike. Mother figure is only an example here; the role flexibility may occur for any family position (e.g., father, aunt, grandparent, etc.). Extended family networks and community ties in childrearing have persisted for many African American families. Consequently, scholars of this population have expanded the definition of the family to account for these networks: [The family is] an intimate association of two or more persons related to each other by blood, marriage, formal or informal adoption, or appropriation. The latter term refers to
Biologically related family members may be expected to provide support to other family members but may not consistently do so.g. due to the nature of the relationship are considered as emotionally close. 2000. 1997). Seven of the 15 adolescents interviewed could not readily identify with the concept of fictive kin and once explained did not understand the benefits of such relationships. play-brother) to refer to fictive kin. Even though fictive kin are a part of many African American families. even with those functioning in the role of a caregiver (Watts-Jones. Many of the parents in this sample did maintain close ties with family and fictive kin and provided opportunities and encouragement for their children to do the same. often play is stated before the appropriated role (e. if at all. Fictive or functional kin relationships develop through reciprocal involvement in the care and support on one or more members of a consanguine family. However. Thus. The role of extended family care was highlighted in 1970’s due to simultaneous developments in scholarly discourse and foster care policy. Interaction and performance are the foundations of a functional kin relationship. geographic and social changes have resulted in a loss of this cultural tradition for some adolescents and emerging adults. p. there is the potential for diverse levels of emotional closeness with biological kin. Social welfare systems were under pressure to reform long held practices of refusing or under serving African American children and were faced with an increasing number of children slated for out-of-home placements. The academic terminology coined by anthropologists to identify this type of family member is fictive kin. most of the parents of this subgroup had not maintained these types of connections in their personal lives. 233). 28 . Likewise. to move away from the notion that biology equals family Watts-Jones (1997) suggests using the term functional kin. 1997).the incorporation of persons in the family who are unrelated by blood or marital ties but are treated as though they are family (Taylor. Parents who encouraged with-in group socialization experiences were also more likely to have children to seriously consider attending a Historically Black College or University (Tatum. Tatum (1997) investigated the experiences of upper-middle class African American families and their children who live in predominately Caucasian suburbs. Therefore. In casual conversation. In this writing the terms functional and fictive kin will be used interchangeably. This definition allows for the inclusion of family members not bound by blood or marital ties as viable members of the family network.
There were no differences in emotional support based on family structure or the gender of the child. 1995. 1993. discipline. Caucasian Americans included (Bengtson. 1998.. 1998). 1990. 2002. Taylor. Parents rely upon extended family members for help with childcare and management. African American youth also note the influence of extended family as they develop.. and the provision of emotional support to children. Hunter et al. Manns. Of the mothers that Hunter et al.Scholars were documenting the practice and strengths of extended family care. rule setting.. African American parents in urban settings often rely on cross-household parenting arrangements for assistance with childrearing activities (Hunter et al. Approximately one-fourth of 29 . Wilson. (2002) queried Black and White youth on the most influential grandparent and the most influential male other than their father. 2002). 1989). there are empirical studies documenting the integral role of extended family in the African American families particularly as it relates to support (Caldwell et al. Hirsch et al.. 2001.. The influential adults nominated were available to discuss issues related to teen-parent relationships. and personal growth (Hirsch et al. some researchers are working to move beyond the centrality of the nuclear family and calling for inclusion of the extended family system in research of all ethnic groups. These mothers also indicated that their children were able to turn to their aunts and uncles to talk about their feelings and problems (Hunter et al. Black youth were more likely than Whites (26% vs. grandparents were identified second only to fathers as sources of practical and emotional support. 1999. Child welfare policy makers began to advocate extended family placements when possible (Hegar & Scannapieco. Wilson. 1997. Consequently. The level of support an involvement of extended family systems is overlooked when examining only the nuclear family system. Although few in number. 1989)... Seventy percent of black participants identified their maternal grandmother as the most influential grandparent. According to Hunter et al.. Hirsh et al. Casten. enforcement. 1999. interviewed. Of the portion of the sample identifying an adult male. peer relationships. 1998).8%. & Flickinger. Caldwell et al. 1995). Spencer & Markstrom-Adams. Taylor. respectively) to select an uncle or adult brother as a person who had some or a lot of influence over them. African Americans with higher incomes were more likely to have help with providing emotional support for the children.
the majority of the people named (64%) in Manns’ (1997) study were not related to the respondent. camp. therefore. and leaders of extracurricular activities (2%. In essence. followed by people from the workplace (18%). more attention was drawn to educational achievement. The roles of relatives were similar to parents except relatives were looked upon as models of behaviors. modeling commitment. girl/boy scouts). The role of extended family and nonfamilial adults in the development of emerging adults is further supported through a retrospective study of support received by Black social work professionals (Manns. 1997). 1997). This is not surprising as they were more likely to have higher education levels. work ethic. 1997).. and/or lifestyle that makes the achievement of one’s goals possible. (2002) study. reminding them that they had a strong historical legacy to draw from and important place in society. Parents were most noted for achievement socialization. Of the Blacks sampled. religious leaders (8%). and community standing than the respondents were. Similar to the Hirsh et al. Other noted contributions were providing material resources and 30 . Another important role of nonrelatives was validating the respondent by reminding them of their worth or heritage. 34% of all of the significant people identified were parents or relatives. i.e. More middle-class respondents identified a parent as a significant influence and indicated that they were instrumental with achievement socialization. This was particularly true for lower class respondents who may have needed more information on the options available to them (Manns. personal qualities. income. Manns noted the possibility of social class differences in the choice and roles of a parent as a significant.African Americans selected a relative as an influential male other than their father and the remaining 74% specified a nonrelative. meeting material needs. planning. Significant nonrelatives identified were primarily counselors and administrators from educational institutions (47%). and service to others. and providing emotional support. Lower class respondents commented on the provision of material resources more often. A second hypothesis was that lower class respondents did not take the material resources provided to them for granted (Manns. These community members were most often viewed as a model of someone having reaching a desired level of achievement (35%). such as the effort. Nonkin were noted for providing valuable information regarding educational and occupational goals as well. These differences may have been a function of the interpersonal environments where middle-class families are in contact with others with higher education levels more often.
only that they were recalled as significant to the respondent’s development. Parents lay the foundation by providing an environment where trust. Youth must also learn how to be true to themselves in the presence of the significant people in their life.. Buddin et al. Harter et al.. It is not clear how these negative interactions influenced the respondent. and into young adulthood. Harter. and industry thrive. 1959. The family of the youth and community members plays an integral part in facilitating the process. Grotevant and Cooper (1985) presented evidence that verbal expression of adolescent’s thoughts/opinions and the corresponding level of support received impact identity exploration.. adolescence. 31 . Nonkin were said to play significant roles throughout childhood. Waters et al. autonomy. Harter et al. 1996. Conclusions Erikson’s view of healthy identity development does not rest solely on the shoulders of the individual (Erikson. that issues of authentic behavior and support become increasingly salient during adolescence and remain throughout adulthood corroborates Erikson’s notion that identity development is a lifelong process that takes on increased importance as people prepare to transition into adulthood. almost one-fourth of the respondents who were in the 40th decade of life indicated that their family was still a significant influence. Harter. Harter. 1998). Harter & Monsour. 1997. 1997. 1968). Bresnick et al.. Respondents recalled that the majority of their family’s influence occurred between the ages of 6 and 17. 1997. Emerging adults must make commitments to ideological values and beliefs as well as reflect upon their abilities and opportunities to find a place in the larger social order. The final notable finding from Manns (1997) study relates to the periods of influence across the lifespan. 1992. Harter’s research provides support to the relevance of true self-behavior in the lives of adolescents and adults. as well as the importance of the perceived support and acceptance from other’s to one’s presented self (Harter. Furthermore. Fifteen percent of the respondents noted that the identified community member was disapproving.. 2002.eliciting learning. However. The community of one’s peers and leaders provide support and acceptance as the emerging adult presents him/herself as an active member of the community. The role of nonrelatives was not all positive.
1994. The acceptance and validation from both extended family and community members is perceived to affect the development of African American youth during adolescence and emerging adulthood (Hirsch. There are theoretical and methodological issues that have emerged based on the findings of extant research. Manns.. it is clear that parental relationships must be evaluated separately as the parent-child gender configuration often leads to different developmental outcomes. Boerger. How the process of exploring and committing to ideological ideals proceeds or is influenced by interpersonal relations in blacks is an underresearched area. 1997). Thus. Levy.While there is scant research evaluating the relationship of communication or support to identity. Hunter et al. Meeus and Dekovic’s (1995) work corroborates Erikson’s (1968) assertion that peer support is most important during adolescence and emerging adulthood to identity development over parental support. 1998. 32 . The impact of support should not be generalized across the various identity domains. relational contexts beyond one’s biological parents must be incorporated to develop an understanding of African American family life and socialization. & Mickus. The stated significance of familial and nonfamilial adults by study participants supports the conceptual validity of the variables to be examined through the proposed study.
biology. The research questions under investigation were as follows: A. the relational contexts included both familial and extrafamilial relationships: mother. 1968. Which familial and extrafamilial relational contexts of SFV and LOV are important determinants of ideological exploration? C. Marcia. a historically Black University. peers. Are support for voice (SFV) and level of voice (LOV) in familial and extrafamilial contexts determinants of ideological identity exploration? Are there differences by gender? B. Exclusive 33 . psychology. The study sample was limited to students who identified themselves as Black/African American and spent most of their childhood and adolescent years in the United States. A convenience sample was drawn from history. adult relatives. What is the combined influence of SFV and LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts on ideological identity exploration? Sample Theoretical and empirical evidence supports studying identity development toward the end of youth (Erikson. fictive kin. As young people emerge into adulthood and the associated responsibilities. they are more active in resolving the issues connected with identity development. Using this theoretical guidance supported by the work of Boykin and Ellison (1995).CHAPTER 3 METHODS This study was designed to examine the relationship of level of voice and support for voice in familial and extrafamilial contexts to ideological identity exploration. father. Erikson (1959) suggested that identity development is rooted in supportive relationships with caregivers and affirmed by peers and community leaders. and instructors/advisors. 1993). The study was also designed to expand the theoretical and empirical discussion regarding identity development and socialization forces in African American emerging adults. Are SFV and LOV in extrafamilial contexts stronger determinants of ideological exploration than SFV and LOV in familial contexts? Are there differences by gender? D. and dance classes at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU).
classification and family income.6%). cases were excluded listwise. Over 80% of the sample had grandmother(s). after biological mother (91.1%) identified as the primary female caregiver. The median family income was $50. there is a loss of generalizability to other emerging adults attending college given the nature of sampling methods. 20 – 21 (36.1%). the target sample size was estimated to be 266 participants. A final sample included 373 participants (122 males and 251 females).4%). Adult relatives and fictive kin were involved in the majority of the participant’s lives (96.4%). Only 1.2%). however. as suggested by Cohen (1977). aunt(s). stepfather (11. The majority of the sample indicated that they were in their sophomore (31. many of the participants indicated multiple people serving as parental figures and having fictive kin involved in their lives (see Tables B2 & B3). Biological mothers were most frequently (90.6% did not identify any males involved in raising them (see Table B2). uncle(s) or cousin(s) in their lives. The primary male caregiver selected most often was biological father (63. the sample size was estimated based on each analyses potential to reach power of 0. In concern for minimizing both Type I and Type II error.2% of the sample identified two or more females as mother figures. and detect moderate effects.2% of the sample. However.3%).2%). Biological fathers were involved in the upbringing of 64.6% and 76.2%) were most often identified as mother figures.2%). It was not as common for participants to identify multiple father figures (26. Females traditionally classified in the roles of grandmother (60. As expected. The most frequently selected fictive kin roles 34 .08. and 24 and older (6.6%) or junior (28. while 16. 45.9% of the sample did not select any females as serving as a mother figure (see Table B2).6%). 22 – 23 (9. Considering these parameters.6%).sampling of this group allowed for the examination of gender differences. and other male relatives (11.000.4%). In all analyses.7%) year. Variations in the sample size for various analyses resulted from missing data. grandfather (15. aunt (26. See Table B1 for detailed information on age.9%). reject a false null with 95% accuracy. Individuals most commonly serving dual roles included uncle (18.5%) followed by stepfather (9. The Institutional Review Boards of both Florida State University and FAMU approved the request to conduct this study (see Appendix A). A range of majors and ages was represented through these courses.3% respectively.4%). see Table B3). and other female relative (14. All participants were aged 18 and older: 18 – 19 (46.
second or play mother. Bennion & Adams.included godmother (52%). or play-uncle. and recreation and leisure. the sum of all of the items related to each subcategory or domain is calculated. The survey was administered in a double-sided booklet consisting of 173 items (see Appendices C & D). 1986). Participants rate the extent to which they strongly agree or strongly disagree with each statement on a six-point scale. 2000).0%). The EOM-EIS II is a 64-item extension of the 32-item Objective Measure of Ego Identity (OM-EIS) scale. politics. 1998. and play-aunt (42. In addition. Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity (EOM-EIS II) Ideological exploration was measured using the ideological moratorium subscale of the EOM-EIS II (Adams. an individual’s raw status- 35 . the OM-EIS was designed to provide an alternative testing format to examining Marcia’s (1966) identity status types (achievement. The resulting raw scale scores can be used for analyses or participants can be classified into single status category (“pure” identity type) group. foreclosure. and diffusion) related to ideological domains. To create subcategory and domain scores for each identity status. all items are reverse coded so higher scores are indicative of higher levels of the respective identity status type. Each optical scan form was labeled with identical record numbers by the researcher to ensure proper record matching. dating. Each domain consists of 32 items and 4 subcategories. Originally. sex roles. items were aligned vertically on the page and in two columns when possible (Dillman.45 minutes. play-cousin (47.6%). Permission was obtained to use each of the measures mentioned below (see Appendix F). The measure was expanded to include an additional domain: interpersonal identity. 120 item optical scan forms were used to record participant responses (see Appendix E). and philosophical life-style. religion. To improve participant response rates. The ideological domain subcategories are occupation. moratorium. over 30% of the sample noted the involvement of a godfather. Two 10-option. The entire packet was generally completed in 30 . Then. The interpersonal domain items tap friendship. Instrumentation Participants responded to three questionnaires and a demographic form. To be classified into a pure status type. The EOM-EIS II is appropriate for use in samples aged 13 – 30.
Moratorium 0. father. In the 25 years since the introduction of the OM-EIS. There is a set of five statements grouped and adapted to reflect the relational context of interest. Specifically.” First. the interpersonal status-type scores were most highly correlated with the corresponding ideological status-type score. Level of Voice This scale measured the young people’s ability to express their point of view. Foreclosed 0.47 respectively (Bennion & Adams. 1986).62. Items are scored on a 4-point scale where 4 represents 36 . Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the EOM-EIS II with the identity measure by Rosenthal et al.38 and 0. Previous studies have examined mother. and opinions with various people (Harter. romantic others. and Diffusion 0. As expected. A sample item reads: “Some students share what they are really thinking with [particular other] BUT Other students find it hard to share what they are thinking with [particular other]. fictive kin.62. (1981). male friends. the respondent selects the part of the statement that best describes them. To minimize the tendency of socially desirable responses. continual efforts have been made to increase the psychometric properties of the instrument.75. Moratorium 0. Assessing the results of the factor analysis and convergent validity led Bennion and Adams (1986) to conclude that diffusion and moratorium measure overlapping but distinct concepts. adult relatives. 1995). and Ideological – Achieved 0. female friends. The contexts of interest in this study include mother.75. they decide if the statement is sort of true or really true for them.80. Foreclosed 0.type subscale score must fall one standard deviation above the mean and the remaining statustype subscale scores must fall below the appropriate cut-off score. important thoughts.60. 1986). father. A factor analysis of the EOM-EIS II supported the theoretical distinctions between status categories with one exception. peers. special adult in your life. ideological and interpersonal identity achieved subscales were positively correlated with Rosenthal et al. the items use a structured alternative format. 1998). and instructors/advisors. the Diffusion and Moratorium subscale loaded on the same factor.64 (Bennion & Adams. Approximately one-half of the items begin by indicating the presence of voice and the others indicate the absence of voice. The obtained alpha coefficients for the EOM-EIS II were as follows: Interpersonal – Achieved 0. and teachers. Diffusion 0. Next. Bennion and Adams (1986) examination of the measure’s psychometric properties revealed the expected results when assessing for convergent validity. Achievement and Foreclosure were distinct factor scores (Adams.58.’s identity subscale score. close friends. rs = 0.
A sample item reads “My [particular other] respect(s) my ideas even if they don’t agree or My [particular other] don’t (doesn’t) usually respect my ideas. (rs = . 2004. The order of the items and the contexts is varied and presented as one continuous measure.51 for voice with teachers. To confirm that level of voice varied across relational contexts and establish construct validity. respectively). 1995). To examine the predictive validity. The average of the five scores is calculated and used for subsequent analyses. . female classmates. August 25. Harter and her colleagues (Harter et al. teachers. As a second index of predictive validity. respectively.92. a series of correlations were conducted to confirm that support for voice in a specified relational context was most highly correlated with level of voice in the same relational context (Harter et al. Self-Perception Profile for College Students) designed by the same author for college populations. . Items follow the structured alternative format as described above.59. Harter.higher levels of voice. Five factors emerged that corresponded to the relationships under investigation (parents. wants to hear what they have to say.20. 1998).46.84. SFV was most correlated with LOV in the same context. this scale addressed the respondents as teenagers in each item to correspond with the age group sampled (high school students).92. and makes an effort to understand their point of view (Harter. participants were categorized 37 . The term teenager will not apply to older college students recruited to participate in this study. male classmates. . Support for Voice This instrument measured whether the respondent perceives that a particular other respects their opinions.48. and female classmates. . The average of the five scores is calculated and used for subsequent analyses. Items are scored on a 4-point scale where four represents higher levels of perceived support. There are five base questions adapted to reflect each relational context. especially when they disagree. 1998) conducted an exploratory factor analysis using an oblique rotation. The alpha coefficients associated with these contexts were . Each was significant with the ps between . see Appendix G).92.01 and .. In its original format. parents.g.92. Harter. Dr. . indicated that the wording could be changed to “students” without any threat to the validity of the items (S. . personal communication. . and there were no crossloadings larger than 0. and close friends). In each relational context.001. male classmates. This change makes the wording consistent with that used in measures (e. the author of the measure..
father. These items preceded the LOV and SFV scales. other male non-relative. participants were asked “Which of the following females raised you?” to allow individuals to acknowledge all of the females who reared them. aunt(s). adoptive father. Based on the work of Nancy Boyd-Franklin (1989) with African American families in therapy.. and none. This allowed the respondent to identify and consider all of the individuals responsible for raising them when responding to these scales. uncle(s). step-mother. and high (3. would be referred to as adult relatives in future items. Based on the consistent questions received by respondents about this item and the response inconsistency. stepfather.0). the researcher determined that this variable did not serve this purpose. Respondents were asked to respond yes or no to each of the following relationships: biological mother. and none. adult relatives. and fictive kin.5 – 3. medium (2. and none. other(s). Instructions were given that the people (person) identified. other female relative.0 – 1. This question was rephrased to identify the males who served in the role of father (figure): biological father. even though they’re not biologically related. grandfather(s). other female non-relative. aunt. foster father. 1998).5 – 4.based on the mean level of support: low (1.0) (Harter et al. uncle. Therefore. Familial Relationships To identify the people involved in the upbringing of the participants. foster mother. adoptive mother. grandmother.9). cousin(s). Participants were instructed to think of all of the people identified when answering questions regarding LOV and SFV. there are people who are considered as family or like family. grandfather. a person was considered to have no role figure in a given relational context if they responded no to each option listed in the given category. none was included to insure clarity that the respondent did not perceive anyone to fill the stated role. with the exception of anyone considered to be a mother (figure) or father (figure). Those with moderate SFV reported significantly lower LOV than those with high SFV. other male relative. To identify fictive kin. To identify adult relatives the following statement was listed “Which of the following adult relatives have been a part of your life?” Respondents were asked to respond yes or no to each of the following relationships: grandmother(s). Analyses indicated that in each relational context those with low SFV indicated lower LOV than those with moderate SFV. Do you think of any adults in the following ways even though they are not 38 . several questions were asked to determine who served in the roles of mother. This list is intended to be exhaustive. the following statement was given “For many students.
and provided with an overview of the instructions as specified in the verbal script (see Appendixes I & J). and a no. 39 . or in a foreign country as a U. their right to withdraw at anytime without penalty. relationship status. play aunt. play-grandmother. the survey packet. This instruction was given when reviewing the scale instructions (see Appendix H). classification. primary male caregiver during most of their childhood and adolescence years (1st 18 yrs). ensured confidentiality. Respondents were asked to respond yes or no to each of the following relationships: godmother. business. with the exception of anyone considered to be a mother (figure) or father (figure). Individuals who were not interested or had participated in the study at another time were excused after the instructions were reviewed. second or play mother. Respondents were also asked to “write and bubble the two letter abbreviation of the state followed by a space and the name of the city where they spent most of their childhood and adolescent years” on form one. and family income. Demographic Sheet The demographic sheet was designed to collect information regarding the participant’s age. play cousin. two 10-item optical scan forms. ethnicity. 2 pencil were distributed to the class. engineering. history. play uncle. gender.related to you by birth or marriage?” (Watts-Jones. highest education level of primary male caregiver. highest education level of primary female caregiver. race. primary female caregiver during most of their childhood and adolescence years (1st 18 yrs). and none. second or play father. A consent cover letter.S. Data Collection Professors of psychology. birth in U. business administration and dance at FAMU were solicited to allot class-time for the distribution and completion of the survey packet. godfather. 1997). would be referred to as adult relatives in future items. citizen.S. other. play-grandfather. biology. Potential participants were informed of Institutional Review Board approval of the study. Instructions were given that the people (person) identified.
These results were replicated in this sample (see Table J2). Research using LOV and SFV measures has drawn samples from predominantly white high school students. An exploratory factor analysis with an oblique rotation was conducted as specified in Harter et al (1998). Scale Psychometrics The study sample is exclusively comprised of emerging adults who identified themselves as Black or African American and spent most of their childhood and adolescent years living in the United States of America. and instructors/advisors. fictive kin. Bennion and Adams established convergent validity by documenting that each ideological identity status would have the largest correlation coefficient with the corresponding identity status in the interpersonal domain. This is slightly higher than reported by Bennion and Adams (1986). The EOM-EIS II has been used in various national and international samples. fictive kin. adult relatives.Data Analyses The goals of the proposed study were a) to expand the theoretical and empirical discussion regarding identity development and socialization forces in African American emerging adults.640 (see Table J1 for the reliability coefficients for each subscale). The six-factor structure that 40 . father (figure). father (figure). and instructors. construct validity for LOV. and extrafamilial: peers. Using the Bartlett’s test of sphericity. The relationships assigned to each context are familial: mother (figure). and b) to test the interrelationship of level of voice and support for voice in familial and extrafamilial contexts with ideological identity exploration by gender. The theoretical writings of Erikson (1959. the correlation matrix was determined not to be an identity matrix and therefore fit for a factor analysis. peers. the convergent validity analyses for the EOM-EIS II. and the predictive validity for SFV were replicated in addition to reliability coefficients. adult relatives. To verify the scale properties in this sample. Level of Voice (LOV). The participants were questioned on their ability to express their true thoughts and opinions and their perceptions of respect and interest in what they had to say in six relational contexts: mother (figure). The reliability coefficient for this subscale was α = . 1968) guided the hypotheses associated with each research question when possible. Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity (EOM-EIS II). The ideological moratorium subscale of the EOM-EIS II was used to measure ideological exploration in this study.
Support for Voice (SFV). The positively scored items for adult relatives and fictive kin loaded onto the second factor. and the correlation of the original LOV scale scores with SFV. Three of the negatively coded items had low loadings (< . The items corresponding to mother (figure) loaded onto factor 4.40. An examination of the item loading highlights several crossloadings on the other factors.842 (see Table J1). The reliability coefficients for the LOV relational contexts as indicated by alpha ranged from .065. Factor 3 corresponded with all of the items associated with father (figure). This can be considered developmentally appropriate as many emerging adults have the understanding that presenting selected aspects of their self is desirable and fitting in various situations (Harter & Monsour. The item loadings for father (figure) and instructors were all less than . Some student may result in filtering their thoughts and opinions in various relational contexts. It could also be indicative of a filtering process occurring in a portion of the sample. No other items loaded onto these factors.05 may be an indication that the model is not a good fit for the data (Pedhazur & Schmelkin. the research determined it appropriate to retain the original scale structure for the proceeding analyses. 41 . and instructors/advisors (see Table J4).3). Support for voice with fictive kin was slightly more correlated with level of voice for adult relatives. After examining the fit. The first factor may be an artifact of this sample’s responses to the instrument. 1992). The positively scored items for adult relatives had low loadings onto this factor (< . peers. and fictive kin.831 (see Table J1).717 to . thus this factor is redundant. The verify predictive validity for SFV. father (figure).20.4) on this factor.05. There were no cross loadings higher than . The first factor was predominantly comprised of items that required reverse coding. scale scores were correlated with LOV to determine if SFV in each relational context was most correlated to the LOV in the corresponding relational context. SFV reliability coefficients ranged from .emerged for this sample did not correspond exactly to the specified relational contexts (see Table J3).685 to . To examine the fit of the model. Factors 5 and 6 corresponded to Instructor/Advisors and Peers. The expected results occurred for mother (figure). the residual correlations were reviewed to determine the percentage larger than . 1991). the factor loadings.001 and . Thirty percent of the correlation residuals were larger than the determined cutoff. The difference between coefficients ranged between . Having multiple residual correlation coefficients larger than .
Were support for voice (SFV) and level of voice (LOV) in familial and extrafamilial contexts determinants of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 1.6%) and the range of scores on LOV and SFV – father (figure). fictive kin may also serve as the most influential generalized others discussed by symbolic interactionists and influence an individual’s interactions with those not considered as parental figures. Did LOV in extrafamilial contexts contribute to the prediction of ideological exploration? Were there differences by gender? B. A. Fictive kin relationships are established with non-biologically related individuals because of interactions built upon mutual exchanges of emotional and instrumental support. Gender differences will no be investigated separately in this subgroup due to the sample size. a correlation was conducted to examine the relationship between ideological exploration and a dummy variable indicating the presence or absence of a father figure. Did SFV in familial contexts contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 2. Based on the percentage of participants not selecting any father figure (16. Did SFV in extrafamilial contexts contribute to the prediction of ideological exploration? Were there differences by gender? 3. The research questions and hypotheses outlined below were assessed using a series of multiple regression analyses run separately for males and females indicating 1 or more father figures and for all participants who did not indicate any father figures. ns) or females (r = -. Research Questions Histograms and scatterplots were reviewed for outliers and patterns of a normal distribution of scale scores. ns). By choosing to participate in this relationship.049. No linear relationship between the two variables was detected for males (r = . Which familial and extrafamilial relational contexts of SFV and LOV were important determinants of ideological exploration? 42 .151. Did LOV in familial contexts contribute to the prediction of ideological exploration? Were there differences by gender? 4.The relationship between fictive kin and the other non-parental contexts may be due to the dual roles of fictive kin.
Did SFV and LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts each explain a statistically significant amount of the variance in ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 43 . Did SFV in each of the relational contexts (mother (figure). and fictive kin) individually contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 4. adult relatives. father (figure). Did extrafamilial LOV account for more of the variance in ideological exploration than familial LOV? Were there differences by gender? D. Did LOV in each of the extrafamilial contexts (peers and instructors/advisors) individually contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? C. Did SFV in each of the extrafamilial contexts (peers and instructors/advisors) individually contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 3. Did extrafamilial SFV account for more of the variance in ideological exploration than familial SFV? Were there differences by gender? 2. adult relatives. Did LOV in each of the relational contexts (mother (figure).1. and fictive kin) individually contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 2. father (figure). Were SFV and LOV in extrafamilial contexts stronger determinants of ideological exploration that SFV and LOV in familial contexts? Were there differences by gender? 1. What was the combined influence of SFV and LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts on ideological identity exploration? 1.
Research sub-question B1 explored if SFV with mother (figures). The results of the total sample masked gender differences.05) and negatively correlated with exploration. For males.4% were between the ages of 18 and 23. The final sample included 373 participants (67. The significance levels for all tests were set to p = . father (figures). Research sub-question A1 explored if SFV in familial contexts would explain a statistically significant portion of the variance in ideological identity exploration. Therefore. adult relatives.7% male) of whom 92. only SFV with fictive kin was negatively correlated with ideological exploration. Bivariate correlations were performed to test for linear relationships between the SFV variables and ideological exploration for the total sample and separately by gender (see Table K1). father (figures). These data can be interpreted to suggest that females with higher levels of exploration perceive less support for voice in all of the familial contexts. gender and all of the familial SFV variables were 44 . The first two research questions (A & B) addressed the collective and context specific impact of SFV and LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts as determinants of ideological exploration and potential gender differences. and extrafamilial: peers and instructors/advisors. The study was also designed to expand the theoretical and empirical discussion regarding identity development and socialization forces in this population. to test the research sub-questions A1 and B1. For the total sample and females.CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of level of voice (LOV) and support for voice (SFV) in familial and extrafamilial contexts and ideological identity exploration in African American emerging adults.3% female and 32. fictive kin. Males with higher levels of exploration perceive less support for voice from their fictive kin. all of the variables were significantly (p < . The relationships assigned to each context were familial: mother (figures). and fictive kin would each have a statistically significant effect on ideological identity exploration.05. adult relatives. Each of the family contexts was determined to be conceptually important in the explanation of ideological exploration based on theory and extant literature.
Modest. 365) = 5. 369) = 5.simultaneously entered into a regression equation with ideological exploration as the dependent variable (see Table K2). Neither of the regression models contributed to the prediction of ideological exploration for males or females. gender and SFV with peers and instructors/advisors were simultaneously entered into a regression on exploration (see Table K3). however none of the specific relational contexts independently had a statistically significant effect on exploration. Sub-question B2 addressed the effect of SFV with peers and instructors/advisors on ideological identity exploration and potential gender differences.922. The regression model was repeated separately for each gender. Sub-question B3 explored the effects of LOV with mother (figures). Again. p < . For males.9%) was statistically significant for females.001. This model was not statistically significant for males.000.2%) explained by the model was statistically significant. p < . Females with higher levels of exploration perceived lower levels of support for voice from their peers.8%). There was no linear relationship between exploration and either extrafamilial context for males. The portion of the variance in exploration (Adj. negative linear relationships were detected for the total sample between ideological exploration and LOV with mother figures. Sub-question A2 addressed the contribution of extrafamilial SFV to explaining a portion of the variance in ideological exploration and possible gender differences. R2 = 3. and fictive kin (see Table K4).. The data does not support the relationships asserted in sub-question B1. In relation to sub-question A1. An examination of the beta coefficients revealed that only the effect of gender on exploration emerged as statistically significant. F (3. Gender was the only variable to emerge as having a statistically significant effect on exploration.018. To test sub-questions A2 and B2. R2 = 5. F (5. the bivariate correlations for the total sample masked gender differences (see Table K1). The portion of the variance explained by SFV in familial contexts (Adj. Extrafamilial support for voice collectively explained a statistically significant portion of the explained variance in ideological exploration (Adj. the data can be interpreted to suggest that SFV in familial contexts collectively contributed to the explanation of ideological exploration for females. father (figures). adult relatives. adult relatives. and fictive kin on ideological identity exploration and potential gender differences. Sub-question A3 explored the contribution of familial LOV to explaining a portion of the variance in ideological exploration and potential gender differences. R2 = 3. the familial 45 . Thus the regression was rerun separately by gender (see Table K2).
Sub-question A4 addressed the role of extrafamilial LOV in explaining a portion of the variance in ideological exploration and possible gender differences. LOV with one’s father (figures) and fictive kin predicted exploration. Males with higher levels of exploration were more likely to express their true thoughts and opinions to their father (figures) and less likely to do so with their fictive kin. The bivariate correlation analyses for the total sample masked 46 . father (figures).05. F (4.000. The relational contexts with a statistically significant effect on exploration were LOV with adult relatives for females and LOV with father (figures) and fictive kin for males (sub-question B3). 117) = 4. F (5. p < . The effects of both gender and adult relatives on exploration were found to be statistically significant. The portion of the variance (Adj.relationships negatively correlated with exploration included adult relatives and fictive kin. father (figures). Based on the beta coefficients. father (figures). In regards to sub-question A3. gender and LOV in the context of one’s mother (figures). To detect the gender specific patterns. the regressions were run again by gender. adult relatives. the data can be interpreted to suggest that LOV in familial contexts collectively explained a statistically significantly portion of the explained variance in exploration in both males and females. Thus for males. 363) = 4.222. p < .7%) in exploration explained by gender and LOV in familial contexts was statistically significant. p < . and adult relatives were associated with higher levels of exploration in females.1%) was statistically significant.01. the portion of the variance explained by this model (9. The effect of LOV with adult relatives on exploration was statistically significant. 242) = 3. Lower levels of voice with mother (figures). Females with higher levels of exploration were less likely to express their true thoughts and opinions with their adult relatives.605. The following relationships were negatively correlated to ideological exploration in females: mother (figures).025. Sub-question B4 addressed the effects of SFV with peers and instructors/advisors on ideological identity exploration and potential gender differences. and fictive kin were simultaneously regressed on ideological exploration (see Table K5). To test sub-questions A3 and B3. R2 = 4. F (4. and adult relatives. For males. it can be said that males were more likely to have lower LOV with adult relatives as their levels of exploration increased. lower levels of voice with adult relatives and fictive kin were associated with higher levels of exploration. R2 = 3. The portion of the variance explained (Adj.5%) by regressing familial LOV on exploration was statistically significant for females.
Only familial SFV collectively explained a statistically significant portion of the explained variance for females.552. LOV with instructors/advisors was the only relational context to have a statistically significant effect on exploration for males and females. F (3.7%) accounted for by this model was statistically significant. To test sub-question C2.394. Increased levels of exploration were associated with decreased levels of LOV with instructors/advisors for both genders.000. F (2. 369) = 8. LOV in extrafamilial contexts and LOV in familial 47 . p < . The two sub-questions generated for question C were as follows: 1.gender differences (see Table K4). statistically significant negative correlations were detected between exploration and LOV with both peers and instructors/advisors. However. Gender and LOV with one’s instructors/advisors had a statistically significant effects on exploration.9%. The regression model was run separately by gender (see Table K6). 248) = 3.2694. Gender and LOV with peers and instructors/advisors were simultaneously regressed on ideological exploration to test sub-questions A4 and B4 (see Table K6). regressions to assess which relational set accounted for more variance (sub-question C1) were not conducted. 119) =6. For males. The third and fourth research questions (C & D) addressed the incremental and collective contribution of extrafamilial and familial SFV and LOV to the explained variance in ideological exploration. Similarly. The third question (C) specifically considered whether SFV or LOV in extrafamilial contexts would be a stronger determinant of ideological exploration than SFV and LOV in familial contexts and potential gender differences.05.01). the portion of the variance in exploration explained by this model was 8%. only LOV in the instructor/advisor relationship was related to exploration in females. Thus. Did extrafamilial LOV account for more of the variance in ideological exploration than familial LOV? Were there differences by gender? Neither extrafamilial nor familial support for voice were instrumental in explaining a statistically significant portion of the variance in exploration for males. F (2. lower levels of voice with males’ instructors/advisors and peers were associated with higher levels of exploration. such that higher levels of exploration were associated with lower levels of voice. p < . The portion of the variance accounted for by the model for females was 1. p < . Did extrafamilial SFV account for more of the variance in ideological exploration than familial SFV? Were there differences by gender? 2. R2 = 5. For males. The portion of the variance (Adj. Again.
the effect of LOV with instructors/advisors on exploration was no longer statistically significant once familial LOV was taken into account.555. Both were found to be statistically significant. respectively). However. Because of the gender differences that emerged in the previous analyses. F (4.269.1% respectively).s. and familial SFV were entered as sets into a hierarchical regression (see Table K8). 115) = 2. p < . R2 = 8.7%) attributed to extrafamilial LOV was statistically significant.0% and 5.732. LOV with instructors/advisors had a 48 . R2 = 1. 244) = 3.208. Extrafamilial LOV collectively explained a statistically significant portion (Adj. p < .185. F (2. The final research question (D) focused on the combined influence of LOV and SFV in familial and extrafamilial contexts on ideological identity exploration.05.05 and F (4. only extrafamilial LOV. Level of voice with adult relatives was the only variable to have a statistically significant effect on exploration. For females. SFV in both extrafamilial and familial contexts were not instrumental in explaining the variance in exploration for males. F (2.185. In full model. the regression models were tested for both genders (see Table K7). n. familial LOV.7%) of the variance in exploration. 244) = 3.05.05. the portion of the explained variance (∆Adj. Extrafamilial voice explained a larger portion of the variance in exploration than familial LOV for both males and females based on the model tested in relation to sub-question C2. The portion of variance in exploration accounted for by extrafamilial voice was larger than the portion of variance attributed to familial voice in males (∆Adj. F (2. p < . Sub-question D1 addressed the contributions of LOV and SFV in familial and extrafamilial contexts to explaining a statistically significant portion of the variance in exploration and potential gender differences. p < .contexts were entered as sets into a hierarchical regression. p < . An examination of the beta coefficients suggested that males higher in exploration were less likely to express their true thoughts and opinions with their instructors/advisors but more likely to do so with their father figures. LOV with instructors/advisors and father (figures) had a statistically significant effect on exploration. F (6. R2 = 1. In the final model. Because only familial SFV collectively explained a statistically significant portion of the variance in exploration for females. the portion of the variance attributed to the addition of familial LOV was not statistically significant.240) = 2.05. one or more of the variable’s beta coefficients was determined to be significantly different from zero. 240) = 2. Females with higher levels of exploration had lower LOV with their adult relatives. 119) = 6.
330. 240) = 2. 236) = 2.05).statistically significant effect on exploration. In relation to sub-question D1. Females with higher levels of exploration were less likely to express their true thoughts and opinions with adult relatives but more likely to do so with fictive kin. F (6. F (4. the data from this model can be interpreted to suggest that only LOV in extrafamilial contexts contributed to the explained variance of exploration for females. A summary of the research questions and results are summarized in Table K9.208. The addition of LOV in familial contexts did not explain a statistically significant portion of variance in exploration. p < . LOV with adult relatives. one of the familial relational contexts.s. was determined to have a statistically significant effect on exploration. LOV with instructors and advisors no longer had a statistically significant effect on exploration once familial contexts were included into the regression model. n. 240) = 2.05. Based on the significance test of the beta coefficients LOV with adult relatives and fictive kin were identified as having a statistically significant effect on exploration. p < . No additional variance was explained by the addition of familial SFV in the final model. However.555. F (10. 49 .
WattsJones. & Bowman. and b) to expand the theoretical and empirical discussion regarding identity development and socialization forces in African American emerging adults. as well as fictive kin (see the works of Boykin & Ellison. the expression of one’s thoughts and opinions to parents. Caldwell. Taylor. and the corresponding levels of support received from each parent. 1999. the inclusion of extrafamilial socialization forces expanded the broader body of identity literature. Using the theoretical. Jackson. and empirical discussions related to the role of extended family and fictive kin in child rearing. Examining ideological identity and various socialization forces in African Americans was an expansion on the wider body of identity literature that predominantly focuses on racial/ethnic identity in this population. Tucker. The study built on the empirical work of Grotevant and Cooper (1985). father (figures). 1990. was also drawn from this body of literature. which established a relationship between ideological exploration. First. In keeping with Grotevant and Cooper’s study. Support. 1990. conceptual. 1997). adult relatives. Ellison. Hill. ideological identity exploration was conceptualized in the current study using Marcia’s (1966) identity status model.CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purposes of the study were to a) examine the relationship of level of voice (LOV) and support for voice (SFV) to ideological identity exploration. conceptualized and measured as Level of Voice (LOV) or the ability to express one’s thoughts and opinions. The relationships of peers and instructors/advisors included in this investigation were selected based on the theoretical writings of Erikson (1968) and supported for use in this population by the empirical work of Manns (1997). was based on Harter’s empirical work on authentic self-behavior. 1995. familial and 50 . Furthermore. conceptualized and measured as the perception of respect and interest in what one has to say or support for voice (SFV). the conceptualization of familial socialization forces was expanded to include mother (figures). A multistage analyses was designed to account for the individual and collective influence of familial and extrafamilial SFV and LOV on ideological exploration. The ability to be true to oneself. 1999.
9%.0%).5% vs. familial LOV did not account for an additional portion of the variance in exploration over what was accounted for by extrafamilial LOV (Adj. The models using familial and extrafamilial LOV both collectively explained a significant portion of the variance in exploration for both males and females. However. When controlling for all of the relational contexts. Females with higher levels of exploration were less likely to express their thoughts and opinions with their adult relatives. R2 = 8. The relationship of the ability to express one’s true thoughts and opinions (LOV) in specific relational contexts had a different relationship to identity exploration based on gender.0% and 3. For females. females with higher levels of exploration were less likely to express their true thoughts and opinions (LOV) to their adult relatives. When all of the relational contexts were considered.extrafamilial LOV and SFV voice were each regressed on ideological exploration as a set to identify the individual contribution of each model on exploration.1% vs. R2 = 1. However.7%). in the full model LOV with instructors/advisors no longer made a unique contribution to the explained variance in exploration. Both extrafamilial and familial LOV explained a significant portion of the variance in exploration for males. R2 = 9. instructors/advisors and father (figures) were the only relational contexts to have a statistically significant effect on exploration. The influence of fictive kin was no longer statistically significant when controlling for all other relational contexts. Extrafamilial LOV explained a larger portion of the explained variance in exploration in this regression model (Adj. Males with higher levels of exploration were more likely to express their true thoughts and opinions with their father (figures) and less likely to do so with instructors/advisors. Males were more likely to express their voice with their father (figures) and less likely to do so with their instructors/advisors. none of the specific relational contexts had a statistically significant effect on exploration. the model using LOV in the familial contexts explained a larger portion of the variance in exploration than the extrafamilial contexts (Adj. LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts were regressed as sets on exploration to examine the combined influence of both relational contexts on ideological exploration. respectively). In accordance with the theory. 51 . Second. 8. 1. while LOV with adult relatives continued to do so. For both males and females. The model using SFV in familial contexts collectively explained a statistically significant portion of the variance in exploration for females. extrafamilial voice was entered first into the equation as these relationships were expected to have the greatest impact during emerging adulthood.
When LOV in all relational contexts were considered simultaneously. fathers may provide unique perspectives that make them optimal sounding boards and sources of guidance. In the first model. Individual relational contexts continued to have an effect on exploration at each stage of the regression. ancillary findings. In the final model. which accounted for the influence of familial SFV. This stage of analysis was not explored for males as neither familial nor extrafamilial SFV collectively contributed to the explained variance in exploration. empirical. During this time as young men transition into manhood. Familial LOV and SFV did not contribute to the explanation of any additional variance above what was accounted for by extrafamilial LOV. only LOV with adult relatives emerged as statistically significant. In review. and b) females with higher exploration levels have higher LOV with fictive kin and lower LOV with adult relatives when controlling for familial SFV. Extrafamilial LOV was entered as a set into the regression first followed by familial LOV. This relationship is likely to be built on the iterative process of openness and assistance. and then familial SFV. The father 52 . both LOV with adult relatives and fictive kin contributed to the explained variance in exploration. and theoretical. Females with higher levels of exploration were more likely to express their true thoughts and opinions with their fictive kin and less likely to do so with adult relatives when controlling for the SFV received in all familial contexts in addition to LOV in the other relational contexts. The following sections address possible explanatory factors. and practical implications. These findings highlight a complex interaction of the variables under investigation that were not expected based on the bivariate correlations or the first stage regression models examining the independent contribution of the relational contexts as sets. the findings of the final models tested can be interpreted to suggest a) males with higher levels of exploration have higher LOV with their father (figures) and lower LOV with instructors/advisors. LOV with instructors/advisors was statistically significant.The third stage of analyses was used to examine the collective influence of familial and extrafamilial LOV along with familial SFV on exploration for females. The SFV provided by fathers may indirectly support the process of exploration through the reassurance provided that his son’s voice will be respected in the midst of considering values and beliefs that may even be contradictory to those promoted at home. Explanatory Factors As males’ level of exploration increases so does the ability to express true thoughts and opinions with one’s father (figures).
the data from the factor analysis do not support the argument that filtering is an issue with either instructors/advisors or father (figures). Bivariate correlations in the current study support the argument that females with higher levels of exploration have lowered LOV with mother (figures). Thus. striving to articulate and make sense of his thoughts and experiences on his journey to manhood. the role of LOV and SFV may be determined to have a different influence than found when subsumed under ideological exploration. The reduction in males’ LOV with instructors/advisors may have to do with the nature of the interactions. Given the academic setting. The female respondents perceptions of lowered LOV with adult relatives and higher LOV with fictive kin does not seem to relate to filtering given the difference in the direction of the correlational relationship between exploration and LOV with adult relatives and fictive kin. It would be simple to explain females’ relationships with adult relatives in terms of the influence of SFV with LOV. SFV may in fact have an indirect effect on this relationship. Although measured at a specific point in the time of their emerging adulthood. negative bivariate relationship between SFV with adult relatives. Thus. which in turn result in lowered LOV. An alternative hypothesis could also be that lowered LOV was the result of the male choosing to selectively share his true thoughts and opinions with his instructors/advisors.(figures) seeks to assist in their son’s development. exchanges with instructors/advisors may predominantly focus on issues related to academic and occupational choices. Based on the final regression model. albeit small. as well as. SFV may be an explanatory factor. This explanation would be in line with the results Grotevant and Cooper (1985) published related to White adolescent females and both parents. There was no correlation between LOV with fictive kin and exploration. The data supported the positive relationship between SFV and LOV. as well as adult relatives. These data also support the. The son. If occupational exploration were examined independently. However. in turn is also open to the assistance from his father (figures). 1959. The significant influence of adult relatives and fictive kin observed in 53 . Females in this study may experience lower levels of SFV. Females’ instances of self-expression were met with challenging or critical responses from both parents. LOV did not vary based on exploration level even in the face of reduced SFV. fictive kin and exploration. it is believed that this type of open reciprocal relationship would have been established at some point earlier in the parent-child relationship (Erikson. males’ may not have established a relationship on a wide scale with various instructors/advisors around a broader array of issues. father (figures). 1968).
the range of variance explained by the various regression models was as low as 3% (Bartle-Haring et al.. It is important to note that in most studies where more than 20% of the variance was accounted for the total model controlled for one or all of the status scores not being used as the dependent variable or nonfamily related variables (Bartle-Haring et al. support from best friends. No more than 9. 54 . was the focus on exploration was the aggregation of identity domains. Perosa & Perosa. In addition to explaining the significance of individual relational contexts.. which included relational. The plausibility of construct underrepresentation is further supported by Manns’ (1997) study.. current study included. & Tam. partners. Another difference between Meeus and Dekovic and the current study was the use of general measure of support. In this body of literature. Based on the extant literature and previous explanations of the data. the overarching issue in the current study may actually be the conceptualization of the variables under investigation. 1993). 2002.5% for females of the adjusted variance in ideological exploration was accounted for by any of the regression models under investigation. However. One difference in the Meeus and Dekovic study and the studies conducted in the USA.1% for males and 3.these data when all relational contexts are accounted for may be the result of whom the female is least and most likely to open up to given the experience of lowered SFV. Perosa et al. consideration must also be given to the amount of explained variance accounted for in the various regression models and why SFV had little influence at all. school. classmates. Even less variance was accounted for in models where more than one relational set was included. In the study by Meeus and Dekovic (1995). and coworkers accounted for 17 52% of the variance in various domains of identity exploration and commitment. Construct definition limitations. such as material. and occupational identity. 2002). 2002. Meeus and Dekovic examined specific domains. peers. 2002) and as high as 55% (Perosa. Perosa. The respondents of Mann’s study identified a variety of supports. These findings could be used to suggest that influences outside the parent-child relationship may be more important to identity development. When compared to the extant literature on identity development and parental characteristics. the range of explained variance found in this study is similar to other regression studies conducted in the United States of America (USA). this section will focus on the influence of narrow construct definitions and possible model specification errors.
g. gender roles. They believed that exploration was important for study because of the potential influence of interpersonal relationships. The results may have varied if the commitments in specific domains (e.).psychological. Erikson did not specifically focus his descriptions on the period of moratorium (exploration) that he suggested is provided to young people by society.. parents. The use of a more general conceptualization may have produced different results. and advisors). and professional. This may have impacted the lack of statistical significance for SFV. it was suggested that SFV may more accurately be considered as having an indirect influence on ideological exploration through LOV (see Figure 1b. exploration was chosen based on the empirical evidence provided in the Grotevant and Cooper (1985) study. Thus. occupation. which varied by the role relationships (e. extended family. personal development.) were considered. religion. which may have been further reduced by aggregating the ideological identity domains. Based on the data. Model misspecifications. Marcia’s (1966) distinction between exploration and commitments based on a period of exploration and reflection were slightly different from the assertions made by Erikson (1959. etc. In the current study. A similar argument could also be made for LOV.). 1968). Limiting support to the perception of respect and interest in what one has to say may have reduced the explanatory power of SFV.). LOV is only one type of true selfbehavior. The model tested in the current study predicted that SFV and LOV would have direct effects on exploration (see Figure 1a. coworkers. Different results may have emerged if identity achieved was the dependent variable as this construct is more in line with the focus of Erikson’s writings (see Figure 1c. Another influence on the relatively low level of explained variance and lack of significance may be the model specification. Considering the previous comments on construct conceptualization. 55 . but does little to explain the low levels of explained variance from LOV. Erikson’s (1959.g. 1968) work will be revisited to identify additional model alternatives.. Erikson made broad descriptions of youth who have explored potential possibilities and committing to their values and beliefs versus those with no integrated sense of self. it could be suggested that this specific type of support was inappropriately applied to every relational concept.
1968) discussions on the interrelationship of these components of identity can be interpreted in a variety of ways. Erikson’s (1959.Furthermore. In the current study. LOV and SFV were tested as influences on identity exploration as supported by Grotevant and Cooper’s 56 .
1995. Taylor et al.5% of the respondents included adoptive or foster mothers in this category.1% of the sample.(1985) empirical work. further study is required to gain a deeper understanding of how the relationships between the youth and their relatives/fictive kin develop and relate to adolescent and emerging adult wellbeing.. the support from the community of one’s peers and leaders. Multiple mother figures were selected by 45. 1993). A fundamental question would seek to clarify the meanings of being “raised” and how these standards relate to the identification of someone other than a primary caregiver as serving in this role.5%). and relative to geographical location. Consequently. As previously stated the fictive kin relationship is established on the basis of mutually provided emotional support.2% of the sample. J. To consider that multiple individuals were responsible for one’s upbringing supports the calls by Caldwell (1999). and exploration and commitment to values and beliefs in a variety of domains (see Figure 1d. empirical evidence was offered to support the assertion that the cultural legacy of extended family involvement and flexible family roles continues for many of the respondents in this sample. interactions. Only 3. R. This implies a level of closeness that may 57 . and Bengston (2001) to expand the focus of theoretical and empirical work beyond biological parents or primary caregivers.. Erikson also discussed individuals as having a sense of self which is developed/manifested in part by the ability to be true to self.). Adoptive or foster fathers were included in this category by 2. the influence of extended family has been studied primarily in relation to parental support and functioning (Taylor & Roberts. Multiple father figures were selected by 26. In previous studies. The primary caregivers most often selected were biological mothers (90. particularly in terms of relationship quality.1%) and fathers (63.6% of the sample. 1993). 1995. These results also support the call to delve deeper into the understanding of family roles and flexible role boundaries that support the child rearing process and child development (Taylor & Roberts. R. Wilson (1989). J. The data from the current study provide preliminary evidence that the involvement of extended family and fictive kin influences emerging adult well-being and development. Taylor et al. Another study on relationship quality could focus on the possible differences between biological relatives and fictive kin. Ancillary Findings By allowing respondents to select multiple mother and father figures. However. as well as identify the involvement of fictive kin.
Gender differences emerged relative to the collective influence of LOV and SFV on exploration. fictive kin maintain reciprocal relationships out of choice rather than obligation (WattsJones. Contrary to the findings stated by Harter and her colleagues (1998). The predictive validity analysis for the LOV and SFV measures also supports the differences between these relationships. It could be suggested that the reflected appraisal of SFV from fictive kin may set the standard for the reflected appraisals in extrafamilial relational contexts. familial and extrafamilial LOV accounted for a relatively small amount of the variance in exploration. 1968) assertions that individuals other than mothers and fathers (figures) are influential in the identity development of emerging adults. 58 .e.. Females with higher exploration levels indicated increased LOV with fictive kin but lower LOV with adult relatives when controlling for the effects of familial SFV. These results support the gender differences found in much of the extant literature on identity development. The correlation between SFV with fictive kin and LOV with adult relatives was virtually the same as the relationship of SFV and LOV with adult relatives. 1997). This was not true for SFV with adult relatives. occupation. religion. Unexpectedly. Males with higher levels of exploration had higher LOV with father (figures) and lower LOV with instructors/advisors. although relatively similar. SFV had a limited influence of on ideological exploration. extended family members and fictive kin were important in this sample of African Americans. Summary The results of this study support Erikson’s (1959. This voluntary relationship may help to shape one’s self-concept in such a way that it influences how one self-perception with other nonrelatives. Unlike biological relatives.not be present in relationships with all biological relatives. the cross loading of adult relative and fictive kin in the factor analysis of LOV is preliminary evidence that there is some level of overlap in these relationships in spite of the distinction of biology. Additionally. as well as to the influence of the various relational contexts under investigation. The connection between SFV and exploration may be better conceptualized as an indirect relationship through LOV. It was also suggested that the use of LOV and SFV may have been too restrictive as a measure of support given the variety of relational contexts considered and the aggregation of exploration levels across various domains (i. SFV with fictive kin had higher. However. correlations with LOV with both peers and instructors/advisors. Even though Erikson only looked to community members as sources of influence.
The cultural traditions and family interaction patterns of Blacks throughout the Diaspora vary based on the evolution and retention of the various African traditions transmitted across the generations. and Type II errors. and the increased involvement with individuals outside the family system may have different interrelationships based on age. Although. The sample of this study was drawn from cross section of African American emerging adults attending a Historically Black University. which taps the presence of commitments to values and beliefs after a period of exploration. the results have similarities with Grotevant and Cooper’s (1985) study on White high school students it would be premature to generalize these findings to other age groups. along with commitments. These limitations included narrow construct definitions of support and true self-behavior. The results may not be generalizable to noncollegiate emerging adults. Additional extrafamilial relationships. An alternative model may involve using more general measures of support and true self-behavior. would have to be considered for both relevance and influence. and politics). measurement error. the use of ideological achieved. as well as the influences of other cultures as a result of colonization. The identity development process of emerging adults not attending college may be impacted differently by familial and extrafamilial relationships.philosophical lifestyle. Limitations Some of the design limitations of the study have been discussed in previous sections as they serve an explanatory function in interpreting the results. other than instructors/advisors. Only longitudinal studies can adequately track the development and interrelationships of these developmental issues. It is equally faulty to assume that empirical results and theoretical assertions can be indiscriminately applied to other cultural groups. Another generalization issue is the age of respondent. may have yielded results consistent with Erikson’s (1968) assertions. The developmental progression of identity development. Additional design limitations to be addressed include issues of generalizability. and possible model misspecifications. the aggregation of ideological identity domains. as indicators of an individuals overall sense of self. It would be faulty to treat these diverse groups of Blacks as homogenous. or youth of different ethnic or cultural groups. adolescents. 59 . evolution of parent-child/family interactions. When considering the model under investigation.
1998) studies. The exclusion of information on the level of involvement of the respondents with caregivers may have influenced the factor structure and the ability to detect small effects as well. In Harter and her colleague’s (1996. or a combination of them all. One consequence of these measurement errors may have been the inability to detect small but statistically significant effects of LOV and SFV on ideological exploration. etc.10 or less generally serve as an indicator of serious multicollinearity issues (Cohen. This may have been a concern for the regression models including SFV as the lowest tolerance levels were detected among some of the relational contexts on this variable. & Aiken.. it is developmentally appropriate to selectively share one’s thoughts and opinions and remain true-toself (Harter & Monsour.459. item content deficiencies. as evidenced by the tolerance coefficients. The relatively poor fit of the factor structure may be influenced by maturation. classmates.The moderate reliability coefficients for all of the subscales and the poor fit of the factor structure of LOV in this sample may have limited the power to detect statistically significant relationships in this study. 2003). Refined measures may help to control for Type II errors in future studies. parents. The presence of multicollinearity can result in an underestimation of the beta coefficients. in the current study. it is plausible that the factor structure may be different based on gender as well. 60 . Many of the variables were found to be moderately correlated with the other independent variables entered into the regression equations. the positively worded LOV items for fictive kin and adult relatives loaded onto the same factor and a new factor emerged that was suggested to relate to a filtering process. Tolerance indicators of 0. teachers. In this study. For emerging adults. Tolerance levels serve as an indicator of multicolinearity and specify the unique contribution of each variable by accounting for the correlation of the variable in question to all other independent variables included in the regression. However. 1992). multiple people were considered in various relational contexts (e. This was particularly true for LOV and SFV with fictive kin and adult relatives. gender variations. Another measurement issue to consider is the correlations between many of the LOV and SFV relational contexts. Cohen. Given the gender differences that emerged in the study. and a corresponding reduction in the amount of explained variance. West.g. the lowest tolerance level coefficient was . inflated standard error.) and the factor structure supported the distinctions between these groups. peers.
Specifically. The inclusion of additional theories such as the Triple Quandary Theory (Boykin & Ellison. 1995). The theory considers interpersonal variations in the level of exposure. This requires expanding the theoretical and empirical discussion to include additional familial and extrafamilial relationships in addition to one’s biological parents. and identity development? Does the education level of the primary caregivers influence the relationship between these variables? How does being a first generation college attendee influence these relationships? In addition. support. and the 61 . 1995) or Ecosystemic Theory (Allen-Meares & Lane. Some related questions include the following: Does level of involvement with caregivers or other individuals mediate the relationship between true self-behavior. future studies should test these models with equivalent numbers of males and females. and Practical As previously stated. and hindered? What types of support do various individuals provide to emerging adults that facilitate identity development? How can a coherent sense of self be conceptualized and measured? Measures related to these questions should form the basis of creating reliable measures to reduce the potential for Type II errors. Regardless of the model tested. 1987) may prove useful in expanding the theoretical discussion on social influences and identity development as they offer considerations to multiple intra.Implications: Theoretical. the role of the family and particularly the community shifts to providing support as the young person seeks to find their place in adult society. inclusion of additional relational contexts also requires further exploration into interpersonal dynamics. Afrocultural. During emerging adulthood. the results of this study support the inclusion of various sources of influence on identity development. studies could be designed to evaluate the relationship of support (in a general sense) and true self-behavior in various relational contexts to levels of exploration and commitment in specific domains. supported. Various models could also be tested whereby support. Empirical. fluency. The latter model would require deeper exploration into the developmental variations in meaning and manifestation of these constructs: What does it mean to emerging adults to be true to self? How is true self-behavior manifested. The theory also supports the exploration of the socialization influences of school.and interpersonal influences. comfort. and minority. and commitments are determinants of a coherent sense of self. true self-behavior. peers. The Triple Quandary Theory addresses the intersection of three cultural realities: American mainstream. and affective responses to the interactions within each realm (Boykin & Ellison.
individuals not directly known by the respondent)...g. Research incorporating these theories could explore individual’s perceptions of having to deal with the demands and burdens of oppression (minority). Ecosystemic Theory requires the consideration of the multiple domains that may influence adolescent development.g. such as the family. Such research would also be useful contribution to discussions on the historical and societal influences that Erikson (1959. work) could be explored. 1968) asserted to be influential to the identity development process. community. and LOV. and school (AllenMeares & Lane. A fruitful line of research could examine the similarities and differences between adult relatives and fictive kin and the impact on child rearing and development in children. It would be interesting to learn more about how and why some individuals are considered to be instrumental in this process. and emerging adults. Mainstream. Given the demonstrated bivariate and multivariate relationships between exploration. Even though identity development may best be investigated using general measures of support. school. an individual’s perceptions of their experience in each of the cultural realities (i. It is possible that other individuals may be considered as a mother or father figure due to a specific type of support or guidance provided but not be classified as involved in the child rearing process. a study could be developed to investigate if this rational is 62 . In the current study. with various socialization influences (e.e. adolescents. their comfort levels in having to deal with such experiences. media. Afrocultural. it was assumed that mother and father figures were equated with those who were involved in raising the respondent. or in different domains (e. and their positive or negative affective response to these experiences. Furthermore.media. Qualitative data was not presented to verify the plausibility of this thesis. Similarly. could then be compared to identity development. SFV. The multiple meanings of being raised could be explored.. in conjunction with support and true self-behavior. research is needed to gain a deeper understanding of the dynamics of extended family involvement and flexible family roles. community. radio. family. In addition to expanding the identity literature. These perceptions. 1987). and minority). it would be interesting to examine Grotevant and Cooper’s (1985) argument that the comments of the parents to their daughters were challenging in order to encourage their daughters to move beyond traditional feminine roles. school. The identity literature on African Americans would also be extended as the conceptualization of racial/ethnic identity would be expanded and explored in tandem with a variety of identity domains.
it may be useful to arrange for intergenerational discussion groups. The focus would be to help young people critically evaluate the various messages related to ideological ideals (e. politics. Family service providers and college counselors/advisors could develop and disseminate resource materials and programs to help parents and relatives. occupation).replicable across various relational contexts and in diverse populations of adolescents and emerging adults. Services to address personal and identity development must also be expanded to incorporate the involvement of multiple family members and address the perceptions of reduced support during periods of exploration into ideological ideals. as well as instructors/advisors learn new ways to interact with adolescents and emerging adults during this exploratory period. 63 . There could also be the perception of lowered SFV because responses aimed at gaining clarity of the youth’s stated ideas and opinions are interpreted from defensive posture. The data from the current study can be used to highlight the role of multiple family and nonfamily members on identity development. religion. Community and campus programs targeting personal development and leadership skills could be designed to include components where young people can present and discuss diverse perspectives on ideological ideals in a supportive environment.. In this context. There may be issues related to the presentation of one’s ideas that results in lowered support. The bi-directional influences of the youth and the particular other should also be considered.g. philosophy of life. This is important as the experiences of older participants can be used to expand the understanding of the younger participants regarding expectations of adulthood and the rationale behind personal beliefs and decisions.
APPENDIX A Human Subject Approval 64 .
APPENDIX B Tables – Sample Demographics 67 .
001 – $60.3 14.001 – $80.000 $20.001 + Median income 18.6 6.000 $10.001 – $70.2 3.000 $30.000 $50.5 31.9 7.7 Female 67.6 6.Table B1 Sample Demographic Characteristics % Gender Male 32.7 18.001 – $30.001 – $20.3 % Classification Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Family Incomea Under $10.8 8.6 22.000 $40.7 3.0 6.000 $80.000 $90.8 9.000 $60.2 Agea 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 or older 19.5 1.1 4.6 14.6 28.6 26.000 $70.9 $50.001 – $90.3 .001 – $40.5 2.7 21.3 9.000 N = 323 (unless specified otherwise) a N = 372 68 .001 – $50.9 12.
1 1.5 91.4 Biological father Stepfather Grandfather Uncle Other male relative Adoptive father Foster father Other male nonrelative None 63.3 2 14.9 52.6 15. (unless specified otherwise).6 35.8 1.5 8.5 18.1 25.6 14.4 99.4 11.1 .6 60.9 90.4 3.6 88.6 95.1 9.2 3 or more 12.8 Total # of mother (figures) 0 1 2 3 or more % 1.2 2.8 88.2 26.4 1.8 73.8 97.4 84.1 .7 85.6 1 56.4 39.7 .6 .4 18.Table B2 Percentage of Family Roles Identified as Parental Figures and Primary Caregivers Who Raised You?Yes No Primary Female Caregiver Mother (figure) Biological mother Stepmother a Grandmother a Aunt a Other female relative a Adoptive mother a Foster mother a Other female nonrelativeb 91.1 Who Raised You?Father (figure) Biological father b Stepfather c Grandfather d Uncle c Other male relative c Adoptive father c Foster father d Other male nonrelative c Yes No Primary Male Caregiver 64.5 1.3 Biological mother Stepmother Grandmother Aunt Other female relative Adoptive mother Foster mother Other female nonrelative None 90.0 Total # of father (figures) % 0 16.1 1.4 a b c N = 323.8 20. d N = 369 69 .8 1.8 2.5 9.2 11.9 98. N = 372.3 .3 .0 . N = 370.7 8.3 4.1 .6 81.4 4.6 98. N = 371.
3 19.0 72.7 12.8 28.7 11.2 17.6 34.4 15.3 Godmother c Godfather c Second or ‘play’ mother b Second or ‘play’ father a Play-aunt a Play-uncle a Play-cousin b Play-grandmother a Play-grandfather a Other b Yes 52.8 82.3 29.9 83.8 a b N = 323. c N = 369 70 .6 11.5 Total # Adult Relatives % Total # of Fictive Kin % 23.1 34.5 9.3 57.0 27. (unless specified otherwise).9 65.2 1 1 2. N = 370.9 2 2 2.4 65.7 70.7 42.0 33.8 36.0 66.9 3 or more 3 or more 90.2 71.7 80.1 16.Table B3 Percentage of Roles Identified as Adult Relatives and Fictive Kin Adult Relatives Yes No Fictive Kin Grandmother(s) Grandfather(s) Aunt(s) Uncle(s) Cousin(s) Other(s) a 88.5 No 48.8 47. N = 371.2 53.4 88.5 0 0 3.4 48.5 90.2 63.
APPENDIX C Scale Summary Sheet With Factors & Corresponding Survey Item Numbers 71 .
57 5. 64 8. 21. 46. 36. 59 Items 101 – 120 & 1 – 10 (p. 33. 7) 101 – 105 105 – 110 111 – 115 116 – 120 1–5 6 – 10 Items 11 – 40 (p. 19. 39 14. 63 6. 55 3. 10. 48. 47. 40 15. 18. 24. 40. 26. 7. 43. 56 13. 28. 61 17. 54. 31. 38. 27. 53. 50 58. 41. 18. 24.Scale/subscale EOM-EIS II Ideological Moratorium Interpersonal Moratorium Other EOM-EIS II subscales Ideological Foreclosed Ideological Achieved Ideological Diffuse Interpersonal Achieved Interpersonal Foreclosed Interpersonal Diffuse Level of Voice Mother (figure) Father (figure) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin Peers Instructors/advisors Support for Voice Mother (figure) Father (figure) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin Peers Instructors/advisors Figure C1 Survey Packet Item Numbers Items 1 – 64 9. 60 1. 20. 37 12. 37. 62. 20. 51. 28. 22. 16. 32 19.8 – 10) 11. 39. 35. 29. 25. 36 Summary of Scale and Factor Structure by Survey Packet Item Numbers 72 .12. 49. 25. 15. 16. 14. 33. 22. 23. 30. 2. 27. 35. 38 13. 29. 34. 21. 44. 45. 11. 31. 34. 30. 42. 32. 4. 26. 52. 23. 17.
APPENDIX D Survey Packet Order of Measures: Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Scale (EOM-EIS II) Familial Characteristics Level of Voice Support for Voice Demographic Form 73 .
APPENDIX E Scantron Form 85 .
APPENDIX F Permission for Measurement Use 88 .
edu To: AmberGT73@cs. Good luck with your project.edu Subject: Re: scale permission request Hello Dr. The scales I intend to use are as follows: 1) Level of Voice. I meant to say that NONE of materials have been copywrited to make it easier for people to modify the instrument for their own use. Colorado 80208 FAX: (303) 871-4747 -----Original Message----From: AmberGT73@cs. and 4) Self-Perception Profile for College Students. These rights will in no way restrict republication of the material in any other form by your or by others authorized by you.com] Sent: Friday. I should note that there is low endorsement of the reasons for voice. This authorization is extended to University Microfilms International. Michigan. If you are not the author or copyright owner to one (or more) of the scales. 3) Support for voice.com Received from Internet: click here for more information Actually. Ann Arbor. will you please 89 . including non-exclusive world rights in all languages. 2004 10:23 AM To: sharter@du. They are somewhat higher for those who report low levels of voice. Denver. As per you request. All that is required is a statement from you granting permission for the scales of which you are the copyright holder or author to be reproduced in my dissertation. Susan Harter Department of Psychology University of Denver 2155 S.du.psy.Subj: RE: scale permission request Date: 3/6/2004 11:42:36 AM Eastern Standard Time From: sharter@nova. Your statement affirming the terms listed in this letter will also confirm that your own the copyright the to the above described material and/or this work is an original product of your creative efforts. Harter.com [mailto:AmberGT73@cs. Race St. The requested permission extends to any future revisions and editions of my dissertation. March 05. You have my permission to use the measure. my last memo was inaccurate. 2) Reasons for Low Levels of Voice. for the purpose of reproducing and distributing copies of this dissertation. I gained clarification from the Graduate Studies Office of Florida State University.
psy. 3) Support for voice. firstname.lastname@example.org] Sent: Tuesday. Thank you for your permission to use the following scales 1) Level of Voice. Colorado 80208 FAX: (303) 871-4747 -----Original Message----From: AmberGT73@cs.com [mailto:AmberGT73@cs. and 4) Self-Perception Profile for College Students for my dissertation research. Race St. 2) Reasons for Low Levels of Voice. Thank you again for your assistance with my research. Denver. Amber Golden-Thompson Doctoral Candidate Family Relations Florida State University In a message dated 3/2/2004 9:37:04 PM Eastern Standard Time. I must also request permission for University Microfilms International.edu writes: One of these instruments has been copyrighted so I am not sure what I can provide to you. March 02. This authorization also confirms that you own the copyright to the scales mentioned above. Please advise. Harter.edu Subject: scale permission request Dr.specify the scale(s) and provide the contact information of the author/copyright owner so I may request permission from them directly. Sincerely. Please email your response to email@example.com. Michigan to reproduce and distribute copies of the instrument(s) in the dissertation. Thank you again for your time. Susan Harter Department of Psychology University of Denver 2155 S. In accordance with the policies of Florida State University. Ann Arbor. Amber Golden-Thompson Doctoral Candidate Family Relations Florida State University 90 .com. 2004 10:52 AM To: sharter@du.
In accordance with the > policies of Florida State University. Adams. Ph. 3967 Fax: 519-766-0691 91 . Adams February 20. > > Thank you again for your assistance with my research.D A Distinguished Professor of Teaching Department of Family Relations & Applied Nutrition Program in Family Relations & Human Development University of Guelph Guelph Ontario N1G 2W1 Office: 519-824-4120 ext. This > authorization also confirms that you own the copyright to the Objective > Measure of Ego-Identity Status Scale.com. Please email your > response to ambergt73@cs. Adams. 2004 AmberGT73@cs. and distribution of copies of the instrumentation in the Florida State University dissertation publications.ca To: AmberGT73@cs. Ann Arbor. Gerald R.com wrote: > Dr. reproduction. > > Thank you for your permission to use Objective Measure of Ego-Identity > Status Scale for my dissertation research. I must also request permission for > University Microfilms International. > > > Amber Golden-Thompson > Doctoral Candidate > Family Relations > Florida State University Gerald R.com Received from Internet: click here for more information As the sole owner and copyright holder of the Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status I give permission for the use.Subj: Re: Scale permission request Date: 2/20/2004 11:33:15 AM Eastern Standard Time From: gadams@uoguelph. Michigan to reproduce > and distribute copies of the instrument(s) in the dissertation.
Susan Harter 92 .APPENDIX G Personal Communication with Dr.
Amber Golden-Thompson 93 .du.com Received from Internet: click here for more information We haven't used the instrument with college students but it should work (maybe with a check on wording) and just changing the items to read "college students". did using "teenager" make a difference? What are your thoughts and suggestions? Thank you very much for your time. In your research. However. sharter@nova. Race St.edu. Do you have the original instrument? Susan Harter Department of Psychology University of Denver 2155 S.edu Subject: Question: Level of voice scale Dr. Harter. Denver.psy. have you used this scale with college students? If so.com] Sent: Monday. Colorado 80208 FAX: (303) 871-4747 -----Original Message----From: AmberGT73@cs.psy. I am interested in using the Level of Voice scale with college students.du.com [mailto:AmberGT73@cs. 2004 12:38 PM To: sharter@du. August 23.edu To: AmberGT73@cs. Sincerely.Subj: RE: Question: Level of voice scale Date: 8/23/2004 5:11:54 PM Eastern Daylight Time From: sharter@nova. I am a bit reserved about using the term teenager with this population. My name is Amber Golden-Thompson.
APPENDIX H Verbal Script 94 .
I am requesting that you complete four questionnaires. you may gain an increased awareness regarding your beliefs about your relationships with others and yourself.” Has anyone already participated in this study? Please come and see me. Group results will be sent to you upon request. professor of psychology at FAMU.’) On the inside of the first page. which should take about 30-45 minutes to complete. I am working with Dr. you will find an informed consent letter. or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. Please follow along while I read the consent letter that describes this research project. Evening). 599-3145. While there is no anticipated risk in participating. It is very important that you do not complete the survey again. Your participation is voluntary and you may stop at anytime without prejudice. Should questions arise 95 . My name is Amber Golden-Thompson. You are also free to withdraw from the study at any time. you will be providing researchers with valuable insights into young adults’ perceptions of their personal relationships and how these relationships are associated with self-concept. In addition. As a benefit. you will be asked questions regarding your feelings about various people with whom you interact and about yourself. John Chambers. I will be available to talk with you about any emotional discomfort that arises while participating. Sunshine Manor. This project has been approved by the Institutional Review Board for projects involving human subjects at Florida A & M University. I am a doctoral candidate in the Family Relations Program at Florida State University. PENCILS. you may go to the FAMU Student Counseling and Assessment Center. RESPONSE FORMS. If you need further assistance. [HAND OUT QUESTIONNAIRE BATTERY. (If someone has participated say ‘Come and see me after I have reviewed the instructions with the class. I am conducting a research study entitled “Self-Concept and Social Relationships. Feel free to ask any questions that you may have concerning this research or your participation at this time. Thank you. penalty. All your responses will be kept confidential and only group findings will be reported. or your relationships with the people in your life. plans. AND CONSENT LETTER] Good Morning (Afternoon.Verbal Script Re/introduce self and say I am going to hand out the questionnaire packet and go over the consent letter and some important instructions before you begin. If you choose to participate in the project. you may experience anxiety when thinking about your future.
Please do not write on the questionnaire booklet. John Chambers. Are there any questions? Please begin. you may contact myself. Please answer every item and make sure that the item number and response number on your response form matches the item and response numbers in the survey packet. Think about what you are like in general as you read and answer each one. It is important that you respond to the total item and not just a certain part of it. decide which one of the two parts of each statement best describes you. You may begin by thinking about whether you agree or disagree. or Dr. The instructions on when to use FORM 2 are located on page 7 and you will notice that the numbers restart at ‘1’. Using the range of responses from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Answer all of the questions on the optical scan forms. indicate to what degree it fits your own impressions about yourself. First. Darken the circle with the same number on the response sheet. the remaining items allow students to describe themselves and their relationships. Please turn to page 5. On the response sheet marked FORM 1 in the space marked “PRINT LAST NAME FIRST”– Print and bubble in the 2-LETTER ABBREVIATION FOR THE STATE you lived in during most of your childhood and adolescent years followed by a space and the name of the city. go to that side of the statement and check whether that is just sort of true for you or really true for you. Perry Brown as listed on your letter. Are there any questions? Please keep the cover letter for future reference.once the study is complete. Return of the packet will be considered your consent to participation. Dr. You will choose one answer for each item. For the first set of questions on pages 1-3. Begin answering on the optical scan form marked FORM 1 which is located behind the first page. then. 96 . Please read the entire sentence across. Then you can decide how strongly you feel about it. read each item carefully. Darken the circle with the same number on the response sheet. Remember. If you did not live in one of the 50 states. There are no right or wrong answers since students differ markedly. we are interested in how these items either reflect or don’t reflect how you perceive your own situations. print and bubble in the name of the island or country you lived in during most of your childhood and adolescent years.
APPENDIX I Informed Consent Cover Letter 97 .
As a benefit.com Dr. plans. or your relationships with the people in your life. MS 850-212-3563 goldenlineresearch@yahoo. If you need further assistance. professor of psychology at Florida A&M University. Your participation is voluntary and you may stop at anytime without prejudice. Perry Brown. I am working with Dr. While there is no anticipated risk in participating. IRB 850-412-5246 Division of Research Office of Animal Care and Regulatory Compliance Room 130 Dyson Building Tallahassee. Sincerely. Should questions arise once the study is complete. If you choose to participate in the project. Chair. I am requesting that you complete four questionnaires. FL 32307-3800 Return of the packet will be considered your consent to participation. penalty. I am a doctoral candidate in the Family Relations Program at Florida State University. John Chambers 850-561-2541 GEC-C rm. C. Group results will be sent to you upon request. you will be providing researchers with valuable insights into young adults’ perceptions of their personal relationships and how these relationships are associated with self-concept. or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. 599-3145. you may contact any of the following individuals: Amber Golden-Thompson. FL 32307 Dr. you will be asked questions regarding your feelings about various people with whom you interact and about yourself. which should take about 25 minutes to complete. In addition. Thank you very much. I will be available to talk with you about any emotional discomfort that arises while participating.” This project has been approved by the Institutional Review Board for projects involving human subjects at Florida A & M University. All your responses will be kept confidential and only group findings will be reported. Sunshine Manor. M. 98 . MS. you may gain an increased awareness regarding your beliefs about your relationships with others and yourself. I am conducting a research study entitled “SelfConcept and Social Relationships. you may go to the FAMU Student Counseling and Assessment Center. Feel free to ask any questions that you may have concerning this research or your participation at this time. John Chambers.Dear Participant: My name is Amber Golden-Thompson.S. you may experience anxiety when thinking about your future. Amber Golden-Thompson. 304-A Psychology Department Florida A&M University Tallahassee. You are also free to withdraw from the study at any time.
APPENDIX J Tables – Scale Psychometric Properties 99 .
758 .94 6.16 3.810 .607 25.53 5.825 .62 5.73 .24 .783 .09 2.95 3.609 .42 Foreclosed .634 .22 2.73 2.26 2.825 .707 . and Standard Deviations α Mean EOM-EIS II Ideological Moratorium .02 32.Table J1 Scale Reliability Coefficients.11 3.766 .30 5.717 .487 22.93 .03 5.10 Diffuse .733 .842 .37 2.649 .83 .685 .774 3.643 .760 .627 100 .640 23.687 .71 21.92 6.98 3.703 .684 .620 33.831 .687 .877 .78 5.733 3.666 22.566 .09 Interpersonal Moratorium Achieved Foreclosed Diffuse Level of Voice Mother (figure) Father (figure) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin Peers Instructors/Advisors Support For Voice Mother (figure) Father (figure) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin Peers Instructors/Advisors N = 373 SD 6.14 Achieved .75 19.793 . Means.14 3.
Foreclosure -.034 -. Foreclosure -.125* .598** .097 5.166* . N = 373 * p < 0.427** .117 . Diffusion -.178** Coefficients are in bold to identify the corresponding identity status type.078 .217** .139** .088 .433** .125* 8. Achievement 2.054 .05.076 . Diffusion -.126* 101 .271** . ** p < .123* Interpersonal -.295** 7.124* .444** -.Table J2 EOM-EIS II Subscale Intercorrelations 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ideological 1. Achievement .01 7 . Moratorium .508** 6.105* .151** .058 4.276** .065 3. Moratorium -.
643 .763 .565 .729 .770 .769 .376 .576 .463 .758 .667 .291 102 .206 .201 .743 .660 .213 .326 .822 .212 .276 .Table J3 LOV Factor Loadings for Total Sample Factor Fictive Kin/ Adult Father Mother Instructors/ Filtering Relatives (figure) (figure) Advisors .729 .336 .545 .510 .768 .543 .243 .736 .203 .817 .716 .698 Context & Subscale Item # Mother (figure)1 Mother (figure)3 Mother (figure)4 Father (figure)1 Father (figure)3 Father (figure)4 Adult relatives1 Adult relatives3 Adult relatives4 Fictive kin1 Fictive kin3 Fictive kin4 Peers1 Peers3 Peers4 Instructors/advisors1 Instructors/advisors3 Instructors/advisors4 Mother (figure)2 Mother (figure)5 Father (figure)2 Father (figure)5 Adult relatives2 Adult relatives5 Fictive kin2 Fictive kin5 Peers2 Peers5 Instructors/advisors2 Instructors/advisors5 N = 373 Peers .618 .659 .716 .612 .534 .810 .801 .751 .573 .297 .807 .543 .752 .
231** .190** Adult Relatives .549** .146** Coefficients are in bold to identify corresponding relational contexts.365** Instructors/Advisors .194** .342** .430** Peers .521** Father (figure) .263** .337** .235** .237** .360** .Table J4 Correlation of SFV with LOV in each Relational Context Level of Voice Mother Father Adult Fictive Support for Voice (figure) (figure) Relatives Kin Peers Mother (figure) .089 .252** . N = 373 ** p < 0.290** .208** .389** .194** .212** .296** .356** .109* .349** Coefficients in italics are to identify the largest coefficient when it is not with the corresponding relational context.388** Fictive Kin . Instructors/ Advisors .167** .01 103 .183** .221** .195** .346** .206** .268** .253** .535** .099 .
APPENDIX K Tables – Research Questions 104 .
176** -.05.110 a N = 323.164 e f g Females -. c N = 371 d e n = 122 n = 251.121 -.173** -.134* -.205** -.148 -.197** -. (unless specified otherwise).124* -.187* -.Table K1 Correlation of SFV Scales with Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender Support for Voice Familial Contexts Extrafamilial Contexts Mother Father Adult Fictive Instructors/ Peers (figures) (figures) Relatives Kin b Advisors a Total Sample -.165** -.174** -.139** Males -. gn = 249 * p < 0.100 -.006 -.156** -. fn = 250. ** p < 0.141* -. (unless specified otherwise).01 105 . b N = 372.
709 -.064/.052*** -1.576 Malesc 0.007 .039** -.363 . b n = 249.096 -.742 .130 -. c n = 122 ** p < .336 -.825 1.001 -.520 .512 .046 -.041 .096 -.Table K2 Summary of Regression Analysis for Familial SFV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender Variable R2/Adj.646 .019 -.837 . *** p < .083 .118 .064 .497 .670 .725 -.173 -1.682 .677* -.541 106 .088 -.699 -.160 .621 .144 1.587 -.539 .124 . R2 B SE B β Tolerance Total Samplea Gender Mother (figures) Father (figures) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin Femalesb Mother (figures) Father (figures) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin .070 -.44/.673 -1.502 .799 .663 .676 .01.054/.795 -.485 .085 -.084 -.011 Mother (figures) Father (figures) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin a N = 371.814 .756 -.988 .963 .610 .415 .390 .
033 -.001 -.065 . b n = 251. R2 B SE B β Tolerance Total Samplea Gender Peers Instructors/Advisors Femalesb Peers Instructors/Advisors .697 .01.646 -.849 .187 -.092 -.Table K3 Summary of Regression Analysis for Extrafamilial SFV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender Variable R2/Adj.186 -1.569 .618 .020 -.545 -.63** -.086 .046/. c n = 122 ** p < .038*** -1.667 .024/.808 Malesc .916 -.003 1.849 .824 .027/.154 .127 -.959 .016 -1.499 1. *** p < .728 .728 107 .784 .011 Peers Instructors/Advisors a N = 373.116 -.
(unless specified otherwise).127* -.197** -.232** -.048 -.Table K4 Correlation of LOV scales with Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender Level of Voice Familial Contexts Extrafamilial Contexts Mother Father Adult Fictive Instructors/ Peers (figures) (figures) Relatives Kin Advisors a b c Total Sample -. b N = 370. ** p < 0.126* -.109* -.163** a N = 323. c N = 371 d e n = 122 n = 251.05.303** e f g Females -.053 .128* -.075 -.200** Malesd -. g n = 249 * p < 0. f n = 248.064 -.262** -.01 108 . (unless specified otherwise).015 -.177** -.118* -.200* -.
533 .965 .967 Mother (figures) -.121/.095 . R2 B SE B β Tolerance a Total Sample .696 .816 .641 -.091** Father (figures) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin a N = 369.668 Femalesb Mother (figures) Father (figures) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin .280 . *** p < .632 -1.092 -.593 -.05.875** .878 Adult Relatives -1.516 -.455 .606 .094 . b n = 247.579 Fictive Kin .512 .01.023 .683 .639 1.128 .933* .047*** Gender -1.195 .766 Father (figures) -.168 -1.035* -.013 .692** . ** p < .321* -2. c n = 122 * p < .666 -.Table K5 Summary of Regression Analysis for Familial LOV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender Variable R2/Adj.060/.236 -.467 -.054 -.902 .223 .878 1.657 109 .696 Malesc Mother (figures) .051/.191 .679* 1.603 .146 .802 .092 .033 .375 -.112 .001 .200 .928 .198 -.
068 -1.331** .832 .007 -.05.545 -.852 Instructors/Advisors -1.341 .617*** . R2 B SE B β Tolerance a Total Sample .057*** Gender -1. c n = 122 * p < .670 .095/.036 .161 . b n = 251.951 Peers -.080** Instructors/Advisors a N = 373.Table K6 Summary of Regression Analysis for Extrafamilial LOV Variables on Ideological Exploration for the Total Sample and by Gender Variable R2/Adj.891 Femalesb Peers Instructors/Advisors .519 -.934 .147 .269 .001 -.356* .764 110 .069 -. ** p < .764 .578 -2.663 -.934 Malesc Peers . *** p < .886** .458 -.864 -.027/.01.065/.019* -.189 .
080** -.676 -.647 .733 .069 -. R2 B SE B β a Females Model 1 Peers .884 .537 111 .060/.095/.269 .533* 1.080 .331** .037 .004 Instructors/Advisors -1.025/. R2 ∆ R2/Adj.578 -2.131 .134 .764 .799 .459 .108 -.051* -.909 .556 -2.017* -.616 .633 .664 .340* .020 .653 .537 -1.291 -.924 .519 1.01 Tolerance .716 .864 -.035/.104 1.585 .807 .764 .781 .010 -.158 Model 2 Peers Instructors/Advisors Mother (figures) Father (figures) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin Malesb Model 1 Peers Instructors/Advisors Model 2 Peers Instructors/Advisors Mother (figures) Father (figures) Adult Relatives Fictive Kin a n = 247.Table K7 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis of Extrafamilial and Familial LOV Variables Entered as Sets for Predicting Ideological Exploration by Gender Variable R2/Adj.100 -.729 -1.078 -. b n = 122 * p < .631 1.047 .095/.589 . ** p < .166 .137 .034 -.188 -.456* -1.496 .174/.165 .935 .935 .832 .775 .025/.568 .178 .079/.981 .004 -.067 -.252 .162 .017 .219 -.182* 1.553 -.05.916 -.
025/.538 . R2 B SE B β Tolerance Model 1 .647 112 .075 -.775 .721 .340* .459 .030 -.027 -.158 .034 -.010 -.166 .037 .084 -.546 . R2 ∆ R2/Adj.634 .026 -.035/.916 -.570 .478 .020 .078 -.807 .459 .742 .616 .733 .568 .858 .004 .781 .699 .807 -.749 .538 .080 -.047 .724 .621 -.171 .090/.051 .533* 1.108 -.935 LOV-Instructors/Advisors -1.05 .676 -.816 .030/.228 -.664 .472* 1.691 .406 .562 -.313 -.291 -.785 .014 .605 .884 .100 -.553 -.589 .535 .085 .178 .Table K8 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis of Extrafamilial and Familial LOV and Familial SFV Variables Entered as Sets for Predicting Ideological Exploration for Females Variable R2/Adj.723 .935 Model 2 LOV-Peers LOV-Instructors/Advisors LOV-Mother (figure) LOV-Father (figure) LOV-Adult Relatives LOV-Fictive Kin Model 3 LOV-Peers LOV-Instructors/Advisors LOV-Mother (figure) LOV-Father (figure) LOV-Adult Relatives LOV-Fictive Kin SFV-Mother (figure) SFV-Father (figure) SFV-Adult Relatives SFV-Fictive Kin n = 247 * p < .137 .538* -.046 .184 -1.017* LOV-Peers -.180 -.025/.060/.017 .588 .537 -1.716 .593 .
Table K9 Summary of the Research Questions, Hypotheses and Findings Research Question Sub-question Results A. Were support for voice (SFV) and level of voice (LOV) in familial and extrafamilial contexts determinants of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 1) Did SFV in familial contexts contribute to the prediction of • Familial SFV in females explained a statistically ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by significant portion (∆Adj. R2 = 3.9%) of the variance in gender? exploration. 2) Did SFV in extrafamilial contexts contribute to the prediction of ideological exploration? Were there differences by gender? 3) Did LOV in familial contexts contribute to the prediction of ideological exploration? Were there differences by gender? No evidence to support this relationship
Familial LOV collectively explained a statistically significant portion of the variance in exploration for males and females (∆Adj. R2 = 9.1% and 3.5%, respectively). 4) Did LOV in extrafamilial contexts contribute to the prediction of • Extrafamilial LOV collectively explained a ideological exploration? Were there differences by gender? statistically significant portion of the variance in exploration for males and females (∆Adj. R2 = 8.0% and 1.9%, respectively). B. Which familial and extrafamilial relational contexts of SFV and LOV were important determinants of ideological exploration? • 1) Did SFV in each of the relational contexts (mother (figure), father No evidence to support this relationship (figure), adult relatives, and fictive kin) individually contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? 2) Did SFV in each of the extrafamilial contexts (peers and No evidence to support this relationship instructors/advisors) individually contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender?
Table K9 continued Summary of the Research Questions, Hypotheses and Findings Research Question Sub-question 3) Did LOV in each of the relational contexts (mother (figure), father (figure), adult relatives, and fictive kin) individually contribute to the prediction of ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender?
Results • LOV with adult relatives had a statistically significant effect on exploration for females. • LOV with father (figures) and fictive kin had a statistically significant effect on exploration for males.
4) Did LOV in each of the extrafamilial contexts (peers and • LOV with instructors/advisors had a statistically instructors/advisors) individually contribute to the prediction of significant effect on exploration for both genders. ideological identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? C. Were SFV and LOV in extrafamilial contexts stronger determinants of ideological exploration that SFV and LOV in familial contexts? Were there differences by gender? 1) Did extrafamilial SFV account for more of the variance in Not Supported ideological exploration than familial SFV? Were there differences by gender? 2) Did extrafamilial LOV account for more of the variance in • Extrafamilial LOV explained more variance than ideological exploration than familial LOV? Were there familial LOV for both genders. Extrafamilial and differences by gender? familial LOV collectively explained a significant proportion of the variance in exploration for males. Only extrafamilial LOV explained a significant portion of the variance in exploration for females. D. What was the combined influence of SFV and LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts on ideological identity exploration? 1) Did SFV and LOV in familial and extrafamilial contexts each • Extrafamilial LOV collectively explained a explain a statistically significant amount of the variance in ideological statistically significant portion of the variance in identity exploration? Were there differences by gender? exploration for females (∆Adj. R2 = 1.7%).
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she was selected to participate in the American Evaluation Association/Duquesne University Graduate Evaluation Internship. and now adolescent identity development. Ms. As a result. Golden-Thompson’s post-graduate interests include working as a program evaluator in national and international settings and engaging in a research agenda focused on the familial and social impacts on adolescent development with cross-cultural populations. 122 . During her tenure at Florida State University. and health equity in African American populations. she took a special interest in program evaluation and measurement and statistics. Golden-Thompson has worked in research for the past 13 years. premarital education.BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ms. African American family dynamics. Her areas of research have included blood pressure and psychosocial reactions to stress.
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