The 2008 U.S.

Constitution Constitutional Convention – To Amend the Constitution Upon the application of two thirds of the several states, Congress shall call a convention for proposing amendments to this Constitution. The convention, when convened, shall establish rules each person can agree to, and upon completion of the convention, the results shall be given to the legislatures of the several states, and if satisfactory, shall call forth a convention of the state for ratification by three-fourths thereof.

The Constitution of the United States

Preamble (A)(Y) We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. All power is originally vested in, and consequently delegated by, the people. Government is instituted and ought to be exercised for the benefit of the people, which consist in the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the right of acquiring and using property, and generally of pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety. The people have an unquestionable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform or change their Government, whenever it is found adverse or inadequate to the purposes of its institution. Article I. Section 1. The Legislative Branch

The Legislature (AZ)(Y) (1) All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives; To ensure a long lasting Union, these members of each house must be derived from distinctly different sources. Section 2. The House (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. (2) No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.(Z)(Y) (3) Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, excluding Indians not taxed. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall be determined by population, and the state having the smallest population shall be the number that id divided into the population of other states to determine number of representatives that should be provided for, and each State shall have at Least one Representative; (A)(AB)(B)(X)(Y) (4) When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies. (5) The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; and shall be vested with the duty and Power of Impeachment; Application by any member of the Articles of impeachment must initiate an immediate investigation.(AZ)

Section 3. The Senate (1) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.(BX)(ZX)

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. (BX)(X) (3) No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. (AZ)(ZX)(Z) (4) The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.(A)(X) (5) The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States. (6) The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. (AZ)(X) (7) Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law; (Y)(X) Section 4. Elections, Meetings (1) The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the distinct source of Choosing Senators. (A) (2) The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall (be on the first Monday in December,) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.(Y) Section 5. Membership, Rules, Journals, Adjournment (1) Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide. (2) Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member. (3) Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. (4) Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. Section 6. Compensation


The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Calculated Compensation Never exceeding the national average private sector salary multiplied by 1.5 for their Services, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States; Neither shall receive any emoluments from any source during any term elected. They shall in all Cases, except treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House; they shall not be questioned in any other Place. (A)(Y)(ZX) (2) No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office; and no Person may run for more than one elected office per election. (Y)(X) Section 7. Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto (1) All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments upon the appropriations as on other Bills; and all bills to lay and collect Taxes, whether Direct Upon the State, or indirect upon consumption as the one or the other mode may apply; no amount of money shall be spent on goods or services to any ally for any reason. The People may choose to contribute for relief efforts and aid, but nothing more. (A)(Y)(X) (2) Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it without objection, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, or, three fourths in the case of amendments, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by the same fraction of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. (AZ) (3) Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. (X) Section 8. Powers of Congress (1) The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States and shall be restricted to consumption, or, in cases of a specific one


(2) (3)

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

(9) (10)

(11) (12)

(13) (14)

(15) (16)



time expenses that will benefit all States equally, a direct tax upon the states shall be imposed; No Direct Tax shall be imposed on Citizens of a state; (A)(X)(Y)(AZ) To borrow money on the credit of the United States, but at no time shall credit be used in order to fund a war on foreign soil; (AZ) To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and the commerce conducted between the individual states, and with the Indian Tribes; No regulations shall be imposed upon businesses occurring within the state itself.(AZ) To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States; (AZ) To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, which, shall be based on the gold standard, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures; (AZ) To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States; (A) To establish Post Offices and Post Roads; (AZ) To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries, through their state, not to exceed 10 years; No transfer or waiver of patent shall be construed as a grant of exclusive use to any others, other than the Authors or the Inventors themselves.(A) (AZ) To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; (A) (AZ) To define and punish Piratical, privy and Felonious acts committed outside of the jurisdiction of any state or sovereign nation to the detriment of citizens of the United States, and Offenses against the Law of Nations; (AZ) To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water; (AZ) To raise and support Armies, but no Service Contract nor Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years; Credit shall not be used for this purpose unless given such credit be given voluntarily by citizens of the several states, or when in eminent danger of invasion of any state within the union.(AZ)(Y) To provide and maintain a Navy; (AZ) To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the Union Forces; (This shall not be misconstrued as having a right to an indefinite standing army during times of peace);(AZ) To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; (AZ) To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; (AZ)(BX) To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And (AZ) To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof; this shall

not be misconstrued as having unrestrained powers, nor shall it increase the delegated powers; (A) (AZ) Section 9. Limits on Congress (1) The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress unless the purpose of such is intended to infringe upon that persons rights. All persons, regardless of citizenship, shall be given the respect and care a citizen would be expected to receive.(BX) (2) The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it; No Law restricting liberty shall be valid. (X)(Y) (3) No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. (Any such laws would deprive the right of a person to due process, when such laws make an act already committed illegal or legal.) (X)(Y) (4) The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretext, infringed. (5) The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments; and the freedom of the press, as one of the great bulwarks of liberty, shall be inviolable. (6) The people shall not be restrained from peaceably assembling and consulting for their common good; nor from applying to the Legislature by petitions, or remonstrance’s, for redress of their grievances. (7) The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; a well armed and well regulated militia being the best security of a free country: but no person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person. (8) No soldiers shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor at any time, but in a manner warranted by law. (9) No person shall be subject, except in cases of impeachment, to more than one punishment or one trial for the same offence; nor shall be compelled to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor be obliged to relinquish his property, where it may be necessary for public use, without a just compensation. (10) Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. (11) The rights of the people to be secured in their persons, their houses, their papers, and their other property, from all unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated by warrants issued without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, or not particularly describing the places to be searched, or the persons or things to be seized. (12) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the cause and nature of the accusation, to be confronted with his accusers, and the witnesses against him; to have a compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. (13) The exceptions here or elsewhere in the Constitution, made in favor of particular rights, shall not be so construed as to diminish the just importance of other rights

retained by the people, or as to enlarge the powers delegated by the Constitution; but either as actual limitations of such powers, or as inserted merely for greater caution. (14) No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the representation inside the House of Representatives, which, shall be collected from the states themselves. (X) (15) No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. (X)(ZX)(Y) (16) No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports or Markets of one State over those of another: nor shall transports bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another, unless such duty be incurred is imposed upon all travelers taking such a route. (X) (17) No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law, which, will authorize the expenses. No money shall be appropriated for the purpose of subsidies for any reason unless approved by convention of the several states; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. (X)(Y) (18) No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under the States individually or united, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any source, foreign or domestic; (19) Members of Congress and their families, are restricted from engaging in any business transactions or stock market trading, or receive anything of any value from any source that can be considered an influentially motivated interest.(X)(Y) (20) No tax shall be used for any reason, unless such a tax benefits the taxpayer; Nor shall any state support any government or privateers who are engaged in war, or involved in military operations. Section 10. Powers prohibited of States (1) No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.(Z) (2) No State shall violate the equal rights of conscience, or the freedom of the press, or the trial by jury in criminal cases. (3) No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress. (A)(AB)(B)(AZ)(Z) (4) No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.(AZ) (5) No State shall, without the Consent of two thirds of the residents thereof, shall ratify any proposed amendments that would alter any existing laws within the jurisdiction thereof. (6) No State shall pass any laws respecting any ideology that would punish or refuse any rights unless such an ideology infringes upon the rights of another.


No State shall pass any legislation making an act criminal unless the act infringes upon the rights of others to the detriment of the person thereof.

Article II. Section 1.

Executive Branch The President (1) The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the VicePresident chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:(AZ) (2) Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.(Z)(BX) (3) The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves, nor have the same party affiliations, And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the 5 highest votes, restricted to 1 person per party, the said House shall in like Manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall choose from them by Ballot the Vice-President. a. Each branch of government as well as each house in Congress shall always derive their members from different sources as to provide a check between each branch, as well as ensure that from whatever source they owe their appointment to, shall not have any undue influence or sense of obligation to that source. (4) The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States. (AZ) (5) No person except a person born to full Citizens or having attained 18 years of age, within the Jurisdiction of or while on service or having remained within the United States, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years while in office, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States preceding the election.(ZX)

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. (7) The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them or any source thereof; The compensation shall only be reduced to cover the cost of food, services, and other services not specifically employed for supporting the United States.(AZ) (8) Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) upon my life, that I will be responsible for faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States and the principles for which it stands."(Y) Section 2. Civilian Power over Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments (1) The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment or cases involving executive appointees, who act on behalf of the executive.(AZ) (2) He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Direct Reporting Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers in the person that position directly reports to or work under; No treaty may delegate responsibilities to any branch not in existence by the establishment of the Constitution.(AZ) (3) The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.(AZ) Section 3. State of the Union, Convening Congress (AZ) (1) He shall from time to time, at least once per quarter year, give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall be responsible using the executive powers granted by this constitution that the Laws be faithfully executed, and so shall the Commission of all Officers under the United States. Section 4. Disqualification (AZ)(Y)



The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors; and any officers suspected to have misled or whose actions have caused any harm whatsoever, must be investigated without bias or factious loyalty.

Article III. Section 1.

Judicial Branch Judicial powers (AZ)(Y)(X) (1) The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office; The Chief Justice shall be determined by seniority; Retirement of new Justices after this Constitution takes affect, shall be mandatory once having attained the age of seventy eight. Section 2. Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury Trials (1) The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases of Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. (A)(AZ) (2) In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the Supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make; But no appeal to such court shall be allowed where the value in controversy shall not amount to 50 dollars: nor shall any fact triable by jury, according to the course of common law, be otherwise reexaminable than may consist with the principles of common law. (AZ)(X) (3) The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.(Y) Section 3. Treason (Y) (1) Treason against the United States, shall consist in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, violating the Constitution under oath to protect; No Person shall be convicted of treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.(X) (2) The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of treason, but no Attainder of treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted. (AZ)(X)

Article IV. Section 1.

Article. IV. - The States Each State to Honor all others (AZ)(Z) (1) Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. Section 2. State citizens, Extradition (1) The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. A Person charged in any State with treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.(Z) (2) No Person held to Service or Labor in any State, shall be subjected to an employers will without due process; Labor should be considered as employable, efficiency is the investment of the employee. (B) Section 3. New States (1) New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.(A)(AB) (2) The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and should any territory whose population consists of more than twice that of the least populous state establish a Constitution that meets the requirements of states joining the union, a vote shall be taken in Congress to determine if it shall become a state, each member voting in the negative to supply their reasoning, which, if admittance does not occur, the territory can decide if they wish to be a free and independent state capable of regulating itself; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.(AZ) Section 4. Republican government (A)(AB) (1) The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence. (2) A republican form of Government, among other features, is a form of Government where all powers expressly granted belong to the people, but are delegated by them for however long it may be in the best interest of the people to be used for their benefit.

Article V. Amendment (AB)(AZ)(Y)(AB)(X) Section 1. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments to this Constitution, which in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress;

(1) (2)

Provided that no Amendment which may change the target or restrictions contained in this Constitution shall take affect without the required approval of the people; and that no State Legislature shall, without its Consent, be deprived of electing the representatives of their choice in the Senate.

Article VI.

Debts, Supremacy, Oaths (Affect of the new Constitution) (1) All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into pursuant to the Constitution, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Constitution established in 1789.(X) (2) All laws established pursuant to this Constitution will require a structure of Articles, Section, and clauses, whereas the clauses shall be by what power the Constitution authorizes . Should a branch of law be declared outside the constitutionality, it shall also collapse the branch in which it is contained. (3) This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding; (Y)(ZX) (4) “Law of the land” in its definition refers to the laws necessary for Congress , Executive, Judicial, and restrictions on the states to operate in order to be Constitutional, no law or amendment proposed by congress can contradict the principle’s in this Constitution. (5) The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.(Y)(X) Separation of Powers (1) The powers delegated by this Constitution are appropriated to the departments to which they are respectively distributed: so that the Legislative Department shall never exercise the powers vested in the Executive or Judicial, nor the Executive exercise the powers vested in the Legislative or Judicial, nor the Judicial exercise the powers vested in the Legislative or Executive Departments. Ratification (1) The Ratification of the Conventions of three-fourths of the several States shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.

Article VII.

Article VIII.

In recognition of the men who helped form our original Constitution, and in order to prevent tyranny by our own hand, following the principles of Liberty, Freedom, and Prosperity for all citizens, and their posterity. Drafted using several sources intending a restoration of the United States upon the original principles. A long awaited need for Americans to call a Convention in order to fix our Constitution.

1789 – Constitution Establishing the United States of America Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names. Go Washington - President and deputy from Virginia New Hampshire - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman Massachusetts - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King Connecticut - Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman New York - Alexander Hamilton New Jersey - Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton Pensylvania - B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris Delaware - Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom Maryland - James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll Virginia - John Blair, James Madison Jr. North Carolina - Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson South Carolina - J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler Georgia - William Few, Abr Baldwin Attest: William Jackson, Secretary

Recognition of Rights Declared Separate from establishing the Limited Government, but to be a part of the Constitution Separate from the establishment. Article I. Section 1. Rights of Humanity Freedom of Conscious, Religion, Press, Expression (X) (Y) (1) Congress shall make no law criminalizing the freedom of conscious nor respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances; freedom of speech is the freedom to speak for or against any person, event, etc. but does not extend to using vulgar language that has been determined in any state or district as being offensive or disrespectful to others. Section 2. Right to Bear Arms. (X) (Y) (1) A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State; the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Section 3. Quartering of Soldiers. (X) (Y) (1) No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. Section 4. Search and Seizure. (X) (Y) (1) The right of the people to privacy and to be secure in their persons, houses, communications, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Section 5. Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. (X) (Y) (1) No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. Section 6. Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. (X) (Y) (1) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense. Section 7. Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. (X) (Y) (1) In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed the value of an ounce of gold, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. Section 8. Cruel and Unusual Punishment. (X) (Y) (1) Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines, fees, or tax imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Section 9. Construction of Constitution. (Y) (1) The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Section 10. Powers of the States and People. (X)(BX)(Y) (1) The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people; States may not delegate powers without the consent of the people. Section 11. Judicial Limits. (BX) (1) The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. Section 12. Right to Work. (ZX) (1) The will of the individual shall not be infringed, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, or restricted within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. (A) Section 13. Voting U.S. Citizens. (1) The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of any physical differences in appearance, social class, or other form of discriminatory reasoning. (ZX) Section 14. Limiting Congressional Pay Increases. (1) No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

GLOSSARY Adjournment; adjourn v. 1. To suspend until a later stated time. [<OFr. ajourner] adjournment n. Appellate; appellate adj having power to review decisions of lower courts Apportionment; apportion: v. to distribute proportionately In the context of the Constitution, apportionment means that each state gets a number appropriate to its population. For example, Representatives are apportioned among the states, with the most populous getting the greater share. Direct taxes (of which there are none today) were to be charged to the states in this manner as well. The need for apportionment of taxes, and the reason for it, is difficult for us to imagine today, but there were good reasons for it. The following is an explanation of the need for the Direct Tax Apportionment clause. It was written by Supreme Court Justice Paterson in Hylton v US (3 US 171 [1796]): “The constitution declares, that a capitation tax is a direct tax; and both in theory and practice, a tax on land is deemed to be a direct tax... The provision was made in favor of the southern states; they possessed a large number of slaves; they had extensive tracts of territory, thinly settled, and not very productive. A majority of the states had but few slaves, and several of them a limited territory, well settled, and in a high state of cultivation. The southern states, if no provision had been introduced in the constitution, would have been wholly at the mercy of the other states. Congress in such case, might tax slaves, at discretion or arbitrarily, and land in every part of the Union, after the same rate or measure: so much a head, in the first instance, and so much an acre, in the second. To guard them against imposition, in these particulars, was the reason of introducing the clause in the constitution.” In actuality, the Constitution refers to Direct Taxes, it holds the same meaning as it did in the Articles of Confederation. This was a tax upon the state itself, which would allow the state to review spending by the General Government. Indirect taxes were expected to be the primary source for all necessary expenditures. (obviously this check as well as others are ignored and broken. Attainder: n. The loss of all civil rights by a person sentenced for a serious crime. [< OFr. attaindre, to convict] In the context of the Constitution, a Bill of Attainder is meant to mean a bill that has a negative effect on a single person or group (for example, a fine or term of imprisonment). Originally, a Bill of Attainder sentenced an individual to death, though this detail is no longer required to have an enactment be ruled a Bill of Attainder. Concurrence: Concur: v. 1. To have the same opinion; agree [<Lat. concurrere. to meet] concurrence n. Bill of Credit - A bill of credit is some sort of paper medium by which value is exchanged between the government and individuals. Money is a bill of credit, but a bill of credit need not be money. An interestbearing certificate that was issued by Missouri, and usable in the payment of taxes, was thus ruled to be an unconstitutional bill of credit.

Corruption of Blood was part of ancient English penalty for treason. It was usually part of a Bill of Attainder, which normally sentenced the accused to death. The corruption of blood would forbid the accused's family from inhereting his property. Such bills and punishments were often inflicted upon Tories by colonial governments immediately following independence. 381 US 437 Deprive: v. 1. To take something away from; divest. 2. To keep from the possession of something. [<Med. Lat. deprivare] Domestic Tranquility: One of the concerns of the Framers was that the government prior to that under the Constitution was unable, by force or persuasion, to quell rebellion or quarrels amongst the states. The government watched in horror as Shay's Rebellion transpired just before the Convention, and some states had very nearly gone to war with each other over territory (such as between Pennsylvania and Connecticut over Wilkes-Barre). One of the main goals of the Convention, then, was to ensure the federal government had powers to squash rebellion and to smooth tensions between states. Double jeopardy: a term used in law. Double jeopardy is forbidden by the Constitution. Double jeopardy is what would happen is someone were to be charged with a crime and be found innocent, and then be charged with that crime a second time. For example, if you are charged with stealing a car, and a jury finds you innocent, you cannot be charged with stealing the car again. emolument : n [ME, fr. L emolumentum, lit., miller's fee, fr emolere to grind up] : the product (as salary or fees) of an employment enumerate: vb. to determine the number of : count 2 : list excise n a tax on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of goods within a country ex post facto: adj. Formulated, enacted, or operating retroactively. [Med Lat., from what is done afterwards] In U.S. Constitutional Law, the definition of what is ex post facto is more limited. The first definition of what exactly constitutes an ex post facto law is found in Calder v Bull (3 US 386 [1798]), in the opinion of Justice Chase: 1st Every law that makes an action done before the passing of the law, and which was innocent when done, criminal; and punishes such action. 2nd Every law that aggravates a crime, or makes it greater than it was, when committed. 3rd Every law that changes the punishment, and inflicts a greater punishment, than the law annexed to the crime, when committed. 4th Every law that alters the legal rules of evidence, and receives less, or different, testimony, than the law required at the time of the commission of the offense, in order to convict the offender. habeas corpus n. Law A writ issued to bring a party before a court to prevent unlawful restraint. [<Med. Lat., you should have the body] The basic premise behind habeas corpus is that you cannot be held against your will without just cause. To put it another way, you cannot be jailed if there are no charges against you. If you are being held, and you demand it, the courts must issue a writ of habeas corpus, which forces those holding you to answer as to why. If there is no good or compelling reason, the court must set you free. It is important to that of all the civil liberties we take for granted today as a part of

the Bill of Rights, the importance of habeas corpus is illustrated by the fact that it was the sole liberty thought important enough to be included in the original text of the Constitution. Impartial: adj. Not partial or biased; unprejudiced. Impeachment, in the U.S. and Great Britain, proceeding by a legislature for the removal from office of a public official charged with misconduct in office. Impeachment comprises both the act of formulating the accusation and the resulting trial of the charges; it is frequently but erroneously taken to mean only the removal from office of an accused public official. An impeachment trial may result in either an acquittal or in a verdict of guilty. In the latter case the impeached official is removed from office; if the charges warrant such action, the official is also remanded to the proper authorities for trial before a court. Impost: n. tax, duty Infringe: vb [Latin infringere] 1: violate, transgress; 2: encroach, trespass In the context of the Constitution, phrases like "shall not be infringed," "shall make no law," and "shall not be violated" sound pretty unbendable, but the Supreme Court has ruled that some laws can, in fact, encroach on these phrases. For example, though there is freedom of speech, you cannot slander someone; though you can own a pistol, you cannot own a nuclear weapon. Jurisdiction: n. the power, right, or authority to interpret and apply the law: the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised Letter of Marque: Archaic. A letter of marque was issued by a nation to a privateer or mercenary to act on the behalf of that nation for the purpose of retaliating against another nation for some wrong, such as a border incursion or seizure. Nobility, Title of: Nobility is technically a station in society that is had simply by being born into the right family. The classes of persons, well-characterized by the aristocracy of Great Britain, were considered to be higher in status and power because of the family name. A title of nobility indicated that status, where a person was a king, queen, prince, princess, count, countess, duke, duchess, baron, or baroness; these titles were granted by the monarch at some point in the family history and passed from parent to child. The Framers wished to ensure that no such system of heredity developed in the United States and specifically prohibited any state or the federal government from granting any title of nobility. Suggested by: Ian (board regular) ordain v. 2. To order by or as if by decree. [<Lat. ordinaire, to organize] Poll Tax: A poll tax has had two historical meanings. The older is that of a fee that had to be paid to satisfy taxpayer requirements in voting laws. In some places, only people who could demonstrate a financial tie to a community were permitted to vote in that community. For those who did not otherwise own property or pay taxes, this sort of poll tax was sufficient to allow voting. More recently, however, a poll tax is a tax that must be paid by anyone wishing to cast a vote. Poll taxes of this sort were generally low, perhaps a dollar or two, but high enough to make voting uneconomical for poor people. The 24th Amendment bars both of these types of poll tax. post road n a road over which mail is carried

posterity n. 1. Future generations. 2. All of a person's descendants. [<Lat. posteritas.] pro tempore adv. For the time being; temporarily. Also: Pro tem. quarter vb. to provide with shelter quorum n. the number of members required to be present for business to be legally conducted redress v. 1. To set right, remedy or rectify. 2. To make amends for. n. 1. Satisfaction for wrong done; reparation. 2. Correction. [<OFr. redresser.] Reprisal Archaic: An act taken by a nation, short of war, to gain redress for an action taken against that nation. For example, seizing a ship in retaliation for a seized ship. republic1 : a government having a chief of state who is not a monarch and is usually a president; also : a nation or other political unit having such a government 2 : a government in which supreme power is held by the citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives governing according to law; also : a nation or other political unit having such a form of government In the context of the United States, both definitions apply. suffrage n. 1. A vote. 2. The right or privilege of voting; franchise. treason n the offense of attempting to overthrow the government of one's country or of assisting its enemies in war welfare n. 1. health, happiness, or prosperity; well-being. [<ME wel faren, to fare well] Welfare in today's context also means organized efforts on the part of public or private organizations to benefit the poor, or simply public assistance. This is not the meaning of the word as used in the Constitution.

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