105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.

A sem-I)

1

1.1 Concept of window, icon, menu Icon:
An icon in Windows is a small picture or object that represents a file, program, web page, or command. Most of the time, the icon picture relates to the function of the item that it represents. A computer icon is a pictogram displayed on a computer screen and used to navigate a computer system or mobile device. The icon itself is a small picture or symbol serving as a quick representation of a software tool, function or a data file accessible on the system.For example, if the icon is attached to an e-mail program, it might be a picture of a letter. Icons are located on the desktop, in the start menu, and various other places. Icon enable the user to easily navigate the system. If you are using Windows 95, 98 or 2000, you can see several icons right now on your desktop.

Internet Explorer

Adobe Reader 8

Google Toolbar

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

(GUI)

 GUI allows users to interact with electronic devices with images rather than text commands.  GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment .  A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  An icon is a small picture or symbol in a GUI that represents a program (or command), a file, a directory or a device (such as a hard disk or floppy).  Icons are used both on the desktop and within application programs.  A major advantage of GUIs is that they make computer operation more intuitive, and thus easier to learn and use.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

2

 GUIs allow users to take full advantage of the powerful multitasking (the ability for multiple programs and/or

multiple instances of single programs to run simultaneously) capabilities of modern operating systems by allowing such multiple programs and/or instances to be displayed simultaneously.  But the GUI has became much more than a mere convenience. It has also become the standard in humancomputer interaction, and it has influenced the work of a generation of computer users.

Menu:
A menu is a list of commands presented to an operator by a computer. They may be thought of as shortcuts to frequently used commands that avoid the operator having to have a detailed knowledge or recall of syntax.
 A computer using a graphical user interface (GUI) presents menus with a combination of text and symbols to

represent choices.
 By clicking on one of the symbols, the operator is selecting the instruction that the symbol represents.

 A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data.  Most provide some form of pull-down or pop-up menu.  Pull-down menus are the type commonly used in menu bars (usually near the top of a window or screen), which are most often used for performing actions.  Pop-up (or "fly-out") menus are more likely to be used for setting a value, and might appear anywhere in a window.

Menu

Pull Down menu

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

3

Window
In windows operating system, a window may represent several things, such as a document, an application (e.g. word processor or spreadsheet program), a folder (an MS-DOS sub directory in windows in called the folder), a dialog box (where the user enters some information) etc, you can keep several windows open at a time. A window is a visual area containing some kind of user interface. It usually has a rectangular shape. It displays the output of and allows input of one or more processes.Windows are primarily associated with graphical displays, where they can be manipulated with a mouse cursor.Windows are two dimensional objects arranged on a plane called the desktop. They can be resized, moved, hidden, restored or closed.Windows can be composed of other windows. One program can have multiple windows. For example in a text-editing program, a user might benefit from working with several text files available at once. Those "child" windows "containing" text files can either be left separate from the main window (see Metapad) or be encapsulated under the main "parent" window (see Notepad++).
Window 1 (control panel)

Control box

Title bar Menu

Window 2 (recycle bin)

Toolbar

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

4

In a graphical user interface on a computer monitor a toolbar is a panel on which onscreen buttons, icons, menus or other input or output elements are placed.

An example of a web browser toolbar, the Google toolbar, in Firefox

Task bar
In computing, the taskbar is a term for an application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications. Microsoft incorporated a taskbar in Windows 95 and it has been a defining aspect of Microsoft Windows's graphical user interface ever since. The Windows taskbar can be modified by users in several ways. The position of the taskbar can be changed to appear on any edge of the primary display. Users can resize the height (or width when displayed vertically) of the taskbar up to half of the display area.

A standard Windows Vista taskbar with two tasks running.

Title bar
In computing, the title bar consists of that part of a window where the title of the window appears. Most graphical operating systems and window managers position the title bar at the top of the application window as a horizontal bar. Default title-bar text often incorporates the name of the application and/or of its manufacturer. The name of the host running the application also appears frequently. The title bar often contains icons for system commands relating to the window, such as a maximize, minimize and close buttons; and may include other content such as an application icon, a clock, etc. Title bar from Calculator

1.2 Desktop
A desktop commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop which can be seen on most modern personal computers today.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

 A desktop environment typically consists of icons.3 creating folders and shortcuts Create a New Folder Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. wallpapers. most popular personal computers come pre-installed with an operating system that provides a desktop environment. Traditionally these computers have used Microsoft Windows and to a lesser extent Mac OS whose desktop environments are relatively unalterable. windows. Naik .  Software which provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features which make more complete.Y.1 (F.105 Pc Software.C.B. folders. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. another common environment is the one provided by Apple Mac OS. toolbars.A sem-I) 5  These graphical interfaces are designed to assist the user in easily accessing and configuring (or modifying) the most important (or frequently accessed) specific OS packed features. Desktop MY Document My Computer Internet Explorer My network places Recycle bin Start menu Task bar 1.  The most common desktop environment on personal computers is the one provided by Microsoft Windows.  Today.

New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Hierarchical View – There are two easy methods for creating a new folder in this view. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y. Either accept the default name New Folder (bad idea) by hitting the enter key or type a new name for the folder (good idea) and then hit enter on the keyboard. A new folder with the default name New Folder will be created on the desktop. but three methods are shown below. New Folder on Desktop – 1. Select New and then click Folder. On the Menu bar select File > New > Folder and the folder will be created in the right hand pane.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) New folders can be created just about anywhere. 6 2. • The new folder will always be created as a subfolder of whatever location you have selected • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C. Right click anywhere on an open area of the desktop.1 (F.B. Naik . The trick is to make sure that prior to making the selections from the Menu that you are located at the proper place in the hierarchical view in the left pane.

In the File and Folder Tasks section.Y. • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. The New Folder is created in the right hand pane as shown in the second screen capture. the root of the C drive as shown in the Address bar.1 (F. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) 7 New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Task View Once again.B.C. Note that the File and Folder Tasks section also expands to include new entries relative to what can be done with the folder just created. In this case I'm using the same location that was used in the previous example. click the Make a New Folder selection. Naik . make sure you're in the location where the new folder is to be created.105 Pc Software.

and then click Search. Click what size is it to look for files that are specific size.B.C. 2. Click Search. click the drive or drives. Click Start. In the Search Companion dialog box. b. c.4 Finding Files and Folders To search for a file or folder: 1. or network location that you want to search. Choose one of the following options: a.Y. Type part or the entire name of the file or folder.1 (F.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 8 1. 5. 2. or type a word or phrase that is in the file. click all files and folders. In the Look in box. 4. Naik . Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. 3. folder. Click when it was modified to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Click more advanced options to specify additional search criteria.

 Let’s assume we have a file on a diskette call "Project" and we want to copy it to our hard drive. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. Using the Menus Step 1: Inset floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. windows Fig 1.105 Pc Software. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Step 5: Select the Edit menu and click Copy. (See Fig 1. moving and Deleting Files Copy Files in Windows  There are various ways to copy files using windows. It has the Windows logo on it.  Copying files to and from a floppy disk are the most common uses of the Copy command. above). PROJECT is our source file and PRACTICE is our destination folder. (See Fig 2.C. Therefore. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy.Y. In our example.1 (F. (The key is next to the left CTRL key. below) Fig 2.A sem-I) 9 1. The Edit Menu Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. select project.5 Creating copying.  Lets also assume that the folder we are copying the file to is call practice and it's on our C drive.  Two basic methods are by using menus and by dragging & dropping.B.

Step 6: Open to the destination folder.A sem-I) Tip. However 10 Fig 1. (The windows key is next to the left Ctrl key. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy. select project. release the mouse button. (See Fig 2. Naik .Y. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose copy from the menu. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose paste from the menu. the destination folder is practice. You have just copied a file Drag & drop Step 1: Insert floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. Congratulations. double click Practice. above). Step 7: Select the Edit menu and click Paste.105 Pc Software. When the destination folder becomes highlighted. In our example. Tip. In our example. NOTE: Make sure the folder you are copying to is visible.1 (F. (See Fig 1. In our example. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. Step 5: Select the source file by holding down the left mouse button and drag it to the destination folder.C.B. It has the window logo on it.) Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

Drag & Drop Congratulations. above) Tip: The safest way to drag and drop is by using the right mouse button to drag the files. NOTE: If you are coping files from the hard drive to another destination on the same hard drive. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. (See mouse pointer in Fig 2.A sem-I) 11 Fig 2. You will see a + sign next to your mouse pointer to verify you are copying. hold down the CTRL key when dragging the files. this method will move the files instead of copying them.C.Y.105 Pc Software. When the button is released.B. Naik .1 (F. To copy using this method. a menu will appear asking you if you want to copy or move the file. You have just copied a file.

C. and Windows 2003 users.  Open My Computer ((Left click Start/My Computer) or double click the My Computer icon on your desktop).105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 12 Deleting Files  When deleting files or folders in Windows the default delete behavior is for the file or folder to be moved to the recycle bin. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S.  Then highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.  Now press the Delete key on your keyboard. Second Method This method can be used by Windows XP.  Navigate to the file or folder you want to delete. First Method This is the easiest method to delete files and folders in Windows. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete.Y.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once. or Delete this folder from the File and Folder Tasks menu in your Common Tasks toolbar.1 (F.B.  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin.  Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.  Now click Delete this file.

 Navigate to the file or folder that you would like to delete. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.105 Pc Software. Naik .A sem-I) 13  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F. Third Method  You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete. All other Windows users double left click the My Computer icon on your desktop.Y.C.  Windows XP Users click Start then My Computer.B.

Y. 14 2. Then drag the file on top of the Recycle bin. Fourth Method In this example we will delete a file from my desktop however this method can be used to drag files from a Windows Explorer window to the recycle bin also.1 (F. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Left click the file or folder you wish to delete and keep the mouse button held down.C. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. Then from the top toolbar click File then Delete. 1. Naik . Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 1. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.

A sem-I) 15 Rename file and folders Rename Using the F2 Key This is my favorite method as well as being the easiest. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. Complete the edit and hit Enter. Rename Using a Double Click What's a slow double click? Click the file to be renamed once -. Rename Using the File Menu Select the folder or file to be renamed then click File > Rename. No matter where you are. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.105 Pc Software.B.1 (F.wait about two seconds . simplest. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Naik .Y. single click the file to be renamed and hit the F2 key. Complete the edit and hit Enter. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.then click it one more time. Complete the edit and hit Enter. and quickest method to rename files. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.C.

B.A sem-I) Rename Using a Right Click 16 Right click the folder or file to be renamed then click Rename. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.1 (F.Y. Complete the edit and hit Enter. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.105 Pc Software. Naik .C.

Simply right-click on the desired file or folder and select "Desktop (create shortcut)" from the "Send To" menu. hold down the right-click.1 (F. Drag and drop The drag and drop method can be used in several ways. Either the left or the right mouse button can be used for drag and drop with somewhat different behavior.A sem-I) 17 Creating a Shortcut to a Program or File Everyone is familiar with the icons placed on the desktop.B. Many are also aware that shortcuts can be placed in the taskbar.C. the shortcuts to open programs. Open the folder containing the object whose shortcut is desired. Naik . Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. and drag to the desired destination. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. such as another folder or the desktop. Dragging with the right-click brings up the context menu shown in the figure. One way to employ drag and drop is to use the menu entry "Copy Here" to make a copy of an existing shortcut in a different location. The right-click “Send To” function For making shortcuts specifically on the desktop. the Send To function of the right-click can be used (figure on the left). Shortcuts can also be made from files or folders by using the menu entry "Create Shortcuts Here".Y.105 Pc Software. There are a number of methods for creating new shortcuts: • • • Drag and drop The right-click “Send To” function The right-click “New” function A discussion of each approach to creating shortcuts is given in the sections below.

First dialog box for creating new shortcut If the "Browse" button is selected.105 Pc Software. Right-click in the folder where the shortcut is to be placed and select the entry "Shortcut" from the menu. Dialog box for Browse function Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.A sem-I) The right-click “New” function 18 The most general method for creating shortcuts uses the "New" function of the context menu that appears when a vacant spot within a folder window or on the desktop is right-clicked (figure on the left). Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Here you can select the file or folder that you wish to create a shortcut for (the target). Click the "OK" button.Y. the dialog shown below will open. Once the desired folder or file has been selected.B.C. Naik . The dialog box shown below will open. The location of the target item can be entered or the "Browse" function can be used to locate it.1 (F.

Naik .A sem-I) 19 The Create Shortcut window will reappear.105 Pc Software. Dialog box with location of target entered Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C.Y. In this example. this time with the desired file or folder entered as shown below.B.1 (F. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. the folder "C:\Library" has been chosen.

A sem-I) 20 Click "Next" and a window where the shortcut can be named appears.Y.1 (F.105 Pc Software. Naming the shortcut Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C. Naik .B. click "Finish". Ankleshwar By Shachi S. After entering a name or accepting the default.

To remove all items from the recycle bin. time and the path of those files. select the item and the recycle bin displays it in window.B. If you want to get details about any item in the recycle bin. Files are moved to the Recycle Bin in a number of ways: • • • • • • By right-clicking on a file and selecting delete from the menu Selecting the file and pressing the delete key Selecting delete from the side menu in Windows XP Selecting the file and choosing delete from the File menu (in Windows XP Explorer) From a context menu command or some other function in a software application (usually configurable) By dragging and dropping a file into the Recycle Bin icon The Recycle Bin only stores files deleted from hard drives. not from removable media. The Recycle Bin keeps files that have been deleted. use the empty recycle bin command from file menu.1 (F. The Recycle Bin is opened like an ordinary Windows Explorer folder and the files are viewed similarly. The Recycle Bin holds data that not only lists deleted files. If there are no files or folders in the Recycle Bin. It also doesn't store files deleted from network drives. Therefore. If your recycle bin window is empty. or by deleting them permanently.Y. Deleted files may be removed from the Recycle Bin by restoring them with a command. then the icon resembles an empty wastepaper basket. such as memory cards and floppy disks. select the require items and then choose the restore command from the file menu or from right click menu. you should periodically empty the recycle bin by deleting those items from the recycle bin that you no more want to restore. undelete) all items back to their original locations by clicking restore all. Naik . Otherwise if there are files and/or folders the icon resembles a full wastepaper basket. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. select the items and use the delete command from the file or the right click menu. The Recycle Bin's icon indicates whether there are items in the Recycle Bin. The Recycle Bin can be accessed via the desktop (In fact it is the only icon shown by default on the Windows XP desktop) or Windows Explorer. whether accidentally or intentionally. In recycle bin window.e. If you want to restore selected items.C. it indicates that currently there are no deleted items. For doing this.105 Pc Software. you can restore (i. The number of items the recycle bin can hold is limited by the hard disk space allocated to it by windows. but also the date.A sem-I) 21 RECYCLE BIN Microsoft introduced the Recycle Bin in the Windows 95 operating system. Users can review the contents of the Recycle Bin before deleting the items permanently. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

Y. On double clicking any icon. write. you can specify the other computer’s folder as the path. edit or delete files on the folder of other computer on the network. etc). Naik .1 (F. window will display the resources of that computer which you have access right to. delete. depending on the different types of rights (such as read. If you are connected on a network and you have rights to save files on other computer. This network neighborhood displays a list of all computers that are connected to the network. Then windows display the network neighborhood window.C.A sem-I) 22 NETWORK NEIGHBORHOOD If your pc is connected to a network. Therefore. Moreover. To open the network neighborhood folder.B. you may be able to open.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. you may not be able to access all folders on all hard disks on a particular computer. double-click the network neighborhood icon on your desktop or in window explorer. the network neighborhood folder displays all computers in your network. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

DOS updates FAT so that FAT always keeps the latest information about the storage of the file on the disk. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. When you format a disk with FORMAT command. formatting a drive. When DOS stores information on the disk. The file that stores database information. etc) in conventional file. The internal commands are that are automatically loaded in the memory of your pc when Dos is loaded. In a situation when you have to enter a series of commands back to back. the smallest unit of the disk space that it works with is called the clusters.1 (F.105 Pc Software. DOS creates the FAT on the disk. FAT is so important in DOS that it maintains two copies of FAT on the disk. sorting a file. FILE ALLOCATION TABLE (FAT) The physical location of each file is maintained in a table called the file allocation table (FAT). A file stored in several clusters that may be located in different parts of the disk. documents.B. Whenever you modify a file. letters. such as copying. etc. The external commands are used for relatively complex job. creating and changing directories. After enter a command. You simply need to type the series of commands that you want to execute in batch file. displaying a list of files in a disk. memos. When you use your keyboard to enter commands. The information regarding areas of eh disk where a file is stored is maintained by DOS in FAT. the file that stores letters. Naik . such as an address list or sales information for a period is called database file. renaming or erasing files. If the FAT gets destroyed. such as a floppy disk or hard disk.internal and external. These commands can be used without the need of any dos file. you can enter only one command at a time. etc. reminders. Then you can ask DOS to run the batch file. etc is known as document or text file.A sem-I) 23 WHAT IS FILE? File is a collection of text or data stored on a storage device. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS There are two types of Dos commands. BATCH FILES A batch file is a simple text file that contains a series of DOS commands. The internal commands are simple and are used for common tasks. The complete information about the clusters occupied by each file stored on the disk is maintained by dos in FAT. the batch file is very useful. changing current date and time of pc.C. comparing a drive. you have to wait for DOS to finish that command to enter the next command. Dos automatically execute all commands entered in the batch file. A file that contains instructions written in a programming language is called a program file. such as copying an entire drive. You can store different type of documents (invoices. on command at a time.Y. memos. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. The storage surface is divided into the tracks. It can help you to run a series of DOS commands without requiring your attention. dos will not be able to read files from the disk.

Uses lowercase.BAT makes all files with BAT extension name in root directory of drive c hidden.* displays attribute (characteristic. For example.Archivable (or already archived) files. use –H option with ATTRIB.By name (alphabetical or reverse alphabetical). an external Dos command. D|-D . /P :. A|-A . and/or files to list.Y.Pauses after each screenful of information. /L :.A sem-I) 24 WHAT ARE HIDDEN FILES? Hidden files are those files that are not listed with DIR. Naik .105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. D|-D .Hidden (or not hidden) files. S|-S .BAT unhide any hidden file having extension name BAT in the root directory of drive C. (Version 6. DIR The dir command allows you to see the available files in the current and/or parent directories. if Dos displays “H” against a file name.B.By extension ( alphabetical or reverse alphabetical).System (or non system) files. /O:order N|-N . featurs) for all files in root directory of drive C. DOS COMMANDS 1.By size (increasing or decreasing).Specifies drive.Uses wide list format. /W :. E|-E . can be use to find out if there are nay hidden files in any directory. ATTRIB.Directories (or files only).Group directories (before. /S :. C|-C . it indicates that file is hidden. or after) other files.Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories.By date and time (chronologically or reverse). ATTRIB c:\*. R|-R . To convert hidden files to normal ones. For example.C.0 only) G|-G . Other file attributes are read only(R).Sorts by DoubleSpace compression ratio lowest to highest or highest to lowest. You can also use ATTRIB to hide files or change the hidden files to normal ones. Some application programs create hidden file. /A : attributes :H|-H . S|-S . directory. ATTRIB +H C:\*. ATTRIB –H C:\*.1 (F. Example Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.Read-only (or read/write) files. for instance. Syntax Dir [Drive:] [path] [filename] [/p] [/w] [/A:Attributes] [/O:order] [/S] [/L] [drive:][path][filename] :.

.] CD [drive:][path] CD[. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4. you can use this command and it will display all files one page at a time.A sem-I) 25 dir Lists all files and directories in the directory that you are currently in.. Naik .txt instead of outputting it to the screen.Y. MD / MKDIR Allows you to create your own directories in MS-DOS. if you are at root "C:\>" and type this command this will list to you every file and directory on the C: drive of the computer.105 Pc Software. cd. Syntax MKDIR [drive:]path MD [drive:]path Examples md test The above example creates the "test" directory in the directory you are currently in.] Examples cd\ Goes to the highest level..C. the root of the drive.txt Takes the output of dir and re-routes it to the file myfile. dir /s Lists the files in the directory that you are in and all sub directories after that directory. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. RD / RMDIR Removes empty directories in MS-DOS. md c:\test Create the "test" directory in the c:\ directory. if empty. dir > myfile. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3. Syntax CHDIR [drive:][path] CHDIR[.1 (F. dir /p If the directory has a lot of files and you cannot read all the files as they scroll by.B. Syntax RMDIR [drive:]path RD [drive:]path Examples rmdir c:\test Remove the test directory. CD CD (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS.

B.A sem-I) 26 Goes back one directory.FAK Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.bat.105 Pc Software.C. typing: cd. cd windows If present. For example. Windows can be substituted with any other name. if you are within the C:\Windows\COMMAND> directory. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. if you're in c:\windows> and you type the cd it will print c:\windows. and later versions have a feature in the CD command that allows you to go back more than one directory when using the dots. Specify multiple files by using wildcards. the autoexec. For those users who are familiar with Unix / Linux this could be thought of as doing the pwd (print working directory) command. For example. would move into the system32 directory located in the Windows directory. Syntax COPY source [destination] Examples copy *. COPY Allows the user to copy one or more files to an alternate location.. cd Typing cd alone will print the working directory. Naik . 98.Y. with three dots after the cd would take you back two directories. and copy it into the windows directory. cd\windows\system32 If present. cd\windows If present. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5. If at any time you need to see what directories are available in the directory you're currently in use the dir command. Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.* a: Copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk drive.bat c:\windows Copy the autoexec. would first move back to the root of the drive and then go into the Windows directory. For example. DEL / ERASE del (Erase) is a command used to remove files from your computer's hard disk drive and or other writable media.. would take you into the Windows directory. this would take you to C:\Windows> Windows 95. copy autoexec. usually found at root. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6. Syntax DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P] ERASE [drive:][path]filename [/P] [drive:][path]filename /P Specifies the file(s) to delete.1 (F. Examples Erase c:\windows\*.bat can be substituted for any file(s).

Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Syntax TYPE [drive:][path]filename Examples Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. For example.txt it would be renamed to 1_pe. del c:\windows\test.txt a user can create a file using the copy con command as shown above. REN AND RENAME Used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name.tmp = (? is a single wild character for one letter) This command would delete any file ending with est. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9. if there was a file named hope.txt *. RENAME [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] REN [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] Examples rename c:\chope hope Rename the directory chope to hope.tmp or zest. The asterisk (*) in this example is an example of a wild character..tmp in the windows directory if it exists.* indicates that you would like to delete all files in the c:\windows\temp directory. a user could type in whatever he or she wishes. When you have completed creating the file.tmp such as pest.. del test.tmp = Deletes the test. and then press enter.B. An easier way to view and edit files in MS-DOS would be to use the edit command.1 (F. which creates the test. because nothing was placed before or after the first asterisk. you can save and exit the file by pressing CTRL+Z.txt file. Syntax Renames a file/directory or files/directories.105 Pc Software.tmp in the directory that you currently are in. COPY CON To create a new file Syntax copy con [filename] Example copy con test.bak extension.tmp. if the file exists. Naik .* = (* is for wild character(s)) *.tmp = Delete the c:\windows\test. rename *.txt. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7.A sem-I) 27 Delete any files that end with the FAK extension. del c:\windows\temp\?est. rename * 1_* Rename all files to begin with 1_.bak Rename all text files to files with .Y. TYPE Allows the user to see the contents of a file. del c:\windows\temp\*. which would create ^Z.C. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8. this means all files in the current directory will be renamed with a 1_ in front of the file. Once the above command has been typed in.

Examples date Display the current date and prompt for a new one. TIME Allows the user to view and edit the computer's time. DATE The date command can be used to look at the current date of the computer as well as change the date to an alternate date.2600] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Examples time 12:00 Set the time to 12:00 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12.B. Examples cls Running the cls command at the command prompt would clear your screen of all previous text and only return the prompt.1 (F. Below is an example of what this may look like.1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13.Y. Syntax VER VER Displays the version of MS-DOS (Operating System) Examples ver Display what version of MS-DOS or Windows command prompt you're using. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11. the current date will be kept. Naik . Syntax TIME [time] Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt for a new one. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Press ENTER to keep the same date. If no date is entered. Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5. Syntax DATE [date] Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and a prompt for a new one.bat ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28 10.C.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) type c:\autoexec.bat This would allow you to look at the autoexec. Syntax CLS CLS Cls is a command that allows a user to clear the complete contents of the screen and leave only a prompt. Press ENTER to keep the same time.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 15. for example.txt This would bring up a blank edit screen. as long as the file is saved upon exit this will create the file myfile. Commonly used to quickly erase all information on the diskette.B. you will have a blank blue screen.txt to the parallel port lpt1.txt. you would type: edit myfile. Syntax format drive: Examples When using the format command. However. if the file is not found. EDIT Edit allows a user to view. if you wanted to create a file called myfile.C. unless you wish to erase all your computer's information. Naik .txt /c /d:lpt1 Prints the file file. create. Commonly used on a diskette that has not been formatted or on a diskette you wish to erase. format a: /q Quickly erases all the contents of a floppy diskette. ensure that you know what you are placing in the files improperly editing the file can cause issues with your computer. Using edit you can also create files. FORMAT Format is used to erase all of the information off of a computer diskette or fixed drive. In other words. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.txt. When editing this or any file. PRINT This command allowed users to print a text file to a line printer. format c: This would erase all the contents of your C: hard disk drive.Y. in the background. and/or modify their computer files. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16. format a: Would erase all the contents off a disk.105 Pc Software. Syntax UNFORMAT Used to unformat a drive that has been formatted. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17.1 (F. this command should not be done unless you're planning to start over.A sem-I) 29 14. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Syntax edit FileName Examples edit c:\autoexec. remember all information on the drive you wish to format will be completely erased.bat This would look at the autoexec.bat. Syntax print filename Example print c:\file.

B.TXT Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Syntax find “string” filename Example find "hope" *. if applicable. Naik .MODEMDET.TXT file. FIND Allows you to search for text within a file. As can be seen from the below example the only file that contains hope is the CH.txt) that contains the text hope in the current directory.ACTIVE SETUP LOG. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y.1 (F. ---------.A sem-I) UNFORMAT drive: Examples unformat c: Command specified to unformat drive c: if it was formatted. FDISK It is used to divide a hard disk into the number of partition. Syntax FDISK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20. Syntax command-name | MORE [drive:][path][filename] [drive:][path]filename Specifies file(s) to display one screen at a time command-name Specifies a command whose output will be displayed. Below is an example of the output you may see. This would be the same as doing dir /p.txt Would display the contents of a page one page at a time. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19.TXT computer hope ---------. Examples dir | more Allows you to view the directory listing one page at a time.txt Next this example searches for any text file (. MORE More allows information to be displayed one page at a time.105 Pc Software.C. If divide your hard disk into partitions you can efficiently organize directories. Pressing space would go to the next page and pressing enter would go down one line at a time.TXT ---------. It is case sensitive command. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30 18. more myfile.CH.

A Archive file attribute.A sem-I) 31 ---------. Syntax defrag drive: Example defrag c: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22. Naik .SETUPLOG. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. DEFRAG When you work on the pc. H Hidden file attribute. Examples attrib Typing attrib by itself will display all files in the current directory and each of their attributes.B. S System file attribute.TXT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21.SCHEDLGU. It means different parts of the same files get stored in different areas of hard disk.C.OEWABLOG. Read-only file attribute. you delete files from your hard disk and create new files.TXT ---------. /S Processes files in all directories in the specified path.105 Pc Software. Clears an attribute. At that time dos first tries to reuse the space occupied by the deleted files so that the new file gets fragmented. If any file is hidden it will also display those files.Y.TXT ---------. Overall period of time when you create and delete many files.1 (F. they will be fragmented s defragment your hard disk using defrag command. ATTRIB Attrib allows a user to change the properties of a specified file Syntax ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S] + R Sets an attribute. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. VOL Displays the volume information about the designated drive.B.105 Pc Software. LABEL Label is used to view or change the label of the computer disk drives. Syntax TREE Allows the user to view a listing of files and folders in an easy to read listing. but will not label if your disk is write protected.A sem-I) 32 attrib +r autoexec. attrib -h config. Volume in drive C has no label.bat file so it cannot be modified until the read only attribute is taken off.sys This command will do the opposite of the above command. Syntax VOL [drive:] Examples vol c: Display the volume of drive c: as shown in the below example. or deletes the volume label of a disk. attrib +h config. ext characters used for linking lines.C. changes. /a is used with code pages that do not support graphic characters and to send output to printers that do not properly interpret graphic characters.bat Add the read-only attribute to the autoexec. This is helpful for important system files or any other file that you do not want to have mistakenly edited or changed by another program. Syntax Creates. Displays file names in each directory.Y.sys Add the hidden attribute to the config. Volume Serial Number is 1C24-AB20 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25. instead of graphic characters. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23. Naik .sys file causing it to be not be seen by the average user. LABEL [drive:][label] Examples label a: mydisk This would label the disk currently in the drive to "mydisk". TREE Drive:\ Path /f /a Drive:\Path /f /a Drive and directory containing disk for display of directory structure. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Instead of hiding the file it will unhide the file if hidden.1 (F.

C:. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. PROMPT Allows you to change the MS-DOS prompt to display more or less information.Y. deltree is a command used to delete files and directories permanently from the computer. Syntax PROMPT [text] The prompt can be made up of normal characters and the below special codes: $Q = (equal sign) $$ $ (dollar sign) $T Current time $D Current date $P Current drive and path Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.A sem-I) 33 Examples tree List a tree listing of the current drive.105 Pc Software.1 (F. Below is a basic example of what a directory may look like. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 27.B. ├───Common ├───Director ├───Flash ├───Shockwave 8 │ ├───DswMedia │ ├───Prefs │ └───Xtras └───update ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 26. DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path Examples deltree c:\fake010 Deletes the fake010 directory and everything in it. Naik . Syntax DELTREE Short for delete tree.C.

Naik . CHKDSK Chkdsk is a utility that checks the computer's hard disk drives' status for any cross-linked or any additional errors with the hard disk drive. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. however.2 and is a a software utility capable of checking the hard disk drive and/or floppy diskette drive for any disk errors.A sem-I) $V Windows version number $N Current drive $G > (greater-than sign) $L & (less-than sign) 34 Examples prompt $t $d $p$g Display the time and the date above your prompt when in DOS. Fixes errors on the disk. Syntax CHKDSK [drive:][[path]filename] [/F] [/V] [drive:][path] filename /F /V Specifies the drive and directory to check.Y. Specifies the file(s) to check for fragmentation. chkdsk /f Will fix any crossed linked files. Examples chkdsk Will display all information described above and also report any crossed linked files. Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk.x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29. SCANDISK Microsoft Scandisk was first introduced with MS-DOS 6. do not run this command while you are in Windows95 or Windows 3. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28.1 (F. Syntax scandisk drive: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.105 Pc Software.C.B.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30.Y. Naik .. /V Verifies that the information is copied correctly. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.B. Type PATH without parameters to display the current path. type this command in. The diskcopy utility allows a user to copy the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette. allowing all commands you type in. Syntax PATH [[drive:]path[. to be loaded from this directory. Type PATH . if you have another file in another directory such as C:\DOS it will no longer look there. such as "deltree".]] PATH .105 Pc Software.1 (F. PATH Path is used to specify the location where MS-DOS looks when using a command.A sem-I) 35 Examples scandisk c: /autofix Scandisk the main hard disk drive for any errors and if found automatically fix those errors. Example C:\> path Result: path=c:\windows\command 31. The two floppy disks must be the same type.C. if you are not able to do a dos command. Syntax Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.. to clear all search-path settings and direct Windows to search only in the current directory. It is not recommended that the diskcopy command be used for anything but a floppy diskette. Examples diskcopy a: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. However. /M Force multi-pass copy using memory only. DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M] /1 Copies only the first side of the disk. You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2.. DISKCOPY This is where a lot of DOS commands are stored in Window 95.

Y. COMP A simple compare that compares two or more files. and even whole drives from one location to another. The diskcomp exit codes are: 0 .txt. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36 32.B.1 (F. directories. Naik .Critical error. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Initialization error.txt file2.C. 3 . and subdirectories to the directory you're currently in. XCOPY Xcopy is a powerful version of the copy command with additional features.A sem-I) This would make a copy of the disk that is currently in your drive. Examples xcopy c:\temp /e The above example is the basic xcopy command to copy the files. Syntax comp filename1 fielname2 Example comp file1.txt Compares file1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33. 1 . 4 .Disks are different. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34. DISKCOMP Compares the contents of a floppy disk in the source drive to the contents of a floppy disk in the target drive. /P Prompts you before creating each destination file.txt with file2. Syntax XCOPY source [destination] /P /S source Specifies the file(s) to copy.Process aborted with CTRL + C by user. destination Specifies the location and/or name of new files.105 Pc Software. Syntax DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]] Examples DISKCOMP A: B: Compares the A: with B: This command cannot be used with a hard disk drive and must be only used with floppies that are the identical size. has the capability of moving files. directories.Disks are the same. /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones. 2 .

Naik . MOVE Allows you to move files or directories from one folder to another. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. Syntax move path1 path2 path1 Specify full path of source files with drive and folder path2 Specify full path of a destination folder where you want to move Examples move c:\windows\temp\*.105 Pc Software.1 (F. or from one drive to another.C. this is of course assuming you have the windows\temp directory.* c:\temp Move the files of c:\windows\temp to the temp directory in root.A sem-I) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37 35.

the category displays links to the most commonly used applets below the name of the category. and it is possible to switch between these through an option that appears on the left side of the window. In recent versions of Windows. usually without any description (other than the name). The Control Panel allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets. • • Classic View Category View The classic view consists of shortcuts to the various control panel applets.1 (F. Naik . Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C. the Control Panel has two views.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 38 Control Panel: The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. controlling user accounts. The category view consists of categories. In Windows Vista. adding and removing software. The categories are seen if the user use "Details" view.Y. such as adding hardware. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. which when clicked on display the control panel applets related to the category. Additional applets can be provided by third party software. and changing accessibility options.

B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) 39 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.Y. Naik .1 (F.105 Pc Software.C.

105 Pc Software.1 (F.B. Naik .Y. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) 40 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.C.

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