JOURNAL

T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L

of DIVERSITY

in Organizations, Communities & Nations

Volume 11, Issue 2

Beyond Introduction: The Need for Competency in Diversity Training
Lathardus Goggins II and Elisabeth Dowcett

www.Diversity-Journal.com

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY IN ORGANISATIONS, COMMUNITIES AND NATIONS http://www.Diversity-Journal.com First published in 2011 in Champaign, Illinois, USA by Common Ground Publishing LLC www.CommonGroundPublishing.com ISSN: 1447-9532 © 2011 (individual papers), the author(s) © 2011 (selection and editorial matter) Common Ground All rights reserved. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the applicable copyright legislation, no part of this work may be reproduced by any process without written permission from the publisher. For permissions and other inquiries, please contact <cg-support@commongroundpublishing.com>. THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY IN ORGANISATIONS, COMMUNITIES AND NATIONS is peer-reviewed, supported by rigorous processes of criterion-referenced article ranking and qualitative commentary, ensuring that only intellectual work of the greatest substance and highest significance is published. Typeset in Common Ground Markup Language using CGPublisher multichannel typesetting system http://www.commongroundpublishing.com/software/

Beyond Introduction: The Need for Competency in Diversity Training
Lathardus Goggins II, University of North Carolina Wilmington, NC, USA Elisabeth Dowcett, Durham Public Schools, NC, USA
Abstract: The literature has long called for changes to the preparation of human services professionals, particularly in the fields of education and social work, in order to better equip graduates to work in an increasingly diverse environment. Since the mid-90’s many professional licensing/accreditation organizations have required professional preparation programs to address diversity in their curriculum. The research still suggests that new teachers and social workers are woefully underprepared to effectively provide meaningful services to black and brown communities. Many colleges have acknowledged the necessity to better educate graduates to be culturally competent practitioners. Subsequently, many departments have developed diversity courses. However, these courses are often designed to introduce awareness and tolerance by surveying the various aspects of human diversity. These introductory courses rarely have the time or intent to delve into the complexities of a specific population’s lived experience. Moreover, introductory courses seldom examine how systems of power and privilege impact public policy and professional practice towards a particular population. In this presentation, participants will discuss the development and impact Effective Interactions with African American Males, a course designed to engage social work and education students in a critical examination of the social and emotional effects of racism on the academic, occupational, cultural and relational well-being of African-American males. The goal of the course is to better equip students with the fundamental knowledge and authentic experiences that build competent practice. We believe this may serve as a model for developing other core competencies in diversity. Keywords: Teacher Preparation/Training, Social Worker Preparation/Training, Education, Curriculum, Core Competencies

T

HE NEED TO change the preparation curriculum of human service professionals, particularly in teacher preparation programs, in order to better equip graduates to work in an increasingly diverse environment has long been recognized. A critique of teacher training by Asa Hilliard III (1995) concluded that:

Given that there are so many African [African American] children who are served by the schools, and given the notoriously low levels of academic achievement for these children, it borders on professional malpractice to continue to offer teacher training that is unaffected by the academic knowledge base that does exist about African people. (p.25) Hilliard argued that too many teacher preparation programs only provide benign and superficial discussions on human relations, diversity, multiculturalism, etc. and do not offer sufficient content to develop effective teaching practice in diversity communities. This is an arThe International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations Volume 11, Issue 2, 2011, http://www.Diversity-Journal.com, ISSN 1447-9532
© Common Ground, Lathardus Goggins II, Elisabeth Dowcett, All Rights Reserved, Permissions: cg-support@commongroundpublishing.com

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DIVERSITY IN ORGANISATIONS, COMMUNITIES AND NATIONS

gument that still has merit (Van Hook, 2000; Akoma, 2008; Frankenberg & Siegel-Hawley, 2008; Akiba, 2011). Since the mid 1990s, many professional licensing/accreditation organizations have required professional preparation programs to address diversity in their curriculum. Along with the new standards, many teacher preparation programs have acknowledged the necessity for graduates to be culturally competent practitioners, and have developed and included diversity courses in their curriculum. However, the overwhelming evidence still suggests that new teachers are underprepared to effectively provide meaningful services to black and brown communities, particularly African American males (Tavis Smiley Reports, 2011; Schott Foundation, 2010; Akoma, 2008; Frankenberg & Siegel-Hawley, 2008; Grimes, Herold, & Kubiak, 2008; Noguera, 2008; Howard, 2003; Swanson, Cunningham, & Spencer (2003); Mitchell, Bush & Bush 2002). The diversity courses that may be required of pre-service teachers are often designed to introduce awareness and tolerance by surveying the various aspects of human diversity. These introductory courses rarely have the time or intent to delve into the complexities of a specific population’s lived experience. Moreover, introductory courses seldom examine how systems of power and privilege impact public policy and professional practice towards a particular population. This paper will discuss the need to identify African American males as a population for which pre-service teachers should develop specific diversity competencies, the response of teacher preparation programs to diversity preparation, and the development and impact of the course Effective Interactions with African-American Males (EIAAM). Research strongly indicates that a gap in educational attainment and the quality of the educative experiences exists between white students and their minority counterparts. These gaps are most prevalent amongst African American males. As a group, African American males “exceed normal expectations of at-risk status” due to rates of, HIV infection, incarceration, unemployment, and dropping out of school (Mitchell, Bush, & Bush, 2002). According to the Schott Foundation (2010), only 47% of the United States’ black males graduated from high school in 2007/2008. In New York City, which has the highest enrollment of black males of any district, only 28% of black males graduated. By the end of high school, African American students have reading and math skills that are the same as 8th grade white students (Haycock, 2001). According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores showed that white students scored higher than black students on all assessments and average white scores were 26 points higher than black scores in reading and math. Though data on African American males is alarming, the plight of African American males has become ubiquitous and accepted as normal. Noguera (2008) states, “The failure of Black males is so pervasive that it appears to be the norm and so does not raise alarms” (p.xvii). As a society, we are so used to seeing black males drop out of school and be punished, labeled, or imprisoned, that we have become numb to these issues. We have learned to turn our heads and say it isn’t our problem. However, for every student that does not graduate from high school and go on to college and/or to become a working, productive citizen, we all pay economically and socially. In 2005, 10% of the African American male population between the ages of 18 and 29 were in prison compared to 1.5% of the white male population (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006). Additionally, African-American males have a uniquely complex identity. According to Boykin (1986), they face a “triple quandary” and

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must navigate an existence that involves being a part of the mainstream, the oppressed minority, and Black culture. Much of the problem lies with “our” collective discomfort to openly discuss issues of race, power and privilege. In the Conversations About Race Project, Ausbrooks, Benn, & Trepaginer (2011) found that trans-racial conversations about race elicit fears of irreparable harm, being perceived as a racist, or being labeled in the context of a stereotype. Moreover, most conversations about race are with people with whom one already has a relationship and not with people outside of one’s “comfort zone.” Consequently, these uncomfortable conversations, or as Hilliard (1995) described, benign and superficial discussions, are rarely transformative and seldom become the means by which a professional will develop competencies about effective practice in a racially, culturally, and ethnically diverse environment. The Conversations About Race Project suggests that facilitated discussions are needed to create safe places that encourage individuals to venture out and engage in trans-racial conversations. Additionally, the initial trans-racial discussions focus on a select group and specific ideas. Subsequently, such discussions will raise awareness, confidence and engagement and lead to a better understanding of how to navigate issues of power and privilege in someone else’s socio-cultural milieu (Ausbrooks, Benn, & Trepaginer, 2011). The fear of the difficulty of trans-racial conversations will often lead to an adoption of color-blind policies and practices (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). Even the “well-intended” color-blindness approaches and policies have done little to address issues concerning African American male under-representation of good outcomes,, over-representation of bad outcomes, and the various other descriptions of disenfranchisement. Research suggests that strong adherence to color-blind approaches and policies essentially reinforce the current status quo, further entrenching the existing power and privilege structures (Crenshaw, 1988; Carr, 1997; Gushue, 2004). Ultimately, color-blind perspectives are more hegemonic than liberating. On the other hand, in “Whistling Vivaldi: And other clues about how stereotypes affect us” Claude Steele (2010) argues that simply creating programs that target the “at-risk” and “disadvantaged” tend to create a threat that negates the effectiveness of the remedy. The literature again suggests strongly that nuanced and competent practice is needed to adequately address the continued concerns about achievement and disenfranchisement. Overwhelmingly, American classrooms operate to benefit those students perceived to have “white” cultural capital. According to Perry (2003), “School is organized so as to afford automatic advantages to those who come to school with a lot of cultural capital and disadvantages to those with little cultural capital” (p.vii). Many teachers and school leaders are not aware of their role in the failure of African American males. It is often the case that teachers, counselors and principals assume African-American students have little access to social capital (Goggins, 1996; Bol & Berry, 2005). This cultural mismatch has been identified as one the factors contributing to ineffective schools. In turn, this mismatch has led to frustration and a belief that circumstances beyond the control of schools and teachers are to blame for lack of achievement (Gay & Kirland, 2003). Most teachers are unaware of the available socio-cultural resources (i.e. people, institutions, frames of reference, developmental models, ethos, etc.) within the African-American community. Consequently, they have never developed the skills and insight to incorporate these tools and perspectives into their professional practice. Despite the aforementioned, teacher preparation programs struggle to train new teachers to successfully interact with black males students. 69

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The North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards emphasize the need for teachers to establish classroom environments respectful of diversity and individual students. It is also expected that teachers have knowledge of diverse cultures and recognize the role of race, gender, and other aspect of a student’s culture on their identity (NC Public Schools, 2011). The guiding mission of the North Carolina State Board of Education is that “every public school student will graduate from high school, globally competitive for work and postsecondary education and prepared for life in the 21st Century” (NC Public Schools, 2011). In order to successfully achieve these goals, it is necessary for teachers to be given the opportunity to study and reflect in ways that prepare them to understand their students. In a study sponsored by the Civil Rights Project and the Southern Poverty Law Center, Frankenberg Siegel-Hawley (2008) found that: “white teachers and teachers in schools with higher percentages of white and middleclass students were less likely to have preparation for racial diversity in the classroom.… the necessity for comprehensive training in multicultural education and in race relations techniques for all teachers in order to prepare educators for how to teach about these issues in both homogeneous and heterogeneous schools” p. 5-6 Similarly, a survey of the forty-seven teacher preparation programs in North Carolina recognized by the Department of Public Instruction revealed that only one institution offered a course to specifically acquaint future teachers with issues facing African-American males (Goggins & Johnson, 2011). North Carolina teacher preparation programs largely ignore African-American males as a population requiring specific competency. They fail to adequately prepare new professionals to address the educational needs of a significant portion of their potential students despite the strong evidence that: (1) African-American males represent a specific group with whom the profession has difficulty; (2) the literature on best educational practice affirms a need to develop cultural and racial proficiency; and (3) current professional standards require teachers to recognize the influence of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and other aspects of culture on a student’s development and personality. The one course offered, Effective Interactions with African American Males (EIAAM) is offered to education and social work majors at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. The course is designed to engage students in a critical examination of the social and emotional effects of racism on the academic, occupational, cultural and relational well-being of African-American males thus better equipping students with the fundamental knowledge and authentic experiences that build competent practice. EIAAM can serve as a model for developing other core competencies in diversity. Using an African-centered philosophical worldview and a racial socialization framework, EIAAM uses participatory education to equip undergraduate and/or graduate students, to “better” understand and effectively work alongside and with young adult African-American men. The core tenets underlying the course are racial oppression exists, matters, is ubiquitous and pernicious, and that those most affected are often ignorant of this reality. Students also examine and develop strategies to restore a healthy definition of African-American manhood and its significance for self, family, and community relationships, culminating in a community restoration initiative proposal.

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EIAAM is organized into the following topics of study: • • • • • • • • • Racism, Discrimination and Racial Socialization Images of African-American Males, Manhood Development Understanding the Black Male in Ecological Context Interactions with African-American Males in Primary Schools Interactions with African-American Males in Secondary Schools Interactions with African-American Males in Post-Secondary Education Social Services Interactions with African-American Males Community Interventions with African-American Males Justice Interactions with African-American Males

EIAAM provides students the opportunity to discuss relevant readings, conduct a media analysis, critique community-based research, and share self-reflections. Throughout the semester, students are asked to analyze intervention strategies, services and programs targeting African-American males. The final project is to present an African-American male initiative that seeks to restore/develop a healthy definition of Black manhood. In addition, students periodically discuss topics and share activities via videoconference with the Psycho-educational Interactions with Black Males class offered by the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA). The EIAAM course focuses on five actions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify/frame the target population that is challenging the profession Examine issues from a multidisciplinary/transdisciplinary perspective Identify opportunities for first-hand interactions between course students and African American males Self-reflective writing Propose a realistic and feasible intervention

Identifying and framing the specific population may require some courage given that discussions about the ignored and underserved often unpacks uncomfortable feelings about power, privilege and professional effectiveness. However, the prevailing data within the profession will provide insight about the gaps in service and preparation. One can make the simple argument that the course will prepare new professionals for issues they are likely to encounter. Examining issues using lenses and frameworks from various disciplines helps students to better understand the layers and complexities of the African American male experience. This equips students to better reflect upon and strategize solutions to issues. It is useful for students to understand how their practice is influenced by and contributes to the overall milieu. First-person interactions are essential to developing culturally competent practice (Van Hook, 2000; Akiba 2011). For many students in the EIAAM course, it is the first time they have engaged in a conversation with an African-American male regarding power, privilege and his perspectives (and for some it is simply the first conversation they have had with African-American male). Requiring students to interview an African-American male about his perspective on African-American males accomplish these interactions. Additionally, 71

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students are required to visit an agency or organization whose work targets African-American males. The reflective writing is meant to move students from viewing phenomena and experiences as African-American male issues to seeing their contribution to the environment in which these issues exist. Each week, students are challenged to write a 1-2 page reflection which summarizes the salient points of the readings, relate those points to a personal experience, and project how it may impact one’s professional practice. Each student is required to propose and present an African-American male intervention. These interventions are expected to be authentic (i.e. to be informed by the lived experiences of the targeted population), organic (i.e. utilizing resources that are available in the communities in which the targeted population live), and feasible. Feasibility challenges students to wrestle with a grand idea and to transform it into a practical action. We believe that the EIAAM course should be used as a model to develop similar courses to enhance teacher preparation. Furthermore, courses like EIAAM will promote an understanding of diversity and multiculturalism that is richer, more complex, and seen as an essential part of a good professional preparation. As one student commented in her final reflection, “Part of my personal journey has been coming to terms with the fact that as a white female, I can still empower young Black men. I believe that I can, but I must do so with truth, sensitivity and authenticity” (Dowcett, personal communication, December 9, 2011).

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References
Akiba, M. (2011). Identifying program characteristics for preparing pre-service teachers for diversity. Teacher College Record, 113(3), 658-697. Akoma, E, (2008). “African Centered Curriculum and Teacher Efficacy: Contributors to African American Student Achievement”. Educational Psychology and Special Education Theses. Paper 1. Retrieved from http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/epse_theses/1 Ausbrooks, A., Benn, S., & Trepagnier, B. (2011). The conversations about race project. Paper presented at the 11th Conference on Diversity in Organizations, Communities, and Nations, Cape Town, South Africa. Bol, L. & Berry, R. Q. (2005). Secondary mathematics teachers’ perceptions of the achievement gap. The High School Journal, 88(4), 32-45. Boykin, A. W. (1986). The triple quandary and the Afro-American children. In U.Neisser, (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children, (57–92). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association. Carr, L. (1997). “Color-blind” racism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Crenshaw, K. W. (1988). Race, reform, and retrenchment: Transformative and legitimation in antidiscrimination law. Harvard Law Review, 101(7). Retrieved from Ebscohost. Frankenberg, E., & Siegel-Hawley, G. (2008). Are teachers prepared for racially changing schools?: Teachers describe their preparation, resources and practices for racially diverse schools. Los Angeles: Civil Rights Project at University of California, Los Angeles. Gay, G., & Kirkland, K. N. (2003). Developing cultural critical consciousness and self-reflection in preservice teacher education. Theory Into Practice, 42(3), 181-187. Goggins II, L. (1996). African-centered rites of passage and education. Chicago: African American Images. Goggins II, L., & Johnson, T. (2011). Survey for North Carolina Teacher Preparation Institutions. (Unpublished) University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC. Grimes, E., Herold, B., & Kubiak, M. (2008). College pathways takes a village: Findings from the North Philadelphia College Ambassadors Project. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. Gushue, G. V. (2004). Race, color-blind racial attitudes, and judgments about mental health: A shifting standards perspectives. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(4), 398-407. Gushue, G. V., & Constantine, M. G. (2007). Color-blind racial attitudes and white racial identity attitudes in psychology trainees. Professional Psychology, Research & Practice, 38(3), 321328. Haycock, K. (2001). Closing the achievement gap. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 6. Retrieved from Ebscohost. Hilliard, A. (1995). Teacher education from an African American perspective. Paper presented at Invitational Conference on Defining the Knowledge Base for Urban Teacher Education. Atlanta, GA. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED393798.pdf Howard, T. C. (2003). “A tug of war for our minds:” African American high school students’ perceptions of their academic identities and college aspirations. The High School Journal, 87(1), 4-17. Mitchell, K, Bush, E., & Bush L. (2002). Standing in the gap: A model for establishing African American male intervention programs within public schools. Educational Horizons, 80(3), 140-46. Retrieved from ERIC database. Noguera, P. A. (2008). The trouble with black boys…and other reflections on race, equity, and the future of public education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (2011). North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards. Retrieved from http://www.ncpublicschools.org. Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hilliard III, A. (2003). Young gifted and black: Promoting high achievement among African-American students. Boston: Beacon Press.

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Steele, C. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi: And other clues to how stereotypes affect us. New York: W. W. Norton. Swanson, D. P., Cunningham, M., & Spencer, M. B. (2003). Black Malesʼ Structural Conditions, Achievement Patterns, Normative Needs, and “Opportunities. Urban Education, 38(5), 608633. Retrieved from http://uex.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/5/608 Tavis Smiley Reports. (Producer). (2011, September 13). Too important to fail: Saving America’s boys. [Television broadcast]. New York: WNET The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2006). Race, ethnicity & health care. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from www.kff.org. The Schott Foundation. (2010). Yes we can: The Schott 50 state report on public education and black males. Cambridge, MA. Retrieved from www.blackboysreport.org. Van Hook, C. W. (2000). Preparing teachers for the diverse classroom: A developmental model for intercultural sensitivity. Proceedings from the Lillian Katz Symposium: Issues in Early Childhood Education: Curriculum. Teacher Education, & Dissemination of Information. Champaign, IL: Early Childhood and Parenting Collaborative.

About the Authors
Dr. Lathardus Goggins II Dr. Lathardus Goggins II has been an advocate for youth and education for more than twenty years, and is the author of BRINGING THE LIGHT INTO A NEW DAY and AFRICAN CENTERED RITES OF PASSAGE AND EDUCATION. Dr. Goggins earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in Geography and his Doctor of Education in Educational Foundations and Leadership from The University of Akron. He earned his Masters of Education in Cultural Foundations from Kent State University. Dr. Goggins has worked with “at-risk” youth as a Prevention Specialist and has worked more than 17 years in Higher Education Administration. Currently, Dr. Goggins is an Assistant Professor jointly appointed to the department of Educational Leadership and School of Social Work at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. Additionally, Dr. Goggins is the primary investigator of the “I knew I was a man when…”, a first person research project seeking to record and analyze first person narratives of African-American men reflecting upon their transition into manhood. Elisabeth Dowcett Elisabeth Dowcett is a Nationally Board Certified middle grades language arts and social studies teacher in Durham, North Carolina. She is also a graduate student at the University of North Carolina Wilmington’s Watson School of Education where she is pursuing her M.Ed. in Curriculum, Instruction, and Supervision. Ms. Dowcett has a B.A. in Middle Grades Education from UNCW. Her research interests include teacher effectiveness, closing the achievement gap and instructional methods for poor and minority students. She is a former member of the New Hanover County Schools Strategic Planning Committee and the founder of the CHOICES after school program for African American males. She is currently writing her Master’s Thesis: What African American Males Want Their Teachers to Know?

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Editor
Paul James, Globalism Institute, RMIT University, Australia

Editorial Advisory Board
Ien Ang, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Joanna van Antwerpen, Research and Statistics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Samuel Aroni, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Vivienne Bozalek, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. Susan Bridges, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Duane Champagne, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Guosheng Y. Chen, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. Jock Collins, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. Bill Cope, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA. Heather Marion D’Cruz, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. James Early, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA. Denise Egéa-Kuehne, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA. Amareswar Galla, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Grethe van Geffen, Seba Cultuurmanagement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Barry Gills, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Jackie Huggins, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Andrew Jakubowicz, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia. Ha Jingxiong, Central University of Nationalities, Beijing, China. Mary Kalantzis, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA. Jack Levin, Northeastern University, Boston, USA. Cristina Poyatos Matas, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. Peter McLaren, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Joe Melcher, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, USA. Greg Meyjes, Solidaris Intercultural Services, Falls Church, USA. Walter Mignolo, Duke University, Durham, USA. Brendan O’Leary, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. Aihwa Ong, University of California, Berkeley, USA. Peter Phipps, Globalism Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. Ronald Prins, Bos en Lommer Neighbourhood Council, Amsterdam-West, The Netherlands. Peter Sellars, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. Michael Shapiro, University of Hawai’i, Manoa, USA. David S. Silverman, Kansas Wesleyan University, Salina, USA. Martijn F.E. Stegge, Diversity Platform, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Geoff Stokes, Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. Terry Threadgold, Cardiff University, Wales, UK. Mililani Trask, Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues for the Economic Council of the UN Assembly, Hawai’i, USA. Marij Urlings, Inholland University, Amsterdam-Diemen, The Netherlands. Rob Walker, Keele University, Keele, UK. Ning Wang, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Owens Wiwa, African Environmental and Human Development Agency, Toronto, Canada. Please visit the Journal website at http://www.Diversity-Journal.com for further information about the Journal or to subscribe.

The Diversity Community
This knowledge community is brought together by a shared interest in diversity in one or another of its manifestations, in organizations, communities and nations. The community interacts through an innovative, annual face-to-face conference, as well as year-round virtual relationships in a weblog, peer reviewed journal and book imprint – exploring the affordances of the new digital media. Member of this knowledge community include academics, public administrators, policy makers, private and public sector leaders and research students.

Conference
Members of the Diversity Community meet at the International Conference on Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations, held annually in different locations around the world. The Diversity Conference was first held in Sydney, Australia in 2000; Melbourne, Australia in 2001; University of Hawai’i, Manoa, Hawai’i, USA in 2003; University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA in 2004; Institute of Ethnic Administrators, Beijing, China in 2005; Xavier University and Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Lousiana, USA in 2006; OZW-School of Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands in 2007; HEC Montréal, Montréal, Canada in 2008; Riga International School of Economics and Business Administration (RISEBA), Riga, Latvia in 2009; Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland in 2010; University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa in 2011, and in 2012 the conference will be held in Vancouver, Canada. Our community members and first time attendees come from all corners of the globe. The Conference is a site of critical reflection, both by leaders in the field and emerging scholars, and examines the concept of diversity as a positive and at times fraught aspect of an interconnected world and globalised society. Those unable to attend the conference may opt for virtual participation in which community members can either submit a video and/or slide presentation with voice-over, or simply submit a paper for peer review and possible publication in the Journal. Online presentations can be viewed on YouTube.

Publishing
The Diversity Community also enables members to publish through three media. First, by participating in the Diversity Conference, community members can enter a world of journal publication unlike the traditional academic publishing forums – a result of the responsive, nonhierarchical and constructive nature of the peer review process. The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations provides a framework for double-blind peer review, enabling authors to publish into an academic journal of the highest standard. The second publication medium is through the book series On Diversity, publishing cutting edge books in print and electronic formats. Publication proposals and manuscript submissions are welcome. The third major publishing medium is our news blog, constantly publishing short news updates from Diversity Community, as well as major developments in issues of diversity and community. You can also join this conversation at Facebook and Twitter or subscribe to our email Newsletter.

Common Ground Publishing Journals
AGING Aging and Society: An Interdisciplinary Journal Website: http://AgingAndSociety.com/journal/ BOOK The International Journal of the Book Website: www.Book-Journal.com CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT The International Journal of the Constructed Environment Website: www.ConstructedEnvironment.com/journal DIVERSITY The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations Website: www.Diversity-Journal.com GLOBAL STUDIES The Global Studies Journal Website: www.GlobalStudiesJournal.com HUMANITIES The International Journal of the Humanities Website: www.Humanities-Journal.com LEARNING The International Journal of Learning. Website: www.Learning-Journal.com MUSEUM The International Journal of the Inclusive Museum Website: www.Museum-Journal.com SCIENCE IN SOCIETY The International Journal of Science in Society Website: www.ScienceinSocietyJournal.com SPACES AND FLOWS Spaces and Flows: An International Journal of Urban and ExtraUrban Studies Website: www.SpacesJournal.com SUSTAINABILITY The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability Website: www.Sustainability-Journal.com UBIQUITOUS LEARNING Ubiquitous Learning: An International Journal Website: www.ubi-learn.com/journal/ ARTS The International Journal of the Arts in Society. Website: www.Arts-Journal.com CLIMATE CHANGE The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses Website: www.Climate-Journal.com DESIGN Design Principles and Practices: An International Journal Website: www.Design-Journal.com FOOD Food Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal Website: http://Food-Studies.com/journal/ HEALTH The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society Website: www.HealthandSociety.com/journal IMAGE The International Journal of the Image Website: www.OntheImage.com/journal MANAGEMENT The International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management. Website: www.Management-Journal.com RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY The International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society Website: www.Religion-Journal.com SOCIAL SCIENCES The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences Website: www.SocialSciences-Journal.com SPORT AND SOCIETY The International Journal of Sport and Society Website: www.sportandsociety.com/journal TECHNOLOGY The International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society Website: www.Technology-Journal.com UNIVERSITIES Journal of the World Universities Forum Website: www.Universities-Journal.com

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