105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.

A sem-I)

1

1.1 Concept of window, icon, menu Icon:
An icon in Windows is a small picture or object that represents a file, program, web page, or command. Most of the time, the icon picture relates to the function of the item that it represents. A computer icon is a pictogram displayed on a computer screen and used to navigate a computer system or mobile device. The icon itself is a small picture or symbol serving as a quick representation of a software tool, function or a data file accessible on the system.For example, if the icon is attached to an e-mail program, it might be a picture of a letter. Icons are located on the desktop, in the start menu, and various other places. Icon enable the user to easily navigate the system. If you are using Windows 95, 98 or 2000, you can see several icons right now on your desktop.

Internet Explorer

Adobe Reader 8

Google Toolbar

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

(GUI)

 GUI allows users to interact with electronic devices with images rather than text commands.  GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment .  A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  An icon is a small picture or symbol in a GUI that represents a program (or command), a file, a directory or a device (such as a hard disk or floppy).  Icons are used both on the desktop and within application programs.  A major advantage of GUIs is that they make computer operation more intuitive, and thus easier to learn and use.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

2

 GUIs allow users to take full advantage of the powerful multitasking (the ability for multiple programs and/or

multiple instances of single programs to run simultaneously) capabilities of modern operating systems by allowing such multiple programs and/or instances to be displayed simultaneously.  But the GUI has became much more than a mere convenience. It has also become the standard in humancomputer interaction, and it has influenced the work of a generation of computer users.

Menu:
A menu is a list of commands presented to an operator by a computer. They may be thought of as shortcuts to frequently used commands that avoid the operator having to have a detailed knowledge or recall of syntax.
 A computer using a graphical user interface (GUI) presents menus with a combination of text and symbols to

represent choices.
 By clicking on one of the symbols, the operator is selecting the instruction that the symbol represents.

 A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data.  Most provide some form of pull-down or pop-up menu.  Pull-down menus are the type commonly used in menu bars (usually near the top of a window or screen), which are most often used for performing actions.  Pop-up (or "fly-out") menus are more likely to be used for setting a value, and might appear anywhere in a window.

Menu

Pull Down menu

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

3

Window
In windows operating system, a window may represent several things, such as a document, an application (e.g. word processor or spreadsheet program), a folder (an MS-DOS sub directory in windows in called the folder), a dialog box (where the user enters some information) etc, you can keep several windows open at a time. A window is a visual area containing some kind of user interface. It usually has a rectangular shape. It displays the output of and allows input of one or more processes.Windows are primarily associated with graphical displays, where they can be manipulated with a mouse cursor.Windows are two dimensional objects arranged on a plane called the desktop. They can be resized, moved, hidden, restored or closed.Windows can be composed of other windows. One program can have multiple windows. For example in a text-editing program, a user might benefit from working with several text files available at once. Those "child" windows "containing" text files can either be left separate from the main window (see Metapad) or be encapsulated under the main "parent" window (see Notepad++).
Window 1 (control panel)

Control box

Title bar Menu

Window 2 (recycle bin)

Toolbar

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

4

In a graphical user interface on a computer monitor a toolbar is a panel on which onscreen buttons, icons, menus or other input or output elements are placed.

An example of a web browser toolbar, the Google toolbar, in Firefox

Task bar
In computing, the taskbar is a term for an application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications. Microsoft incorporated a taskbar in Windows 95 and it has been a defining aspect of Microsoft Windows's graphical user interface ever since. The Windows taskbar can be modified by users in several ways. The position of the taskbar can be changed to appear on any edge of the primary display. Users can resize the height (or width when displayed vertically) of the taskbar up to half of the display area.

A standard Windows Vista taskbar with two tasks running.

Title bar
In computing, the title bar consists of that part of a window where the title of the window appears. Most graphical operating systems and window managers position the title bar at the top of the application window as a horizontal bar. Default title-bar text often incorporates the name of the application and/or of its manufacturer. The name of the host running the application also appears frequently. The title bar often contains icons for system commands relating to the window, such as a maximize, minimize and close buttons; and may include other content such as an application icon, a clock, etc. Title bar from Calculator

1.2 Desktop
A desktop commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop which can be seen on most modern personal computers today.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

 Today. wallpapers.A sem-I) 5  These graphical interfaces are designed to assist the user in easily accessing and configuring (or modifying) the most important (or frequently accessed) specific OS packed features.3 creating folders and shortcuts Create a New Folder Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.  A desktop environment typically consists of icons.  The most common desktop environment on personal computers is the one provided by Microsoft Windows. Desktop MY Document My Computer Internet Explorer My network places Recycle bin Start menu Task bar 1.  Software which provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features which make more complete. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. most popular personal computers come pre-installed with an operating system that provides a desktop environment. Traditionally these computers have used Microsoft Windows and to a lesser extent Mac OS whose desktop environments are relatively unalterable. windows.C.Y.1 (F.B. folders.105 Pc Software. toolbars. another common environment is the one provided by Apple Mac OS. Naik .

Y. Naik . New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Hierarchical View – There are two easy methods for creating a new folder in this view.105 Pc Software. • The new folder will always be created as a subfolder of whatever location you have selected • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. On the Menu bar select File > New > Folder and the folder will be created in the right hand pane. Right click anywhere on an open area of the desktop.1 (F. The trick is to make sure that prior to making the selections from the Menu that you are located at the proper place in the hierarchical view in the left pane. but three methods are shown below.C. 6 2. Select New and then click Folder. A new folder with the default name New Folder will be created on the desktop. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) New folders can be created just about anywhere. New Folder on Desktop – 1. Either accept the default name New Folder (bad idea) by hitting the enter key or type a new name for the folder (good idea) and then hit enter on the keyboard.

A sem-I) 7 New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Task View Once again. Note that the File and Folder Tasks section also expands to include new entries relative to what can be done with the folder just created.C.1 (F. • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. make sure you're in the location where the new folder is to be created. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. click the Make a New Folder selection. In this case I'm using the same location that was used in the previous example. In the File and Folder Tasks section.105 Pc Software. The New Folder is created in the right hand pane as shown in the second screen capture.B. the root of the C drive as shown in the Address bar.Y. Naik .

Y. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F. Type part or the entire name of the file or folder. In the Look in box. Click what size is it to look for files that are specific size. Click when it was modified to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates. 3. c.105 Pc Software. or type a word or phrase that is in the file.B. folder. Choose one of the following options: a. click all files and folders. Click more advanced options to specify additional search criteria. 2.4 Finding Files and Folders To search for a file or folder: 1.A sem-I) 8 1.C. click the drive or drives. Click Search. and then click Search. 2. Naik . b. 4. Click Start. In the Search Companion dialog box. 5. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. or network location that you want to search.

Naik . The Edit Menu Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.A sem-I) 9 1. (See Fig 2. Using the Menus Step 1: Inset floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. below) Fig 2. It has the Windows logo on it.  Copying files to and from a floppy disk are the most common uses of the Copy command. In our example.  Two basic methods are by using menus and by dragging & dropping. Step 5: Select the Edit menu and click Copy. Therefore.5 Creating copying.105 Pc Software. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. (The key is next to the left CTRL key.1 (F. above).  Lets also assume that the folder we are copying the file to is call practice and it's on our C drive.  Let’s assume we have a file on a diskette call "Project" and we want to copy it to our hard drive. select project.B. windows Fig 1. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy. moving and Deleting Files Copy Files in Windows  There are various ways to copy files using windows.C. (See Fig 1. PROJECT is our source file and PRACTICE is our destination folder.Y.

B. select project. the destination folder is practice. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose paste from the menu.Y.1 (F. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose copy from the menu. (See Fig 2.105 Pc Software. In our example. NOTE: Make sure the folder you are copying to is visible. When the destination folder becomes highlighted. (The windows key is next to the left Ctrl key. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy. It has the window logo on it. You have just copied a file Drag & drop Step 1: Insert floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer.A sem-I) Tip. above). (See Fig 1. release the mouse button. In our example. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.) Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Step 7: Select the Edit menu and click Paste. Step 6: Open to the destination folder. Congratulations. double click Practice. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. Tip. Naik . However 10 Fig 1. Step 5: Select the source file by holding down the left mouse button and drag it to the destination folder. In our example.

When the button is released. hold down the CTRL key when dragging the files. above) Tip: The safest way to drag and drop is by using the right mouse button to drag the files. this method will move the files instead of copying them. (See mouse pointer in Fig 2.A sem-I) 11 Fig 2.B. a menu will appear asking you if you want to copy or move the file. You will see a + sign next to your mouse pointer to verify you are copying.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. To copy using this method. You have just copied a file.Y.1 (F. Naik . Drag & Drop Congratulations.C. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. NOTE: If you are coping files from the hard drive to another destination on the same hard drive.

105 Pc Software.  Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.1 (F.  Now click Delete this file. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. and Windows 2003 users.  Now press the Delete key on your keyboard.C.  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. or Delete this folder from the File and Folder Tasks menu in your Common Tasks toolbar. Naik .B.A sem-I) 12 Deleting Files  When deleting files or folders in Windows the default delete behavior is for the file or folder to be moved to the recycle bin. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete.  Open My Computer ((Left click Start/My Computer) or double click the My Computer icon on your desktop).  Then highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.  Navigate to the file or folder you want to delete. First Method This is the easiest method to delete files and folders in Windows. Second Method This method can be used by Windows XP.Y.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.

Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is. Naik .105 Pc Software. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B.A sem-I) 13  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. Third Method  You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete. All other Windows users double left click the My Computer icon on your desktop.1 (F.Y.  Navigate to the file or folder that you would like to delete.  Windows XP Users click Start then My Computer. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.

B.C. Fourth Method In this example we will delete a file from my desktop however this method can be used to drag files from a Windows Explorer window to the recycle bin also. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Then drag the file on top of the Recycle bin. Naik .A sem-I) 1. 14 2. 1. Then from the top toolbar click File then Delete. Left click the file or folder you wish to delete and keep the mouse button held down.105 Pc Software. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.Y.1 (F. Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin.

No matter where you are.wait about two seconds .C. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S. and quickest method to rename files.B. Rename Using the File Menu Select the folder or file to be renamed then click File > Rename. Complete the edit and hit Enter.then click it one more time. Complete the edit and hit Enter. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. single click the file to be renamed and hit the F2 key. Complete the edit and hit Enter. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.105 Pc Software. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F.Y. Rename Using a Double Click What's a slow double click? Click the file to be renamed once -. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. simplest.A sem-I) 15 Rename file and folders Rename Using the F2 Key This is my favorite method as well as being the easiest.

1 (F. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y.A sem-I) Rename Using a Right Click 16 Right click the folder or file to be renamed then click Rename.105 Pc Software.C. Complete the edit and hit Enter. Naik .B. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.

Either the left or the right mouse button can be used for drag and drop with somewhat different behavior. Open the folder containing the object whose shortcut is desired.A sem-I) 17 Creating a Shortcut to a Program or File Everyone is familiar with the icons placed on the desktop. The right-click “Send To” function For making shortcuts specifically on the desktop. the shortcuts to open programs.B.105 Pc Software. Many are also aware that shortcuts can be placed in the taskbar. such as another folder or the desktop. and drag to the desired destination. the Send To function of the right-click can be used (figure on the left). Dragging with the right-click brings up the context menu shown in the figure. There are a number of methods for creating new shortcuts: • • • Drag and drop The right-click “Send To” function The right-click “New” function A discussion of each approach to creating shortcuts is given in the sections below.Y. Shortcuts can also be made from files or folders by using the menu entry "Create Shortcuts Here".C. hold down the right-click.1 (F. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. One way to employ drag and drop is to use the menu entry "Copy Here" to make a copy of an existing shortcut in a different location. Simply right-click on the desired file or folder and select "Desktop (create shortcut)" from the "Send To" menu. Drag and drop The drag and drop method can be used in several ways. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S.

The dialog box shown below will open.Y. Here you can select the file or folder that you wish to create a shortcut for (the target).C. Right-click in the folder where the shortcut is to be placed and select the entry "Shortcut" from the menu. Once the desired folder or file has been selected. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Click the "OK" button. the dialog shown below will open.B. Naik .A sem-I) The right-click “New” function 18 The most general method for creating shortcuts uses the "New" function of the context menu that appears when a vacant spot within a folder window or on the desktop is right-clicked (figure on the left). The location of the target item can be entered or the "Browse" function can be used to locate it. First dialog box for creating new shortcut If the "Browse" button is selected. Dialog box for Browse function Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F.105 Pc Software.

the folder "C:\Library" has been chosen. this time with the desired file or folder entered as shown below.A sem-I) 19 The Create Shortcut window will reappear. Naik . In this example. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F.C. Dialog box with location of target entered Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.Y.B.105 Pc Software.

1 (F.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C. Naming the shortcut Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.Y.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 20 Click "Next" and a window where the shortcut can be named appears. After entering a name or accepting the default. click "Finish". Naik .

whether accidentally or intentionally. you should periodically empty the recycle bin by deleting those items from the recycle bin that you no more want to restore.105 Pc Software. but also the date.Y. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Therefore. not from removable media. Files are moved to the Recycle Bin in a number of ways: • • • • • • By right-clicking on a file and selecting delete from the menu Selecting the file and pressing the delete key Selecting delete from the side menu in Windows XP Selecting the file and choosing delete from the File menu (in Windows XP Explorer) From a context menu command or some other function in a software application (usually configurable) By dragging and dropping a file into the Recycle Bin icon The Recycle Bin only stores files deleted from hard drives. The Recycle Bin's icon indicates whether there are items in the Recycle Bin. such as memory cards and floppy disks. select the require items and then choose the restore command from the file menu or from right click menu. The Recycle Bin is opened like an ordinary Windows Explorer folder and the files are viewed similarly. Deleted files may be removed from the Recycle Bin by restoring them with a command.1 (F.e. Users can review the contents of the Recycle Bin before deleting the items permanently. For doing this. If your recycle bin window is empty. select the items and use the delete command from the file or the right click menu. then the icon resembles an empty wastepaper basket. or by deleting them permanently. The number of items the recycle bin can hold is limited by the hard disk space allocated to it by windows. If you want to get details about any item in the recycle bin. If there are no files or folders in the Recycle Bin. Otherwise if there are files and/or folders the icon resembles a full wastepaper basket. use the empty recycle bin command from file menu. In recycle bin window. If you want to restore selected items. undelete) all items back to their original locations by clicking restore all. Naik .A sem-I) 21 RECYCLE BIN Microsoft introduced the Recycle Bin in the Windows 95 operating system. it indicates that currently there are no deleted items. The Recycle Bin keeps files that have been deleted. you can restore (i. select the item and the recycle bin displays it in window. time and the path of those files. It also doesn't store files deleted from network drives.B. The Recycle Bin holds data that not only lists deleted files. The Recycle Bin can be accessed via the desktop (In fact it is the only icon shown by default on the Windows XP desktop) or Windows Explorer.C. To remove all items from the recycle bin. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.

you can specify the other computer’s folder as the path. delete. etc). double-click the network neighborhood icon on your desktop or in window explorer.105 Pc Software. If you are connected on a network and you have rights to save files on other computer. To open the network neighborhood folder. write. This network neighborhood displays a list of all computers that are connected to the network.B. Then windows display the network neighborhood window.Y.1 (F. Therefore. Naik . window will display the resources of that computer which you have access right to. Moreover.C. you may be able to open. you may not be able to access all folders on all hard disks on a particular computer. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. depending on the different types of rights (such as read. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. edit or delete files on the folder of other computer on the network. the network neighborhood folder displays all computers in your network. On double clicking any icon.A sem-I) 22 NETWORK NEIGHBORHOOD If your pc is connected to a network.

B. changing current date and time of pc. comparing a drive. The internal commands are simple and are used for common tasks. When you use your keyboard to enter commands. etc. Whenever you modify a file. A file stored in several clusters that may be located in different parts of the disk. The complete information about the clusters occupied by each file stored on the disk is maintained by dos in FAT. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. displaying a list of files in a disk. etc. reminders. sorting a file. You can store different type of documents (invoices. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F. letters. etc) in conventional file. After enter a command. such as copying an entire drive. Dos automatically execute all commands entered in the batch file. The internal commands are that are automatically loaded in the memory of your pc when Dos is loaded. If the FAT gets destroyed. Then you can ask DOS to run the batch file. When you format a disk with FORMAT command. documents. you have to wait for DOS to finish that command to enter the next command. The storage surface is divided into the tracks. you can enter only one command at a time. such as a floppy disk or hard disk. such as copying. When DOS stores information on the disk. formatting a drive. the batch file is very useful. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS There are two types of Dos commands. DOS updates FAT so that FAT always keeps the latest information about the storage of the file on the disk. DOS creates the FAT on the disk. on command at a time. the smallest unit of the disk space that it works with is called the clusters.A sem-I) 23 WHAT IS FILE? File is a collection of text or data stored on a storage device. memos. It can help you to run a series of DOS commands without requiring your attention. In a situation when you have to enter a series of commands back to back.Y. FILE ALLOCATION TABLE (FAT) The physical location of each file is maintained in a table called the file allocation table (FAT). The file that stores database information.C.105 Pc Software. BATCH FILES A batch file is a simple text file that contains a series of DOS commands. creating and changing directories. The information regarding areas of eh disk where a file is stored is maintained by DOS in FAT. A file that contains instructions written in a programming language is called a program file. FAT is so important in DOS that it maintains two copies of FAT on the disk. such as an address list or sales information for a period is called database file. Naik . etc is known as document or text file. renaming or erasing files.internal and external. dos will not be able to read files from the disk. These commands can be used without the need of any dos file. You simply need to type the series of commands that you want to execute in batch file. memos. the file that stores letters. The external commands are used for relatively complex job.

Other file attributes are read only(R). /P :. Syntax Dir [Drive:] [path] [filename] [/p] [/w] [/A:Attributes] [/O:order] [/S] [/L] [drive:][path][filename] :. /W :. D|-D .A sem-I) 24 WHAT ARE HIDDEN FILES? Hidden files are those files that are not listed with DIR. C|-C . Some application programs create hidden file.C.By name (alphabetical or reverse alphabetical). ATTRIB –H C:\*.105 Pc Software. featurs) for all files in root directory of drive C. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S. /S :. can be use to find out if there are nay hidden files in any directory. R|-R . You can also use ATTRIB to hide files or change the hidden files to normal ones.By date and time (chronologically or reverse). ATTRIB +H C:\*. use –H option with ATTRIB.BAT unhide any hidden file having extension name BAT in the root directory of drive C. directory. ATTRIB c:\*. D|-D . Example Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. if Dos displays “H” against a file name. /A : attributes :H|-H . For example. an external Dos command. or after) other files. DOS COMMANDS 1. it indicates that file is hidden. E|-E . DIR The dir command allows you to see the available files in the current and/or parent directories. /O:order N|-N .Hidden (or not hidden) files.Read-only (or read/write) files.B.Uses wide list format. and/or files to list.Specifies drive. To convert hidden files to normal ones. (Version 6.By size (increasing or decreasing).0 only) G|-G .Uses lowercase.Y. S|-S .1 (F.Group directories (before.* displays attribute (characteristic.BAT makes all files with BAT extension name in root directory of drive c hidden.Sorts by DoubleSpace compression ratio lowest to highest or highest to lowest.By extension ( alphabetical or reverse alphabetical). /L :. for instance. A|-A .Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories. For example.Directories (or files only). S|-S . ATTRIB.Pauses after each screenful of information.Archivable (or already archived) files.System (or non system) files.

. Syntax MKDIR [drive:]path MD [drive:]path Examples md test The above example creates the "test" directory in the directory you are currently in.C. Syntax CHDIR [drive:][path] CHDIR[. if empty.A sem-I) 25 dir Lists all files and directories in the directory that you are currently in. the root of the drive.. dir > myfile.1 (F. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2.] CD [drive:][path] CD[. Syntax RMDIR [drive:]path RD [drive:]path Examples rmdir c:\test Remove the test directory. md c:\test Create the "test" directory in the c:\ directory.txt instead of outputting it to the screen. you can use this command and it will display all files one page at a time. dir /s Lists the files in the directory that you are in and all sub directories after that directory. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. dir /p If the directory has a lot of files and you cannot read all the files as they scroll by. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.] Examples cd\ Goes to the highest level. MD / MKDIR Allows you to create your own directories in MS-DOS. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4. cd.. Naik . CD CD (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS. RD / RMDIR Removes empty directories in MS-DOS.105 Pc Software. if you are at root "C:\>" and type this command this will list to you every file and directory on the C: drive of the computer.txt Takes the output of dir and re-routes it to the file myfile.Y. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3.B.

typing: cd. For example.bat can be substituted for any file(s). For those users who are familiar with Unix / Linux this could be thought of as doing the pwd (print working directory) command. copy autoexec. If at any time you need to see what directories are available in the directory you're currently in use the dir command. cd\windows\system32 If present. COPY Allows the user to copy one or more files to an alternate location. Syntax COPY source [destination] Examples copy *. For example.Y.C. Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file. Windows can be substituted with any other name. would move into the system32 directory located in the Windows directory. Naik . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6. this would take you to C:\Windows> Windows 95. would take you into the Windows directory.1 (F. cd Typing cd alone will print the working directory. the autoexec. 98.105 Pc Software. if you are within the C:\Windows\COMMAND> directory.B.* a: Copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk drive. For example.bat.FAK Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. usually found at root. Specify multiple files by using wildcards.A sem-I) 26 Goes back one directory. would first move back to the root of the drive and then go into the Windows directory. DEL / ERASE del (Erase) is a command used to remove files from your computer's hard disk drive and or other writable media. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. cd\windows If present. and copy it into the windows directory. if you're in c:\windows> and you type the cd it will print c:\windows.. Examples Erase c:\windows\*.bat c:\windows Copy the autoexec. with three dots after the cd would take you back two directories. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5. cd windows If present. and later versions have a feature in the CD command that allows you to go back more than one directory when using the dots.. Syntax DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P] ERASE [drive:][path]filename [/P] [drive:][path]filename /P Specifies the file(s) to delete.

* indicates that you would like to delete all files in the c:\windows\temp directory.C.tmp in the directory that you currently are in.bak extension. Naik . which would create ^Z..B.tmp = Deletes the test.tmp. you can save and exit the file by pressing CTRL+Z.A sem-I) 27 Delete any files that end with the FAK extension. RENAME [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] REN [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] Examples rename c:\chope hope Rename the directory chope to hope. because nothing was placed before or after the first asterisk. The asterisk (*) in this example is an example of a wild character.105 Pc Software. TYPE Allows the user to see the contents of a file. COPY CON To create a new file Syntax copy con [filename] Example copy con test.Y. Syntax Renames a file/directory or files/directories.txt *. if there was a file named hope. Once the above command has been typed in.. Syntax TYPE [drive:][path]filename Examples Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.tmp in the windows directory if it exists. When you have completed creating the file. a user could type in whatever he or she wishes.txt. rename *.txt a user can create a file using the copy con command as shown above. which creates the test. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. if the file exists. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7.bak Rename all text files to files with . del c:\windows\temp\?est.1 (F. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8. this means all files in the current directory will be renamed with a 1_ in front of the file. and then press enter.* = (* is for wild character(s)) *. REN AND RENAME Used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name.tmp or zest. del c:\windows\temp\*. For example.tmp = (? is a single wild character for one letter) This command would delete any file ending with est.tmp such as pest.txt file. del test. rename * 1_* Rename all files to begin with 1_.tmp = Delete the c:\windows\test. del c:\windows\test. An easier way to view and edit files in MS-DOS would be to use the edit command.txt it would be renamed to 1_pe.

105 Pc Software. Naik . Syntax CLS CLS Cls is a command that allows a user to clear the complete contents of the screen and leave only a prompt.C. Press ENTER to keep the same time.A sem-I) type c:\autoexec. Examples time 12:00 Set the time to 12:00 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12.B. Examples date Display the current date and prompt for a new one. the current date will be kept.bat ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28 10.bat This would allow you to look at the autoexec.1 (F. If no date is entered.2600] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Press ENTER to keep the same date. DATE The date command can be used to look at the current date of the computer as well as change the date to an alternate date. Syntax VER VER Displays the version of MS-DOS (Operating System) Examples ver Display what version of MS-DOS or Windows command prompt you're using. Syntax TIME [time] Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt for a new one. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Below is an example of what this may look like. Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5. Syntax DATE [date] Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and a prompt for a new one. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11. Examples cls Running the cls command at the command prompt would clear your screen of all previous text and only return the prompt.Y. TIME Allows the user to view and edit the computer's time.1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17.bat This would look at the autoexec. Naik . Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. you will have a blank blue screen. PRINT This command allowed users to print a text file to a line printer. Using edit you can also create files.B. Syntax UNFORMAT Used to unformat a drive that has been formatted. ensure that you know what you are placing in the files improperly editing the file can cause issues with your computer. unless you wish to erase all your computer's information.txt.bat. However.txt /c /d:lpt1 Prints the file file. Syntax print filename Example print c:\file. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Syntax edit FileName Examples edit c:\autoexec.txt to the parallel port lpt1.A sem-I) 29 14. When editing this or any file. Commonly used on a diskette that has not been formatted or on a diskette you wish to erase. create. EDIT Edit allows a user to view. Syntax format drive: Examples When using the format command. format a: Would erase all the contents off a disk. as long as the file is saved upon exit this will create the file myfile. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 15.105 Pc Software. Commonly used to quickly erase all information on the diskette. and/or modify their computer files. format c: This would erase all the contents of your C: hard disk drive.Y.txt This would bring up a blank edit screen. if you wanted to create a file called myfile. remember all information on the drive you wish to format will be completely erased. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16. In other words. FORMAT Format is used to erase all of the information off of a computer diskette or fixed drive. format a: /q Quickly erases all the contents of a floppy diskette. for example.C. in the background. you would type: edit myfile. if the file is not found. this command should not be done unless you're planning to start over.1 (F.txt.

A sem-I) UNFORMAT drive: Examples unformat c: Command specified to unformat drive c: if it was formatted. It is case sensitive command. Examples dir | more Allows you to view the directory listing one page at a time. more myfile.txt) that contains the text hope in the current directory.txt Would display the contents of a page one page at a time.C.MODEMDET. Naik . Syntax command-name | MORE [drive:][path][filename] [drive:][path]filename Specifies file(s) to display one screen at a time command-name Specifies a command whose output will be displayed. As can be seen from the below example the only file that contains hope is the CH. FDISK It is used to divide a hard disk into the number of partition.B. if applicable. MORE More allows information to be displayed one page at a time. ---------.CH.TXT ---------. Pressing space would go to the next page and pressing enter would go down one line at a time.TXT Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30 18. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19. This would be the same as doing dir /p.TXT file.1 (F. Syntax FDISK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20.ACTIVE SETUP LOG.Y. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Below is an example of the output you may see. If divide your hard disk into partitions you can efficiently organize directories.105 Pc Software.TXT computer hope ---------.txt Next this example searches for any text file (. Syntax find “string” filename Example find "hope" *. FIND Allows you to search for text within a file.

SCHEDLGU.TXT ---------.105 Pc Software.B. Overall period of time when you create and delete many files.C. Clears an attribute. At that time dos first tries to reuse the space occupied by the deleted files so that the new file gets fragmented. ATTRIB Attrib allows a user to change the properties of a specified file Syntax ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S] + R Sets an attribute. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.OEWABLOG. Naik .TXT ---------. It means different parts of the same files get stored in different areas of hard disk. they will be fragmented s defragment your hard disk using defrag command. DEFRAG When you work on the pc. /S Processes files in all directories in the specified path.1 (F. If any file is hidden it will also display those files. A Archive file attribute.TXT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21. Syntax defrag drive: Example defrag c: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22. Examples attrib Typing attrib by itself will display all files in the current directory and each of their attributes. Read-only file attribute.Y. you delete files from your hard disk and create new files. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. H Hidden file attribute.A sem-I) 31 ---------.SETUPLOG. S System file attribute.

Volume in drive C has no label.Y.1 (F.bat file so it cannot be modified until the read only attribute is taken off. instead of graphic characters. VOL Displays the volume information about the designated drive. Displays file names in each directory.sys This command will do the opposite of the above command. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) 32 attrib +r autoexec. /a is used with code pages that do not support graphic characters and to send output to printers that do not properly interpret graphic characters.B. TREE Drive:\ Path /f /a Drive:\Path /f /a Drive and directory containing disk for display of directory structure. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24. changes. LABEL [drive:][label] Examples label a: mydisk This would label the disk currently in the drive to "mydisk".sys Add the hidden attribute to the config. or deletes the volume label of a disk. ext characters used for linking lines. Volume Serial Number is 1C24-AB20 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25. LABEL Label is used to view or change the label of the computer disk drives.105 Pc Software. but will not label if your disk is write protected.sys file causing it to be not be seen by the average user. Naik .C. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Instead of hiding the file it will unhide the file if hidden. Syntax Creates. This is helpful for important system files or any other file that you do not want to have mistakenly edited or changed by another program. attrib +h config. attrib -h config. Syntax VOL [drive:] Examples vol c: Display the volume of drive c: as shown in the below example. Syntax TREE Allows the user to view a listing of files and folders in an easy to read listing.bat Add the read-only attribute to the autoexec.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 27. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path Examples deltree c:\fake010 Deletes the fake010 directory and everything in it. C:. ├───Common ├───Director ├───Flash ├───Shockwave 8 │ ├───DswMedia │ ├───Prefs │ └───Xtras └───update ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 26. PROMPT Allows you to change the MS-DOS prompt to display more or less information. deltree is a command used to delete files and directories permanently from the computer.C.Y.105 Pc Software. Naik .A sem-I) 33 Examples tree List a tree listing of the current drive. Syntax DELTREE Short for delete tree.1 (F.B. Below is a basic example of what a directory may look like. Syntax PROMPT [text] The prompt can be made up of normal characters and the below special codes: $Q = (equal sign) $$ $ (dollar sign) $T Current time $D Current date $P Current drive and path Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

Fixes errors on the disk. Syntax CHKDSK [drive:][[path]filename] [/F] [/V] [drive:][path] filename /F /V Specifies the drive and directory to check. Syntax scandisk drive: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik . Examples chkdsk Will display all information described above and also report any crossed linked files.2 and is a a software utility capable of checking the hard disk drive and/or floppy diskette drive for any disk errors. do not run this command while you are in Windows95 or Windows 3. chkdsk /f Will fix any crossed linked files. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28.Y. Specifies the file(s) to check for fragmentation.C.A sem-I) $V Windows version number $N Current drive $G > (greater-than sign) $L & (less-than sign) 34 Examples prompt $t $d $p$g Display the time and the date above your prompt when in DOS. Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk. CHKDSK Chkdsk is a utility that checks the computer's hard disk drives' status for any cross-linked or any additional errors with the hard disk drive. however.1 (F.B. SCANDISK Microsoft Scandisk was first introduced with MS-DOS 6.105 Pc Software.

Examples diskcopy a: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F. if you have another file in another directory such as C:\DOS it will no longer look there..C.B. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30. if you are not able to do a dos command. /V Verifies that the information is copied correctly. type this command in. It is not recommended that the diskcopy command be used for anything but a floppy diskette. Type PATH without parameters to display the current path. Naik . However.A sem-I) 35 Examples scandisk c: /autofix Scandisk the main hard disk drive for any errors and if found automatically fix those errors. Syntax PATH [[drive:]path[. such as "deltree". DISKCOPY This is where a lot of DOS commands are stored in Window 95. You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2... The two floppy disks must be the same type.Y. to be loaded from this directory.105 Pc Software. Example C:\> path Result: path=c:\windows\command 31. allowing all commands you type in. to clear all search-path settings and direct Windows to search only in the current directory. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. /M Force multi-pass copy using memory only.]] PATH . PATH Path is used to specify the location where MS-DOS looks when using a command. The diskcopy utility allows a user to copy the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette. Type PATH . Syntax Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another. DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M] /1 Copies only the first side of the disk.

Examples xcopy c:\temp /e The above example is the basic xcopy command to copy the files. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.txt. Naik . 2 .Disks are the same. 4 . directories. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Syntax XCOPY source [destination] /P /S source Specifies the file(s) to copy.C.Y.Disks are different. and even whole drives from one location to another. XCOPY Xcopy is a powerful version of the copy command with additional features.txt with file2.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) This would make a copy of the disk that is currently in your drive. /P Prompts you before creating each destination file. Syntax DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]] Examples DISKCOMP A: B: Compares the A: with B: This command cannot be used with a hard disk drive and must be only used with floppies that are the identical size. 1 .Initialization error. directories. DISKCOMP Compares the contents of a floppy disk in the source drive to the contents of a floppy disk in the target drive. Syntax comp filename1 fielname2 Example comp file1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36 32. has the capability of moving files. The diskcomp exit codes are: 0 . and subdirectories to the directory you're currently in. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33. /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones.1 (F. COMP A simple compare that compares two or more files.Process aborted with CTRL + C by user. destination Specifies the location and/or name of new files.txt file2.B. 3 . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34.Critical error.txt Compares file1.

this is of course assuming you have the windows\temp directory.1 (F.* c:\temp Move the files of c:\windows\temp to the temp directory in root. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.A sem-I) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37 35. or from one drive to another. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Syntax move path1 path2 path1 Specify full path of source files with drive and folder path2 Specify full path of a destination folder where you want to move Examples move c:\windows\temp\*.B. MOVE Allows you to move files or directories from one folder to another.105 Pc Software.Y.

the category displays links to the most commonly used applets below the name of the category. and changing accessibility options.1 (F. controlling user accounts. In Windows Vista. adding and removing software.Y.105 Pc Software. the Control Panel has two views. which when clicked on display the control panel applets related to the category. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. such as adding hardware.A sem-I) 38 Control Panel: The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. usually without any description (other than the name). The categories are seen if the user use "Details" view. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Additional applets can be provided by third party software. The Control Panel allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets.C. and it is possible to switch between these through an option that appears on the left side of the window. In recent versions of Windows.B. The category view consists of categories. • • Classic View Category View The classic view consists of shortcuts to the various control panel applets.

Y. Naik .105 Pc Software.1 (F. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B.A sem-I) 39 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C.

105 Pc Software. Naik .1 (F.A sem-I) 40 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y.C.

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