105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.

A sem-I)

1

1.1 Concept of window, icon, menu Icon:
An icon in Windows is a small picture or object that represents a file, program, web page, or command. Most of the time, the icon picture relates to the function of the item that it represents. A computer icon is a pictogram displayed on a computer screen and used to navigate a computer system or mobile device. The icon itself is a small picture or symbol serving as a quick representation of a software tool, function or a data file accessible on the system.For example, if the icon is attached to an e-mail program, it might be a picture of a letter. Icons are located on the desktop, in the start menu, and various other places. Icon enable the user to easily navigate the system. If you are using Windows 95, 98 or 2000, you can see several icons right now on your desktop.

Internet Explorer

Adobe Reader 8

Google Toolbar

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

(GUI)

 GUI allows users to interact with electronic devices with images rather than text commands.  GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment .  A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  A graphical user interface (GUI) is a human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that uses windows, icons and menus and which can be manipulated by a mouse (and often to a limited extent by a keyboard as well).  An icon is a small picture or symbol in a GUI that represents a program (or command), a file, a directory or a device (such as a hard disk or floppy).  Icons are used both on the desktop and within application programs.  A major advantage of GUIs is that they make computer operation more intuitive, and thus easier to learn and use.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

2

 GUIs allow users to take full advantage of the powerful multitasking (the ability for multiple programs and/or

multiple instances of single programs to run simultaneously) capabilities of modern operating systems by allowing such multiple programs and/or instances to be displayed simultaneously.  But the GUI has became much more than a mere convenience. It has also become the standard in humancomputer interaction, and it has influenced the work of a generation of computer users.

Menu:
A menu is a list of commands presented to an operator by a computer. They may be thought of as shortcuts to frequently used commands that avoid the operator having to have a detailed knowledge or recall of syntax.
 A computer using a graphical user interface (GUI) presents menus with a combination of text and symbols to

represent choices.
 By clicking on one of the symbols, the operator is selecting the instruction that the symbol represents.

 A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data.  Most provide some form of pull-down or pop-up menu.  Pull-down menus are the type commonly used in menu bars (usually near the top of a window or screen), which are most often used for performing actions.  Pop-up (or "fly-out") menus are more likely to be used for setting a value, and might appear anywhere in a window.

Menu

Pull Down menu

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

3

Window
In windows operating system, a window may represent several things, such as a document, an application (e.g. word processor or spreadsheet program), a folder (an MS-DOS sub directory in windows in called the folder), a dialog box (where the user enters some information) etc, you can keep several windows open at a time. A window is a visual area containing some kind of user interface. It usually has a rectangular shape. It displays the output of and allows input of one or more processes.Windows are primarily associated with graphical displays, where they can be manipulated with a mouse cursor.Windows are two dimensional objects arranged on a plane called the desktop. They can be resized, moved, hidden, restored or closed.Windows can be composed of other windows. One program can have multiple windows. For example in a text-editing program, a user might benefit from working with several text files available at once. Those "child" windows "containing" text files can either be left separate from the main window (see Metapad) or be encapsulated under the main "parent" window (see Notepad++).
Window 1 (control panel)

Control box

Title bar Menu

Window 2 (recycle bin)

Toolbar

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

105 Pc Software- 1 (F.Y.B.C.A sem-I)

4

In a graphical user interface on a computer monitor a toolbar is a panel on which onscreen buttons, icons, menus or other input or output elements are placed.

An example of a web browser toolbar, the Google toolbar, in Firefox

Task bar
In computing, the taskbar is a term for an application desktop bar which is used to launch and monitor applications. Microsoft incorporated a taskbar in Windows 95 and it has been a defining aspect of Microsoft Windows's graphical user interface ever since. The Windows taskbar can be modified by users in several ways. The position of the taskbar can be changed to appear on any edge of the primary display. Users can resize the height (or width when displayed vertically) of the taskbar up to half of the display area.

A standard Windows Vista taskbar with two tasks running.

Title bar
In computing, the title bar consists of that part of a window where the title of the window appears. Most graphical operating systems and window managers position the title bar at the top of the application window as a horizontal bar. Default title-bar text often incorporates the name of the application and/or of its manufacturer. The name of the host running the application also appears frequently. The title bar often contains icons for system commands relating to the window, such as a maximize, minimize and close buttons; and may include other content such as an application icon, a clock, etc. Title bar from Calculator

1.2 Desktop
A desktop commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop which can be seen on most modern personal computers today.

Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies, Ankleshwar

By Shachi S. Naik

 Today. windows.  The most common desktop environment on personal computers is the one provided by Microsoft Windows. folders.1 (F. Desktop MY Document My Computer Internet Explorer My network places Recycle bin Start menu Task bar 1.105 Pc Software.A sem-I) 5  These graphical interfaces are designed to assist the user in easily accessing and configuring (or modifying) the most important (or frequently accessed) specific OS packed features.B.  A desktop environment typically consists of icons. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Naik .Y.C. wallpapers. toolbars. Traditionally these computers have used Microsoft Windows and to a lesser extent Mac OS whose desktop environments are relatively unalterable.  Software which provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features which make more complete. another common environment is the one provided by Apple Mac OS.3 creating folders and shortcuts Create a New Folder Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. most popular personal computers come pre-installed with an operating system that provides a desktop environment.

Either accept the default name New Folder (bad idea) by hitting the enter key or type a new name for the folder (good idea) and then hit enter on the keyboard. • The new folder will always be created as a subfolder of whatever location you have selected • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.B. 6 2.Y. On the Menu bar select File > New > Folder and the folder will be created in the right hand pane.1 (F.C.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. but three methods are shown below. Naik . The trick is to make sure that prior to making the selections from the Menu that you are located at the proper place in the hierarchical view in the left pane.A sem-I) New folders can be created just about anywhere. Select New and then click Folder. New Folder on Desktop – 1. Right click anywhere on an open area of the desktop. A new folder with the default name New Folder will be created on the desktop. New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Hierarchical View – There are two easy methods for creating a new folder in this view.

105 Pc Software. In this case I'm using the same location that was used in the previous example.A sem-I) 7 New Folder Using Windows Explorer in Task View Once again.Y.B. The New Folder is created in the right hand pane as shown in the second screen capture. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. In the File and Folder Tasks section. • Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. click the Make a New Folder selection. Note that the File and Folder Tasks section also expands to include new entries relative to what can be done with the folder just created.C. Naik . the root of the C drive as shown in the Address bar.1 (F. make sure you're in the location where the new folder is to be created.

A sem-I) 8 1. 2. and then click Search. Choose one of the following options: a. In the Search Companion dialog box. click the drive or drives.1 (F. click all files and folders. Click Start. Type part or the entire name of the file or folder. or type a word or phrase that is in the file. Click what size is it to look for files that are specific size. 3. b. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. In the Look in box. Click Search.105 Pc Software. 4.B. 2. folder. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.Y. Click when it was modified to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates. 5.4 Finding Files and Folders To search for a file or folder: 1. Naik . or network location that you want to search.C. c. Click more advanced options to specify additional search criteria.

Y.105 Pc Software.B. below) Fig 2. PROJECT is our source file and PRACTICE is our destination folder. Naik . Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. (See Fig 1. moving and Deleting Files Copy Files in Windows  There are various ways to copy files using windows. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. windows Fig 1. Using the Menus Step 1: Inset floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. above).  Two basic methods are by using menus and by dragging & dropping.  Copying files to and from a floppy disk are the most common uses of the Copy command.  Let’s assume we have a file on a diskette call "Project" and we want to copy it to our hard drive. Step 5: Select the Edit menu and click Copy.  Lets also assume that the folder we are copying the file to is call practice and it's on our C drive.A sem-I) 9 1. The Edit Menu Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F. (See Fig 2. select project. It has the Windows logo on it. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy. In our example.5 Creating copying. Therefore.C. (The key is next to the left CTRL key.

You have just copied a file Drag & drop Step 1: Insert floppy disk into Computer Step 2: Open My Computer or Windows Explorer Shortcut: Hold down the Windows Key and press E to open Windows Explorer. In our example. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose copy from the menu. When the destination folder becomes highlighted. Congratulations. Step 5: Select the source file by holding down the left mouse button and drag it to the destination folder. Windows Explorer Step 3: View contents of disk by double clicking the floppy disk icon. (See Fig 1.1 (F. In our example. double click Practice. It has the window logo on it.Y. However 10 Fig 1. In our example.105 Pc Software.C. select project. Step 6: Open to the destination folder. (See Fig 2. above). Naik . NOTE: Make sure the folder you are copying to is visible. Step 7: Select the Edit menu and click Paste.A sem-I) Tip. Tip. the destination folder is practice. (The windows key is next to the left Ctrl key. You can also right mouse click on the file and choose paste from the menu.B.) Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. release the mouse button. Step 4: Select the file you want to copy.

hold down the CTRL key when dragging the files. (See mouse pointer in Fig 2. Naik .B.A sem-I) 11 Fig 2.C.Y. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. You have just copied a file.1 (F. this method will move the files instead of copying them. To copy using this method. Drag & Drop Congratulations. a menu will appear asking you if you want to copy or move the file. When the button is released. above) Tip: The safest way to drag and drop is by using the right mouse button to drag the files.105 Pc Software. You will see a + sign next to your mouse pointer to verify you are copying. NOTE: If you are coping files from the hard drive to another destination on the same hard drive.

Ankleshwar By Shachi S.  Now press the Delete key on your keyboard. or Delete this folder from the File and Folder Tasks menu in your Common Tasks toolbar.  Then highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once. Second Method This method can be used by Windows XP. Naik . and Windows 2003 users.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once.  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.  Open My Computer ((Left click Start/My Computer) or double click the My Computer icon on your desktop).A sem-I) 12 Deleting Files  When deleting files or folders in Windows the default delete behavior is for the file or folder to be moved to the recycle bin.1 (F.C.  Navigate to the file or folder you want to delete.  Now click Delete this file. You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete.B. First Method This is the easiest method to delete files and folders in Windows.105 Pc Software.  Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.Y.

All other Windows users double left click the My Computer icon on your desktop. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.  Highlight the file or folder by left clicking it once. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is. Third Method  You can use either Windows Explorer or My Computer to navigate to the file or folder you wish to delete.Y. Naik .105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.C.  Navigate to the file or folder that you would like to delete.  Windows XP Users click Start then My Computer.A sem-I) 13  Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin.1 (F.B.

1 (F. Click yes to move the file to the recycle bin or No to keep the file where it is.105 Pc Software.B. Naik .C. 14 2. Then from the top toolbar click File then Delete. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Fourth Method In this example we will delete a file from my desktop however this method can be used to drag files from a Windows Explorer window to the recycle bin also.A sem-I) 1.Y. Left click the file or folder you wish to delete and keep the mouse button held down. 1. Then drag the file on top of the Recycle bin. Windows will then popup asking for confirmation to send the file or folder to the Recycle Bin. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.

Rename Using the File Menu Select the folder or file to be renamed then click File > Rename.105 Pc Software. Rename Using a Double Click What's a slow double click? Click the file to be renamed once -. No matter where you are.A sem-I) 15 Rename file and folders Rename Using the F2 Key This is my favorite method as well as being the easiest. simplest. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. and quickest method to rename files.B.then click it one more time. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Complete the edit and hit Enter.wait about two seconds . single click the file to be renamed and hit the F2 key. Complete the edit and hit Enter.1 (F. Naik .Y. The editing box will appear surrounding the filename. Complete the edit and hit Enter.C.

Naik . The editing box will appear surrounding the filename.C.A sem-I) Rename Using a Right Click 16 Right click the folder or file to be renamed then click Rename.Y. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.105 Pc Software.B.1 (F. Complete the edit and hit Enter.

B. such as another folder or the desktop. Dragging with the right-click brings up the context menu shown in the figure. One way to employ drag and drop is to use the menu entry "Copy Here" to make a copy of an existing shortcut in a different location.1 (F. There are a number of methods for creating new shortcuts: • • • Drag and drop The right-click “Send To” function The right-click “New” function A discussion of each approach to creating shortcuts is given in the sections below. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Many are also aware that shortcuts can be placed in the taskbar. the Send To function of the right-click can be used (figure on the left). Shortcuts can also be made from files or folders by using the menu entry "Create Shortcuts Here".Y. The right-click “Send To” function For making shortcuts specifically on the desktop. the shortcuts to open programs. and drag to the desired destination. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Drag and drop The drag and drop method can be used in several ways. hold down the right-click.C. Simply right-click on the desired file or folder and select "Desktop (create shortcut)" from the "Send To" menu. Either the left or the right mouse button can be used for drag and drop with somewhat different behavior. Naik .A sem-I) 17 Creating a Shortcut to a Program or File Everyone is familiar with the icons placed on the desktop.105 Pc Software. Open the folder containing the object whose shortcut is desired.

the dialog shown below will open. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. The location of the target item can be entered or the "Browse" function can be used to locate it.C. First dialog box for creating new shortcut If the "Browse" button is selected.B. Right-click in the folder where the shortcut is to be placed and select the entry "Shortcut" from the menu. Dialog box for Browse function Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik .1 (F.Y. Click the "OK" button. Here you can select the file or folder that you wish to create a shortcut for (the target).A sem-I) The right-click “New” function 18 The most general method for creating shortcuts uses the "New" function of the context menu that appears when a vacant spot within a folder window or on the desktop is right-clicked (figure on the left). The dialog box shown below will open. Once the desired folder or file has been selected.105 Pc Software.

this time with the desired file or folder entered as shown below. Naik . the folder "C:\Library" has been chosen.B.C.Y. In this example.105 Pc Software.1 (F.A sem-I) 19 The Create Shortcut window will reappear. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Dialog box with location of target entered Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.

Ankleshwar By Shachi S.105 Pc Software. Naik .C.1 (F.B. click "Finish".A sem-I) 20 Click "Next" and a window where the shortcut can be named appears. Naming the shortcut Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. After entering a name or accepting the default.Y.

not from removable media. whether accidentally or intentionally. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. undelete) all items back to their original locations by clicking restore all.C. Users can review the contents of the Recycle Bin before deleting the items permanently. Otherwise if there are files and/or folders the icon resembles a full wastepaper basket. or by deleting them permanently. The Recycle Bin's icon indicates whether there are items in the Recycle Bin. Files are moved to the Recycle Bin in a number of ways: • • • • • • By right-clicking on a file and selecting delete from the menu Selecting the file and pressing the delete key Selecting delete from the side menu in Windows XP Selecting the file and choosing delete from the File menu (in Windows XP Explorer) From a context menu command or some other function in a software application (usually configurable) By dragging and dropping a file into the Recycle Bin icon The Recycle Bin only stores files deleted from hard drives. such as memory cards and floppy disks. It also doesn't store files deleted from network drives.105 Pc Software. select the item and the recycle bin displays it in window. If you want to restore selected items. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik . The Recycle Bin holds data that not only lists deleted files. time and the path of those files. Therefore. use the empty recycle bin command from file menu. To remove all items from the recycle bin. In recycle bin window.B. it indicates that currently there are no deleted items. If there are no files or folders in the Recycle Bin.Y. select the items and use the delete command from the file or the right click menu.e. The Recycle Bin keeps files that have been deleted. you should periodically empty the recycle bin by deleting those items from the recycle bin that you no more want to restore. For doing this. Deleted files may be removed from the Recycle Bin by restoring them with a command. then the icon resembles an empty wastepaper basket. select the require items and then choose the restore command from the file menu or from right click menu. you can restore (i.1 (F. The Recycle Bin is opened like an ordinary Windows Explorer folder and the files are viewed similarly. The number of items the recycle bin can hold is limited by the hard disk space allocated to it by windows. If you want to get details about any item in the recycle bin. If your recycle bin window is empty.A sem-I) 21 RECYCLE BIN Microsoft introduced the Recycle Bin in the Windows 95 operating system. The Recycle Bin can be accessed via the desktop (In fact it is the only icon shown by default on the Windows XP desktop) or Windows Explorer. but also the date.

1 (F. On double clicking any icon. the network neighborhood folder displays all computers in your network. If you are connected on a network and you have rights to save files on other computer. you may not be able to access all folders on all hard disks on a particular computer. edit or delete files on the folder of other computer on the network.B. Naik . depending on the different types of rights (such as read.A sem-I) 22 NETWORK NEIGHBORHOOD If your pc is connected to a network.105 Pc Software. window will display the resources of that computer which you have access right to. This network neighborhood displays a list of all computers that are connected to the network. To open the network neighborhood folder. delete. Therefore. you may be able to open. etc). write.Y.C. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Moreover. double-click the network neighborhood icon on your desktop or in window explorer. you can specify the other computer’s folder as the path. Then windows display the network neighborhood window. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.

Then you can ask DOS to run the batch file. you can enter only one command at a time. The internal commands are simple and are used for common tasks. If the FAT gets destroyed. FAT is so important in DOS that it maintains two copies of FAT on the disk. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. the smallest unit of the disk space that it works with is called the clusters. When you format a disk with FORMAT command. documents.Y. A file stored in several clusters that may be located in different parts of the disk. FILE ALLOCATION TABLE (FAT) The physical location of each file is maintained in a table called the file allocation table (FAT). In a situation when you have to enter a series of commands back to back. displaying a list of files in a disk. reminders. such as copying an entire drive.C. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS There are two types of Dos commands. memos.105 Pc Software. You simply need to type the series of commands that you want to execute in batch file.A sem-I) 23 WHAT IS FILE? File is a collection of text or data stored on a storage device. the batch file is very useful. DOS updates FAT so that FAT always keeps the latest information about the storage of the file on the disk. You can store different type of documents (invoices. After enter a command. dos will not be able to read files from the disk. formatting a drive. such as an address list or sales information for a period is called database file. The complete information about the clusters occupied by each file stored on the disk is maintained by dos in FAT. etc is known as document or text file. you have to wait for DOS to finish that command to enter the next command. Dos automatically execute all commands entered in the batch file. etc. These commands can be used without the need of any dos file.1 (F. The information regarding areas of eh disk where a file is stored is maintained by DOS in FAT. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. When DOS stores information on the disk. The file that stores database information. A file that contains instructions written in a programming language is called a program file. When you use your keyboard to enter commands. comparing a drive. Naik . sorting a file. BATCH FILES A batch file is a simple text file that contains a series of DOS commands.internal and external. renaming or erasing files. letters. Whenever you modify a file. such as a floppy disk or hard disk.B. on command at a time. The internal commands are that are automatically loaded in the memory of your pc when Dos is loaded. It can help you to run a series of DOS commands without requiring your attention. memos. The storage surface is divided into the tracks. the file that stores letters. etc. The external commands are used for relatively complex job. etc) in conventional file. such as copying. DOS creates the FAT on the disk. changing current date and time of pc. creating and changing directories.

for instance. /P :.By name (alphabetical or reverse alphabetical).Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories.Directories (or files only). it indicates that file is hidden. Naik . Syntax Dir [Drive:] [path] [filename] [/p] [/w] [/A:Attributes] [/O:order] [/S] [/L] [drive:][path][filename] :.Pauses after each screenful of information.Y.By size (increasing or decreasing). ATTRIB. S|-S .Uses wide list format. /L :. ATTRIB +H C:\*.By extension ( alphabetical or reverse alphabetical). You can also use ATTRIB to hide files or change the hidden files to normal ones.System (or non system) files.Uses lowercase. can be use to find out if there are nay hidden files in any directory.C. (Version 6. C|-C . DIR The dir command allows you to see the available files in the current and/or parent directories.Archivable (or already archived) files. A|-A .* displays attribute (characteristic. featurs) for all files in root directory of drive C. D|-D .1 (F.A sem-I) 24 WHAT ARE HIDDEN FILES? Hidden files are those files that are not listed with DIR. Some application programs create hidden file. For example.Read-only (or read/write) files. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. directory.B. /S :. an external Dos command. use –H option with ATTRIB. and/or files to list. ATTRIB –H C:\*. /W :. D|-D . Other file attributes are read only(R). /A : attributes :H|-H . if Dos displays “H” against a file name. S|-S .105 Pc Software. To convert hidden files to normal ones.BAT unhide any hidden file having extension name BAT in the root directory of drive C.0 only) G|-G . For example. R|-R .Sorts by DoubleSpace compression ratio lowest to highest or highest to lowest. or after) other files. Example Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. DOS COMMANDS 1. /O:order N|-N .By date and time (chronologically or reverse).Specifies drive. ATTRIB c:\*.BAT makes all files with BAT extension name in root directory of drive c hidden.Hidden (or not hidden) files. E|-E .Group directories (before.

Y. Syntax MKDIR [drive:]path MD [drive:]path Examples md test The above example creates the "test" directory in the directory you are currently in. dir /p If the directory has a lot of files and you cannot read all the files as they scroll by. RD / RMDIR Removes empty directories in MS-DOS.C. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. the root of the drive. Syntax CHDIR [drive:][path] CHDIR[.B. you can use this command and it will display all files one page at a time.] Examples cd\ Goes to the highest level. Syntax RMDIR [drive:]path RD [drive:]path Examples rmdir c:\test Remove the test directory.txt Takes the output of dir and re-routes it to the file myfile.A sem-I) 25 dir Lists all files and directories in the directory that you are currently in. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2. Naik . dir > myfile. CD CD (Change Directory) is a command used to switch directories in MS-DOS.txt instead of outputting it to the screen.. if empty..1 (F. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4. cd.. if you are at root "C:\>" and type this command this will list to you every file and directory on the C: drive of the computer. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. dir /s Lists the files in the directory that you are in and all sub directories after that directory. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3.105 Pc Software. md c:\test Create the "test" directory in the c:\ directory.] CD [drive:][path] CD[. MD / MKDIR Allows you to create your own directories in MS-DOS.

the autoexec. usually found at root. would first move back to the root of the drive and then go into the Windows directory..1 (F. cd\windows\system32 If present. 98.. and later versions have a feature in the CD command that allows you to go back more than one directory when using the dots. Syntax DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P] ERASE [drive:][path]filename [/P] [drive:][path]filename /P Specifies the file(s) to delete. For example. this would take you to C:\Windows> Windows 95. Windows can be substituted with any other name. if you're in c:\windows> and you type the cd it will print c:\windows. typing: cd. For example.bat c:\windows Copy the autoexec. would move into the system32 directory located in the Windows directory. Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.Y.A sem-I) 26 Goes back one directory. cd windows If present. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5. with three dots after the cd would take you back two directories.FAK Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. and copy it into the windows directory. COPY Allows the user to copy one or more files to an alternate location. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.bat can be substituted for any file(s). Naik .bat. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6. Specify multiple files by using wildcards. cd\windows If present. Syntax COPY source [destination] Examples copy *.C. If at any time you need to see what directories are available in the directory you're currently in use the dir command. copy autoexec. For example.* a: Copy all files in the current directory to the floppy disk drive. cd Typing cd alone will print the working directory. For those users who are familiar with Unix / Linux this could be thought of as doing the pwd (print working directory) command. DEL / ERASE del (Erase) is a command used to remove files from your computer's hard disk drive and or other writable media. Examples Erase c:\windows\*.B. would take you into the Windows directory. if you are within the C:\Windows\COMMAND> directory.105 Pc Software.

105 Pc Software. you can save and exit the file by pressing CTRL+Z.C. The asterisk (*) in this example is an example of a wild character. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9. del test. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.tmp = Delete the c:\windows\test.1 (F. del c:\windows\temp\?est.bak Rename all text files to files with .txt file. if there was a file named hope. which would create ^Z.tmp or zest. because nothing was placed before or after the first asterisk. a user could type in whatever he or she wishes. TYPE Allows the user to see the contents of a file. REN AND RENAME Used to rename files and directories from the original name to a new name.A sem-I) 27 Delete any files that end with the FAK extension. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7.* indicates that you would like to delete all files in the c:\windows\temp directory.* = (* is for wild character(s)) *.tmp. which creates the test.bak extension..txt a user can create a file using the copy con command as shown above. del c:\windows\temp\*. Syntax Renames a file/directory or files/directories. this means all files in the current directory will be renamed with a 1_ in front of the file.txt.Y.txt *.tmp = Deletes the test.tmp such as pest. and then press enter. RENAME [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] REN [drive:][path][directoryname1 | filename1] [directoryname2 | filename2] Examples rename c:\chope hope Rename the directory chope to hope. del c:\windows\test. if the file exists. When you have completed creating the file. rename * 1_* Rename all files to begin with 1_. Naik . COPY CON To create a new file Syntax copy con [filename] Example copy con test..tmp in the windows directory if it exists.B. rename *.txt it would be renamed to 1_pe. An easier way to view and edit files in MS-DOS would be to use the edit command. For example. Syntax TYPE [drive:][path]filename Examples Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Once the above command has been typed in.tmp in the directory that you currently are in.tmp = (? is a single wild character for one letter) This command would delete any file ending with est.

Syntax VER VER Displays the version of MS-DOS (Operating System) Examples ver Display what version of MS-DOS or Windows command prompt you're using.C.2600] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. DATE The date command can be used to look at the current date of the computer as well as change the date to an alternate date.A sem-I) type c:\autoexec. TIME Allows the user to view and edit the computer's time.Y. Syntax TIME [time] Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt for a new one.B.1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11.1 (F. Syntax DATE [date] Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and a prompt for a new one. Examples date Display the current date and prompt for a new one. If no date is entered. Below is an example of what this may look like. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13. Press ENTER to keep the same date.bat ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28 10. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. the current date will be kept. Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.105 Pc Software. Examples cls Running the cls command at the command prompt would clear your screen of all previous text and only return the prompt. Syntax CLS CLS Cls is a command that allows a user to clear the complete contents of the screen and leave only a prompt. Naik .bat This would allow you to look at the autoexec. Examples time 12:00 Set the time to 12:00 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12. Press ENTER to keep the same time.

unless you wish to erase all your computer's information. EDIT Edit allows a user to view.B. this command should not be done unless you're planning to start over. ensure that you know what you are placing in the files improperly editing the file can cause issues with your computer. you will have a blank blue screen. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16. Naik . Commonly used on a diskette that has not been formatted or on a diskette you wish to erase. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. for example. if you wanted to create a file called myfile. Syntax edit FileName Examples edit c:\autoexec. if the file is not found.bat. format a: /q Quickly erases all the contents of a floppy diskette.txt to the parallel port lpt1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 15. FORMAT Format is used to erase all of the information off of a computer diskette or fixed drive.bat This would look at the autoexec. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17. and/or modify their computer files. PRINT This command allowed users to print a text file to a line printer. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. format a: Would erase all the contents off a disk. create. Commonly used to quickly erase all information on the diskette.105 Pc Software. Syntax print filename Example print c:\file.C. format c: This would erase all the contents of your C: hard disk drive. remember all information on the drive you wish to format will be completely erased. In other words. in the background. However. as long as the file is saved upon exit this will create the file myfile.Y.txt. Syntax UNFORMAT Used to unformat a drive that has been formatted.txt. you would type: edit myfile.txt /c /d:lpt1 Prints the file file. When editing this or any file. Syntax format drive: Examples When using the format command.A sem-I) 29 14.1 (F.txt This would bring up a blank edit screen. Using edit you can also create files.

txt Next this example searches for any text file (. if applicable. This would be the same as doing dir /p. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19. MORE More allows information to be displayed one page at a time.Y. Below is an example of the output you may see. As can be seen from the below example the only file that contains hope is the CH.TXT Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.TXT computer hope ---------. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. If divide your hard disk into partitions you can efficiently organize directories.B. Naik . ---------.CH. more myfile. It is case sensitive command.ACTIVE SETUP LOG.105 Pc Software. Syntax find “string” filename Example find "hope" *.C. Syntax FDISK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20.txt) that contains the text hope in the current directory.1 (F.MODEMDET.A sem-I) UNFORMAT drive: Examples unformat c: Command specified to unformat drive c: if it was formatted. Syntax command-name | MORE [drive:][path][filename] [drive:][path]filename Specifies file(s) to display one screen at a time command-name Specifies a command whose output will be displayed.txt Would display the contents of a page one page at a time. Pressing space would go to the next page and pressing enter would go down one line at a time. FDISK It is used to divide a hard disk into the number of partition. FIND Allows you to search for text within a file. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30 18. Examples dir | more Allows you to view the directory listing one page at a time.TXT ---------.TXT file.

Examples attrib Typing attrib by itself will display all files in the current directory and each of their attributes. Naik .Y. they will be fragmented s defragment your hard disk using defrag command.B. A Archive file attribute. If any file is hidden it will also display those files. Clears an attribute. H Hidden file attribute.C.SCHEDLGU. It means different parts of the same files get stored in different areas of hard disk.TXT ---------. you delete files from your hard disk and create new files. Overall period of time when you create and delete many files. At that time dos first tries to reuse the space occupied by the deleted files so that the new file gets fragmented.OEWABLOG. ATTRIB Attrib allows a user to change the properties of a specified file Syntax ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S] + R Sets an attribute. S System file attribute.SETUPLOG.1 (F.A sem-I) 31 ---------. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.105 Pc Software.TXT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21. Read-only file attribute. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.TXT ---------. /S Processes files in all directories in the specified path. Syntax defrag drive: Example defrag c: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22. DEFRAG When you work on the pc.

105 Pc Software. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23. changes.C.bat file so it cannot be modified until the read only attribute is taken off. TREE Drive:\ Path /f /a Drive:\Path /f /a Drive and directory containing disk for display of directory structure. ext characters used for linking lines.A sem-I) 32 attrib +r autoexec. VOL Displays the volume information about the designated drive.1 (F. Instead of hiding the file it will unhide the file if hidden.bat Add the read-only attribute to the autoexec. Volume in drive C has no label.sys file causing it to be not be seen by the average user. but will not label if your disk is write protected. attrib +h config. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24. /a is used with code pages that do not support graphic characters and to send output to printers that do not properly interpret graphic characters.sys Add the hidden attribute to the config.Y.sys This command will do the opposite of the above command. Naik . instead of graphic characters. or deletes the volume label of a disk. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Syntax VOL [drive:] Examples vol c: Display the volume of drive c: as shown in the below example. attrib -h config. LABEL [drive:][label] Examples label a: mydisk This would label the disk currently in the drive to "mydisk". Syntax TREE Allows the user to view a listing of files and folders in an easy to read listing. This is helpful for important system files or any other file that you do not want to have mistakenly edited or changed by another program. LABEL Label is used to view or change the label of the computer disk drives. Displays file names in each directory. Volume Serial Number is 1C24-AB20 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25. Syntax Creates.B.

PROMPT Allows you to change the MS-DOS prompt to display more or less information. Syntax PROMPT [text] The prompt can be made up of normal characters and the below special codes: $Q = (equal sign) $$ $ (dollar sign) $T Current time $D Current date $P Current drive and path Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Naik . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 27.Y.B. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F. C:. Syntax DELTREE Short for delete tree. DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path Examples deltree c:\fake010 Deletes the fake010 directory and everything in it. deltree is a command used to delete files and directories permanently from the computer.A sem-I) 33 Examples tree List a tree listing of the current drive. Below is a basic example of what a directory may look like.C. ├───Common ├───Director ├───Flash ├───Shockwave 8 │ ├───DswMedia │ ├───Prefs │ └───Xtras └───update ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 26.105 Pc Software.

CHKDSK Chkdsk is a utility that checks the computer's hard disk drives' status for any cross-linked or any additional errors with the hard disk drive. Naik . Fixes errors on the disk.x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29.B. do not run this command while you are in Windows95 or Windows 3. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.105 Pc Software. SCANDISK Microsoft Scandisk was first introduced with MS-DOS 6. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28. chkdsk /f Will fix any crossed linked files. Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk. Syntax scandisk drive: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.A sem-I) $V Windows version number $N Current drive $G > (greater-than sign) $L & (less-than sign) 34 Examples prompt $t $d $p$g Display the time and the date above your prompt when in DOS.2 and is a a software utility capable of checking the hard disk drive and/or floppy diskette drive for any disk errors.Y.C. however.1 (F. Specifies the file(s) to check for fragmentation. Syntax CHKDSK [drive:][[path]filename] [/F] [/V] [drive:][path] filename /F /V Specifies the drive and directory to check. Examples chkdsk Will display all information described above and also report any crossed linked files.

Ankleshwar By Shachi S. Examples diskcopy a: Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Type PATH . It is not recommended that the diskcopy command be used for anything but a floppy diskette.. Example C:\> path Result: path=c:\windows\command 31. to be loaded from this directory. type this command in. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30. if you are not able to do a dos command. /V Verifies that the information is copied correctly.. if you have another file in another directory such as C:\DOS it will no longer look there. Syntax Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another. allowing all commands you type in. such as "deltree".Y. Type PATH without parameters to display the current path. DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M] /1 Copies only the first side of the disk. Naik . The diskcopy utility allows a user to copy the complete contents of a diskette to another diskette.]] PATH .A sem-I) 35 Examples scandisk c: /autofix Scandisk the main hard disk drive for any errors and if found automatically fix those errors.105 Pc Software.1 (F.C. DISKCOPY This is where a lot of DOS commands are stored in Window 95. PATH Path is used to specify the location where MS-DOS looks when using a command.B.. You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2. However. The two floppy disks must be the same type. to clear all search-path settings and direct Windows to search only in the current directory. /M Force multi-pass copy using memory only. Syntax PATH [[drive:]path[.

Syntax comp filename1 fielname2 Example comp file1.C. 3 .Initialization error. directories. Naik . and even whole drives from one location to another. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. directories. destination Specifies the location and/or name of new files. Examples xcopy c:\temp /e The above example is the basic xcopy command to copy the files. DISKCOMP Compares the contents of a floppy disk in the source drive to the contents of a floppy disk in the target drive. /P Prompts you before creating each destination file.Disks are different.Y. Syntax DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]] Examples DISKCOMP A: B: Compares the A: with B: This command cannot be used with a hard disk drive and must be only used with floppies that are the identical size. /S Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 36 32.A sem-I) This would make a copy of the disk that is currently in your drive. and subdirectories to the directory you're currently in.Disks are the same. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34. 4 .txt with file2.B. The diskcomp exit codes are: 0 . has the capability of moving files. 1 .1 (F.Critical error. XCOPY Xcopy is a powerful version of the copy command with additional features.txt file2.txt. COMP A simple compare that compares two or more files.Process aborted with CTRL + C by user. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.txt Compares file1.105 Pc Software. Syntax XCOPY source [destination] /P /S source Specifies the file(s) to copy. 2 .

or from one drive to another. MOVE Allows you to move files or directories from one folder to another. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.A sem-I) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 37 35.1 (F. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. this is of course assuming you have the windows\temp directory.Y.* c:\temp Move the files of c:\windows\temp to the temp directory in root.105 Pc Software. Syntax move path1 path2 path1 Specify full path of source files with drive and folder path2 Specify full path of a destination folder where you want to move Examples move c:\windows\temp\*.B.C. Naik .

1 (F. such as adding hardware. Naik . adding and removing software. usually without any description (other than the name). which when clicked on display the control panel applets related to the category.B. The Control Panel allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets. Ankleshwar By Shachi S. The categories are seen if the user use "Details" view. and it is possible to switch between these through an option that appears on the left side of the window. In Windows Vista. Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. controlling user accounts. the Control Panel has two views.Y.A sem-I) 38 Control Panel: The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. In recent versions of Windows. and changing accessibility options. The category view consists of categories. • • Classic View Category View The classic view consists of shortcuts to the various control panel applets. Additional applets can be provided by third party software.105 Pc Software. the category displays links to the most commonly used applets below the name of the category.C.

Y.105 Pc Software.B.C. Naik .A sem-I) 39 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.1 (F.

A sem-I) 40 Shri Manilal Kadakiya College of Management & Computer Studies.1 (F. Naik .C.Y.B.105 Pc Software. Ankleshwar By Shachi S.

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