105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.

A sem-I)

1

1.1 Concept of window, icon, menu Icon:
An icon in Windows is a small picture or object that represents a file, program, web page, or command. Most of the time, the icon picture relates to the function of the item that it represents. A computer icon is a pictogram displayed on a computer screen and used to navigate a computer system or mobile device. The icon itself is a small picture or symbol serving as a quick representation of a software tool, function or a data file accessible on the system.For example, if the icon is attached to an e-mail program, it might be a picture of a letter. Icons are located on the desktop, in the start menu, and various other places. Icon enable the user to easily navigate the system. If you are using Windows 95, 98 or 2000, you can see several icons right now on your desktop.

Internet Explorer

Adobe Reader 8

Google Toolbar

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

(GUI)

 GUI allows users to interact with electronic devices with images rather than text commands.  GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment .  A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  An icon is a small picture or symbol in a GUI that represents a program (or command), a file, a directory or a device (such as a hard disk or floppy).  Icons are used both on the desktop and within application programs.  A major advantage of GUIs is that they make computer operation more intuitive, and thus easier to learn and use.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

2

 GUIs allow users to take full advantage of the powerful multitasking (the ability for multiple programs and/or

multiple instances of single programs to run simultaneously) capabilities of modern operating systems by allowing such multiple programs and/or instances to be displayed simultaneously.  But the GUI has became much more than a mere convenience. It has also become the standard in humancomputer interaction, and it has influenced the work of a generation of computer users.

Menu:
A menu is a list of commands presented to an operator by a computer. They may be thought of as shortcuts to frequently used commands that avoid the operator having to have a detailed knowledge or recall of syntax.
 A computer using a graphical user interface (GUI) presents menus with a combination of text and symbols to

represent choices.
 By clicking on one of the symbols, the operator is selecting the instruction that the symbol represents.

 A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data.  Most provide some form of pull-down or pop-up menu.  Pull-down menus are the type commonly used in menu bars (usually near the top of a window or screen), which are most often used for performing actions.  Pop-up (or "fly-out") menus are more likely to be used for setting a value, and might appear anywhere in a window.

Menu

Pull Down menu

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

3

Window
In windows operating system, a window may represent several things, such as a document, an application (e.g. word processor or spreadsheet program), a folder (an MS-DOS sub directory in windows in called the folder), a dialog box (where the user enters some information) etc, you can keep several windows open at a time. A window is a visual area containing some kind of user interface. It usually has a rectangular shape. It displays the output of and allows input of one or more processes.Windows are primarily associated with graphical displays, where they can be manipulated with a mouse cursor.Windows are two dimensional objects arranged on a plane called the desktop. They can be resized, moved, hidden, restored or closed.Windows can be composed of other windows. One program can have multiple windows. For example in a text-editing program, a user might benefit from working with several text files available at once. Those "child" windows "containing" text files can either be left separate from the main window (see Metapad) or be encapsulated under the main "parent" window (see Notepad++).
Window 1 (control panel)

Control box

Title bar Menu

Window 2 (recycle bin)

Toolbar

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

4

In a graphical user interface on a computer monitor a toolbar is a panel on which onscreen buttons, icons, menus or other input or output elements are placed.

An example of a web browser toolbar, the Google toolbar, in Firefox

Task bar
In computing, the taskbar is a term for an application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications. Microsoft incorporated a taskbar in Windows 95 and it has been a defining aspect of Microsoft Windows's graphical user interface ever since. The Windows taskbar can be modified by users in several ways. The position of the taskbar can be changed to appear on any edge of the primary display. Users can resize the height (or width when displayed vertically) of the taskbar up to half of the display area.

A standard Windows Vista taskbar with two tasks running.

Title bar
In computing, the title bar consists of that part of a window where the title of the window appears. Most graphical operating systems and window managers position the title bar at the top of the application window as a horizontal bar. Default title-bar text often incorporates the name of the application and/or of its manufacturer. The name of the host running the application also appears frequently. The title bar often contains icons for system commands relating to the window, such as a maximize, minimize and close buttons; and may include other content such as an application icon, a clock, etc. Title bar from Calculator

1.2 Desktop
A desktop commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop which can be seen on most modern personal computers today.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

wallpapers. toolbars.  Software which provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features which make more complete.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.3 creating folders and shortcuts Create a New Folder Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. folders. Traditionally these computers have used Microsoft Windows and to a lesser extent Mac OS whose desktop environments are relatively unalterable.Y.A sem-I) 5  These graphical interfaces are designed to assist the user in easily accessing and configuring (or modifying) the most important (or frequently accessed) specific OS packed features. most popular personal computers come pre-installed with an operating system that provides a desktop environment. windows.105 Pc Software.  The most common desktop environment on personal computers is the one provided by Microsoft Windows.  Today.  A desktop environment typically consists of icons.1 (F. another common environment is the one provided by Apple Mac OS. Desktop MY Document My Computer Internet Explorer My network places Recycle bin Start menu Task bar 1.C. Naik .

The trick is to make sure that prior to making the selections from the Menu that you are located at the proper place in the hierarchical view in the left pane. Select New and then click Folder.C. Naik . Right click anywhere on an open area of the desktop.105 Pc Software. A new folder with the default name New Folder will be created on the desktop. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F.B. 6 2. • The new folder will always be created as a subfolder of whatever location you have selected • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.Y.A sem-I) New folders can be created just about anywhere. Either accept the default name New Folder (bad idea) by hitting the enter key or type a new name for the folder (good idea) and then hit enter on the keyboard. New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Hierarchical View – There are two easy methods for creating a new folder in this view. New Folder on Desktop – 1. On the Menu bar select File > New > Folder and the folder will be created in the right hand pane. but three methods are shown below.

In this case I'm using the same location that was used in the previous example. Naik .A sem-I) 7 New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Task View Once again. Note that the File and Folder Tasks section also expands to include new entries relative to what can be done with the folder just created. make sure you're in the location where the new folder is to be created.B.Y. click the Make a New Folder selection.1 (F. • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.105 Pc Software. The New Folder is created in the right hand pane as shown in the second screen capture. the root of the C drive as shown in the Address bar.C. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. In the File and Folder Tasks section.

Click what size is it to look for files that are specific size. 2. click the drive or drives. In the Look in box. c. or network location that you want to search.1 (F. Click Search. Click Start. 3.B. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Choose one of the following options: a. and then click Search. 4. folder.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 8 1. In the Search Companion dialog box. click all files and folders.C.Y. or type a word or phrase that is in the file. Naik . 2. 5.4 Finding Files and Folders To search for a file or folder: 1. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Click more advanced options to specify additional search criteria. b. Click when it was modified to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates. Type part or the entire name of the file or folder.

(See Fig 1. above). Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. The Edit Menu Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. windows Fig 1. (The key is next to the left CTRL key. Naik .Y.C.105 Pc Software. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy.B.  Let’s assume we have a file on a diskette call "Project" and we want to copy it to our hard drive.A sem-I) 9 1. Therefore.1 (F. In our example.5 Creating copying. Using the Menus Step 1: Inset floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer.  Copying files to and from a floppy disk are the most common uses of the Copy command.  Lets also assume that the folder we are copying the file to is call practice and it's on our C drive.  Two basic methods are by using menus and by dragging & dropping. below) Fig 2. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. moving and Deleting Files Copy Files in Windows  There are various ways to copy files using windows. PROJECT is our source file and PRACTICE is our destination folder. Step 5: Select the Edit menu and click Copy. select project. (See Fig 2. It has the Windows logo on it.

double click Practice. It has the window logo on it. NOTE: Make sure the folder you are copying to is visible. Congratulations. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy. However 10 Fig 1.B. the destination folder is practice.C. above). select project. You have just copied a file Drag & drop Step 1: Insert floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. Step 7: Select the Edit menu and click Paste. (See Fig 2.) Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Step 5: Select the source file by holding down the left mouse button and drag it to the destination folder. (The windows key is next to the left Ctrl key.105 Pc Software. Step 6: Open to the destination folder. In our example. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose paste from the menu. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. In our example. (See Fig 1. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose copy from the menu. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. In our example. Naik .A sem-I) Tip.1 (F. Tip. When the destination folder becomes highlighted. release the mouse button.Y.

NOTE: If you are coping files from the hard drive to another destination on the same hard drive. You will see a + sign next to your mouse pointer to verify you are copying.105 Pc Software. You have just copied a file. this method will move the files instead of copying them.C. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B. hold down the CTRL key when dragging the files. Drag & Drop Congratulations.A sem-I) 11 Fig 2.Y. a menu will appear asking you if you want to copy or move the file. To copy using this method. When the button is released. Naik . (See mouse pointer in Fig 2. above) Tip: The safest way to drag and drop is by using the right mouse button to drag the files.1 (F. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

Naik .B.  Now press the Delete key on your keyboard. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C.  Open My Computer ((Left click Start/My Computer) or double click the My Computer icon on your desktop).  Navigate to the file or folder you want to delete. First Method This is the easiest method to delete files and folders in Windows.A sem-I) 12 Deleting Files  When deleting files or folders in Windows the default delete behavior is for the file or folder to be moved to the recycle bin.  Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is. and Windows 2003 users.  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete.1 (F.  Then highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once. Second Method This method can be used by Windows XP. or Delete this folder from the File and Folder Tasks menu in your Common Tasks toolbar. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.Y.  Now click Delete this file.105 Pc Software.

Y.  Navigate to the file or folder that you would like to delete.A sem-I) 13  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. Naik .  Windows XP Users click Start then My Computer.1 (F. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.105 Pc Software. Third Method  You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete. All other Windows users double left click the My Computer icon on your desktop. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.B. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.

Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) 1. Then drag the file on top of the Recycle bin.C.1 (F. 1. Fourth Method In this example we will delete a file from my desktop however this method can be used to drag files from a Windows Explorer window to the recycle bin also. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik . 14 2.Y.B. Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. Then from the top toolbar click File then Delete.105 Pc Software. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is. Left click the file or folder you wish to delete and keep the mouse button held down.

Rename Using the File Menu Select the folder or file to be renamed then click File > Rename.A sem-I) 15 Rename file and folders Rename Using the F2 Key This is my favorite method as well as being the easiest. Complete the edit and hit Enter. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.1 (F. single click the file to be renamed and hit the F2 key.then click it one more time. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Rename Using a Double Click What's a slow double click? Click the file to be renamed once -.Y. Complete the edit and hit Enter.wait about two seconds .C. Complete the edit and hit Enter. and quickest method to rename files. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.105 Pc Software. Naik . No matter where you are.B. simplest.

Complete the edit and hit Enter.Y.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.A sem-I) Rename Using a Right Click 16 Right click the folder or file to be renamed then click Rename. Naik .105 Pc Software.C. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

One way to employ drag and drop is to use the menu entry "Copy Here" to make a copy of an existing shortcut in a different location. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Shortcuts can also be made from files or folders by using the menu entry "Create Shortcuts Here". and drag to the desired destination.C. There are a number of methods for creating new shortcuts: • • • Drag and drop The right-click “Send To” function The right-click “New” function A discussion of each approach to creating shortcuts is given in the sections below. The right-click “Send To” function For making shortcuts specifically on the desktop. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik .Y.105 Pc Software.B. Drag and drop The drag and drop method can be used in several ways. Either the left or the right mouse button can be used for drag and drop with somewhat different behavior. hold down the right-click. such as another folder or the desktop. Open the folder containing the object whose shortcut is desired.1 (F. Dragging with the right-click brings up the context menu shown in the figure.A sem-I) 17 Creating a Shortcut to a Program or File Everyone is familiar with the icons placed on the desktop. the Send To function of the right-click can be used (figure on the left). Many are also aware that shortcuts can be placed in the taskbar. Simply right-click on the desired file or folder and select "Desktop (create shortcut)" from the "Send To" menu. the shortcuts to open programs.

the dialog shown below will open.C. Click the "OK" button. The location of the target item can be entered or the "Browse" function can be used to locate it. Once the desired folder or file has been selected. Right-click in the folder where the shortcut is to be placed and select the entry "Shortcut" from the menu.A sem-I) The right-click “New” function 18 The most general method for creating shortcuts uses the "New" function of the context menu that appears when a vacant spot within a folder window or on the desktop is right-clicked (figure on the left). Here you can select the file or folder that you wish to create a shortcut for (the target). First dialog box for creating new shortcut If the "Browse" button is selected.105 Pc Software. Dialog box for Browse function Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. The dialog box shown below will open.Y. Naik .

105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F. Naik . the folder "C:\Library" has been chosen.C. this time with the desired file or folder entered as shown below. Dialog box with location of target entered Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.A sem-I) 19 The Create Shortcut window will reappear. In this example.Y.B.

C.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Naik .A sem-I) 20 Click "Next" and a window where the shortcut can be named appears.1 (F.Y. After entering a name or accepting the default. click "Finish".B. Naming the shortcut Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

The number of items the recycle bin can hold is limited by the hard disk space allocated to it by windows. The Recycle Bin can be accessed via the desktop (In fact it is the only icon shown by default on the Windows XP desktop) or Windows Explorer. or by deleting them permanently. not from removable media. Therefore. Deleted files may be removed from the Recycle Bin by restoring them with a command. If you want to get details about any item in the recycle bin. you can restore (i. Otherwise if there are files and/or folders the icon resembles a full wastepaper basket. undelete) all items back to their original locations by clicking restore all. whether accidentally or intentionally.1 (F.Y. The Recycle Bin's icon indicates whether there are items in the Recycle Bin. such as memory cards and floppy disks. it indicates that currently there are no deleted items.B. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. If you want to restore selected items.A sem-I) 21 RECYCLE BIN Microsoft introduced the Recycle Bin in the Windows 95 operating system. To remove all items from the recycle bin. If your recycle bin window is empty. select the item and the recycle bin displays it in window. The Recycle Bin holds data that not only lists deleted files. If there are no files or folders in the Recycle Bin. but also the date. time and the path of those files.e. then the icon resembles an empty wastepaper basket.C. The Recycle Bin is opened like an ordinary Windows Explorer folder and the files are viewed similarly. you should periodically empty the recycle bin by deleting those items from the recycle bin that you no more want to restore. The Recycle Bin keeps files that have been deleted. It also doesn't store files deleted from network drives. Users can review the contents of the Recycle Bin before deleting the items permanently. In recycle bin window. Naik . use the empty recycle bin command from file menu. select the items and use the delete command from the file or the right click menu. Files are moved to the Recycle Bin in a number of ways: • • • • • • By right-clicking on a file and selecting delete from the menu Selecting the file and pressing the delete key Selecting delete from the side menu in Windows XP Selecting the file and choosing delete from the File menu (in Windows XP Explorer) From a context menu command or some other function in a software application (usually configurable) By dragging and dropping a file into the Recycle Bin icon The Recycle Bin only stores files deleted from hard drives. select the require items and then choose the restore command from the file menu or from right click menu.105 Pc Software. For doing this. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.

To open the network neighborhood folder. Therefore. Then windows display the network neighborhood window. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. edit or delete files on the folder of other computer on the network. delete.Y. On double clicking any icon. etc). If you are connected on a network and you have rights to save files on other computer. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.105 Pc Software. This network neighborhood displays a list of all computers that are connected to the network. the network neighborhood folder displays all computers in your network. Moreover. you may be able to open. double-click the network neighborhood icon on your desktop or in window explorer. write. you can specify the other computer’s folder as the path.B. Naik . window will display the resources of that computer which you have access right to.C.A sem-I) 22 NETWORK NEIGHBORHOOD If your pc is connected to a network.1 (F. you may not be able to access all folders on all hard disks on a particular computer. depending on the different types of rights (such as read.

Y. the smallest unit of the disk space that it works with is called the clusters. DOS creates the FAT on the disk. BATCH FILES A batch file is a simple text file that contains a series of DOS commands.C. After enter a command. The internal commands are simple and are used for common tasks. you can enter only one command at a time. etc. documents. It can help you to run a series of DOS commands without requiring your attention. formatting a drive. letters. renaming or erasing files. A file stored in several clusters that may be located in different parts of the disk. Dos automatically execute all commands entered in the batch file. reminders. You can store different type of documents (invoices. You simply need to type the series of commands that you want to execute in batch file. changing current date and time of pc. The complete information about the clusters occupied by each file stored on the disk is maintained by dos in FAT. When you use your keyboard to enter commands. Then you can ask DOS to run the batch file. If the FAT gets destroyed. such as a floppy disk or hard disk. comparing a drive. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. on command at a time.B.A sem-I) 23 WHAT IS FILE? File is a collection of text or data stored on a storage device. dos will not be able to read files from the disk. creating and changing directories. When DOS stores information on the disk. you have to wait for DOS to finish that command to enter the next command. etc is known as document or text file. These commands can be used without the need of any dos file. A file that contains instructions written in a programming language is called a program file.internal and external. memos. The information regarding areas of eh disk where a file is stored is maintained by DOS in FAT. Whenever you modify a file. such as copying an entire drive. FAT is so important in DOS that it maintains two copies of FAT on the disk. the file that stores letters. The file that stores database information. such as an address list or sales information for a period is called database file. The storage surface is divided into the tracks.105 Pc Software. FILE ALLOCATION TABLE (FAT) The physical location of each file is maintained in a table called the file allocation table (FAT). Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. When you format a disk with FORMAT command. displaying a list of files in a disk. such as copying. The internal commands are that are automatically loaded in the memory of your pc when Dos is loaded. In a situation when you have to enter a series of commands back to back. The external commands are used for relatively complex job. sorting a file. etc. Naik . the batch file is very useful. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS There are two types of Dos commands. DOS updates FAT so that FAT always keeps the latest information about the storage of the file on the disk.1 (F. memos. etc) in conventional file.

C. Naik . Syntax Dir [Drive:] [path] [filename] [/p] [/w] [/A:Attributes] [/O:order] [/S] [/L] [drive:][path][filename] :.Sorts by DoubleSpace compression ratio lowest to highest or highest to lowest. D|-D .Archivable (or already archived) files. Other file attributes are read only(R).Directories (or files only). ATTRIB –H C:\*.By extension ( alphabetical or reverse alphabetical). For example. For example. /W :.Y.By date and time (chronologically or reverse).* displays attribute (characteristic.Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories. R|-R .Uses lowercase. for instance.105 Pc Software. D|-D .Hidden (or not hidden) files. ATTRIB. Some application programs create hidden file. C|-C .Pauses after each screenful of information. /S :. /A : attributes :H|-H . E|-E . featurs) for all files in root directory of drive C. or after) other files. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. use –H option with ATTRIB.By size (increasing or decreasing). To convert hidden files to normal ones.System (or non system) files.Read-only (or read/write) files.1 (F. Example Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. A|-A . and/or files to list. if Dos displays “H” against a file name. You can also use ATTRIB to hide files or change the hidden files to normal ones. ATTRIB c:\*. (Version 6. ATTRIB +H C:\*.Uses wide list format. directory. it indicates that file is hidden. can be use to find out if there are nay hidden files in any directory.Specifies drive.A sem-I) 24 WHAT ARE HIDDEN FILES? Hidden files are those files that are not listed with DIR.BAT makes all files with BAT extension name in root directory of drive c hidden. DOS COMMANDS 1. S|-S .B. S|-S . DIR The dir command allows you to see the available files in the current and/or parent directories. /L :.0 only) G|-G . /P :.BAT unhide any hidden file having extension name BAT in the root directory of drive C. an external Dos command.By name (alphabetical or reverse alphabetical).Group directories (before. /O:order N|-N .

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4.C. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. dir /s Lists the files in the directory that you are in and all sub directories after that directory. Naik .105 Pc Software.txt instead of outputting it to the screen. if you are at root "C:\>" and type this command this will list to you every file and directory on the C: drive of the computer.1 (F. you can use this command and it will display all files one page at a time. if empty. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2.txt Takes the output of dir and re-routes it to the file myfile.A sem-I) 25 dir Lists all files and directories in the directory that you are currently in. md c:\test Create the "test" directory in the c:\ directory..] CD [drive:][path] CD[. MD / MKDIR Allows you to create your own directories in MS-DOS. Syntax MKDIR [drive:]path MD [drive:]path Examples md test The above example creates the "test" directory in the directory you are currently in. RD / RMDIR Removes empty directories in MS-DOS. cd.. dir /p If the directory has a lot of files and you cannot read all the files as they scroll by. Syntax CHDIR [drive:][path] CHDIR[. Syntax RMDIR [drive:]path RD [drive:]path Examples rmdir c:\test Remove the test directory. the root of the drive.. CD CD (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS.Y. dir > myfile.] Examples cd\ Goes to the highest level.B. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3.

Y. the autoexec. if you are within the C:\Windows\COMMAND> directory. cd\windows If present. cd\windows\system32 If present.* a: Copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk drive. For example.105 Pc Software. if you're in c:\windows> and you type the cd it will print c:\windows. and later versions have a feature in the CD command that allows you to go back more than one directory when using the dots. with three dots after the cd would take you back two directories..bat can be substituted for any file(s). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6. would move into the system32 directory located in the Windows directory.FAK Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. If at any time you need to see what directories are available in the directory you're currently in use the dir command.B. cd windows If present. Naik . For those users who are familiar with Unix / Linux this could be thought of as doing the pwd (print working directory) command.1 (F. Specify multiple files by using wildcards. would take you into the Windows directory. typing: cd. this would take you to C:\Windows> Windows 95. For example. would first move back to the root of the drive and then go into the Windows directory. usually found at root. Windows can be substituted with any other name. Syntax COPY source [destination] Examples copy *.A sem-I) 26 Goes back one directory. 98. COPY Allows the user to copy one or more files to an alternate location. and copy it into the windows directory.bat. For example. Syntax DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P] ERASE [drive:][path]filename [/P] [drive:][path]filename /P Specifies the file(s) to delete.bat c:\windows Copy the autoexec. copy autoexec.. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5. DEL / ERASE del (Erase) is a command used to remove files from your computer's hard disk drive and or other writable media. cd Typing cd alone will print the working directory. Examples Erase c:\windows\*.C. Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.

Naik . Syntax TYPE [drive:][path]filename Examples Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.tmp = Deletes the test.* = (* is for wild character(s)) *.105 Pc Software. which would create ^Z. you can save and exit the file by pressing CTRL+Z. When you have completed creating the file. if there was a file named hope. Syntax Renames a file/directory or files/directories.tmp = (? is a single wild character for one letter) This command would delete any file ending with est.txt file.tmp or zest. For example.tmp in the windows directory if it exists. del c:\windows\test. because nothing was placed before or after the first asterisk.tmp such as pest.1 (F. if the file exists. Once the above command has been typed in. COPY CON To create a new file Syntax copy con [filename] Example copy con test.bak extension.A sem-I) 27 Delete any files that end with the FAK extension.* indicates that you would like to delete all files in the c:\windows\temp directory. TYPE Allows the user to see the contents of a file. rename * 1_* Rename all files to begin with 1_.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. del c:\windows\temp\*.tmp in the directory that you currently are in.Y.txt *. this means all files in the current directory will be renamed with a 1_ in front of the file. An easier way to view and edit files in MS-DOS would be to use the edit command. and then press enter. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9..txt a user can create a file using the copy con command as shown above. REN AND RENAME Used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name. which creates the test. a user could type in whatever he or she wishes.txt. RENAME [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] REN [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] Examples rename c:\chope hope Rename the directory chope to hope. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7. The asterisk (*) in this example is an example of a wild character.tmp = Delete the c:\windows\test. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8.tmp.C.txt it would be renamed to 1_pe.. del test. rename *. del c:\windows\temp\?est.bak Rename all text files to files with .

DATE The date command can be used to look at the current date of the computer as well as change the date to an alternate date.C. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.bat ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28 10. Press ENTER to keep the same date. Syntax CLS CLS Cls is a command that allows a user to clear the complete contents of the screen and leave only a prompt.bat This would allow you to look at the autoexec. Syntax VER VER Displays the version of MS-DOS (Operating System) Examples ver Display what version of MS-DOS or Windows command prompt you're using. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11.1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13. Below is an example of what this may look like. Examples time 12:00 Set the time to 12:00 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12. the current date will be kept.B.1 (F. Naik . Syntax TIME [time] Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt for a new one. Syntax DATE [date] Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and a prompt for a new one. Examples cls Running the cls command at the command prompt would clear your screen of all previous text and only return the prompt.2600] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. TIME Allows the user to view and edit the computer's time. Examples date Display the current date and prompt for a new one. If no date is entered.Y.105 Pc Software. Press ENTER to keep the same time.A sem-I) type c:\autoexec. Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.

you will have a blank blue screen. Syntax print filename Example print c:\file. However. if you wanted to create a file called myfile. format c: This would erase all the contents of your C: hard disk drive. as long as the file is saved upon exit this will create the file myfile. unless you wish to erase all your computer's information. Syntax edit FileName Examples edit c:\autoexec. Commonly used to quickly erase all information on the diskette. create. and/or modify their computer files.1 (F. you would type: edit myfile.txt. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16. Commonly used on a diskette that has not been formatted or on a diskette you wish to erase.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C.txt /c /d:lpt1 Prints the file file. if the file is not found.txt to the parallel port lpt1. ensure that you know what you are placing in the files improperly editing the file can cause issues with your computer. in the background.bat This would look at the autoexec. remember all information on the drive you wish to format will be completely erased. Syntax format drive: Examples When using the format command. Using edit you can also create files.Y. FORMAT Format is used to erase all of the information off of a computer diskette or fixed drive. this command should not be done unless you're planning to start over.B. format a: Would erase all the contents off a disk. Naik .txt This would bring up a blank edit screen. EDIT Edit allows a user to view.txt. In other words. Syntax UNFORMAT Used to unformat a drive that has been formatted. PRINT This command allowed users to print a text file to a line printer. format a: /q Quickly erases all the contents of a floppy diskette.A sem-I) 29 14.bat. When editing this or any file. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17. for example. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 15.

105 Pc Software. if applicable.TXT file. MORE More allows information to be displayed one page at a time. Below is an example of the output you may see.C. Naik . ---------. FDISK It is used to divide a hard disk into the number of partition. As can be seen from the below example the only file that contains hope is the CH. If divide your hard disk into partitions you can efficiently organize directories. Syntax find “string” filename Example find "hope" *.CH. It is case sensitive command.TXT Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.ACTIVE SETUP LOG.txt Would display the contents of a page one page at a time.B. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30 18.txt) that contains the text hope in the current directory.A sem-I) UNFORMAT drive: Examples unformat c: Command specified to unformat drive c: if it was formatted. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19.Y. Pressing space would go to the next page and pressing enter would go down one line at a time.txt Next this example searches for any text file (.TXT computer hope ---------. FIND Allows you to search for text within a file. more myfile. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Examples dir | more Allows you to view the directory listing one page at a time. Syntax command-name | MORE [drive:][path][filename] [drive:][path]filename Specifies file(s) to display one screen at a time command-name Specifies a command whose output will be displayed.MODEMDET.1 (F. Syntax FDISK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20.TXT ---------. This would be the same as doing dir /p.

TXT ---------. you delete files from your hard disk and create new files.OEWABLOG. Overall period of time when you create and delete many files.SCHEDLGU.1 (F. /S Processes files in all directories in the specified path. Syntax defrag drive: Example defrag c: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22. Naik .TXT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21.SETUPLOG. Clears an attribute. A Archive file attribute.C. S System file attribute.A sem-I) 31 ---------. Read-only file attribute.105 Pc Software.TXT ---------. DEFRAG When you work on the pc. Examples attrib Typing attrib by itself will display all files in the current directory and each of their attributes. ATTRIB Attrib allows a user to change the properties of a specified file Syntax ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S] + R Sets an attribute. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y. they will be fragmented s defragment your hard disk using defrag command. If any file is hidden it will also display those files.B. H Hidden file attribute. It means different parts of the same files get stored in different areas of hard disk. At that time dos first tries to reuse the space occupied by the deleted files so that the new file gets fragmented. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

sys This command will do the opposite of the above command. This is helpful for important system files or any other file that you do not want to have mistakenly edited or changed by another program. Instead of hiding the file it will unhide the file if hidden.C. ext characters used for linking lines. LABEL Label is used to view or change the label of the computer disk drives. TREE Drive:\ Path /f /a Drive:\Path /f /a Drive and directory containing disk for display of directory structure. Volume in drive C has no label. attrib -h config. Syntax TREE Allows the user to view a listing of files and folders in an easy to read listing. Volume Serial Number is 1C24-AB20 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25. Syntax VOL [drive:] Examples vol c: Display the volume of drive c: as shown in the below example.B.sys file causing it to be not be seen by the average user. attrib +h config. Syntax Creates. VOL Displays the volume information about the designated drive. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. changes. LABEL [drive:][label] Examples label a: mydisk This would label the disk currently in the drive to "mydisk".105 Pc Software. Displays file names in each directory.A sem-I) 32 attrib +r autoexec. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. but will not label if your disk is write protected.1 (F. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24.bat file so it cannot be modified until the read only attribute is taken off.Y.bat Add the read-only attribute to the autoexec. or deletes the volume label of a disk. /a is used with code pages that do not support graphic characters and to send output to printers that do not properly interpret graphic characters. instead of graphic characters. Naik .sys Add the hidden attribute to the config.

Naik .A sem-I) 33 Examples tree List a tree listing of the current drive. deltree is a command used to delete files and directories permanently from the computer. ├───Common ├───Director ├───Flash ├───Shockwave 8 │ ├───DswMedia │ ├───Prefs │ └───Xtras └───update ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 26. C:.1 (F. Syntax PROMPT [text] The prompt can be made up of normal characters and the below special codes: $Q = (equal sign) $$ $ (dollar sign) $T Current time $D Current date $P Current drive and path Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C. DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path Examples deltree c:\fake010 Deletes the fake010 directory and everything in it. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 27.105 Pc Software.Y. PROMPT Allows you to change the MS-DOS prompt to display more or less information. Syntax DELTREE Short for delete tree.B. Below is a basic example of what a directory may look like.

A sem-I) $V Windows version number $N Current drive $G > (greater-than sign) $L & (less-than sign) 34 Examples prompt $t $d $p$g Display the time and the date above your prompt when in DOS. chkdsk /f Will fix any crossed linked files. SCANDISK Microsoft Scandisk was first introduced with MS-DOS 6. Specifies the file(s) to check for fragmentation. Fixes errors on the disk. Syntax CHKDSK [drive:][[path]filename] [/F] [/V] [drive:][path] filename /F /V Specifies the drive and directory to check. do not run this command while you are in Windows95 or Windows 3. Naik .B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. CHKDSK Chkdsk is a utility that checks the computer's hard disk drives' status for any cross-linked or any additional errors with the hard disk drive. however.Y. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28.C.x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29.105 Pc Software. Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk. Syntax scandisk drive: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.2 and is a a software utility capable of checking the hard disk drive and/or floppy diskette drive for any disk errors.1 (F. Examples chkdsk Will display all information described above and also report any crossed linked files.

DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M] /1 Copies only the first side of the disk. Type PATH without parameters to display the current path.105 Pc Software. type this command in. allowing all commands you type in.Y. /V Verifies that the information is copied correctly. Syntax Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.B. Examples diskcopy a: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Syntax PATH [[drive:]path[. PATH Path is used to specify the location where MS-DOS looks when using a command. such as "deltree".C. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30.A sem-I) 35 Examples scandisk c: /autofix Scandisk the main hard disk drive for any errors and if found automatically fix those errors. if you have another file in another directory such as C:\DOS it will no longer look there..1 (F. It is not recommended that the diskcopy command be used for anything but a floppy diskette. Naik . You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2. if you are not able to do a dos command. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. /M Force multi-pass copy using memory only. The diskcopy utility allows a user to copy the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette.. Type PATH . to clear all search-path settings and direct Windows to search only in the current directory. The two floppy disks must be the same type. DISKCOPY This is where a lot of DOS commands are stored in Window 95. to be loaded from this directory..]] PATH . Example C:\> path Result: path=c:\windows\command 31. However.

A sem-I) This would make a copy of the disk that is currently in your drive.B.Disks are different. /P Prompts you before creating each destination file. 1 .1 (F. destination Specifies the location and/or name of new files.105 Pc Software. has the capability of moving files. DISKCOMP Compares the contents of a floppy disk in the source drive to the contents of a floppy disk in the target drive. COMP A simple compare that compares two or more files. 3 . Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C. Syntax XCOPY source [destination] /P /S source Specifies the file(s) to copy. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34.txt. XCOPY Xcopy is a powerful version of the copy command with additional features. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. directories. directories. 4 . Examples xcopy c:\temp /e The above example is the basic xcopy command to copy the files.Process aborted with CTRL + C by user.txt Compares file1.Y. Syntax DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]] Examples DISKCOMP A: B: Compares the A: with B: This command cannot be used with a hard disk drive and must be only used with floppies that are the identical size. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36 32.Critical error.txt with file2. and subdirectories to the directory you're currently in. Syntax comp filename1 fielname2 Example comp file1.Initialization error.txt file2. Naik . and even whole drives from one location to another. /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.Disks are the same. The diskcomp exit codes are: 0 . 2 .

Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C. MOVE Allows you to move files or directories from one folder to another.B.Y. Naik .* c:\temp Move the files of c:\windows\temp to the temp directory in root. Syntax move path1 path2 path1 Specify full path of source files with drive and folder path2 Specify full path of a destination folder where you want to move Examples move c:\windows\temp\*.105 Pc Software. this is of course assuming you have the windows\temp directory. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.A sem-I) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37 35. or from one drive to another.1 (F.

such as adding hardware. controlling user accounts.A sem-I) 38 Control Panel: The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C. and it is possible to switch between these through an option that appears on the left side of the window. the category displays links to the most commonly used applets below the name of the category. Additional applets can be provided by third party software.B.Y. In Windows Vista. the Control Panel has two views. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. usually without any description (other than the name). Naik . adding and removing software. The categories are seen if the user use "Details" view. • • Classic View Category View The classic view consists of shortcuts to the various control panel applets. which when clicked on display the control panel applets related to the category.105 Pc Software.1 (F. The Control Panel allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets. In recent versions of Windows. and changing accessibility options. The category view consists of categories.

C.Y.105 Pc Software.1 (F. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B.A sem-I) 39 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 40 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik .Y.1 (F.

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