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shown that the absolute directive gain pattern, for quarterwave elements on disc ground planes resting on Earth,

varies by less than 1 dBi as the normalised ground plane radius is varied from 0 t o 8 wavenumbers.
300

P -7001,
-800 I
4 normallsed groundscreen rodius Znalh (wave number )

-600 1

1083131

WAIT, J. R., and POPE, w. A.: The characterization of a vertical antenna with a radial conductor ground system, Applied Scienti@c Research, 1954,4, Sect. B, pp. 177-195 (The Hague) 9 HILL, D. A., and WAIT, R.: Calculated pattern of a vertical I. antenna with a finite radial-wire ground system, Radio Sci., 1973, 8, (l), pp. 81-86 10 RANSE, R. P., and RUW I.: Low angle radiation from vertically polarized antennas over radially heterogeneous flat ground, Radio Sci., 1975,10, pp. 1011-1018 G. 11 BURKE, I,, and MILLER, E. K.: Numerical modeling of monopoles on radial-wire ground screens. Proc. 1989 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Symp., 1, San Jose, CA, pp. 244-247 12 WEINER, M.: Performance of ground-based high-frequency receiM. ving arrays with electrically-small ground planes. MTR-11277, The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA, 1991 13 WEINER, M.:Validation of the numerical electromagnetics code M. (NEC) for antenna wire elements in proximity to Earth. MTR11278, The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA, 1991 14 WEINER, M. M., and ZAMOSCIANYK, s.: Radiation elliciency and input impedance of monopole elements with radial-wire ground planes in proximity to Earth. M91-104, The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA, 1991 (also available from National Technical Information Service as AD-A244578)

Fig. 3 Input reactance ON=4 AN=S +N=16 x N=32 0 N = 8 4 V N=128

The radiation efliciency q is the ratio of the far-field radiated power t o the available input power. The far-field radiation is confined t o the air medium for a n Earth conductivity u > 0. The radiation efficiency is a measure of the power loss in the Earth because the monopole element and radial wires are assumed t o have infinite conductivity. The radiation effciency increases monotonically with increasing number of the radial wires (see Fig. 1) and with increasing length of the monopole element (not shown). The radiation efficiency exhibits resonances with increasing wire length for a sparse number of radial wires. The input resistance and input reactance asymptotically approach the values of disc ground plane as the groundscreen density approaches infinity (i.e. as the number of radial wires N + 00 as shown in Figs. 2 and 3). A unique characteristic of radial-wire ground planes is the resonances in input impedance and radiation efficiency that occur for a sparse number of radial wires provided that the Earth is not of high conductivity. These resonances occur apparently because the currents on the wires are not closely coupled, unlike the case for a high density of radial wires or the case of a disc ground plane. A more detailed discussion of the electrical characteristics of antennas with electrically-small ground planes in proximity t o Earth is given in Reference 12. Additional computer plots (for x = 15, 150, 1500 and zo/L = -lo- are given in Reference 14. 2lst May 1992 M. M. Weiner and S . Zamoscianyk (The MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA 017300208, USA)
G. J. Burke (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA
9545500808, USA)

BANDWIDTH OF F M VIDEO SIGNALS


F. V. C. Mendis
Indexing terms: Frequency modulation, Video, Subcarrier multiplexing, Optical transmission
An experimental investigation has shown that the equation b = D + 4f. gives a better estimate of video FM bandwidth than [ e Carson bandwidth b = D + 2f. Accurate knowL

ledge of channel bandwidth is re&ed in FM subcarrier multiplexed video distribution systems as it affects the allocaf tion o interchannel spacing. lntroduction: The bandwidth of a frequency modulated (FM) signal is often calculated using the Carson rule. This rule has been derived in many ways [1-5] all using similar assumptions. It may be written as b
= D,,

+ 2f,

(1)

where D,, is the peak-to-peak frequency deviation and f, is the frequency of the modulating signal, assumed t o be sinusoidal. If the modulating signal is nonsinusoidal, but is bandlimited to a top frequency fo, the Carson rule is usually extended (forsaking mathematical rigour) to read

= D,,

+ 2f0

(2)

Another expression, often quoted in the literature [2, 31, gives the bandwidth of a n F M signal as

References Monopole antenna on circular disk over flat Earth, IEEE Trans., 1985, AP-33, (6), pp. 633-637 2 WEINF,R,M.: Input impedance and gain of monopole elements M. with disk ground planes on flat Earth. M90-92, The MITRE Corporation, Wford, MA, NTIS AD-A224284 (See also: Proceedings, Progress in Electromagnetin Research Symposium PIERS 1991, Cambridge, MA, July lst-5th, 1991, p. 691) 3 BURKE, G. I., and FUGGIO, A. I.: Numerical electromagnetin code (NECFmethod of moments. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Report UCID18834,1981 4 BURKE, G. J., and MILLER, E K.: Modeling antennas near to and penetrating a lossy interface,IEEE Trans., AP-32, pp. 1040-1049 5 BURKE, G. J.: Users guide supplement for NEC-3 for modeling buried wires. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Report UCID-19918,1983 6 BURKE, G . J.: Users guide monopoles on radial-wire ground planes, Applied Computational Electronics Newsletter, 1983, 1, (1) 7 BURKE, J.: Users guide supplement for NEC-GS. Lawrence G. Livermore National Laboratory, Report UCRL-MA-107572, 1991
RICHMOND, J. H.:

= D,,

+ 4f

(3)

The Carson rule, eqn. 2, gives a better estimate of the F M bandwidth than eqn. 3 in the narrowband case where D,, ef, where it is well known that b U 2f,. In wideband FM, D,, 9 f,and both equations give the same result, b = D,,. With the advent of F M subcarrier modulated (SCM) broadband optical fibre transport systems for multichannel video distribution [6-91, where D,, is neither much smaller nor much greater than f,, accurate estimation of the signal bandwidth is required for the allocation of appropriate interchannel frequency spacing. For the calculation of carrier and signal-to-noise ratios also, an estimate of the F M signal bandwidth is required, and the Carson rule has been used hitherto [10-14].
f Experimental inuestigation o video FM bandwidth: To assess the validity of using the Carson rule for F M video, we conducted an experiment where the bandwidth of an F M signal

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was measured when it was modulated with several dillerent video test signals. The peak-to-peak frequencq deblation D,, was increased in 1.6MHz steps from 1.6 t o I h M H r and the bandwidth h (taken as the frequency spectral range within which the power is greater than l':,, of the unmodulated carrier power). was measured on a 5pectrum analyser. The test

signals werc ohtained from a Rohde & Schwarz video test signal generator (SPFZ) which provided PALIB video signals with a nominal bandwidth of 5 M H z (i.e. 1; = 5 M H r ) . The unmodulated carrier frequency was 75 MHr. Measurements were made for eight video test signals. shown 111 Fig 1 0 h The signals were chosen for their diver-

h Video standard level

Red area

CCIR-330

y CCIR-331

h Colour bar
(1

Fig. 1 V i d m rest iiynuls (ohrarned from

RohdP & Schwir: SPF.? t id<,, re,! u y n a l yenerilrorl

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sity in baseband spectral distribution so that the measurements covered a wide variety of video signals. The results are shown in Fig. 2 where the F M video bandwidth b is plotted against the peak-to-peak frequency deviation D,,. The uncertainty in the measurements is within (+/-) 1 MHz for test signals, b, c, d , e, h and (+/-) 2 M H z for the others. The bandwidths calculated from eqn. 2 (Carson) and eqn. 3 are also shown in Fig. 2.

and HILL, P . M.: Subcarrier multiplexed lightwave systems for broadband distribution, J . Lightwave Technol., 1989, LT-7, pp. 1329-1342 7 WAY, w. I . : Subcarner multiplexed lightwave system design considerations for subscriber loop applications, J. Lightwave Technol., 1989, LT-7, pp. 1806-1818 8 BICKERS, et ai.: The analog local loop: A growing revolution in optical transmission,J . Lightwave Technol., 1989, LT-7, pp, 18191824
DARCIE, 1.E.:

OISHANSKY, R., LANZISERA, v. A.,

Subcarrier multiplexing for lightwave networks and

video distribution systems, IEEE J . Sel. Areas Commun., 1990, SAC-E, pp. 1240-1248 10 LO, c. N.: A hybnd lightwave transmission system for subcarrier multiplexed video and digital B-ISDN services in the local loop, J . Lightwave Technol., 1989, LT-7, pp. 1839-1848 P. A.: CNR requirements for subcarrier-multiplexed multichannel video FM transmission in optical fibre, Electron. Lett., 1989, 25, pp. 72-74 12 SIACOS, C. A . : Satellite FM television bandwidth, Space Communication and Broadcasting, 1984, 2, pp. 363-369 13 CCIR Report 215-6, Vol. XjXI,Part 2, Sec. 3.1, 1986, p. 22 14 MENDIS,F. v. c . :Interpretationof signallnoise ratio expressions in FM video transmission, Electron. Lett., 1989, 25, pp. 67-69
11 MENDIS, F. v. c., and ROSHER,

16

32

L8 6 4 8 0 9 6 112 1 2 8 1 4 4 1 6 0 peak-to-peak frequency deviation D ,MHr


PP

;rami

Fig. 2 F M video bandwidth variation withfrequency deviation


Discussion: It is observed from Fig. 2 that the bandwidths do not increase linearly with frequency deviation, but rather in a wavy fashion (which can be explained). At very low deviations, the measured bandwidth approximates the Carson bandwidth but as the deviation increases, the measured bandwidth curves diverge widely. At high deviations, some curves fall below the Carson line whereas others go above the prediction of eqn. 3. It is clear, therefore, that the Carson rule is an insutticient estimate of FM bandwidth for video signals, and that eqn. 3 is a much better (safer) estimate of the upper bound. Even though the measurements were conducted on test video signals, they were diverse enough to allow this conclusion t o be made for actual video signals. Also, there is no loss of generality in using PAL signals for the measurements. Conclusion: The equation b = D,, + 4f0, has been shown to yield a better estimate of F M bandwidth for video signals than does the Carson rule. Certain expressions quoted in the literature [ll-141, which use the Carson rule, should be appropriately modified to give more accurate estimates for the video signal-to-noise ratio. The results should be useful to operators and planners of all-optical (FTTH) or optical/ coaxial (FTTC) cable television (CATV) systems employing FM-SCM for video distribution. A c k n o w l e d g m e n t : I wish to thank R. L. C. Wik (now a t Singapore Airlines Limited), for helpful comments, and for carrying out some of the measurements. 19th June 1992

OPTICAL LOW COHERENCE REFLECTOMETRY WITH 1.9pm SPATIAL RESOLUTION

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible and R. P. Salatht


Indexing terms: Optical reflectometry, Interferometers, Optical measurement
An optical low coherence reflectometer is presented which uses an all-fibre Michelson interferometer with the fluorescence light of a Ti: AI,O, crystal as a light source. The broad spectrum of the fluorescence allows a maximal spatial resolution of I.9pm to be reached, with a dynamic range of 80 dB.

F. V. C. Mendis (Department o Eiectrical Engineeriny, National Unif


versity of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Singapore)

References
I CARSON, J. R . : Notes on the theory of modulation, Proc. I R E , 1922,lO. pp. 57-64 (Reprinted in: Proc. IEEE., June 1963,51, pp. 893-896

Modern digital and analog communication systems (Holt-Saunders, 1983), Chap. 4. p. 294 3 CARLSON, A. B.: Communication systems (McGraw-Hill, 1975), 2nd edn., Chap. 6, p. 236 4 TAUB, H., and SCHILLING, D. L.: Principles of communication systems(McGraw-Hill, 1986), 2nd edn., Chap. 4, p. 153 5 HAYKIN, s. s.: An introduction to analog and digital communications (John Wiley, 1989), Chap. 7, p. 336
LATHI, B. P.:

Optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR) is an interferometry technique based on coherent crosscorrelation detection of light reflected by a sample under test. This technique was introduced in 1987 [I, 23 to probe optical devices used in telecommunication, and is based on a Michelson interferometer with a CW light source characterised by a short coherence length. Optical interfaces as well as light backscattered inside a sample can be detected with a spatial resolution inversely proportional to the spectral width of the light source. Optical low coherence interferometers have been presented by different authors, to characterise the position of weakly reflecting defects in optical elements [3], or backscattering in singlemode optical fibres [4]. The same technique has been applied to measure optical distances inside the eye [SI, and to probe the diffused light inside an arterial wall [SI. It has recently been introduced for noninvasive tomographic imaging in the retina and in coronary arteries, with a longitudinal resolution of 17pm [7]. These devices are singlemode optical fibre interferometers, using LEDs or SLDs as a source. The dynamics of the technique is directly related to the optical power launched into the interferometer. The spatial resolution is limited by the spectral width of the light source. With typical devices discussed above, a dynamic range of 140dB has been reached, with a spatial resolution of 14pm [4]. In this Letter, we present the first results of reflectometry measurements, indicating a spatial resolution of 1.9 pm. They have been obtained using the fluorescence light from a Ti : A1,0, crystal. A schematic description of the all-fibre interferometer is given elsewhere [6]. Fluorescent light from the Ti : AI,O, crystal, excited by an argon laser, is emitted between 600 and IOOOnm. The spectrum exhibits an emission maximum at 780 nm, and an FWHM of 180 nm. 4.8 p W of this fluorescent light is coupled into a low birefringence, singlemode optical

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