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Fundamentals of

Electrical Engineering
Electronic & Telecommunication Engineering
Danang University of Technology
Lecture 2
Circuit Elements
(chapter 2)
Preview
Understand the behavior of the ideal basic circuit
elements: independent/dependent voltage and current
sources, and resistors.
Use Ohms law, Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) and
Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) to analyze circuits.
Know how to calculate the power for each element in a
simple circuit, be able to determine if the power is
balanced for the whole circuit
Electrical sources
A device which is capable of converting from non-
electric energy to electric energy and vice versa.
Examples:
Discharging battery: chemical energy - electric energy
Charging battery: electric energy - chemical energy
Dynamo: mechanical energy - electric energy
Motor: electric energy - mechanical energy
These sources can either deliver or absorb electric
power
These sources can maintain either voltage or current
Classification of Electrical Sources
Ideal voltage source
- Being a circuit element
- Maintaining a prescribed
voltage across its terminals
regardless of the current
flowing in those terminals
Ideal current source
- Being a circuit element
- Maintaining a prescribed
current flowing in its terminals
regardless of the voltage
across those terminals
Classification of Ideal Electrical Sources
Independent source
- Establish a voltage or
current whose value does not
depend on the value of a
voltage or current elsewhere
in the circuit.
- We can specify the value of
voltage/current by the value of
the voltage/current source
alone
Dependent source
- Establish a voltage or
current whose value depends
on the value of a voltage or
current elsewhere in the
circuit.
- We cant specify the value of
voltage/current unless we
know the value of voltage/
current on which it depends
Circuit Symbols for DS
x s
v v =
x s
i v =
x s
v i o =
Voltage-
controlled
voltage source
(VCVS)
+
-
+
-
Voltage-
controlled
current source
(VCCS)
Current-
controlled
current source
(CCCS)
Current-
controlled
voltage source
(CCVS)
x s
i i | =
Example 1
Which circuits are permissible, and which violate the
constraints imposed by ideal sources?
Example 2
Which circuits are permissible, and which violate the
constraints imposed by ideal sources?
For the circuit below,
a) What value of v
g
is required in order for the inter-
connection to be valid?
b) For this v
g
, find the power associated with the 8A source
+
-
8A v
g
+
-
i
b
/4
i
b
Ass. Pro. 2.1
Ass. Pro. 2.1
For the circuit below,
a) What value of is required in order for the
interconnection to be valid?
b) For this , find the power associated with the 25V source
25V v
x
-
+
15A
x
v o
Ass. Pro. 2.2
Ass. Pro. 2.2
Electrical Resistance (Ohms law)
Resistance: Capacity of materials to impede the flow
of current (the flow of electric charge).
Resistor: The circuit element used to model the
behavior that is to impede the flow of current.
Circuit symbols:
Ohms law
Current i and voltage v are proportional for a resistor.
The proportionality constant is the resistance R,
measured in Ohm [].
v = i R, R = v/i (G. S. Ohm, 19th century physicist)
The reciprocal of the resistance is the conductance,
symbolized by G, measured in Siemens [S] (sometimes
also [mho])
G = 1/R = i/v (Note: G is the slope in the i-v diagram)
Examples
Ass. Pro. 2.3
For the circuit shown,
a) If v
g
= 1kV and i
g
= 5mA, find the value of R and the
power absorbed by the resistor
b) If i
g
= 75mA and the power delivered by the voltage
source is 3W, find v
g
, R and the power absorbed by
the resistor
c) If R = 300 and the power absorbed by R is 480 mW,
find i
g
and v
g
v
g
R
i
g
Ass. Pro. 2.3
Ass. Pro. 2.3
Ass. Pro. 2.3
Circuit Model Construction
Modeling: construction an electric circuit from a
practical electric system
Analysis: solving a given system based on
mathematical tools, prediction the system behavior,
comparison between desired system and given
system, to improve a given system
Design: making a new system to meet the design
specification
Operation & Maintaining
Example of Modeling a Flashlight
lamp
case
sliding switch
batteries
R
l
R
1
R
c
v
S
+
-
Construct CM from Measurements
v(V) i(A)
-40 -10
-20 -5
0 0
20 5
40 10
i
v
device
v
O 4
-10 -5 5 10
40
20
-20
-40
Kirchhoffs law
Ohms law: not be enough to provide a complete solution
Kirchhoffs laws (Gustav Kirchhoff, 1848):
Refer to constraints on the relationship
between the terminal voltages and currents.
These constraints in mathematical form are
imposed by two Kirchhoffs law: Ks
current law & Ks voltage law
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff
German physicist (1824-1887)
Node & Closed Path
Redraw the flashlight circuit
Node: A point where two or more circuit elements meet.
Being necessary to use Kirchhoffs current law.
Closed path: A loop traced through connecting elements,
starting and ending at the same node. Being necessary to
use Kirchhoffs voltage.
R
1
v
S
+
-
d
a b c
i
S
i
1
i
c
i
l
R
l
How many unknown variables ?
Equations from Ohms law?
Other equations ?
Kirchhoffs Current Law
A node is just a point - it can't store charge. So charge
flowing in to a node must flow out of it:
The algebraic sum of all the currents at any node in a
circuit equals zero
Sign convention: Leaving a node (+) Entering a node (-)
R
1
v
S
+
-
d
a b c
i
S
i
1
i
c
i
l
R
l
Node a: i
s
i
1
= 0
Node b: i
1
+ i
c
= 0
Node c: -i
c
i
l
= 0
Node d: i
l
i
s
= 0

=
node
0
j
i
Example 2.6
Write down current equations of KCL at all nodes.
R
1
a
b
c
d
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
i
a
i
b
i
c
Node a:
Node b:
Node c:
Node d:
0
5 2 4 1
= + i i i i
0
1 3 2
= +
a b
i i i i i
0
4 3
=
c b
i i i i
0
5
= + +
c a
i i i
Kirchhoffs Voltage Law
The algebraic sum of all the voltages around the
closed path in a circuit equals zero.
Algebraic sign convention:
Positive sign to voltage drop Negative sign to voltage rise
Conversed assignment is OK: JUST KEEP IT CONSISTENTLY !
R
1
v
S
+
-
d
a b c
i
S
i
1
i
c
i
l
R
l
Blue closed path:
v
l
v
c
+ v
1
v
s
= 0
Green closed path:
? = 0

=
loop
0
k
v
Example 2.7
Sum the voltages
around each path in
the circuit below:
Loop a:
-v
1
+v
2
+v
4
-v
b
-v
3
= 0
Loop b:
-v
a
+v
3
+v
5
= 0
Loop c:
v
b
-v
4
-v
c
-v
6
-v
5
= 0
Loop d:
-v
a
-v
1
+v
2
-v
c
+v
7
-v
d
= 0
R
4
R
2
+ -
a
b c
v
b
v
d
v
a
v
c
-
+
-
+
+ -
d
+ -
R
1 - +
- +
+ R
3
-
+ R
6
-
- R
7
+
+
R
5
-
Example 2.8
a) Find i
0
in the circuit shown in figure below
b) Verify that the total power generated equals the total
power dissipated
6A
120V
+
-
50
10
i
0
i
1
1. Prepare nodes and closed paths
2. Determine unknown variables
3. Apply KCL & KVL & Ohms law to obtain eq. system
4. Remarks:
KCL:
KVL:
Apply KCL for 3 nodes which lead to the following
equation:
Apply KVL for the closed path consisting of 120V, 10 ohm
and 50ohm :
0 6
0 1
= i i
A 3 and A 3
0 50 10 120
1 0
1 0
= =
= + +
i i
i i
Apply passive sign convention to check balance between
power dissipated and delivered at all elements:
W 900 150 ) 6 ( 6
W 360 ) 3 ( 120 120
W 90 10 ) 3 (
W 450 50 ) 3 (
1 A 6
0 V 120
2
10
2
50
= = =
= = =
= =
= =
O
O
v p
i p
p
p
Assessment Problem 2.5
a) Find i
5
, v
1
, v
2
, v
5
in the circuit shown in figure below
b) Find the power delivered by the 24V source
3
24V
v
5
+
-
a
+
+
+
2
-
-
-
v
2
v
1
c
7
i
5
Assessment Problem 2.6
Find the value of R in the circuit shown in figure below:
i
0
200V
+
-
24
R
b
c
120V
+
-
+
-
8
Circuit Containing Dept. Sources
Find v
0
& i
0
i
0
500V
i

v
0
20
+
-
i
0
+
-
a 5 b
5i

a
b
Think about a circuit analysis strategy
before beginning to write equations.
Not every node is useful.
Circuit Containing Dept. Sources
Find v
0
& i
0
i
0
500V
i

v
0
20
+
-
i
0
+
-
a 5 b
5i

a
b
Think about a circuit analysis strategy
before beginning to write equations.
Not every node/closed path is useful!
Solving (1) & (2):
i

= 4A & i
0
= 24A
v
0
= 480V
5i

+ 20i
0
500 = 0 (1)
i
0
= 6i

(2)
Example 2.11
Develop equ. to
determine all currents
Derive a fomular of i
B
in
terms of CE values
6 unknown currents:
i
1
, i
2
, i
B
, i
E
, i
C
, i
cc
need 6 dependent
equations
V
cc
i
B
+
-
R
1
b
+ -
R
2
R
C
R
E
V
0
a
c
d
i
cc
i
C
i
1
i
E
i
2
i
B
Example 2.11
V
cc
i
B
+
-
R
1
b
+ -
R
2
R
C
R
E
V
0
a
c
d
i
cc
i
C
i
1
i
E
i
2
i
B
KCL at node (a):
i
cc =
i
1
+ i
C
(1)
KCL at node (b):
i
1
= i
2
+ i
B
(2)
KCL at node (c):
i
E
= i
B
+ i
C
(3)
KCL at node (d):
i
cc
= i
2
+ i
E
can be
obtained from (1)-(3)
Node (d) is not
useful!!!
Example 2.11
4th constraint:
i
C
= i
B
(4)
KVL around loop bcdb:
V
0
+ i
E
R
E
i
2
R
2
= 0 (5)
KVL around loop badb:
-i
1
R
1
+ V
cc
i
2
R
2
= 0 (6)
V
cc
i
B
+
-
R
1
b
+ -
R
2
R
C
R
E
V
0
a
c
d
i
cc
i
C
i
1
i
E
i
2
i
B
Ass. Problem 2.9
Find i
1
5V
+
-
- +
30i
1
i
1
8V
1V
+
-
1.8k
6k
54k
+ v -
i
2
Ass. Problem 2.10
Find v
s
and the power absorbed by the ind. voltage source
5A
v
s
+
-
30
10
i

2i

a
i
1
a
Study Guide Section 2.1
a. Plot the voltage as a function of current in the independent voltage
source shown. The plot shows that it is not possible to determine the
current through an independent voltage source if all you know is the
value of the voltage.
Study Guide Section 2.1
b. Plot the current as a function of the voltage drop for the independent
current source shown. The plot shows that you cannot determine the
voltage drop across an independent current source if all you know is the
value of the current
Study Guide Section 2.1
c. Plot the voltage v
s
as a function of the controlling current, i
x
, for the
current-controlled voltage source shown. Now plot the voltage v
s
as a
function of the current i
s
through the dependent voltage source if the
controlling current i
x
= 2 V. Compare these two plots.
Study Guide Section 2.1
d. Give the units for the following variables in Fig. 2.2:
______ o ______ ______ | ______
e. What change could be made in Figs. 2.3(b) and (c) to make the
interconnection valid?
f. Show that the power generated equals the power absorbed in the circuit
of Fig. 2.3(e).
g. What change could be made in Figs. 2.4(a) and (d) to make the
interconnection valid?
h. Show that the power generated equals the power absorbed in the circuits
of Figs. 2.3(b) and (c)
i. Solve Assessment Problems 2.1 and 2.2.
Study Guide Section 2.2
a. Write the Ohms law equation for the resistors shown below. Remember
that the current arrow points to the sign to use in the equation.
Study Guide Section 2.2
b. Find the conductance of the two resistors in part (a).
c. If i
1
= 5 mA in the resistor in part (a), find v
1
and the power.
If v
2
= 25 V in the resistor in part (a), find i
2
and the power
d. Use the results of Example 2.3 to show that the power balances for each
circuit in Fig. 2.6.
e. Solve Assessment Problem 2.3 and Chapter Problem 2.11
Study Guide Section 2.3
a. The concepts of short circuit and open circuit, introduced in Example 2.4
and Fig. 2.10, are important for understanding the operation of a switch and
for understanding concepts introduced in later chapters. Summarize your
understanding of short circuit and open circuit as follows:
- Draw a short circuit and label the voltage drop across it and the
current flowing through it.
- What is the resistance of the short circuit?
- What is the voltage drop across the short circuit?
- How much current can flow through the short circuit? (Hint use
Ohms law with the resistance and voltage you just determined.)
- Draw an open circuit and label the voltage drop across it and the
current flowing through it.
- What is the resistance of the open circuit?
- What is the current flowing through the open circuit?
- How much voltage can drop across the open circuit?
Study Guide Section 2.3
b. Add a column to the table in Fig. 2.13(b) and fill in the power absorbed by
the resistor for each value of v
T
. Plot the power versus v
T
below. If you were
only given the values in the voltage column and the power column, could
you find the resistor value? How?
c. Solve Chapter Problem 2.4.
Study Guide Section 2.4
a. There are three different ways to state KCL:
- The sum of all the currents entering a node is zero.
- The sum of all the currents leaving a node is zero.
- The sum of the currents entering a node equals the sum of the
currents leaving that node.
Study Guide Section 2.4
Consider the following circuit fragment:
- Write the KCL equation at the node by summing all of the currents
entering. If a current is leaving, switch the direction of the arrow and re-
label its current.
- Write the KCL equation at the node by summing all of the currents
leaving. If a current is entering, switch the direction of the arrow and re-
label its current.
- Write the KCL equation at the node by equating the sum of the
currents entering and the sum of the currents leaving. You will not need
to change any of the current arrows or their labels.
- Prove that the three KCL equations you wrote are the same
Study Guide Section 2.4
b. When writing a KVL equation you can traverse the closed loop in either
the clockwise direction or the counter-clockwise direction. Always pick a
starting point in your closed loop and a direction. An easy way to determine
which sign to use for a voltage term is to write down the first sign you come
to as you traverse the loop. For example, look at the a loop in Fig. 2.17.
Start to the left of the 1 O resistor and traverse the loop in the clockwise
direction:
The first sign is and the voltage is v
1
, so write v
1
.
The next sign is + and the voltage is v
2
, so write v
1
+ v
2
.
The next sign is + and the voltage is v
4
, so write v
1
+ v
2
+ v
4
.
The next sign is and the voltage is v
b
, so write v
1
+ v
2
+ v
4
v
b
.
The next sign is and the voltage is v
3
, so write v
1
+ v
2
+ v
4
v
b

v
3
.
We have returned to the starting point, so complete the equation:
v
1
+ v
2
+ v
4
v
b
v
3
= 0
Study Guide Section 2.4
Use this technique to write a KVL equation for the circuit below. Start to the
left of the 5 O resistor and traverse the loop in the clockwise direction. Now
write a KVL equation for the same circuit, but start below the dependent
source and traverse the loop in the counter-clockwise direction. Prove that
the two KVL equations you wrote are the same
Study Guide Section 2.4
c. Use the circuit in Fig. 2.19 to find v
1
using Kirchhoffs laws and Ohms
law. Do not use i
o
and i
1
in your equations. Instead, write a KVL equation
around the left loop, summing the three voltages. Then use Ohms law and
KCL to sum the currents leaving node b in terms of the voltages v
1
and v
o
.
Solve the two equations to find v
o
and v
1
.
Study Guide Section 2.4
d. Use the data in the table of Fig. 2.20(b) to plot the current as a function of
the voltage. Write the equation of the resulting straight line. Then, follow
the steps in Example 2.9 to construct a circuit model for the device of Fig.
2.20(a) that consists of a current source and a resistor, connected as shown
below. Find the values for i and R. Finally, connect a 10 O resistor between
terminals a and b and calculate the power the resistor absorbs. Why is
the answer the same as in Example 2.9?
Study Guide Section 2.5
a. Using the values of i
A
, i
o
, and v
o
on p. 50, show that the power generated
equals the power absorbed for the circuit in Fig. 2.22.
b. Construct a different set of six independent equations for the circuit of
Fig. 2.24 as follows:
- Write KCL equations at nodes b, c, and d by summing the
currents entering each node.
- Write the constraint equation that equates i
c
with the dependent
source current.
- Write two KVL equations for the paths dcbd and abcda, traversing
these loops in a counter-clockwise direction.
If you are really brave, use this new set of equations to find the current i
B
in
terms of the known circuit variables. You can follow the steps enumerated
on pages 52 and 53, with slight modifications. You should get the result
shown in Eq. 2.25.
c. Solve Assessment Problem 2.9.