This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Majid al-Dosari 12/14/2011
Thermophotovoltaics (TPVs) are solid state devices that convert thermally generated radiation into electrical current. Any TPV device consists of a thermal emitter and a photovoltaic cell separated by a gap. TPVs were conceived in the 1950s but suﬀered from very low eﬃciency. The advent of low band-gap photovoltaics in the 1990’s renewed interest in TPVs in hope of increasing their eﬃciency. In the 2000s, near-ﬁeld radiation eﬀects have been explored to further increase eﬃciency and power output. Much of the research on near-ﬁeld eﬀects has been focused on surface phonon polaritons since they can be excited thermally and can transfer energy in a narrow spectral band. The radiation transfer between (bulk) surfaces, thin ﬁlms, photonic crystals, and metamaterials have been analyzed. The research seems to be headed towards analyzing arbitrary geometries and more realistic modeling. 1
Thermophotovoltaics (TPVs) are solid state devices that convert thermally generated radiation to heat. All TPV devices have a heated emitter and a photovoltaic cell to recieve the radiation and convert the radiation to electrical current. Conceptualized in the 1950’s, thermophotovoltaic development was slow and suﬀered from very low eﬃciency until the 1990’s with the emergence of low-bandgap photovoltaics . This allowed the characteristic wavelength of blackbody radiation to be within that of the band gap energy corresponding to temperatures from about 1000 K to 1500 K (.5 to .7 eV) thereby increasing eﬃciency and power output. In 2001, DiMatteo  was ﬁrst to exploit near-ﬁeld eﬀects in a TPV device although near-ﬁeld eﬀects had been known prior to 2001. This was a break from research eﬀorts that focus on tuning far-ﬁeld emission through complicated optics, use of exotic materials, and patterning of surfaces. Near-ﬁeld eﬀects are due to the wave nature of electromagnetic radiation that manifest at distances around the wavelength of the radiation. Maxwell’s equations predict an exponentially decaying electric ﬁeld at surfaces. So, the proximity of the emitter and receiver allow for the coupling of evanescent waves thereby enhancing the heat transfer over that predicted by Planck’s law. The evanescent waves appear from total internal reﬂection or surface polaritons. Surface plasmon plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are the hybrid mode of collective oscillations of free electrons and an electromagnetic ﬁeld ap-
pearing mainly in metals. Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) are the hybrid mode of collective oscillations of lattice vibrations and an electromagnetic ﬁeld appearing mainly in polar materials. Research eﬀorts focus on SPhPs since they can be excited thermally in the infrared, while SPPs appear generally in the ultraviolet. Also, interference eﬀects can arise from reﬂections within the gap which are sensitive to the separation distance. So, understanding near-ﬁeld eﬀects is crucial to optimizing near-ﬁeld thermophotovoltaic devices. Eﬀorts to understand near-ﬁeld radiation are the focus of the following literature review.
Near-ﬁeld radiation study is a nascent ﬁeld with most progress made only in the previous decade. The following literature review attempts to highlight the progress of understanding near-ﬁeld radiation as it pertains to thermophotovoltaics. Except where mentioned, all the studies here are theoretical and are exhibited roughly chronologically. Parallel plates are the general geometric conﬁguration although a TPV device may be cylindrical. Rytov  ﬁrst described thermally-generated radiation in terms of ﬂuctuational electrodynamics. A random current is added to Ampere’s law to represent thermally agitated charges. Green’s function is found to solve Maxwell’s equations particular to the geometry of the problem. The Green’s
function may be interpreted as a transfer function that relates the contribution of as each current source contributes to the electric ﬁeld. The average strength of emission from electromagnetic sources is related to its temperature through the ﬂuctuation-dissipation theorem. Except for Ref. , all theoretical work shown relies on the work of Rytov. Mulet  used ﬂuctuational electrodynamics to study the radiative heat transfer between two surfaces that support surface modes: SiC and glass. The radiative heat transfer is enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the surfaces support resonant surface waves. Mulet is often cited for showing that the transfer is nearly monochromatic which is advantageous for thermophotovoltaics. It is also shown that the density of photonic states increases as inverse distance cubed from the surface. The procedure laid out is used subsequent studies. Similarly, Narayanaswamy  analyzed heat transfer between media that support surface plasmon polaritons: BN, SiC, and BC. They also show that even when one side was a photovoltaic, the transfer was still enhanced (although less). Fu  analyzed the eﬀect of doping silicon on near-ﬁeld radiation. A fairly comprehensive model for the complex permittivity of silicon was used taking into consideration eﬀects of temperature and dopant concentration on electron-lattice scattering and photon absorption, and the properties of holes (in addition to electrons). The increased ﬂux was observed at lower frequencies where black body exchange becomes insigniﬁcant. 4
Laroche  provided a quantitative model of a TPV device in the nearﬁeld. The power and eﬃciency of a (broadband) tungsten and a ﬁctitious quasimonochromatic source matched to a GaSb cell were compared. The power enhancement was by a factor of 25 and 35 respectively. The eﬃciency was 27% and 35% respectively representing an enhancement as well due to the concentration of frequencies around the bandgap. However, the enhancement is not strictly monotonic with decreasing distance. Furthermore, although respectable, the near-ﬁeld eﬃciency for the quasimonochromatic source was lower than expected because the radiative transfer was broadened by the presence of the GaSb cell in the near-ﬁeld. Biehs  showed that in thin metal ﬁlms, the radiative intensity is maximized for a certain ﬁlm thicknesses due to Fabry-Perot-like reﬂections inside the ﬁlm. Francoeur  studied the emission from a 10 nm thick SiC layer on a dielectric transmitting to bulk SiC. The radiative ﬂux was 3.3 times larger than that of a bulk emitter due to a splitting of the resonant frequency into symmetric and anti-symmetric modes thereby increasing the channels available for heat transfer. Hu  provides one of few experimental veriﬁcations of near-ﬁeld radiation enhancement. The heat exchanged between two glass plates separated by a micron-sized gap showed reasonable agreement with theory. Before that, Hanamura  reported near-ﬁeld electrical enhancement in a TPV device with gaps in the micron range using a GaSb photocell. 5
Park  calculated the performance of a TPV system rigorously by considering the thermal radiation absorption in diﬀerent regions of a In.18 Ga.82 Sb photovoltaic. Stronger absorption of thermal radiation near the surface is calculated as the gap decreases decreasing device eﬃciency to around 20% (in contrast to assuming 100% quantum eﬃciency as in Ref. ). The component of the wavevector parallel to the plates at which maximum heat transfer occurs changes with separation distance which changes the penetration depth. This suggests an optimal separation distance between the emitter and the PV cell. Furthermore, a back-reﬂector is suggested to recycle unused photons back to the emitter. Ben-Abdallah  calculated the heat transfer between isolated thin ﬁlms supporting SPhPs. Fu  showed that enhancement by adding thin ﬁlms of SiC or SiO2 on a substrate does not apply when the receiver is a metal. The near-ﬁeld enhancement between metals relies on TE-polarization while SPhP relies on TM-polarization. Francoeur  provides a comprehensive and general procedure for calculating near-ﬁeld thermal radiation in layered media. It is shown that a SiC ﬁlm emitter of about 1 mm gives the same spectral distribution as a bulk emitter. In a following paper , more explanation for the radiative transfer in thin ﬁlms is provided by analyzing the local density of photonic states (LDoS) within the gap between the thin ﬁlms. Multiple SPhP coupling was observed which explains enhanced radiation transfer. However, it 6
was observed that the LDoS at the surface of the emitter is dominated by SPhPs of large wavevectors parallel to the surface the are not aﬀected by the receiving medium. There is also a note on the limit of the macroscopic electrodynamics given the nanometric scale of the ﬁlms and gaps. Basu  improved on the dielectric function used by Fu  by using ionization and mobility models better suited for heavily doped silicon. The lateral shift in the direction of energy transfer was calculated in order ﬁnd a plate size that is eﬀectively inﬁnite laterally. Further elaboration on energy transfer direction is given in Ref. . Francoeur  ogranizes near-ﬁeld heat transfer between thin ﬁlms into dimensionless (ﬁlm thickeness divided by gap width) regimes. Each regime has a diﬀerent inverse gap width dependence. Furthermore, Francoeur  modeled a tungsten and In.18 Ga.82 Sb TPV system rigorously (in a way similar to Park ) but evaluated the eﬀect of higher temperature on the photocell. It was found that the the power output and the conversion eﬃciency of the system are respectively 5.83 × 105 Wm − 2 and 24.8% at 300 K, whereas these values drop to 8.09 × 104 Wm
and 3.2% at 500 K. A ~105 Wm
convective cooling coeﬃcient
is required at the photocell in order to keep it at room temperature. The heating comes from the broadband nature emission of tungsten. The point of the paper is to comment on the feasibility of implementing such cooling on a device. Very recent research eﬀorts are exploring near-ﬁeld eﬀects in metama7
terials. Joulain  was ﬁrst to consider near-ﬁeld heat transfer between metamaterials. It was found that the magnetic response of the materials give additional channels for energy transfer. Zheng  added that the enhancement may not hold for if one side is diﬀerent. Francoeur  also found enhanced transfer in metameterials consisting of a pottasium bromide host with SiC spherical inclusions. It was found that SP from TM-polarizations are not aﬀected by the size of the inclusions while SP from TE polarization require at least a one micron radius to be excited. Nefedov  suggested that by adding a metamaterial in the gap, enhanced transfer can occur in relatively larger gaps. The metamaterial converts evanescent waves into propagating waves. The paper by Rodriguez  models near ﬁeld heat transfer directly between photonic crystals by introducing a random current in ﬁnite-diﬀerence time-domain simulation. They ﬁnd a trade-oﬀ between spectral selectivity and near-ﬁeld enhancement. Also, they found that the heat transfer can be enhanced in certain symmetric conﬁgurations. An attempt has been made to exhibit the literature exhaustively but only 20 to 30 papers have been produced in the last decade that concern near-ﬁeld radiation for TPV’s. Many of the papers are authored by G. Chen, M. Pinar Menguc, Z. Zhang, and their students. Perhaps the ﬁeld is best introduced in Francour’s PhD thesis . There is a progression of sophistication of analyzed systems starting with bulk materials, then on to thin-ﬁlms, and more recently photonic crystals and metamaterials. 8
The analysis techniques used in all papers (except for Ref. ) are mathematically involved while only applicable to simple planar geometries. Furthermore, this technique requires the speciﬁcation of temperature of the receiver to determine the heat ﬂux. Ideally the calculation should only involve input heat ﬂux or the temperature of the emitter as an input to the problem. So it is expected that there will be modeling techniques that address these problems. Also, the engineering problem of optimizing a TPV device will be addressed.
 S. Basu, B. J. Lee, and Z. M. Zhang. Near-Field Radiation Calculated With an Improved Dielectric Function Model for Doped Silicon. Journal of Heat Transfer, 132(2):023302, 2010.  S. Basu, L.P. Wang, and Z.M. Zhang. Direct calculation of energy streamlines in near-ﬁeld thermal radiation. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 112(7):1149–1155, May 2011.  Philippe Ben-Abdallah, Karl Joulain, Jeremie Drevillon, and Gilberto Domingues. Near-ﬁeld heat transfer mediated by surface wave hybridization between two ﬁlms. Journal of Applied Physics, 106(4):044306, 2009.
 S.-a. Biehs, D. Reddig, and M. Holthaus. Thermal radiation and nearﬁeld energy density of thin metallic ﬁlms. The European Physical Journal B, 55(3):237–251, February 2007.  R. S. DiMatteo, P. Greiﬀ, S. L. Finberg, K. a. Young-Waithe, H. K. H. Choy, M. M. Masaki, and C. G. Fonstad. Enhanced photogenera-
tion of carriers in a semiconductor via coupling across a nonisothermal nanoscale vacuum gap. Applied Physics Letters, 79(12):1894, 2001.  Mathieu Francoeur. Near-ﬁeld radiative transfer : thermal radiation , generation and optical characterization. PhD thesis, University of Kentucky, 2010.  Mathieu Francoeur, Soumyadipta Basu, and Spencer J Petersen. Electric and magnetic surface polariton mediated near-ﬁeld radiative heat transfer between metamaterials made of silicon carbide particles. Optics express, 19(20):18774–88, September 2011.  Mathieu Francoeur, M. Mengüç, and Rodolphe Vaillon. Coexistence of multiple regimes for near-ﬁeld thermal radiation between two layers supporting surface phonon polaritons in the infrared. Physical Review B, 84(7):1–9, August 2011.  Mathieu Francoeur, M. Pinar Mengüç, and Rodolphe Vaillon. Nearﬁeld radiative heat transfer enhancement via surface phonon polaritons coupling in thin ﬁlms. Applied Physics Letters, 93(4):043109, 2008. 10
 Mathieu Francoeur, M. Pinar Mengüç, and Rodolphe Vaillon. Local density of electromagnetic states within a nanometric gap formed between two thin ﬁlms supporting surface phonon polaritons. Journal of Applied Physics, 107(3):034313, 2010.  Mathieu Francoeur, M. Pinar Mengüç, and Rodolphe Vaillon. Solution of near-ﬁeld thermal radiation in one-dimensional layered media using dyadic Green’s functions and the scattering matrix method. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 110(18):2002–2018, December 2009.  C Fu and Z Zhang. Nanoscale radiation heat transfer for silicon at diﬀerent doping levels. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49(9-10):1703–1718, May 2006.  C.J. Fu and W.C. Tan. Near-ﬁeld radiative heat transfer between two plane surfaces with one having a dielectric coating. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 110(12):1027–1036, August 2009.  Katsunori Hanamura and Kazuhiko Mori. Nano-gap TPV Generation of Electricity through Evanescent Wave in Near-ﬁeld Above Emitter Surface. In AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 890, pages 291–296. Aip, 2007.
 Lu Hu, Arvind Narayanaswamy, Xiaoyuan Chen, and Gang Chen. Near-ﬁeld thermal radiation between two closely spaced glass plates exceeding Planck’s blackbody radiation law. Applied Physics Letters, 92(13):133106, 2008.  Karl Joulain and Jérémie Drevillon. Noncontact heat transfer between two metamaterials. Physical Review B, 81(16):1–7, April 2010.  M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greﬀet. Near-ﬁeld thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. Journal of Applied Physics, 100(6):063704, 2006.  J.P. Mulet, K. Joulain, R. Carminati, and J.J. Greﬀet. Enhanced radiative heat transfer at nanometric distances. Microscale thermophysical engineering, 6(3):209–222, 2002.  Arvind Narayanaswamy and Gang Chen. Surface modes for near ﬁeld thermophotovoltaics. Applied Physics Letters, 82(20):3544, 2003.  I Nefedov. Giant radiation heat transfer through the micron gaps. Arxiv preprint arXiv:1103.0407, pages 1–4, 2011.  Robert E Nelson. A brief history of thermophotovoltaic development. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 18(5):S141–S143, May 2003.  K Park, S Basu, W King, and Z Zhang. Performance analysis of
near-ﬁeld thermophotovoltaic devices considering absorption distribu12
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer,
109(2):305–316, January 2008.  Alejandro W Rodriguez, Ognjen Ilic, Peter Bermel, Ivan Celanovic, John D Joannopoulos, Marin Soljačić, and Steven G Johnson. Frequency-Selective Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer between Photonic Crystal Slabs: A Computational Approach for Arbitrary Geometries and Materials., September 2011.  SM Rytov. Theory of Electric Fluctuations and Thermal Radiation (Air Force Cambridge Research Center, Bedford, Mass., 1959).  Nanoscale-gap Thermophotovoltaic. Thermal Impacts on the Performance of Nanoscale-Gap Thermophotovoltaic Power Generators. Energy, 26(2):686–698, 2011.  ZhiHeng Zheng and YiMin Xuan. Near-ﬁeld radiative heat transfer between general materials and metamaterials. Chinese Science Bulletin, 56(22):2312–2319, July 2011.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.