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IN MEMORY: IRIS CHANG 1998 AFTERNOON PRESENTATION
AN ADDRESS BY IRIS CHANG, AUTHOR OF THE RAPE OF NANKING March 15, 1998 U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, S.W. Washington, D.C.
Introduction: Iris Chang
On behalf of the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, it is a great pleasure for me to welcome all of you to the Museum for this special scholarly presentation. The United States Holocaust Memorial Council established the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies to promote the growth of the field of Holocaust studies, including the dissemination of scholarly output in the field, and to ensure the ongoing training of future generations of young scholars specializing in the Holocaust. Planned activities of the Center include research and publication projects, conference activity, the development of fellowship and visiting scholar opportunities, and a dense network of cooperative programs with universities in the United States and abroad. The purpose of all activities will be to expand our knowledge of what transpired in Europe during the Holocaust, to achieve a more profound appreciation of the fate of the victimsIris Chang AFP Jewish victims and all other groups who were victims of genocide and related crimes against humanity-and a deeper understanding of how and why such a monumental tragedy occurred and, unfortunately, why such crimes continue to occur today in some parts of the world. First, of course, one must be aware of what happened. The person I have the privilege of introducing to you has the distinction of bringing to light a crime that occurred not in Europe, but on the other side of the globe, in China, in 1937, several years before the outbreak of war in Europe, and before the full fury of the Holocaust was unleashed by the Nazis. She has made millions of people aware of a crime that claimed some 300,000 civilian victims in a period of weeks. She has presented us with a subject that will now be subjected to further research, hopefully with the continued involvement of our speaker, to achieve a better understanding of that tragedy, out of respect for its victims and in the hope of preventing repetitions. Iris Chang is an accomplished journalist and author. She is a journalism graduate of the University of Illinois at Urbana and the author of several books. She received graduate fellowships from the Johns Hopkins University and awards for her work from the National Science Foundation, the Pacific Cultural Foundation, and the Harry Truman Library. She is the recipient of the John T. And Catherine D. MacArthur Foundation’s Award for Peace and International Cooperation. Ms. Chang’s book The Rape of Nanking-The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II is currently in its 17th printing, which is testimony to the chord she has struck. It is rare that one can introduce a speaker who has opened the door on a new field of research. Having done so, Iris Chang provides a memorial to the victims of the Nanking massacre, with which the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum respectfully identifies itself, and deepens our understanding of history and ourselves. Ms. Chang is making two important presentations at the Museum, on "The Rape of Nanking" and on "The Historiography of the Rape of Nanking," explaining why we know so little about it. Her work of memory and research and the work of this Museum and its scholarly Center are very closely related, and that is as it should be. Paul Shapiro, Director March, 1998
LYDIA PERRY Good afternoon and welcome to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. I’m Lydia Perry, Acting Director of Public Programs. The Museum is pleased to present today’s program with Iris Chang and her book, The Rape of Nanking, The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. The program is cosponsored with the Education and Science Society and the Chinese American Forum. We are grateful to both organizations for their collaboration. I would like to thank in particular Shawai Chan and Lung Ching Chow (phonetic spellings).
The Rape of Nanking.S. The book has reviewed a previously neglected story of brutality and deep violation of human dignity. I am Lung Ching Chow. purchased. the Wall Street Journal. Thank you.ushmm. Both Ms.An Address by Iris Chang. She will then sign books. which has been long overlooked by the world. Today. Few Americans know that the Japanese invasion of China launched an 8-year war. But unfortunately. the L. the Chicago Tribune. Holocaust Memorial Museum for its sponsorship of this program. Few Americans also know that the Japanese lured. and the Associated Press. Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Iris Chang received her bachelor’s degree in journalism from the University of Illinois. The excavation of the truth forces us to recognize the holocaust of Chinese when we are still remembering the horror stories of the holocaust of European Jews. as Americans. Chang will be speaking here again on Tuesday. we are by and large blissfully ignorant of the wounds left by the Japanese during the Pacific holocaust of World War II and by this I mean the atrocities committed by the Japanese against the Chinese. Education and Science Society. the Southeast Asians. The Rape of Nanking. We also thank the U. hundreds of thousands of Asian women for sexual http://www. It is only through this recognition of this truth and the rememberings of the victim. to tell their stories too long ignored. Urbana in 1988 and received her master’s degree in writing from the Writing Seminars Graduate Program at the Johns Hopkins University in 1991. to learn from the true history.S. We all know about the horrors committed by Nazi Germany during the Jewish Holocaust and we all know about the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and how its aftermath launched a dangerous new nuclear age. Chang for her meticulous research analysis in her writing the book. from 12:30 to 2:00. A story of war-time atrocity. a shock to our historical consciousness. It heartens me to see a full audience here today. On behalf of the American -. She is also the author of Thread of the Silk Worm and has written for the New York Times. So everyone can hear. Ms. existing only in the memory of Chinese and oversea Chinese communities. committed by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1937 in Nanking. sixty years later.A. please use the microphones that we have in the aisles.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . the Washington Post and U. I welcome you. Chang will answer questions from the audience. She is the recipient of a John T. IRIS CHANG Greetings.Chinese American Forum and Education Science Society who have helped sponsor this program today. We are here today to learn a significant event in World War II. just up the stairs.A. we have a responsibility as a citizen of the world to remember. we will have a few words from Lung Ching Chow. As you see. These events have seared our collective awareness and form the scar tissue that we now recognize as world history. Please keep your questions brief and in the form of a question. And Catherine D. we have a large audience and time will not allow for much discussion there at the signing. You may call 488-6162 for a reservation. or kidnapped. McArthur Foundation Award. a court of justice. which will be available for sale in classroom B. It is a great honor to be here and I want to thank all of you for coming to the Holocaust Museum this afternoon to learn about a very ugly part of World War II history that some of you may be hearing about for the first time. We thank Ms. The Rape of Nanking has been on the New York Times best seller list for two months and on the best seller lists of the San Francisco Chronicle. Before Ms. We are here also today. as well as grants from the National Science Foundation and the Harry Truman Library. the Filipinos and even our own American citizens. Times. to acknowledge a truth. Lung Ching. and to never to allow such things happen again. Chang and the Museum have provided the three hundred thousand victims and their families a forum. LUNG CHING CHOW Good afternoon. which ultimately killed more than 19 million Chinese people. Chang. the Koreans. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 2 of 16 After formal remarks Ms. China. Vice President of the co-sponsoring organization. Chang as historian and author of the book. We welcome Ms. a Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies event.
the subject of my new book. An American missionary who was there said it was hell on earth. one could barely see the opposite bank of the river. in other words. if you add up the World War II civilian casualties for three countries -. dragging bodies from the mountain of corpses and throwing them into the Yangtze River. as one Japanese official put it. sadistic and excruciatingly painful circumstances. in a matter of 6 to 8 weeks. crucified. Those in the second row were forced to dump the severed bodies into the river before they themselves were beheaded. in December 1937. About 50 to 100 people were toiling there. The pantomime was over. that would still be less than the number of people who died in Nanking.England. as in a pantomime. until you place this in the context of World War II history. But. the Japanese machine-gunned tens of thousands of Chinese men. The military had issued a kill-all-captives order at the time and the Japanese soldiers carried out this order. The killing went on nonstop from morning until night. 300. They were skinned alive. There was a degree of torture and suffering in Nanking that almost defies human comprehension. In their zeal to find Chinese soldiers. or sprayed them with gasoline and set them on fire. What I’m going to do this afternoon is use The Rape of Nanking. Their blood would weigh 1. These bodies would reach the height of a 74-story building.000 persons had been executed.200 tons and their bodies would fill 2. used them for decapitation contests or bayonet practice. but systematically raped. Here are some excerpts from their dispatches to show how their shock spilled into print. This was a cold.for the entire war. Rat-a-tat machine-gun fire could be heard. Even small children were not spared: babies were tossed in the air and bayoneted on the way down. there was the dark silhouette of a mountain made of dead bodies. and within weeks the Japanese not only looted and burned the defenseless city. Three hundred thousand people might not seem like a huge number until you add some visual data to the statistic. A massacre that came as a directive from some of the highest levels of Japanese power. as just one example to illustrate what the Japanese did in many of the regions that they conquered. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 3 of 16 slavery for their Imperial Army -. the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the city of Nanking. but there were Chinese men who died under the most slow.000 Chinese civilians. pricked to death by needles and even cannibalized. France and Belgium -. tired of killing in http://www. or thrown into vats of boiling water. The coolies fell backward into the river and were swallowed by the raging currents. And during the first few days of the massacre. perpetrated against innocent Chinese civilians and unarmed POWs after the city had fallen to the Japanese. then the capital of China. On the pier was a field of glistening mud under the moon’s dim light.000 people might not seem like a huge number. they would stretch from Nanking to the city of Hangchow. some of them still alive and moaning weakly. as some Japanese may claim today. Men were hanged by their tongues on iron hooks. The bodies dripped blood. The next day. buried them alive. the coolies had done their job of dragging corpses and the soldiers lined them up along the river. Emie Masatocki.500 railroad cars stacked on top of each other. Some of these executions were efficient. wrote: On Hsiakwan wharves. the Japanese Imperial Army killed rickshaw pullers. their limbs twitching. The orgy of violence was so brutal in Nanking that even the Nazis in the city were shocked. One historian has estimated that if the dead from Nanking were to link hands. numbers do not tell the full story. even though most of the Chinese POWs had thrown away their arms and surrendered and posed absolutely no threat to the Japanese. Also. unfortunately. but they were only able to kill 2. In the dark. Sixty years ago.women who were subjected to some of the most horrifying experiences inflicted on military prostitutes in history. The slaughter was so systematic that even Japanese reporters on the scene were horrified. So. a Japanese military correspondent. murdered and tortured more than 300.000 persons in this way. systematic massacre. In fact the death toll of Nanking exceeds the total civilian casualty count of several European countries combined for all of World War II. spanning a distance of some 200 miles. Wow! That’s all blood! After a while. More people died in Nanking than from the atomic blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined. The laborers were busy working in total silence. This was not. or buried waist down in the soil so that they could be torn apart by German Shepherd dogs.ushmm.An Address by Iris Chang. A Japanese officer at the scene estimated that 20. just one Chinese city. a massacre that was perpetrated in the heat of battle against Chinese guerrilla fighters or secret Chinese gangs. police officers. or nailed to boards and run over by army tanks. laborers and other men whom they merely suspected were soldiers. Yukio Omata. wrote the following: Those in the first row were beheaded.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . Women were nailed to walls or impaled after being raped. another correspondent.
I saw the victims with my own eyes -. knocked down and beat up. Now.5 square mile area. the rape of Nanking did more than destroy the lives of individual women in Nanking. Rabe was not only the head of the Zone Committee. but encouraged it. Now. We found corpses of women on beer glasses and others who had been lanced by bamboo shoots. Did they die in battle.with splendid colors. were raped by as many as 20. close to Shanghai. There is plenty of evidence to show that the Japanese officers told soldiers that it was perfectly acceptable to rape as long as they disposed of the evidence afterwards. And the rape of Nanking is. the worst mass rape of World War II history and probably the second worse mass rape of world history. for years during the war. If only I had color film … what a shocking shot that would have been. There were girls under the age of 8 and women over the age of 70 who were raped and then. Two of them raked a cross-fire at the lined-up prisoners. a group of some 20 western foreigners who designated a 2. Triggers were pulled. This safety zone would eventually harbor 300. as neutral territory off limits to the Japanese. a German national and Siemens company executive. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 4 of 16 this fashion. The prisoners fled into the water. or rearing a half-Japanese child she could never love? No doubt many Chinese women simply could not make that choice and for months after the great rape a German diplomat noted that uncounted numbers of women were taking their own lives by flinging themselves into the Yangtze River. children under the age of 8. single-handedly violated more than 20 women in the city. rat-a-tat-tat. The Japanese Imperial Army raped great-grandmothers over the age of 80. many of these comfort women. Ironically enough. but no one was able to make it to the other shore. Now. which trapped hundreds of thousand of Asian women into sexual slavery to the Japanese army. were forced to serve in what the Japanese government called “facilities of sexual comfort” to stop troops from raping women in regions they controlled in China. Yoshiaki Yoshimi discovered concrete evidence in a Japanese government archives that the system was indeed authorized by officials of the Japanese high command. they set up machine guns. so that I could be personally convinced that all of these reports had touched upon the truth. in the most brutal way possible. All in all. It is believed that the Japanese rape of women in Nanking had caused such a public outcry among western nations at the time. but I must point out that the Japanese army officials in Nanking not only sanctioned this mass rape.000.000 women. or of the woman who faced the choice of murdering her own child.ushmm. without a doubt. I won’t burden you with any more of the gruesome details of the mass rape. they sliced open little girls who were simply not built for rape and even gang-raped pregnant women before tearing fetuses from their bellies. Can you imagine the agony of the woman who survived weeks of gang rape by the Japanese soldiers. disposing of the actual rape victims afterwards. 30 or 50 men a night. a Japanese professor by the name of Dr. so. a Japanese photojournalist. only to find herself pregnant afterwards. or were they killed after being taken prisoner? Or were they slaughtered civilians? I remember there was a pond just outside of Nanking. Untold http://www. attempted to run away from them. wrote: Before the “Ceremony of Entering the City.000 women and girls in Nanking and some estimate that the figure could be as high as 80. but also the head of the local Nazi party in Nanking.000 Chinese refugees and protect them from being massacred by the Japanese.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . One man who saw the mutilated remains of many of these raped victims was John Rabe. But. The Japanese established their first comfort station in the Nanking region. every night. It also resulted in the creation of a giant underground system of military prostitution. The Japanese officers also joined in with the rape with the Japanese soldiers and even one of the top commanders. some of them still teenagers or children when captured. which has earned him the title of being “the Oskar Schindler of China. Now. Rabe was one of the organizers of the Nanking Safety Zone Committee. And.An Address by Iris Chang. within the city. They would continue by raping the women and girls and killing anything and anyone that offered any resistance. It looked like a sea of blood -. which meant. after killing most of the men in the city in this manner. that the Japanese government tried to control the libido of the army by starting their own prostitution ring. but many also from other Asian countries.I talked with some of them right before their deaths and had their bodies brought to the morgue at the Kulo hospital. most of them Korean. Decades later the Japanese tried to insist that these brothels were run by private entrepreneurs and not the wartime government. shortly after the Nanking massacre in 1938.” I saw 50 to 100 bodies drifting down the Yangtze River. the Japanese then turned their attention on the Chinese women. ironically.” Let me read to you about what Rabe wrote about the Japanese treatment of Chinese people in his report to Adolf Hitler: Groups of 3-10 marauding soldiers would begin by traveling through the city and robbing whatever there was to steal. Ohta Hisao. or simply happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. of course. an estimated 200. Kawano Hiroki. But the full effects of the rape can not be measured on a tally sheet of statistics. the Japanese raped more than 20.
only intensified if the Japanese schoolboy decided to become a soldier. it is difficult to fathom exactly why the Japanese were so brutal in Nanking as to completely disregard the value of human life. But. The Japanese committed so many atrocities like this. in Nanking and elsewhere. The true reasons behind the rape of Nanking remain one of the great mysteries of world history. Vicious hazing in the Japanese army usually squelched from these boys any residual spirit of individualism. beat them severely with heavy wooden rods. such as in the notorious Unit 731 medical laboratory in Manchuria. In such a brutal climate it is easy to see how months of pent-up frustration. and caused hundreds of millions of dollars in damages. that it is impossible to mention them all in a single speech. The atmosphere of violence. their remains given to other comfort women to eat. when the battle of Shanghai alone lasted that long. in which they fed or injected human guinea pigs with cyanide. tear down the fire escapes and then set the structures on fire. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 5 of 16 numbers of these women. within the Japanese soldier. And the Japanese conquered Shanghai. Some women were raped by red hot iron rods so that the Japanese could sterilize them from venereal diseases. And it was said that the Japanese army lusted for revenge as it marched from Shanghai to Nanking. Japanese officers and older soldiers slapped new recruits for almost no reason at all. 200 Chinks. In school. performing horrendous experiments and even vivisection without anesthesia on Chinese and American prisoners. Some were hacked to small pieces. In the business districts of Nanking. And under their influence. snake poison. it destroyed Japanese dreams of an easy victory. In the 1920s and early 1930s. the pressure to conform to authority. Japan became an intensely militaristic culture. But in Unit 731 in Manchuria. they killed even more people. The Japanese soldier. the Japanese operated a secret medical lab. which was written by a former recruit. Japanese society was reeling from severe economic depression and political instability. people were willing to listen.An Address by Iris Chang.” took their own lives when they heard their destiny. And often before they torched these buildings. as a warning to those who dared defy the Japanese Imperial Army. Japanese teachers instilled in young boys hatred and contempt for Chinese people. This training included killing exercises employed by the Japanese army to desensitize soldiers to acts of torture. His teacher slapped him and yelled “why are you crying about one lousy frog. Japanese soldiers loaded loot from department stores and companies into their army trucks before setting the buildings on fire. frustrated by Chinese resistance. But. In Nanking. come up with various theories. Let us place this boyhood in the context of the times. You should also know the Joseph Mengele-like medical experimentation that the Japanese practiced on the Nanking civilians after the massacre and elsewhere in China. The following story. One possible reason is rooted in the soldier’s early boyhood training. after all. I only have time to mention a few of the worst crimes against humanity. over the years. Japanese soldiers were even seen laughing hysterically and taking photographs. I can’t even go into all the looting and arson and property destruction that was practiced systematically by the Japanese army in Nanking. or rolled over nail-studded boards when they protested their treatment. All of these stories. even libraries. or forced them to perform humiliating tasks such as washing the underwear of superiors. They killed about 10 people weekly in this manner and then incinerated the bodies. And they have speculated that the Japanese. germs and lethal gasses.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . to prepare them psychologically for a future invasion of the mainland. but scholars have.” A second reason may lie in the dehumanizing training that the Japanese soldiers were forced to undergo. The treatment of these comfort women is another untold horror that could fill volumes. had endured in silence whatever his superior had chosen to deal out to him. And I can only offer several theories as to why it happened. beg the question of why this happened in the first place. And now the Chinese had to take whatever he chose to deal out to them.ushmm. only after a protracted battle in the winter of 1937. Still. called Ei 1644. under the direction of Japanese officers. they burned down at least a third of the city. when you grow up. just so you know. One historian wrote how a Japanese schoolboy in the 1930s burst into tears when he was ordered to dissect a frog. which inculcated him for violence. and countless others died from disease or murder. could have exploded into uncontrollable violence in Nanking. whom the Japanese called “public toilets. The panicked civilians trapped inside would climb to the rooftops before jumping off to their deaths. finally. wanted to make an example of the capital of China. of atrocity books. they would force nearby civilians into these buildings. of course. you’ll have to kill 100. When ultranationalist fanatics urged expansionism into China and even world domination to cure Japanese economic woes. One problem was that many of the top Japanese officials seriously believed that they could conquer all of China within three months of invasion. is typical of the training that they receive and I will read it: http://www. We will never know exactly what transpired behind the scenes.
In my heart. He was taught that loyalty was as heavy as a mountain and that his own life was as light as a feather. he had slumped down into the pit. Next to the emperor. I make this point because I believe that the Japanese are not uniquely capable of these kinds of atrocities. What is unique about Japan is that it is one of the few countries from World War II that has evaded punishment for its crimes. And so.directed by the lieutenant’s almost hysterical cursing -. who is greater. Otani -. But the Japanese. “You cowards. Now. letters. When I opened my eyes again. One former Japanese soldier said he had been reared to believe that the Japanese emperor was the natural holy ruler of the world. have yet to deliver one sincere apology to the survivors of the Nanking massacre or their families. They were ordinary men who were handed rifles and bayonets and put under the extraordinary stresses and circumstances of war. and -. torturers or rapists.Ueno -. But to a shocking degree the Japanese have escaped the moral and financial responsibility that their counterparts in Germany had to face over and over again. step forward. The Germans. And many of them became model citizens once they returned to Japan. the Chicago Daily News. he told me. because it was exploited by the Japanese army to cheapen all human life. aside from these killing contests and killing exercises. The lieutenant lost his temper.An Address by Iris Chang. To this very day. several Japanese officials have openly proclaimed that the massacre never happened at all. have paid the equivalent of 60 billion U. Be brave. Chinese and Japanese. The first rape happened 60 years ago. all devoted considerable space at the time to news coverage of the massacre and newsreel footage of the horror still exists. So. government dispatches. the Associated Press.Tajima! (My God. have openly impeded efforts of textbook authors to do so and have even censored details of the Nanking atrocities and other wartime crimes from their school textbooks. Even more disturbing is the discrepancy in public education in both countries on the event. who would find it today next to impossible to believe they had once been ruthless murderers. what I find chilling about the rape of Nanking is that many of the perpetrators were not.” he shouted. And certainly not one penny in reparations to the victims of Nanking. I begged his pardon. citizens respected by their neighbors. then I’ll order you. But. I found thousands upon thousands of unpublished primary-source documentations on the rape of Nanking: diaries. dollars to their victims. http://www.ushmm. even though the wartime government gave the order to commit them. No one moved. The second rape is ongoing and it is the rape of history and justice. They were generated contemporaneously with the event in four different languages: English. And they will continue to pay several more billion by the year 2005.Furukawa -. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 6 of 16 One day Second Lieutenant Ono said to us. The Germans are required by law to teach the history of the Jewish Holocaust in their schools. psychopaths or diabolical serial killer types. The Rape of Nanking is really the story of two rapes. for example. “Not one of you is fit to call himself a Japanese soldier. The Germans have made profuse apologies to their victims. Now. German. eyewitness reports. Also. And that the greatest honor for a Japanese soldier in war was to come home dead. The Japanese. we must also factor in the role of religion.with my eyes shut and the lieutenant’s curses in my ears. all human life was meaningless. because they didn’t even value their own lives. I think all people are capable of them if put under the right social and cultural circumstances. But the Japanese. I plunged the bayonet into the petrified Chinese.I walked slowly toward the terror-stricken Chinese standing beside the pit -. the New York Times. And that the Japanese was racially superior to the rest of the world and that it was the divine destiny of Japan to control Asia. And in the course of my research alone. those who wish to volunteer for killing practice. me too!) I raised my bayoneted gun with trembling hands.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . Life magazine. on the other hand. “You have never killed anyone yet. he had no doubt that “the emperor” was the correct answer. when a local Christian priest asked him. “Murderer! Criminal!” I called myself. there is no lack of evidence on the Nanking massacre. And there are politicians in Japan who have gone on the record to deny that any of these atrocities happened at all. God or the emperor of Japan. So. In fact. The religious component is important. but only as something of rather less value than a dog or cat. and -. today we shall have some killing practice.” And he began to call out names. not just Chinese life. have paid almost nothing. You must not consider the Chinese as a human being. Now. much overblown.S. I want to stress here. or dismiss it as a minor incident. Readers Digest. And even with this law. One Japanese soldier told me that it was easy for him and his comrades to take Chinese lives. or other Japanese atrocities of World War II. far from mandating the study of its World War II aggression.the grave he helped to dig. There are literally hundreds of survivors still alive in Nanking today who can testify about the massacre there. in contrast. by nature. no one will volunteer? Well. the Japanese take no responsibility for these atrocities. we still have a problem with neo-Nazism and people in Germany denying that the Holocaust ever happened.
An Address by Iris Chang. Thank you. tend to have a Euro-centric view of history.S. why wasn’t it? Was it because it was Asia. And. cold war politics. such as the rape of Nanking. to force countries like Japan to face up to their past and to try to prevent atrocities like the rape of Nanking from ever happening again.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . because it needed a stable base to counter the forces of Communism in Asia. the entire royal family in Japan was not prosecuted. the subjects of the diabolic medical experiments inflicted on live American and Chinese prisoners by Japanese doctors in the notorious Unit 731 laboratory in Manchuria. I’ve had dozens and dozens of people told me these stories and missionaries. et cetera. certainly. I am deeply touched and moved by the response that this book has received and I think that many more books of this nature will be written soon. I can tell you later on. have a moral responsibility to seek out the truth. It was hidden and my question. I think that may have played. The Japanese worship of these criminals is considered by many to be the moral and political equivalent of moving statues of Hitler and his cronies into the biggest cathedral of Berlin and worshipping them as gods. a yellow country. that the western powers were in uproar. One in twenty-five Americans died in Nazi captivity. but I think that that is changing now. I find all of this sickening of course. it was written in New York Post -. I never heard a thing about the rape of Nanking. Iris Chang Thank you. And I think it is behavior that would never be tolerated if its parallel was practiced in Europe. nor the Republic of China in Taiwan really wanted to push the issue. this contributed to. And I think that we. I believe the truth will prevail. a Democrat from Illinois. as Americans.New York Times. and demanded in the bill both a formal apology and reparations for the victims. So. But. One in three died under Japanese captivity. I think that. a role in the neglect of this episode in world history. it is that we. Congressman William Lipinski. so. I urge any American with a conscience to help turn this bill into law. they were now pitted against each other and needed Japan for economic and political support.ushmm. Last year. because ironically. Why wasn’t there a bigger outcry? We know the League of Nations was very weak. in the United States. I was in Nanking on the day of the surrender. I’m honored that you took the time to come here this afternoon. And the worship of these men is not only morally reprehensible. Chang. but the source of a tremendous anguish to victims of the Japanese throughout Asia. In the end. I want to congratulate you for the honesty of your research. censorship of materials and suppression of the truth in Japan. but it might not be too late to seek justice for some of the surviving victims. as human beings. my question. this bill will not only help Asians who endured outrages. all of you. I want to thank you for your research and memory of the tragic victims of Nanking. the Korean comfort women. the U. I have followed the rape of Nanking and the sinking of the Panai (phonetic spelling) for sixty years. If there is just one thing that you take home from my discussion here this afternoon. et cetera. after the war. And. But. Iris Chang Thank you. So. The rape of Nanking is only one event in a long list of atrocities mentioned in the bill. We have to keep in mind that after 1949. I wrote a college essay on it at that time. but American veterans who survived conditions in Japan far worse than even those in Nazi camps. you mentioned during the 1937. people of China. Now. I’ve waited all these years for somebody to tell the story. If passed. Any other questions? http://www. I think. the time of racism. And so. After graduating college I was two years with the United States Army in China and with G three work. I think it’s a disgrace that this episode of history has been neglected for so long. so much. the entire war-time bureaucracy of Japan. Audience Member First of all. neither the People’s Republic of China. in fact. I was a child born in Shanghai and as a child during the Japanese occupation. 1945. And I thank you. These criminals were men who carried the Japanese master race militarism to the point where it resulted in the Japanese soldiers seeing the lives and sensibilities of other races as having no greater consequence than the suffering of insects. Audience Member Ms. I was the first American to be in Chi Ling (phonetic spelling) College after the occupation. then sought to empower Japan. Thank you. And other victims mentioned in the bill include those who were subjected to the Bataan death march. Also. was the major culprit. The truth is indestructible and the truth recognizes no national boundaries or political allegiances. introduced a bill denouncing the Japanese for their crimes. because there didn’t seem to be any uproar and I lived in China quite some time after the war and never heard about it. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 7 of 16 What I find the most outrageous of all is the fact that the Japanese continue to worship their class A war criminals in the Yasukuni shrine in Tokyo. virtually remained in tact after the war too.
author of the Rape of Nanking Page 8 of 16 Audience Member Hi. in the teaching of -. on its own initiate. I -. I think it would take those kinds of Japanese nationals. Audience Member That involved.Imperial Army played in Asia. when they were taught in the 90s that the U. Iris Chang Yes. I really think that it’s best left up to a Filipino American author. several hundred thousand Filipinos also being butchered. What’s very unfortunate is. personally. I. I think. And I think -. file class A action lawsuits against the Japanese from American courts.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . I was wondering if you could make any comments and also if there are any reference works on that. I think. There is a vocal minority of Japanese nationals who are risking their lives even to pressure the government to do so. Iris Chang I think it’s a very important subject. from Americans who -. that by and large. would like to see the story come out and some people have suggested that I write it. I just want to thank you for writing this book. victims of the Nanking massacre and other atrocities. I felt so strongly about it that every time Filipino authors came to listen to me speak. And I hope that will change. That also involved -Iris Chang You’re talking about the rape of Manila? Audience Member Yes. I have two quick questions. I think.I remember reading that Japanese school children. or what organization will spearhead this effort to demand the Japanese government to acknowledge their doings? That is. or Chinese American group -Iris Chang Uh-huh.to -. I think. Because. who has battled the ministry of education for three decades to try to stop them from censoring textbooks on World War II atrocities. the first question they had was. http://www.I’m not too optimistic that the Japanese government will.are you in seeing the Japanese government one day acknowledging what they did in Nanking and all over Asia? And secondly. Also. do you see any Chinese group. Actually. who is a textbook author and historian. the Japanese public remains ignorant of the -. Audience Member -.to undertake this effort? Iris Chang I think if pressure is brought to bear in Japan it will have to come from overseas Chinese people.who may support the Lipinski bill.they include the supporters of Anaga Supero (phonetic spelling).to bring about change. you should write a book on the subject. when he was visiting San Francisco. Another untold horror story that -.ushmm. I don’t think there’s been a very popular book about the rape of Manila in English. And there was another massacre that occurred in Manila in March.An Address by Iris Chang. under Mafahito Homa (phonetic spelling) and I was wondering if you had some comments on that massacre and if there’s been anything written about that.of history. Chang. But. Their -.that really needs to be brought to light. which side one. so I hear. had been at war with Japan. people with that kind of courage to -. Ms. had been posed to him by Japanese college students. I say. which side won. And so. And I had the opportunity to talk to a Japanese psychology professor at a university about this. how they’ve neglected this. And he said that same question. it’s -. 1945.it’s appalling.S. who are now starting to. I think your scholarship helps us younger Chinese/Americans make that link to what happened over there to what’s happening now and to understand our parents. This is all happening now.I don’t know -. How hopeful do you -. come forward to pay reparations to make these apologies. Audience Member I was aware of the rape in Nanking. So.of the role that the Japanese Imperial -. Also. who.
hi. Audience Member First of all. hoping to do so.that when you compare the Japanese language edition of the Rabe diaries whit the actual original German text. in both this country and Japan. And the main reason why it hasn’t happened is because no Japanese publisher has yet stepped forward to purchase the translation rights for the book. which -. that there were no gas chambers at all in Europe. I was a year behind you at University High School in Champaign. actually not been translated into Japanese. maybe this is what’s going to have to happen here. not just at the black-listing of certain books by publishing houses. but the means of torture. was actually black listed by all major Japanese publishers as well. actually what has happened in the last few years. I think certainly they should mention the statistics. that more than three hundred thousand people were killed. if you anticipate any problems getting it distributed widely in Japan? Iris Chang The book has. Audience Member I took my Ph. And so. My question is this: I understand. we should understand the scale of the massacre.ushmm. Dan Shapiro I was -. let me as a fellow alumni to congratulate you. the question was. is that San Francisco has mandated the inclusion of the history of the rape of Nanking and other wartime atrocities in their -.that there has been some tampering within the diaries.very proud. Also.you make the important observation that textbooks are so critical in helping young people learn about the world that they live in. before probably you were born. but sometimes they -they obscure the numbers.in their school curricula and that’s what the school board has done. If you could bring together textbook publishers from China. So.some now do mention the massacre. thank you. Thank you. radical house in Japan to publish his book in Japanese and it became an instant best seller. David Caplan. that the Japanese -. The person who made this observation is actually being -. I think too.of the right wing. And after writing a critical article. Iris Chang Oh. for his assertion that no gas chambers were used to destroy the Jews in Europe. which is incorrect. what recommendation. but also the use of intimidation by -. but they also inserted phrases that weren’t there.which actually I had found by tracking down the descendants. Dan Shapiro I just wanted to say hi and you’ve made your old classmate -Iris Chang Great to see you. And we hope that this will happen throughout the country. And this didn’t surprise me. even though numerous Japanese scholars. One thing that is actually quite alarming is that the Rabe diaries.D.we have to look. would you make to them about how they render this story? Iris Chang Well. that not only did the publisher delete some phrases. I mean. that there has to be some information in those books that reveal not only the scale. And what’s -what’s interesting. well. Japan and the United States.An Address by Iris Chang. specifically. not just -. Because. They’ll say. in Japan today. as well as high school students from those countries. if there are any plans to translate the book into Japanese and if and when it is.by the legal system in Japan to suppress critics of -. And it took a very small. only fifty thousand to a hundred thousand. So. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 9 of 16 Audience Member You make the -. have been translated now into Japanese. And I have been told by numerous Japanese scholars that this -. left wing. you know.is facing a defamation lawsuit from another scholar. you know. because the scholar who discovered the discrepancy had criticized a Japanese revisionist historian.my name is Dan Shapiro. a week’s time.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . have contacted me. So. who wrote a ground breaking book on the Aucusa (phonetic spelling). a giant law suit. the Vatican is going to issue a http://www. textbooks -. we have to look at how. he faced. I think. I took my -Iris Chang This is quite a reunion. Dan Shapiro -.
I don’t know if that’s true. whether they have an opinion about it.what can I do -. Thank you. as you could imagine. he had to go into hiding. Iris Chang Thank you. So. as an individual level. My question is that and also thank you very much for bringing up the Korean comfort women.who come here for studying or for some work and always there’s a question what -.this book. And so. because. Audience Member Thank you. or even the second one is that it. the Chinese people being massacred? Iris Chang Western missionaries. received so many death threats. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 10 of 16 report on its role in the holocaust in Europe. I think that the efforts of the international safety zone committee in Nanking is one example of the heroism that we saw among American missionaries who were in the committee. what might have happened to them? Iris Chang Okay. our country like to pay for everything.of the museum. And my -. what -.An Address by Iris Chang. There must be many of these women. And that’s my question. So.the opinion.the Korean people and Chinese people are so soft and they don’t have any justice to fight against it. Bob Carola My name is Bob Carola (phonetic spelling).I mean. And secondly. they said. and if so. you know. was looking for examples of heroism among Japanese soldiers who may have been killed in trying to save Chinese lives. I’ve come up with a lot of Japanese friends that -. even though a lot of woman dying. the thing is. I -.of a Chinese woman who had been raped by Japanese soldiers. http://www. Maybe I just didn’t look hard enough and maybe these stories will emerge. did you encounter any accounts of Nanking women who did raise half Japanese children. you know. My question is: What is the role of ministry. or trying to stop the slaughter. It’s very difficult to find Japanese veterans willing to step forward and discuss what they did during World War II. My father actually fought in the Pacific during World War II. I would -.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 .we have never in the history of -. And why don’t you fight at that time and to just bring those things at this now and you even ask more money for those things we did. The question I have is. And those are already passed and I don’t have anything to do with.I have two questions that. I think. they even raise question that -. but I could not find one. as well as other nationals. there’s not a huge database of stories to tap into. or if. but they discouraged me from doing that. for those. That’s -. And we -. maybe. I. but those women died. I too was looking for some story of a Japanese -. western ministry in China at that time to help. running advertisements in the Nanking papers.was also a high school history teacher. it may very well be true. And do you agree with those -. So. I want to make friends.I personally did not come across this. And he’s surrounded himself with an arsenal of weapons in his home right now. I suggested.what they have thought about.I would very much like to know the answer to that question. It’s -.or maybe -. But. And the other question is. who may have given birth to a half-Japanese child and who had reared him. when I contacted the officials at the Nanking Massacre Museum to find these women. It’s been widely known in Korea. we don’t know of any such women. Unfortunately. myself. thank you very much for your great humanity work on your -. ever had a woman step forward to say that her son or daughter was the result of rape. that is a subject has to be left up to other scholars. Iris Chang Well. the first Japanese veteran to public apologize for his role during the rape of Nanking. but I think that there is a tremendous story that’s just waiting to be told. they come up from the class and they made public. He’s also -. In fact.well. bring up this question. but also have realized that I probably take for granted how much my generation is probably is unaware of the history in both hemispheres. but it’s -. in the individual level. Shira Azuma (phonetic spelling). you said? Audience Member Uh-huh.that’s a field.ushmm. I think I grew up hearing about Nanking as well as other stories from the war. Audience Member Iris. in any of your research. but it’s very difficulty to that level -Iris Chang Right.it’s a -. I’m glad you asked the question.thank you so much for bringing it up here too.
While I was doing this field.I’m certainly aware of this community and. Angie Hall Okay. I mean. And I -. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 11 of 16 Audience Member -. I’m doing a Jewish studies.no. about the Jewish community in Shanghai.in these country called the Global Alliance for Preserving the History of World War II in Asia. The Chinese have also created their own museum in Nanking to commemorate. It is often very hard to find those in Japan who -.An Address by Iris Chang.oh. there are those in Japan who. Nazis even and. I noticed that there are some Japanese who were in Eastern Europe and they rescued some Jewish people. I realized -.I believe that there may soon be a move about Shanghai made from -. I -Angie Hall -. http://www. you had -.it’s -.to create a monument for it. no race.nationality and no religion. even. is planning to put out an epic film starring Kevin Costner. I wanted to know if you could offer an explanation. becoming -. you had. So. during World War II.definitely in Washington DC there are representatives of people from that organization here this afternoon and also there are people all over the world who are working together.ushmm. no national -. if you have already come across some of the Jewish witnesses in America who used to be in China and how is your experience? Iris Chang Well. On the one hand they are rescuers. to remember the Rape of Nanking. you know. I mean. So.is friends with. I think.who are willing to work with peace activists in this country to bring these issues to the forefront. I’ve -.it’s wonderful that the government there has taken the effort to preserve the archival materials and -.I’ve heard -. as I said before. through -Iris Chang Oh. I think that in the history of every war you’re going to find some courageous individuals who are going to stand against the mob and the grain of society to do what they believe is -. I’m glad you brought up this point. on the other hand. I’m kind of confused by this Jewish -.I’ve heard -. Actually.I’ve actually -. maybe. you know. There’s even some talk. at what point in your research you may have seen it and whether it had any impact upon your own thinking of the -. Japanese nationalist. global terms.is right. in -. They’ve got chapters. are actually risking their lives to make sure that -. Yes. But.it’s very sad to see how some people react to this issue in Japan.that I can even challenge them. Audience Member We have this impressive museum here to remember the holocaust and your presence here suggests that we have to think of it in worldwide. And the second question you had was.you know -. There is an organization in -. Iris Chang Uh-huh.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 .I came across some holocaust experience. a Mike Medavoi (phonetic spelling). to save these Jewish people from holocaust. Iris Chang Exactly. And I think it’s -. as a rescuer.so they were seen by. actually.of the Rape of Nanking and historical memory? Iris Chang I did see the Rape of Nanking Museum in Nanjing. I’ve -. That this kind of tendency recognizes of course. I think. And I wonder if you’ve seen this and if not.a film director who grew up in that community. And also. Yeah. They’re usually in the minority. Angie Hall My name is Angie Hall. even the whole world.that the comfort women get some form of publicity or justice. I could maybe help give you some names of people you can contact. and I think that soon we may be learning more about this when that film comes out. they are killers. And so -. amount wealthy Beverly Hills Chinese of creating a Pacific Holocaust Museum in Los Angeles.you know -. But. you know. Japanese psychology at that period. why not? And if you have.on the subject and that they have made some effort to -. they are out there and maybe afterwards I can direct you. And that’s why we do see heroism often among Japanese people. And then there is another small Jewish community in Shanghai. whether.your research experience.
And then they return to normal life. Audience Member Thank you. I know that they are concerned. I would just like ask you. I think the situation is changing for the better. because usually people don’t want to hear about atrocities. it’s very hard to find out what their motives are. That’s a big question. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 12 of 16 So. very much. Thank you. As a holocaust survivor of the Jewish Holocaust in Europe. There is a strong organization in support of our mission. Congress at Cannon House Office Building from June the 1st through June 13th. while the United States.so kind of wealthy. because the -. including you. Japanese reporters. I talked a lot of reporters.An Address by Iris Chang.announcement that there are going to be exhibit. Audience Member Since there was a question from the floor concerning comfort women.there’s a witness in this audience and his name is Gregory Rodriguez. But. who -. two weeks.and they permitted a demonstration of more than a hundred thousand people in -. I recommend that you do visit the memorial hall for the victims of the Japanese in Nanking. I mean. remembrance is our only hope. anyway. which is.the Tiananmen Square massacre created an atmosphere of paranoia in China. Iris. two weeks. It’s -.killing was normal. Leah Silverstein My name is Leah Silverstein. But. they apologize for the Hiroshima/Nagasaki bombing? http://www.I mean. for the address of violation against humanity. When I was listening to you. Their first question is.in Nanking to commemorate the -. we also saw the Germans.S.C. Namely. I am president of Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues. Iris Chang Thank you. But. I agree. you know. A few years ago. during World War II by Japanese. I first heard about the rape of Nanking from my Chinese friends. Iris Chang Thank you.and I’ve -. we may soon see. I thank you very much for writing the book. for standing up and for talking and for your excellent presentation. I think they were very cautions about scholars who came to Nanking to do research. I --. I know. His father was captured by the Japanese -.it’s open to the public. Audience Member Hi. about jeopardizing their trade relations with Japan and they do have literally billions of dollars of Japanese investments in China and that’s certainly a consideration. if they’re so -. and I want to make a brief announcement -.to the question.ushmm. personally. they’ve had that Nanking Massacre Museum for the last ten years and they -. if you could recognize. The same thing happened to us -. I could identify with certain very important points that you make. he is -. as if nothing has happened. Yes. exhibit at U. your mission and my mission. Hello. there’s -. concerning. And then they returned to their normal life and they got away with it.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . so much. how hard it is to talk about these things. again.the deaths of the -. for all of you who may visit Nanking the future. how come that civilized people do such things. I mean. is with him and we have somebody here showing that unit seven thirty-one did experiment with Americans. And I said to myself. If I may. Yes. the killing squads. Iris. why should Japan apologize for their atrocity. I do have a short question and then I do want. of course. for including and addressing comfort women issues in your lecture. I want to answer about -. Paul and Ann Ho (phonetic spelling) and then I saw your book and I browsed through it. But now.I -. So.by the Japanese during the war and sent to Manchuria and he can tell you the story better than I do. who were going around and were -.you know -. And I do have a question for you. how good it is that people stand up and talk about these things. why does the Chinese government in Beijing remain silent now. And that’s why it’s extremely important that the whole civilized world stands up and fights against every holocaust that happened and we hope that it will never happen again. Iris Chang Thank you. Audience Member Iris. some action taken by the PRC. for all we know. highlighting comfort women issues and I want to extend invitations to all. when they don’t need the Japanese money.of -. So.why do the Chinese government keep quiet now? Iris Chang It’s often very difficult for me to understand what the motives are of all the Chinese officials.the victims in Nanking. here in Washington D.only time can tell.his father is a witness. Gregory.
This -. And I think it deserves so. I think all our Chinese people will appreciate your good job.its a very controversial one. like. as for. very much. to report on TV tonight. Audience Member Okay. these are two separate issues. capital city.we now clear -.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . can be liable in a court of international law. Because. American people attend this lecture. before blowing -. Iris Chang Thank you.ushmm. that fundamentally. Right. As a Chinese. after reading your books.you know -. I think that the more discussion that we have on these kinds of issues. the criminal action. I would say that -.he -. And so. I really appreciate them. There was a television program called. because it’s very frightening when we consider.I read your book and I always think Chinese need to speak out and you are the one right now.not very clear for the Nanking massacres. this is their job. you know. it’s another example of the use of the legal system to intimidate those who dare speak out against the government. Thank you. Iris Chang Actually.great future. of course. My major. We know there is a number of Chinese people attend this afternoon lecture.the soldier. the one who documented this. bring some witness to talk about their experience. http://www. Chinese newspaper last week. Audience Member I wish you have a great -.that you really have to -. I very appreciate your great job. then that superior officer. Japanese is -. But. Yes. there’s a Japanese soldier.you know -. if this story is indeed true. the better. of course. we all tears and crying. riddled it with bullets. whether it was necessary.all I can think of is. And I don’t know -. I don’t think they know that or not. he’s facing a liable lawsuit. So. I think that they should arrange some -. I’m not very clear -.this subject has come up several times. So. And even though my home town is Shanghai. And I think that education is the only way to -. actually.the diary describes how his superior officer stuffed a Chinese man into a mail sack in Nanking and then set it on fire.to approach this. he went to Nanking for twice to donate his diary to the government on Nanking.C. He’s old and poor -Iris Chang Yeah. The story of the Japanese in Red China.the -.you know -. Thank you. So. we possess now this frightening technology to annihilate the entire species. Audience Member Yes. now he’s eighty-two years old. why we Chinese don’t want to pay any attention about it. a representative from the PRC Embassy did come to my -.my appearance at Borders. Audience Member I do want to say. you’ll see. from the rape of Nanking. himself. then stuffed a hand grenade into the bag. again. This is Shira Azuma. we feel justice on this order existed. the question before and he asked my Japanese to stand forward to prove and the truth with Nanking massacre. But. good. killing and I -. And to answer the gentleman.we don’t want things like the Hiroshima/ Nagasaki and the rape of Nanking ever happening again. this afternoon. right. I read -. So --. I mean.the -.. I regret.I come from Canton and when we in the elementary school every year. Min Pan My name is Min Pan (phonetic spelling). So. And that’s true. So. And what the trouble is. And I just know that read the newspaper. with -.the important thing here is -. thanks to the Holocaust Museum to held the conference. or right. as people. And when I was little and I always heard my parents talk about Japanese -Japanese in China.blowing it up and throwing the remains in the river. But yet. to drop the atomic bombs. this is a subject that is very controversial and is going to be the subject of much debate in the future. my master degree. Writers Block and he came and he made a statement as well.kind of jobs to report this lecture happened in the United States. about three or four hours of driving. whether. Thank you. is now being sued for liable by the superior officer. I think over one point two billion Chinese people will appreciate your great job. After he published his diary. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 13 of 16 Iris Chang This question -. we have -we have not really changed that much from the days of the Jewish Holocaust or the Rape of Nanking. major in mass communication.is to look at -. I guess. And it’s a -.with nuclear weapons. the crucial. But. I didn’t do this job. So.look at the legacy of violence that was left behind by the rape of -. or against the Japanese right wing. I don’t know the embassy of People’s Republic of China has a representative here or not. Washington D. there is no statute of limitations on murder. So. And he’s very poor live in a small village far away from the Tokyo.we -. he -. I’m so glad that you are the voice of our Chinese. but you did that.An Address by Iris Chang. near to the Nanking. again. the stories were true. the one I was mentioning earlier. so much. so much.(applause) thank you. And I -.have lawsuit against him.
Thank you. Audience Member Yeah. that doesn’t mean that they didn’t rough up those missionaries from time to time. Audience Member One more quick question. mediocre sales. you know. I think that for us as Americans. And the -. that the endured in Nanking.ushmm. I know the Global Alliance people are trying to carry that out in other part of California. easily. I would have thought they were crazy. Audience Member -.those safety zone members. And I believed in it so passionately that.by the killing the missionaries. I never quite understood why the Japanese allowed that International Safety Zone to continue. I saw myself as a mid-list author for. But.on Asian history. world news at the time. I think it was the first American aircraft to be bombed by foreign air craft. somebody could have been caught in the cross fire. So -. which was put out by Basic Books of Harper Collins. have very little to say about what happened in China -Iris Chang Uh-huh. Because. which was an American gun boat near Nanking at the time. if no major American publisher took this project on. that wasn’t necessary.they themselves wrote in their diaries. I actually -. do not touch those -. I mean. I mean. because they had already bombed the USS Penai (phonetic spelling).and in the Pacific. So.An Address by Iris Chang. I think we all. but the next session and also that. You devote a lot of time and effort to writing of the activities of the twenty some odd Europeans and Americans in the International Safety Committee and their efforts at -. it’s a miracle that we’re all alive. Audience Member -. dealing with the second rape of Nanking.if anyone told me that this book would hit the New York Times best seller list and stay there for two months before publication. Still. I didn’t really think that this would -.they pushed one of them down a flight of stairs. it’s unfortunate when we consider that one of the few western woman in the zone committee eventually committed suicide.at saving human lives. because of this attack. or. I knew that this was an important subject and so. I mean -. even we should try to get it passed. I like to follow up of your comment.of course. the westerners asked for recognition. is changing the history. we have to try to make our people to know about what happened and I think it’s what you said about the Lipinski bill. I mean. So. you know. It -. this was world -. psychologically or physically from the wounds that they inflected. but. I really expected the second book to get the same kind of treatment. by killing the -. And I thought. being that I had published a book already. Iris Chang Thank you. putting the history -Iris Chang Uh-huh. What benefit was it for them? Iris Chang You know. You know. I would have self published the book if necessary. I mean. that’s why I wrote it. I wondered myself why they weren’t all killed. I mean. I was surprised. they killed several people. a book that received very good reviews.you know -.they were flatly refused to -. Thread of the Silk Worm.think I have to be honest with you. I mean.textbook on Asia. I mean.to cooperate. And that caused a lot of bad press for the Japanese. And some of them never recovered.but.the missionaries.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . Of course. you know. I think it’s those and also that I’m glad to learn that a group of people in Los Angeles thinking about a Holocaust http://www. because she could not live with what she saw in Nanking. even if they told all the soldiers. slap them around. are you surprised the reaction to your book? Iris Chang Yes. Audience Member I have a question about something you have in your book. But. I think that the Japanese were somewhat more careful in their dealings with the Westerners in Nanking. you know. Thank you. I think the effort of the San Francisco School Board. we take a look at where we are going -. but they -. ever. it’s really a miracle. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 14 of 16 Audience Member That’s the story I want to tell. you know.remember the Japanese government never officially recognized the zone committee. But. the sinking of the Penai and most people don’t know about it.I just think that the Japanese did not want to create another international incident. or -. I would’ve never believed it. There are plenty of excellent books written every year that get rave reviews and they just kind of languish in the bookstores. for many years. it would have been worth it. I -. if it just ends up in the libraries. if not this session.
I left China for already fifteen years.An Address by Iris Chang. I mean. I’d like to appreciate your effort to begin to bring this terrible story to Western audience. they may not know the details. just . the justice can be seen and can be heard. I believe the economical ties. the very place that that massacre happened. I’m a Chinese. that the unawareness in -. it will be released by Viking Penguin. And I would -. that is not too far from today.I think that in China. or the Chinese government have forgotten this Holocaust. One point I want to make here is. there is only one -Iris Chang No. other than Chinese. that numerous colleges and universities will adopt this for history courses. what -. I’d eventually talk with you about it and work get on.they send a journalist and your lecture will be reported now in our university paper. the thing is. You mentioned in China.that the Japanese inflicted upon China. to build the museum here in Washington D. Audience Member First. I would think -. It was. Tell me.I think that most people in Nanking know about the massacre. Iris Chang Okay. why the Chinese government has remained silent in pursuing an official apology from the Japanese. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 15 of 16 Museum for the Pacific. average Chinese people.I invite a journalist from our university paper. people certainly want you to read more about it. Ja Men Wong My name is Ja Men Wong and I’m from China.I think the situation will change. I -. Ja Men Wong And also.there was a book that was published in -in China on the Nanking massacre and it became an instant best seller. or the economic relations with the Japanese is equally important somehow to the relations of China to the United States politically and economically.judging from the e-mails that I’ve been receiving. But. that I guess a gentleman raised a question.anyway. graduate courses.certainly something horrible happened in the city.C. I think you must have visited Nanking. I and three of my friends come from University of Virginia. and I’ve just -. outside China? Iris Chang Well.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . The voices of justice can be heard widely. they certainly understand the ravages that -. but they know that some -. There are several books there. what I can encourage my here. Congratulations. Audience Member Thanks. like. Iris Chang Several universities. Audience Member Yeah. I believe there is a day. that -. there are several actually. and -. such as Stanford University.and this book has only been out for a few months. I’m confident that over time I think more people worldwide are going to learn about this massacre. We -. Thank you. I think that the -. my dream is that. American friends.and compare to what you describe as the second rape of Nanking. So.in -. such as. http://www. still need to wait. I know that in the United States alone. I believe. And -. So. Audience Member I believe that your book is the first one written in English. psychology. has already mandated the inclusion of this book in some of their curriculum. Simply because China has.and for holocaust studies.ushmm. have driven two hours to hear your lecture. but I believe Chinese will never forget this Nanking massacre and the crimes committed by the Japanese Imperial Army not just in Nanking. So.I would pretty much -. It can not be forgotten at all. Iris Chang I’m really touched. it is not the right time for the Chinese to pursue it completely. when -.in the world. about this Nanking massacre.what do you think about awareness of the Chinese people.when the paperback comes out and it will come out in the fall. and bring the Chinese to be more stronger and somehow -. but in other places in China and Asia.I mean. I -. I believe none of the Chinese. that if you can work with the Chinese.
except what -. And that is the best -. because most of the survivors are now in their eighties or nineties. I thing the VRC government had better hurry. So.An Address by Iris Chang.org/research/center/presentations/discussions/details/1998-03-15/ 1/10/2012 . http://www. Thank you. Audience Member I guess your work must give them the opportunity to consider this and I hope this can be happening. I’ll remind you. right now. Iris Chang Let’s hope so. author of the Rape of Nanking Page 16 of 16 Iris Chang Well. Iris will be signing books upstairs in classroom B. Thank you all for coming. while there may -. the truth of the massacre be known.the best hope for the future.from what is documented. across from the tile wall. the important thing is to make sure. Lydia Perry The questions could go on for some time. I’m sure.while some of these survivors may never see a cent in reparations. Thank you. there won’t be any voices from the massacre left. And once they pass away. at least.ushmm.
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