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1

Materials

1.1 Notations Used in This Chapter

A Area of concrete cross-section

C

s

Constant depending on the type of curing

C

t

Creep coeffcient (C

t

=

sp

/

i

)

C

u

Ultimate creep coeffcient (on average C

u

= 2.35)

D Diameter of cylinder for split test (Brazilian test)

E

c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete

E

s

Modulus of elasticity of non-prestressed reinforcement

I Moment of inertia of section about centroidal axis

L Length of cylinder for split test (Brazilian test)

M Applied moment

P Applied concentrated load

P

sh

Correction factor for shrinkage strain

2 Chapter 1

Q

cr

Correction factor for creep strain

T Tensile force

a Shear span, distance from application point of concentrated load to support

b Width of member

f

c

Compressive stress in concrete

f

c

Specifed compressive strength of concrete

f

r

Modulus of rupture of concrete

f

s

Calculated tensile stress in reinforcement at specifed loads

f

sp

Splitting tensile strength of concrete

f

t

Concrete tensile stress due to applied loads

f

y

Specifed yield strength of non-prestressed reinforcement

h Overall thickness or height of member

t Time

T Temperature variation

T

Coeffcient of thermal expansion

c

Density of concrete

Normal strain

c

Strain at the extreme concrete compression fbre

cp

Creep strain in concrete

c

pic

Strain in concrete corresponding to f

c

cu

Maximum strain at the extreme concrete compression fbre at ultimate (

cu

= 0.0035)

i

Instantaneous elastic strain

sh

Shrinkage strain

shu

Ultimate shrinkage strain

th

Thermal expansion strain

Factor to account for low-density concrete ( = 1 for normal-density concrete)

Poissons ratio

Effective normal stress

Materials 3

1.2 Concrete

Concrete is a material obtained by hardening a mixture of aggregates (sand, gravel),

hydraulic lime (cement), water, and additives (such as entrained air) in pre-determined

proportions.

Concretes are classifed according to their density

c

as follows:

low-density concrete with

c

1850 kg/m

3

semi-low-density concrete with 1850 kg/m

3

<

c

2150 kg/m

3

normal-density concrete with 2150 kg/m

3

<

c

2500 kg/m

3

high-density concrete with 2500 kg/m

3

<

c

In addition to its density, concrete is characterized by:

its mechanical properties: compressive strength f

c

and tensile strength f

t

,

its elastic properties: modulus of elasticity E

c

, ultimate strain

cu

, and Poissons

ratio ,

its volumetric change properties: thermal expansion

T

, creep strain

cp

, and

shrinkage strain

sh

.

Five basic types of Portland cement are produced according to their applications

(Table 1.1).

Table 1.1 Cement Classifcations

Cement Qualifcation Application

GU General use

General purpose, used in ordinary construction

where special properties are not required

MS

Moderate

sulphate

resistant

Moderate exposure of concrete to sulphate attack

Used when less heat of hydration than GU cement

is required

HE

High early

strength

Rapid achievement of a given level of strength

LH

Low heat of

hydration

Used when a low heat of hydration is desired

HS

High sulphate

resistant

Concrete exposed to severe sulphate action

4 Chapter 1

Compressive Strength

The compressive strength of concrete, denoted by f

c

, is obtained from crushing tests on

150 300 mm concrete cylinder samples at 28 days of aging. (If the concrete cylinder

samples are 100 200 mm, use 0.95 f

c

.) Typical stress-strain curves for concrete in

compression are shown in Figure 1.1.

A normal-density concrete of structural quality has a compressive strength f

c

ranging

between 20 MPa (minimum) and 40 MPa. High-strength concrete (f

c

> 40 MPa) can

also be used for special projects.

Figure 1.1 Concrete under Compressive Load

Tensile Strength

The tensile strength may be obtained using three types of tests (Figure 1.2): a) direct

tension, b) fexure test, c) split or Brazilian test.

For guidance:

f

sp

= 1.2 to 1.6 f

t

; f

r

= 1.4 to 2 f

t

(1.1)

Moreover, there is a strong relationship between f

c

and f

r

. Clause 8.6.4 of the CSA

A23.3-04 Standard provides the following relationship for f

r

:

f f

r c

= 0 6 .

(1.2)

Materials 5

where = 1.0 for normal-density concrete and = 0.75 for low-density concrete.

Figure 1.2a

a) Direct tension

= f

t

= T/A

directly provides the tensile

strength but is diffcult to achieve

in laboratory

Figure 1.2b

b) Flexure

=

M

I

h

2

= f

r

= modulus of rupture =

6

2

Pa

bh

Figure 1.2c

c) Split or Brazilian test

= = f

P

LD

sp

2

Figure 1.2 Tensile Strength of Concrete

Modulus of Elasticity

According to CSA A23.3-04 Standard (Clause 8.6.2), the modulus of elasticity, the

secant modulus between

c

= 0 and

c

= 0.4f

c

, may be estimated by:

E f

c c

c

+

,

]

]

j

(

,

\

,

(

3300 6900

2300

1 5

.

; 1500

c

2500 kg/m

3

(1.3)

In addition, for concrete of normal density and compressive strength, 20 MPa f

c

40 MPa, E

c

may be estimated using the following simplifed equation:

E f

c c

= 4500

(1.4)

6 Chapter 1

Strain

The strain in concrete,

c

pic

, corresponding to f

c

increases with f

c

. The approximate

value of

c

pic

is 0.002. It may also be estimated as a function of f

c

by:

c

pic c

f

=

+

140

80 000

0 002

,

.

(1.5)

The ultimate concrete strain in compression generally varies between 0.003 and 0.004.

However, the CSA A23.3-04 Standard limits the value of

cu

to:

cu

= 0.0035 (1.6)

Poissons Ratio

For uncracked concrete, Poissons ratio varies between 0.15 and 0.20 for a concrete

compressive stress f

c

less than 0.7f

c

.

Creep

Creep is a phenomenon by which, under sustained loads and stresses, concrete undergoes

strain. The strain increases with time, but at a progressively decreasing rate (Figure 1.3).

According to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 209-1982, the creep

strain in concrete,

cp

, may be estimated in terms of the instantaneous elastic strain,

i

, by:

cp t i t u cr

C C

t

t

C Q = =

+

where

0 6

0 6

10

.

.

(1.7)

where

cp

= creep strain

i

= instantaneous elastic strain

C

t

= creep coeffcient =

cp

/

i

C

u

= ultimate creep coeffcient, which varies between 1.30 and 4.15, with an average

value of 2.35

Q

cr

= correction factor that takes into consideration the conditions of use (relative

humidity, percentage of air, aggregate content, thickness of the element, type

of curing) [see Table 1.2]

t = time in days.

Materials 7

Instantaneous

recovery

Progressive

recovery

Residual

creep strain

Time since the application of compressive stress

T

o

t

a

l

s

t

r

a

i

n

U

l

t

i

m

a

t

e

c

r

e

e

p

s

t

r

a

i

n

U

n

l

o

a

d

i

n

g

Figure 1.3 Typical Strain-Time Curve for Concrete under Axial Compression

Shrinkage

Shrinkage is a phenomenon by which the concrete undergoes strain caused by the

decrease in the volume of concrete due to drying at constant temperature. Shrinkage

strain generally develops during the frst two to three years after casting of concrete

(Figure 1.4).

Figure 1.4 Shrinkage-Time Curve for Concrete after 7 Days of Curing

8 Chapter 1

Table 1.2 Creep and Shrinkage Modifcation Factors

(Adapted from Table 1.2 of CSA A23.3-04 Standard)

Creep: Q

cr

= Q

a

Q

h

Q

f

Q

r

Q

s

Q

v

Shrinkage: P

sh

= P

c

P

h

P

f

P

r

P

s

P

v

Q

a

: to account for curing

Age at

loading

(days)

Q

a

Moist

curing

Steam

curing

1

7

20

60

1.25

1.00

0.87

0.77

1.00

0.94

0.85

0.76

P

c

: to account for cement content

Cement content (kg/m

3

)

225 300 410

P

c

0.89 0.93 1.00

Q

h

: to account for humidity

Relative humidity (%) Q

h

40

60

80

100

1.00

0.87

0.73

0.60

P

h

: to account for humidity

Relative humidity (%) P

h

40

60

80

100

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.00

Q

f

: to account for fne aggregates

Ratio of fne to total

aggregates

Q

f

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.70

0.95

0.98

1.00

1.05

P

f

: to account for fne aggregates

Ratio of fne to total

aggregates

P

f

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.70

0.72

0.86

1.00

1.04

Q

r

: to account for volume/surface ratio

Volume/Surface ratio

(mm)

Q

r

38

75

150

250

1.00

0.82

0.70

0.67

P

r

: to account for volume/surface ratio

Volume/Surface ratio

(mm)

P

r

38

75

150

250

1.00

0.84

0.59

0.37

Materials 9

Creep: Q

cr

= Q

a

Q

h

Q

f

Q

r

Q

s

Q

v

Shrinkage: P

sh

= P

c

P

h

P

f

P

r

P

s

P

v

Q

s

: to account for slump

Slump (mm) Q

s

50

70

125

0.95

1.00

1.15

P

s

: to account for slump

Slump (mm) P

s

50

70

125

0.97

1.00

1.09

Q

v

: to account for air content

Air (%) Q

v

6

8

10

1.00

1.18

1.36

P

v

: to account for air content

Air (%) P

v

6

8

10

1.00

1.01

1.03

According to ACI Committee 209-1982, the shrinkage strain may be estimated using

the following formula (Figure 1.4):

sh

s

shu sh

t

C t

P =

+

(1.8)

where

sh

= shrinkage strain

shu

= ultimate shrinkage strain, 0.0002

shu

0.0008. In the absence of a specifc

value, it is recommended to use

shu

= 0.00078.

C

s

= constant; C

s

= 35 for seven-day moist curing of concrete and C

s

= 55 for one- to

three-day steam curing

P

sh

= correction factor taking into account the conditions of use (relative humidity,

air content, aggregate and cement contents, thickness of the element)

[see Table 1.2]

t = time in days.

Thermal Expansion of Concrete

The coeffcient of thermal expansion of concrete is

T

= 10 10

6

mm/mm/C. The

thermal expansion strain,

th

, can therefore be represented as follows:

th T

T =

(1.9)

where T is the temperature variation assumed.

10 Chapter 1

1.3 Steel Reinforcement

Steel reinforcement for concrete can be achieved by using: a) deformed bars and wires,

b) welded wire fabric, or c) smooth wires. Smooth wires are allowed to be used for wire

fabric, spirals, stirrups, and ties with diameters of 10 mm or less.

Grades

The CSA G30.18 Standard defnes fve grades of steel reinforcement in concrete: 300R,

400R, 500R, 400W and 500W. The W grade indicates that a ductile and weldable steel

is required. The number of each grade indicates the minimum guaranteed specifed

yield strength in MPa. Grade 400R is the most frequently used for reinforcement, with

a specifed yield strength f

y

= 400 MPa. Table 1.3 presents the geometric and physical

characteristics of steel bars commonly used in practice.

Stress-Strain Curves

Figure 1.5 shows actual and idealized stress-strain curves for steel reinforcement. The

modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement is E

s

= 200,000 MPa.

Table 1.3 Characteristics of Reinforcing Bars

Bar Designation

No.

Nominal dimensions

Area

(mm

2

)

Diameter

(mm)

Perimeter

(mm)

Mass

(kg/m)

10M 100 11.3 35.5 0.785

15M 200 16.0 50.1 1.570

20M 300 19.5 61.3 2.355

25M 500 25.2 79.2 3.925

30M 700 29.9 93.9 5.495

35M 1000 35.7 112.2 7.850

45M 1500 43.7 137.3 11.775

55M 2500 56.4 177.2 19.625

Materials 11

Figure 1.5 Actual and Idealized Stress-Strain Curves for Steel Reinforcement

Thermal Expansion of Steel

The coeffcient of thermal expansion of steel is

T

= 12 10

6

mm/mm/C.

1.4 Examples

Example 1.1 Stress, Creep, and Shrinkage

Problem Statement

Consider a 3-m-high reinforced concrete column with a cross-section of 400 mm

400 mm. It is reinforced with 4 No. 30M steel bars. The column is subjected to an axial

compression load of 1600 kN after one week of moist curing.

a) Calculate the instantaneous compressive and tensile stresses in concrete and steel

and the corresponding instantaneous strain.

b) What is the shortening of the column after 180 days of loading?

Use: f

c

(at 7 days) = 20 MPa; Type GU cement (300 kg/m

3

); relative humidity = 60%; air

content = 5%; slump of fresh concrete = 125 mm; sand = 670 kg/m

3

; coarse aggregate

= 1000 kg/m

3

.

12 Chapter 1

Solution

a) Instantaneous Stresses and Strain

Stress in concrete, f

ci

E f

c c

= 4500

E

c

= = 4500 20 20 120 , MPa

n

E

E

s

c

=

n = =

200 000

20 120

9 9

,

,

.

A

c

= net concrete area = A

g

A

s

A

c

= = 160 000 2800 157 200

2

, , mm

A

ce

= equivalent concrete area = A

c

+ nA

s

A

ce

= + = 157 200 9 9 2800 184 920

2

, . , mm

f

P

A

ci

ce

=

f

ci

=

=

1600 10

184 920

8 65

3

,

. MPa

Stress in steel reinforcement, f

si

f nf

si ci

=

f

si

= = 9 9 8 65 85 6 . . . MPa

Instantaneous strain,

i

i

ci

c

f

E

=

i

= =

8 65

20 120

430 10

6

.

,

mm/mm

The instantaneous reduction is:

l l

i i

=

l

i

= =

430 10 3000 1 29

6

. mm

b) Shortening of the Column at t = 180 Days

Shortening due to creep

C

u

= 2 35 . (average value)

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

cr a h f r s v

=

(see Table 1.3)

Q

cr

= = 1 00 0 87 0 98 0 78 1 15 1 00 0 76 . . . . . . .

Note: Ratio (volume/surface) =

400 400

2 400 2 400

100

+

=

( )

( ) ( )

Materials 13

C

t

t

C Q

t u cr

=

+

0 6

0 6

10

.

.

C

t

=

+

=

180

10 180

2 35 0 76 1 24

0 6

0 6

.

.

. . .

cp t i

C =

cp

= =

1.24 430 10 mm/mm

6

533 10

6

l l

cp cp

=

l

cp

= =

533 10 3000 1 6

6

. mm

Shortening due to shrinkage

C

s

= 35

shu

= 0 00078 . mm/mm (suggested average value in the absence of a specifc value)

P P P P P P P

sh c h f r s v

=

P

sh

= = 0 93 0 80 0 86 0 76 1 09 1 00 0 53 . . . . . . .

sh

s

shu sh

t

C t

P =

+

sh

=

+

=

187

35 187

0 00078 0 53 348 10

6

. . mm/mm

l l

sh sh

=

l

sh

= =

348 10 3000 1 04

6

. mm

Total Shortening

l l l

cp sh

= +

l = + = 1 60 1 04 2 64 . . . mm

1.5 Problems

Problem 1.1

By analyzing the creep and shrinkage strain equations (Equations 1.7 and 1.8) and the

modifcation factors Q

cr

and P

sh

(Table 1.2), determine the three factors that have the

most infuence on creep and shrinkage.

Problem 1.2

Consider a rectangular section of a prestressed concrete column with dimensions

700 mm 700 mm 4 m. The section is subjected to a prestressed force of 2500 kN

acting at the centroid of the section. The force is applied after seven days of moist curing.

a) Calculate the instantaneous stress and the instantaneous strain in concrete.

b) Determine the shortening of the column one year after the prestressed force was

applied.

14 Chapter 1

Use: f

c

(at seven days) = 25 MPa; Type GU cement (300 kg/m

3

); relative humidity = 70%;

air content = 5%; slump of fresh concrete = 120 mm; sand = 660 kg/m

3

; coarse aggregate

= 1050 kg/m

3

.

Problem 1.3

Consider a 4-m-high concrete column having a 500 mm 500 mm square section. The

longitudinal steel reinforcement consists of 4 No. 25M bars, that is, one No. 25M bar

in each corner. The beam is subjected to a specifed dead load of 1000 kN (unfactored)

and a specifed live load of 900 kN (unfactored). The dead load is applied 14 days after

concrete casting.

a) What are the stresses in concrete and steel reinforcement, assuming an elastic behav-

iour and perfect compatibility between the concrete and steel strains, for the following

load cases:

specifed dead load (unfactored)?

total factored load?

b) What is the total strain experienced by the column due to creep and shrinkage,

365 days after concrete casting?

Use: f

c

(at 14 days) = 25 MPa; seven-day moist curing; Type GU cement: 300 kg/m

3

;

sand: 700 kg/m

3

; coarse aggregate: 1000 kg/m

3

; slump: 100 mm; air content: 6%; relative

humidity: 60%; unit weight of concrete = 24 kN/m

3

; C

u

= 2.35.

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