105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.

A sem-I)

1

1.1 Concept of window, icon, menu Icon:
An icon in Windows is a small picture or object that represents a file, program, web page, or command. Most of the time, the icon picture relates to the function of the item that it represents. A computer icon is a pictogram displayed on a computer screen and used to navigate a computer system or mobile device. The icon itself is a small picture or symbol serving as a quick representation of a software tool, function or a data file accessible on the system.For example, if the icon is attached to an e-mail program, it might be a picture of a letter. Icons are located on the desktop, in the start menu, and various other places. Icon enable the user to easily navigate the system. If you are using Windows 95, 98 or 2000, you can see several icons right now on your desktop.

Internet Explorer

Adobe Reader 8

Google Toolbar

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

(GUI)

 GUI allows users to interact with electronic devices with images rather than text commands.  GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment .  A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  An icon is a small picture or symbol in a GUI that represents a program (or command), a file, a directory or a device (such as a hard disk or floppy).  Icons are used both on the desktop and within application programs.  A major advantage of GUIs is that they make computer operation more intuitive, and thus easier to learn and use.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

2

 GUIs allow users to take full advantage of the powerful multitasking (the ability for multiple programs and/or

multiple instances of single programs to run simultaneously) capabilities of modern operating systems by allowing such multiple programs and/or instances to be displayed simultaneously.  But the GUI has became much more than a mere convenience. It has also become the standard in humancomputer interaction, and it has influenced the work of a generation of computer users.

Menu:
A menu is a list of commands presented to an operator by a computer. They may be thought of as shortcuts to frequently used commands that avoid the operator having to have a detailed knowledge or recall of syntax.
 A computer using a graphical user interface (GUI) presents menus with a combination of text and symbols to

represent choices.
 By clicking on one of the symbols, the operator is selecting the instruction that the symbol represents.

 A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data.  Most provide some form of pull-down or pop-up menu.  Pull-down menus are the type commonly used in menu bars (usually near the top of a window or screen), which are most often used for performing actions.  Pop-up (or "fly-out") menus are more likely to be used for setting a value, and might appear anywhere in a window.

Menu

Pull Down menu

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

3

Window
In windows operating system, a window may represent several things, such as a document, an application (e.g. word processor or spreadsheet program), a folder (an MS-DOS sub directory in windows in called the folder), a dialog box (where the user enters some information) etc, you can keep several windows open at a time. A window is a visual area containing some kind of user interface. It usually has a rectangular shape. It displays the output of and allows input of one or more processes.Windows are primarily associated with graphical displays, where they can be manipulated with a mouse cursor.Windows are two dimensional objects arranged on a plane called the desktop. They can be resized, moved, hidden, restored or closed.Windows can be composed of other windows. One program can have multiple windows. For example in a text-editing program, a user might benefit from working with several text files available at once. Those "child" windows "containing" text files can either be left separate from the main window (see Metapad) or be encapsulated under the main "parent" window (see Notepad++).
Window 1 (control panel)

Control box

Title bar Menu

Window 2 (recycle bin)

Toolbar

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

4

In a graphical user interface on a computer monitor a toolbar is a panel on which onscreen buttons, icons, menus or other input or output elements are placed.

An example of a web browser toolbar, the Google toolbar, in Firefox

Task bar
In computing, the taskbar is a term for an application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications. Microsoft incorporated a taskbar in Windows 95 and it has been a defining aspect of Microsoft Windows's graphical user interface ever since. The Windows taskbar can be modified by users in several ways. The position of the taskbar can be changed to appear on any edge of the primary display. Users can resize the height (or width when displayed vertically) of the taskbar up to half of the display area.

A standard Windows Vista taskbar with two tasks running.

Title bar
In computing, the title bar consists of that part of a window where the title of the window appears. Most graphical operating systems and window managers position the title bar at the top of the application window as a horizontal bar. Default title-bar text often incorporates the name of the application and/or of its manufacturer. The name of the host running the application also appears frequently. The title bar often contains icons for system commands relating to the window, such as a maximize, minimize and close buttons; and may include other content such as an application icon, a clock, etc. Title bar from Calculator

1.2 Desktop
A desktop commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop which can be seen on most modern personal computers today.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

1 (F.105 Pc Software. Desktop MY Document My Computer Internet Explorer My network places Recycle bin Start menu Task bar 1.  Software which provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features which make more complete.  A desktop environment typically consists of icons.3 creating folders and shortcuts Create a New Folder Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. toolbars. Traditionally these computers have used Microsoft Windows and to a lesser extent Mac OS whose desktop environments are relatively unalterable. windows. folders. another common environment is the one provided by Apple Mac OS.A sem-I) 5  These graphical interfaces are designed to assist the user in easily accessing and configuring (or modifying) the most important (or frequently accessed) specific OS packed features.Y. Naik .C. wallpapers.B.  The most common desktop environment on personal computers is the one provided by Microsoft Windows. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. most popular personal computers come pre-installed with an operating system that provides a desktop environment.  Today.

Select New and then click Folder.105 Pc Software. but three methods are shown below. The trick is to make sure that prior to making the selections from the Menu that you are located at the proper place in the hierarchical view in the left pane. New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Hierarchical View – There are two easy methods for creating a new folder in this view. • The new folder will always be created as a subfolder of whatever location you have selected • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F.Y. 6 2. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B. Right click anywhere on an open area of the desktop.A sem-I) New folders can be created just about anywhere. On the Menu bar select File > New > Folder and the folder will be created in the right hand pane.C. Naik . New Folder on Desktop – 1. A new folder with the default name New Folder will be created on the desktop. Either accept the default name New Folder (bad idea) by hitting the enter key or type a new name for the folder (good idea) and then hit enter on the keyboard.

• Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. Naik . In the File and Folder Tasks section. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. click the Make a New Folder selection.A sem-I) 7 New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Task View Once again.Y. In this case I'm using the same location that was used in the previous example.1 (F.105 Pc Software. The New Folder is created in the right hand pane as shown in the second screen capture. the root of the C drive as shown in the Address bar. Note that the File and Folder Tasks section also expands to include new entries relative to what can be done with the folder just created. make sure you're in the location where the new folder is to be created.C.

click all files and folders. 2. Click when it was modified to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates. 4.B. Naik .1 (F. b. and then click Search. c. In the Search Companion dialog box. or network location that you want to search.4 Finding Files and Folders To search for a file or folder: 1.A sem-I) 8 1. or type a word or phrase that is in the file. click the drive or drives. Click what size is it to look for files that are specific size. Click more advanced options to specify additional search criteria. 2. In the Look in box. 3.105 Pc Software. 5.C. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Click Start.Y. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. folder. Type part or the entire name of the file or folder. Choose one of the following options: a. Click Search.

Using the Menus Step 1: Inset floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. (The key is next to the left CTRL key.B. above).5 Creating copying.Y.  Lets also assume that the folder we are copying the file to is call practice and it's on our C drive.  Copying files to and from a floppy disk are the most common uses of the Copy command. In our example.C. windows Fig 1.105 Pc Software. It has the Windows logo on it.A sem-I) 9 1. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy. Naik . below) Fig 2.  Let’s assume we have a file on a diskette call "Project" and we want to copy it to our hard drive. Therefore. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. select project. Step 5: Select the Edit menu and click Copy. (See Fig 2. PROJECT is our source file and PRACTICE is our destination folder.  Two basic methods are by using menus and by dragging & dropping. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. moving and Deleting Files Copy Files in Windows  There are various ways to copy files using windows.1 (F. The Edit Menu Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. (See Fig 1.

You have just copied a file Drag & drop Step 1: Insert floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. NOTE: Make sure the folder you are copying to is visible. In our example.105 Pc Software. In our example. select project. However 10 Fig 1.1 (F. Step 5: Select the source file by holding down the left mouse button and drag it to the destination folder.C. (See Fig 2. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. Step 7: Select the Edit menu and click Paste. In our example.) Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. (See Fig 1. It has the window logo on it. When the destination folder becomes highlighted. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy. (The windows key is next to the left Ctrl key. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose copy from the menu. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose paste from the menu.B. Congratulations. the destination folder is practice. above). Step 6: Open to the destination folder. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S. double click Practice.Y.A sem-I) Tip. Tip. release the mouse button.

Ankleshwar By Shachi S. NOTE: If you are coping files from the hard drive to another destination on the same hard drive. Drag & Drop Congratulations. You will see a + sign next to your mouse pointer to verify you are copying. this method will move the files instead of copying them.B.A sem-I) 11 Fig 2.C. hold down the CTRL key when dragging the files. above) Tip: The safest way to drag and drop is by using the right mouse button to drag the files. a menu will appear asking you if you want to copy or move the file. You have just copied a file.105 Pc Software. Naik .Y.1 (F. (See mouse pointer in Fig 2. To copy using this method. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. When the button is released.

You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete.B.  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin.  Now click Delete this file. and Windows 2003 users.A sem-I) 12 Deleting Files  When deleting files or folders in Windows the default delete behavior is for the file or folder to be moved to the recycle bin. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.  Navigate to the file or folder you want to delete.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once. or Delete this folder from the File and Folder Tasks menu in your Common Tasks toolbar.1 (F.105 Pc Software.  Then highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.Y. Second Method This method can be used by Windows XP. First Method This is the easiest method to delete files and folders in Windows. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Naik .  Open My Computer ((Left click Start/My Computer) or double click the My Computer icon on your desktop).  Now press the Delete key on your keyboard.  Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.C.

105 Pc Software. All other Windows users double left click the My Computer icon on your desktop.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.  Navigate to the file or folder that you would like to delete. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C.  Windows XP Users click Start then My Computer. Naik .Y. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is. Third Method  You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete.A sem-I) 13  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin.1 (F.

105 Pc Software. Fourth Method In this example we will delete a file from my desktop however this method can be used to drag files from a Windows Explorer window to the recycle bin also. Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. 14 2.B. Then drag the file on top of the Recycle bin. Naik . Then from the top toolbar click File then Delete. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.C.1 (F. Left click the file or folder you wish to delete and keep the mouse button held down.A sem-I) 1. 1. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.Y. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.

Y.A sem-I) 15 Rename file and folders Rename Using the F2 Key This is my favorite method as well as being the easiest. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. single click the file to be renamed and hit the F2 key. Complete the edit and hit Enter. and quickest method to rename files. Rename Using the File Menu Select the folder or file to be renamed then click File > Rename.B.1 (F. Rename Using a Double Click What's a slow double click? Click the file to be renamed once -.wait about two seconds . Naik . Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Complete the edit and hit Enter. No matter where you are.C. Complete the edit and hit Enter.105 Pc Software. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.then click it one more time. simplest.

Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) Rename Using a Right Click 16 Right click the folder or file to be renamed then click Rename.B. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. Complete the edit and hit Enter.C. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.Y.105 Pc Software.1 (F.

Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Many are also aware that shortcuts can be placed in the taskbar.C. Drag and drop The drag and drop method can be used in several ways. The right-click “Send To” function For making shortcuts specifically on the desktop. Dragging with the right-click brings up the context menu shown in the figure. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. Simply right-click on the desired file or folder and select "Desktop (create shortcut)" from the "Send To" menu. Shortcuts can also be made from files or folders by using the menu entry "Create Shortcuts Here".105 Pc Software. the Send To function of the right-click can be used (figure on the left). and drag to the desired destination.Y. such as another folder or the desktop. There are a number of methods for creating new shortcuts: • • • Drag and drop The right-click “Send To” function The right-click “New” function A discussion of each approach to creating shortcuts is given in the sections below. Open the folder containing the object whose shortcut is desired. Either the left or the right mouse button can be used for drag and drop with somewhat different behavior. the shortcuts to open programs. One way to employ drag and drop is to use the menu entry "Copy Here" to make a copy of an existing shortcut in a different location. Naik .1 (F.A sem-I) 17 Creating a Shortcut to a Program or File Everyone is familiar with the icons placed on the desktop. hold down the right-click.

Y.C. Here you can select the file or folder that you wish to create a shortcut for (the target). Once the desired folder or file has been selected. Click the "OK" button.1 (F.A sem-I) The right-click “New” function 18 The most general method for creating shortcuts uses the "New" function of the context menu that appears when a vacant spot within a folder window or on the desktop is right-clicked (figure on the left). the dialog shown below will open. Right-click in the folder where the shortcut is to be placed and select the entry "Shortcut" from the menu. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. First dialog box for creating new shortcut If the "Browse" button is selected.105 Pc Software.B. Naik . Dialog box for Browse function Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. The dialog box shown below will open. The location of the target item can be entered or the "Browse" function can be used to locate it.

C. In this example.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Dialog box with location of target entered Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.A sem-I) 19 The Create Shortcut window will reappear. Naik . the folder "C:\Library" has been chosen.1 (F.105 Pc Software.Y. this time with the desired file or folder entered as shown below.

Naming the shortcut Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. click "Finish".B.1 (F.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y. Naik .C. After entering a name or accepting the default.A sem-I) 20 Click "Next" and a window where the shortcut can be named appears.

Deleted files may be removed from the Recycle Bin by restoring them with a command. Naik . The number of items the recycle bin can hold is limited by the hard disk space allocated to it by windows.Y. The Recycle Bin can be accessed via the desktop (In fact it is the only icon shown by default on the Windows XP desktop) or Windows Explorer. you should periodically empty the recycle bin by deleting those items from the recycle bin that you no more want to restore. then the icon resembles an empty wastepaper basket. you can restore (i.1 (F. or by deleting them permanently. The Recycle Bin is opened like an ordinary Windows Explorer folder and the files are viewed similarly. To remove all items from the recycle bin. use the empty recycle bin command from file menu. select the require items and then choose the restore command from the file menu or from right click menu. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B. time and the path of those files. select the item and the recycle bin displays it in window. Files are moved to the Recycle Bin in a number of ways: • • • • • • By right-clicking on a file and selecting delete from the menu Selecting the file and pressing the delete key Selecting delete from the side menu in Windows XP Selecting the file and choosing delete from the File menu (in Windows XP Explorer) From a context menu command or some other function in a software application (usually configurable) By dragging and dropping a file into the Recycle Bin icon The Recycle Bin only stores files deleted from hard drives. Otherwise if there are files and/or folders the icon resembles a full wastepaper basket.A sem-I) 21 RECYCLE BIN Microsoft introduced the Recycle Bin in the Windows 95 operating system. Therefore. but also the date. select the items and use the delete command from the file or the right click menu. it indicates that currently there are no deleted items. In recycle bin window.105 Pc Software. whether accidentally or intentionally. Users can review the contents of the Recycle Bin before deleting the items permanently. If your recycle bin window is empty. The Recycle Bin's icon indicates whether there are items in the Recycle Bin. not from removable media. The Recycle Bin keeps files that have been deleted.C. If you want to get details about any item in the recycle bin. For doing this. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. such as memory cards and floppy disks. If there are no files or folders in the Recycle Bin. It also doesn't store files deleted from network drives.e. undelete) all items back to their original locations by clicking restore all. If you want to restore selected items. The Recycle Bin holds data that not only lists deleted files.

double-click the network neighborhood icon on your desktop or in window explorer. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.105 Pc Software. Naik . This network neighborhood displays a list of all computers that are connected to the network.A sem-I) 22 NETWORK NEIGHBORHOOD If your pc is connected to a network. To open the network neighborhood folder.B. delete. you can specify the other computer’s folder as the path. Then windows display the network neighborhood window. write. edit or delete files on the folder of other computer on the network.1 (F.Y. you may not be able to access all folders on all hard disks on a particular computer. you may be able to open. etc). Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Therefore.C. window will display the resources of that computer which you have access right to. Moreover. the network neighborhood folder displays all computers in your network. On double clicking any icon. depending on the different types of rights (such as read. If you are connected on a network and you have rights to save files on other computer.

displaying a list of files in a disk.C. memos. letters. you have to wait for DOS to finish that command to enter the next command. When DOS stores information on the disk. on command at a time. Whenever you modify a file. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. renaming or erasing files. such as a floppy disk or hard disk. A file that contains instructions written in a programming language is called a program file.B. The external commands are used for relatively complex job. creating and changing directories. BATCH FILES A batch file is a simple text file that contains a series of DOS commands. After enter a command. etc. The information regarding areas of eh disk where a file is stored is maintained by DOS in FAT. If the FAT gets destroyed.1 (F.A sem-I) 23 WHAT IS FILE? File is a collection of text or data stored on a storage device. sorting a file. the file that stores letters. the smallest unit of the disk space that it works with is called the clusters. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS There are two types of Dos commands. These commands can be used without the need of any dos file. The file that stores database information. etc is known as document or text file. FAT is so important in DOS that it maintains two copies of FAT on the disk. etc. The internal commands are that are automatically loaded in the memory of your pc when Dos is loaded.Y.internal and external. When you use your keyboard to enter commands. The internal commands are simple and are used for common tasks. FILE ALLOCATION TABLE (FAT) The physical location of each file is maintained in a table called the file allocation table (FAT). The storage surface is divided into the tracks. changing current date and time of pc. formatting a drive. Naik . Then you can ask DOS to run the batch file. the batch file is very useful. DOS creates the FAT on the disk. documents. such as copying an entire drive.105 Pc Software. Dos automatically execute all commands entered in the batch file. reminders. such as copying. DOS updates FAT so that FAT always keeps the latest information about the storage of the file on the disk. etc) in conventional file. In a situation when you have to enter a series of commands back to back. you can enter only one command at a time. You simply need to type the series of commands that you want to execute in batch file. It can help you to run a series of DOS commands without requiring your attention. dos will not be able to read files from the disk. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. You can store different type of documents (invoices. The complete information about the clusters occupied by each file stored on the disk is maintained by dos in FAT. memos. When you format a disk with FORMAT command. comparing a drive. A file stored in several clusters that may be located in different parts of the disk. such as an address list or sales information for a period is called database file.

can be use to find out if there are nay hidden files in any directory. D|-D .Uses wide list format.Y. S|-S . Example Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. For example.0 only) G|-G . /O:order N|-N . E|-E . /W :.BAT makes all files with BAT extension name in root directory of drive c hidden. use –H option with ATTRIB.Pauses after each screenful of information.By date and time (chronologically or reverse). directory.Hidden (or not hidden) files. For example. an external Dos command.Specifies drive.Uses lowercase.By size (increasing or decreasing). Other file attributes are read only(R).BAT unhide any hidden file having extension name BAT in the root directory of drive C.Read-only (or read/write) files.Group directories (before. Naik . A|-A . ATTRIB c:\*. D|-D .Sorts by DoubleSpace compression ratio lowest to highest or highest to lowest. You can also use ATTRIB to hide files or change the hidden files to normal ones. DOS COMMANDS 1. /P :. /L :. S|-S .By name (alphabetical or reverse alphabetical).Archivable (or already archived) files. (Version 6. ATTRIB. and/or files to list.C. it indicates that file is hidden.105 Pc Software. R|-R . /A : attributes :H|-H .A sem-I) 24 WHAT ARE HIDDEN FILES? Hidden files are those files that are not listed with DIR. Syntax Dir [Drive:] [path] [filename] [/p] [/w] [/A:Attributes] [/O:order] [/S] [/L] [drive:][path][filename] :. DIR The dir command allows you to see the available files in the current and/or parent directories.Directories (or files only). if Dos displays “H” against a file name. /S :. featurs) for all files in root directory of drive C.By extension ( alphabetical or reverse alphabetical). Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B.1 (F. To convert hidden files to normal ones.Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories.System (or non system) files. for instance. ATTRIB –H C:\*. or after) other files.* displays attribute (characteristic. Some application programs create hidden file. ATTRIB +H C:\*. C|-C .

. Syntax MKDIR [drive:]path MD [drive:]path Examples md test The above example creates the "test" directory in the directory you are currently in.. md c:\test Create the "test" directory in the c:\ directory.] CD [drive:][path] CD[. dir /p If the directory has a lot of files and you cannot read all the files as they scroll by.A sem-I) 25 dir Lists all files and directories in the directory that you are currently in. Syntax RMDIR [drive:]path RD [drive:]path Examples rmdir c:\test Remove the test directory. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2. dir > myfile. Syntax CHDIR [drive:][path] CHDIR[. cd. you can use this command and it will display all files one page at a time. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.txt Takes the output of dir and re-routes it to the file myfile. the root of the drive.1 (F. Naik . dir /s Lists the files in the directory that you are in and all sub directories after that directory.B. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3. MD / MKDIR Allows you to create your own directories in MS-DOS.txt instead of outputting it to the screen.Y. RD / RMDIR Removes empty directories in MS-DOS. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. if you are at root "C:\>" and type this command this will list to you every file and directory on the C: drive of the computer. if empty.. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4.105 Pc Software.] Examples cd\ Goes to the highest level. CD CD (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS.C.

Y. the autoexec.B. Syntax DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P] ERASE [drive:][path]filename [/P] [drive:][path]filename /P Specifies the file(s) to delete. Examples Erase c:\windows\*. copy autoexec. if you're in c:\windows> and you type the cd it will print c:\windows. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. COPY Allows the user to copy one or more files to an alternate location. Naik .105 Pc Software. For those users who are familiar with Unix / Linux this could be thought of as doing the pwd (print working directory) command. would take you into the Windows directory.C.bat. cd\windows\system32 If present. DEL / ERASE del (Erase) is a command used to remove files from your computer's hard disk drive and or other writable media. if you are within the C:\Windows\COMMAND> directory. Windows can be substituted with any other name.1 (F. For example.* a: Copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk drive. For example. Syntax COPY source [destination] Examples copy *. usually found at root. 98. For example. If at any time you need to see what directories are available in the directory you're currently in use the dir command. cd\windows If present.FAK Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. would move into the system32 directory located in the Windows directory.. cd windows If present. Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file. this would take you to C:\Windows> Windows 95. would first move back to the root of the drive and then go into the Windows directory.bat can be substituted for any file(s).bat c:\windows Copy the autoexec.A sem-I) 26 Goes back one directory. cd Typing cd alone will print the working directory. typing: cd. with three dots after the cd would take you back two directories. Specify multiple files by using wildcards. and later versions have a feature in the CD command that allows you to go back more than one directory when using the dots.. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5. and copy it into the windows directory. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6.

Naik .tmp = Delete the c:\windows\test.tmp.txt *.bak extension. because nothing was placed before or after the first asterisk. rename *. if the file exists..tmp = (? is a single wild character for one letter) This command would delete any file ending with est.105 Pc Software. rename * 1_* Rename all files to begin with 1_.tmp = Deletes the test. REN AND RENAME Used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name.* indicates that you would like to delete all files in the c:\windows\temp directory.txt. Once the above command has been typed in. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7. TYPE Allows the user to see the contents of a file.C.. For example. a user could type in whatever he or she wishes.txt file. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9. del c:\windows\temp\*. you can save and exit the file by pressing CTRL+Z.txt it would be renamed to 1_pe. Syntax Renames a file/directory or files/directories. del test.* = (* is for wild character(s)) *. and then press enter.A sem-I) 27 Delete any files that end with the FAK extension. del c:\windows\temp\?est. An easier way to view and edit files in MS-DOS would be to use the edit command.tmp such as pest.B.tmp in the windows directory if it exists. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8. which creates the test.tmp or zest. The asterisk (*) in this example is an example of a wild character. RENAME [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] REN [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] Examples rename c:\chope hope Rename the directory chope to hope. When you have completed creating the file. this means all files in the current directory will be renamed with a 1_ in front of the file.tmp in the directory that you currently are in. COPY CON To create a new file Syntax copy con [filename] Example copy con test.txt a user can create a file using the copy con command as shown above.bak Rename all text files to files with . del c:\windows\test. if there was a file named hope. which would create ^Z.Y. Syntax TYPE [drive:][path]filename Examples Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13. Press ENTER to keep the same time. Examples time 12:00 Set the time to 12:00 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12.2600] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. DATE The date command can be used to look at the current date of the computer as well as change the date to an alternate date. Syntax DATE [date] Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and a prompt for a new one. If no date is entered. Naik . Examples date Display the current date and prompt for a new one.105 Pc Software.1.Y.B.bat This would allow you to look at the autoexec. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11. Syntax TIME [time] Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt for a new one.1 (F. Press ENTER to keep the same date. Syntax CLS CLS Cls is a command that allows a user to clear the complete contents of the screen and leave only a prompt. Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5. Examples cls Running the cls command at the command prompt would clear your screen of all previous text and only return the prompt. TIME Allows the user to view and edit the computer's time. the current date will be kept.C.A sem-I) type c:\autoexec. Syntax VER VER Displays the version of MS-DOS (Operating System) Examples ver Display what version of MS-DOS or Windows command prompt you're using. Below is an example of what this may look like. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.bat ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28 10.

C. format a: Would erase all the contents off a disk.txt. Commonly used on a diskette that has not been formatted or on a diskette you wish to erase.bat. and/or modify their computer files. Commonly used to quickly erase all information on the diskette. When editing this or any file. However. Syntax UNFORMAT Used to unformat a drive that has been formatted. if you wanted to create a file called myfile.bat This would look at the autoexec.txt to the parallel port lpt1.1 (F. this command should not be done unless you're planning to start over. in the background. In other words. unless you wish to erase all your computer's information. Syntax print filename Example print c:\file.txt /c /d:lpt1 Prints the file file. ensure that you know what you are placing in the files improperly editing the file can cause issues with your computer.Y. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 15. Naik . remember all information on the drive you wish to format will be completely erased. FORMAT Format is used to erase all of the information off of a computer diskette or fixed drive. create. Syntax edit FileName Examples edit c:\autoexec. you would type: edit myfile.B.A sem-I) 29 14. Syntax format drive: Examples When using the format command. format a: /q Quickly erases all the contents of a floppy diskette. if the file is not found.105 Pc Software. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17. as long as the file is saved upon exit this will create the file myfile. for example.txt. Using edit you can also create files. you will have a blank blue screen. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.txt This would bring up a blank edit screen. format c: This would erase all the contents of your C: hard disk drive. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16. PRINT This command allowed users to print a text file to a line printer. EDIT Edit allows a user to view.

MORE More allows information to be displayed one page at a time.Y. Naik .txt Would display the contents of a page one page at a time. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Examples dir | more Allows you to view the directory listing one page at a time.MODEMDET. Syntax find “string” filename Example find "hope" *. Syntax FDISK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20. FDISK It is used to divide a hard disk into the number of partition. if applicable.txt Next this example searches for any text file (. ---------.CH.1 (F.TXT Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. FIND Allows you to search for text within a file. Below is an example of the output you may see. more myfile. Syntax command-name | MORE [drive:][path][filename] [drive:][path]filename Specifies file(s) to display one screen at a time command-name Specifies a command whose output will be displayed. As can be seen from the below example the only file that contains hope is the CH.txt) that contains the text hope in the current directory. If divide your hard disk into partitions you can efficiently organize directories. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) UNFORMAT drive: Examples unformat c: Command specified to unformat drive c: if it was formatted. Pressing space would go to the next page and pressing enter would go down one line at a time. This would be the same as doing dir /p.TXT ---------.TXT computer hope ---------.ACTIVE SETUP LOG.TXT file.C. It is case sensitive command.B. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30 18.

ATTRIB Attrib allows a user to change the properties of a specified file Syntax ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S] + R Sets an attribute.SCHEDLGU.1 (F.A sem-I) 31 ---------. Overall period of time when you create and delete many files.SETUPLOG. S System file attribute. A Archive file attribute. Clears an attribute. Naik . /S Processes files in all directories in the specified path.TXT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.OEWABLOG. If any file is hidden it will also display those files.B.105 Pc Software. you delete files from your hard disk and create new files.TXT ---------. H Hidden file attribute. Examples attrib Typing attrib by itself will display all files in the current directory and each of their attributes. It means different parts of the same files get stored in different areas of hard disk.TXT ---------.Y. DEFRAG When you work on the pc. they will be fragmented s defragment your hard disk using defrag command. At that time dos first tries to reuse the space occupied by the deleted files so that the new file gets fragmented.C. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Syntax defrag drive: Example defrag c: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22. Read-only file attribute.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. changes.B. TREE Drive:\ Path /f /a Drive:\Path /f /a Drive and directory containing disk for display of directory structure. Volume in drive C has no label.bat Add the read-only attribute to the autoexec. VOL Displays the volume information about the designated drive. or deletes the volume label of a disk. Naik .Y. but will not label if your disk is write protected.1 (F. Syntax Creates.sys file causing it to be not be seen by the average user. instead of graphic characters. attrib -h config.105 Pc Software. LABEL [drive:][label] Examples label a: mydisk This would label the disk currently in the drive to "mydisk". attrib +h config.A sem-I) 32 attrib +r autoexec. Volume Serial Number is 1C24-AB20 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25. /a is used with code pages that do not support graphic characters and to send output to printers that do not properly interpret graphic characters. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23. Displays file names in each directory. LABEL Label is used to view or change the label of the computer disk drives. ext characters used for linking lines. This is helpful for important system files or any other file that you do not want to have mistakenly edited or changed by another program. Syntax TREE Allows the user to view a listing of files and folders in an easy to read listing.C.sys This command will do the opposite of the above command. Instead of hiding the file it will unhide the file if hidden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24.bat file so it cannot be modified until the read only attribute is taken off. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Syntax VOL [drive:] Examples vol c: Display the volume of drive c: as shown in the below example.sys Add the hidden attribute to the config.

C. Below is a basic example of what a directory may look like.B.A sem-I) 33 Examples tree List a tree listing of the current drive. ├───Common ├───Director ├───Flash ├───Shockwave 8 │ ├───DswMedia │ ├───Prefs │ └───Xtras └───update ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 26. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 27. C:. PROMPT Allows you to change the MS-DOS prompt to display more or less information. Syntax DELTREE Short for delete tree. deltree is a command used to delete files and directories permanently from the computer.105 Pc Software.Y. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Syntax PROMPT [text] The prompt can be made up of normal characters and the below special codes: $Q = (equal sign) $$ $ (dollar sign) $T Current time $D Current date $P Current drive and path Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path Examples deltree c:\fake010 Deletes the fake010 directory and everything in it. Naik .1 (F.

however.C. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28. Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk.B. Specifies the file(s) to check for fragmentation. CHKDSK Chkdsk is a utility that checks the computer's hard disk drives' status for any cross-linked or any additional errors with the hard disk drive. Naik .2 and is a a software utility capable of checking the hard disk drive and/or floppy diskette drive for any disk errors. SCANDISK Microsoft Scandisk was first introduced with MS-DOS 6. Syntax scandisk drive: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Examples chkdsk Will display all information described above and also report any crossed linked files. do not run this command while you are in Windows95 or Windows 3.A sem-I) $V Windows version number $N Current drive $G > (greater-than sign) $L & (less-than sign) 34 Examples prompt $t $d $p$g Display the time and the date above your prompt when in DOS.1 (F.105 Pc Software. chkdsk /f Will fix any crossed linked files.Y. Fixes errors on the disk. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Syntax CHKDSK [drive:][[path]filename] [/F] [/V] [drive:][path] filename /F /V Specifies the drive and directory to check.x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29.

if you have another file in another directory such as C:\DOS it will no longer look there. DISKCOPY This is where a lot of DOS commands are stored in Window 95. allowing all commands you type in. Syntax PATH [[drive:]path[. Type PATH without parameters to display the current path. However. such as "deltree". Naik . The diskcopy utility allows a user to copy the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette. Examples diskcopy a: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. if you are not able to do a dos command. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30.A sem-I) 35 Examples scandisk c: /autofix Scandisk the main hard disk drive for any errors and if found automatically fix those errors.B.]] PATH . It is not recommended that the diskcopy command be used for anything but a floppy diskette. Type PATH .C.. DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M] /1 Copies only the first side of the disk. Example C:\> path Result: path=c:\windows\command 31. /M Force multi-pass copy using memory only.Y. type this command in. /V Verifies that the information is copied correctly. The two floppy disks must be the same type.1 (F.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2. to be loaded from this directory. Syntax Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another. PATH Path is used to specify the location where MS-DOS looks when using a command... to clear all search-path settings and direct Windows to search only in the current directory.

destination Specifies the location and/or name of new files.105 Pc Software.Y.Disks are different. directories.txt with file2.Process aborted with CTRL + C by user. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C. 3 .txt. DISKCOMP Compares the contents of a floppy disk in the source drive to the contents of a floppy disk in the target drive. Syntax comp filename1 fielname2 Example comp file1. Syntax XCOPY source [destination] /P /S source Specifies the file(s) to copy. Naik . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36 32. has the capability of moving files. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34. 2 . /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.B. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33. and subdirectories to the directory you're currently in. Examples xcopy c:\temp /e The above example is the basic xcopy command to copy the files. and even whole drives from one location to another.Critical error.txt Compares file1. The diskcomp exit codes are: 0 . XCOPY Xcopy is a powerful version of the copy command with additional features.A sem-I) This would make a copy of the disk that is currently in your drive.Initialization error. 4 .1 (F. COMP A simple compare that compares two or more files. directories. Syntax DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]] Examples DISKCOMP A: B: Compares the A: with B: This command cannot be used with a hard disk drive and must be only used with floppies that are the identical size.Disks are the same. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. 1 .txt file2. /P Prompts you before creating each destination file.

* c:\temp Move the files of c:\windows\temp to the temp directory in root. or from one drive to another.Y. Syntax move path1 path2 path1 Specify full path of source files with drive and folder path2 Specify full path of a destination folder where you want to move Examples move c:\windows\temp\*. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B.A sem-I) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37 35. MOVE Allows you to move files or directories from one folder to another. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik .C. this is of course assuming you have the windows\temp directory.105 Pc Software.1 (F.

which when clicked on display the control panel applets related to the category. usually without any description (other than the name). In Windows Vista. The categories are seen if the user use "Details" view. The Control Panel allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets. and changing accessibility options. adding and removing software. such as adding hardware. • • Classic View Category View The classic view consists of shortcuts to the various control panel applets. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. and it is possible to switch between these through an option that appears on the left side of the window. Naik . The category view consists of categories. In recent versions of Windows.1 (F.A sem-I) 38 Control Panel: The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. Additional applets can be provided by third party software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. controlling user accounts.B. the category displays links to the most commonly used applets below the name of the category.105 Pc Software. the Control Panel has two views.Y.C.

Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.A sem-I) 39 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.105 Pc Software.Y. Naik .B.1 (F.

105 Pc Software.1 (F.A sem-I) 40 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik .B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.Y.

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