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Chapter

1
Materials
1.1 Notations Used in This Chapter
A Area of concrete cross-section
C
s
Constant depending on the type of curing
C
t
Creep coeffcient (C
t
=
sp
/
i
)
C
u
Ultimate creep coeffcient (on average C
u
= 2.35)
D Diameter of cylinder for split test (Brazilian test)
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of non-prestressed reinforcement
I Moment of inertia of section about centroidal axis
L Length of cylinder for split test (Brazilian test)
M Applied moment
P Applied concentrated load
P
sh
Correction factor for shrinkage strain
2 Chapter 1
Q
cr
Correction factor for creep strain
T Tensile force
a Shear span, distance from application point of concentrated load to support
b Width of member
f
c
Compressive stress in concrete
f
c
Specifed compressive strength of concrete
f
r
Modulus of rupture of concrete
f
s
Calculated tensile stress in reinforcement at specifed loads
f
sp
Splitting tensile strength of concrete
f
t
Concrete tensile stress due to applied loads
f
y
Specifed yield strength of non-prestressed reinforcement
h Overall thickness or height of member
t Time
T Temperature variation

T
Coeffcient of thermal expansion

c
Density of concrete
Normal strain

c
Strain at the extreme concrete compression fbre

cp
Creep strain in concrete

c
pic
Strain in concrete corresponding to f
c

cu
Maximum strain at the extreme concrete compression fbre at ultimate (
cu
= 0.0035)

i
Instantaneous elastic strain

sh
Shrinkage strain

shu
Ultimate shrinkage strain

th
Thermal expansion strain
Factor to account for low-density concrete ( = 1 for normal-density concrete)
Poissons ratio
Effective normal stress
Materials 3
1.2 Concrete
Concrete is a material obtained by hardening a mixture of aggregates (sand, gravel),
hydraulic lime (cement), water, and additives (such as entrained air) in pre-determined
proportions.
Concretes are classifed according to their density
c
as follows:
low-density concrete with
c
1850 kg/m
3
semi-low-density concrete with 1850 kg/m
3
<
c
2150 kg/m
3
normal-density concrete with 2150 kg/m
3
<
c
2500 kg/m
3
high-density concrete with 2500 kg/m
3
<
c
In addition to its density, concrete is characterized by:
its mechanical properties: compressive strength f
c
and tensile strength f
t
,
its elastic properties: modulus of elasticity E
c
, ultimate strain
cu
, and Poissons
ratio ,
its volumetric change properties: thermal expansion
T
, creep strain
cp
, and
shrinkage strain
sh
.
Five basic types of Portland cement are produced according to their applications
(Table 1.1).
Table 1.1 Cement Classifcations
Cement Qualifcation Application
GU General use
General purpose, used in ordinary construction
where special properties are not required
MS
Moderate
sulphate
resistant
Moderate exposure of concrete to sulphate attack
Used when less heat of hydration than GU cement
is required
HE
High early
strength
Rapid achievement of a given level of strength
LH
Low heat of
hydration
Used when a low heat of hydration is desired
HS
High sulphate
resistant
Concrete exposed to severe sulphate action
4 Chapter 1

Compressive Strength
The compressive strength of concrete, denoted by f
c
, is obtained from crushing tests on
150 300 mm concrete cylinder samples at 28 days of aging. (If the concrete cylinder
samples are 100 200 mm, use 0.95 f
c
.) Typical stress-strain curves for concrete in
compression are shown in Figure 1.1.
A normal-density concrete of structural quality has a compressive strength f
c
ranging
between 20 MPa (minimum) and 40 MPa. High-strength concrete (f
c
> 40 MPa) can
also be used for special projects.
Figure 1.1 Concrete under Compressive Load

Tensile Strength
The tensile strength may be obtained using three types of tests (Figure 1.2): a) direct
tension, b) fexure test, c) split or Brazilian test.
For guidance:
f
sp
= 1.2 to 1.6 f
t
; f
r
= 1.4 to 2 f
t
(1.1)
Moreover, there is a strong relationship between f
c
and f
r
. Clause 8.6.4 of the CSA
A23.3-04 Standard provides the following relationship for f
r
:

f f
r c
= 0 6 .
(1.2)
Materials 5
where = 1.0 for normal-density concrete and = 0.75 for low-density concrete.
Figure 1.2a
a) Direct tension
= f
t
= T/A
directly provides the tensile
strength but is diffcult to achieve
in laboratory
Figure 1.2b
b) Flexure

=

M
I
h
2
= f
r
= modulus of rupture =
6
2
Pa
bh
Figure 1.2c
c) Split or Brazilian test

= = f
P
LD
sp
2
Figure 1.2 Tensile Strength of Concrete

Modulus of Elasticity
According to CSA A23.3-04 Standard (Clause 8.6.2), the modulus of elasticity, the
secant modulus between
c
= 0 and
c
= 0.4f
c
, may be estimated by:

E f
c c
c
+
,

]
]
j
(
,
\
,
(
3300 6900
2300
1 5

.
; 1500
c
2500 kg/m
3
(1.3)
In addition, for concrete of normal density and compressive strength, 20 MPa f
c

40 MPa, E
c
may be estimated using the following simplifed equation:

E f
c c
= 4500

(1.4)
6 Chapter 1

Strain
The strain in concrete,
c
pic
, corresponding to f
c
increases with f
c
. The approximate
value of
c
pic
is 0.002. It may also be estimated as a function of f
c
by:

c
pic c
f
=
+

140
80 000
0 002
,
.

(1.5)
The ultimate concrete strain in compression generally varies between 0.003 and 0.004.
However, the CSA A23.3-04 Standard limits the value of
cu
to:

cu
= 0.0035 (1.6)

Poissons Ratio
For uncracked concrete, Poissons ratio varies between 0.15 and 0.20 for a concrete
compressive stress f
c
less than 0.7f
c
.

Creep
Creep is a phenomenon by which, under sustained loads and stresses, concrete undergoes
strain. The strain increases with time, but at a progressively decreasing rate (Figure 1.3).
According to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Committee 209-1982, the creep
strain in concrete,
cp
, may be estimated in terms of the instantaneous elastic strain,

i
, by:


cp t i t u cr
C C
t
t
C Q = =
+
where
0 6
0 6
10
.
.

(1.7)
where

cp
= creep strain

i
= instantaneous elastic strain
C
t
= creep coeffcient =
cp
/
i
C
u
= ultimate creep coeffcient, which varies between 1.30 and 4.15, with an average
value of 2.35
Q
cr
= correction factor that takes into consideration the conditions of use (relative
humidity, percentage of air, aggregate content, thickness of the element, type
of curing) [see Table 1.2]
t = time in days.
Materials 7
Instantaneous
recovery
Progressive
recovery
Residual
creep strain
Time since the application of compressive stress
T
o
t
a
l

s
t
r
a
i
n
U
l
t
i
m
a
t
e

c
r
e
e
p

s
t
r
a
i
n
U
n
l
o
a
d
i
n
g
Figure 1.3 Typical Strain-Time Curve for Concrete under Axial Compression

Shrinkage
Shrinkage is a phenomenon by which the concrete undergoes strain caused by the
decrease in the volume of concrete due to drying at constant temperature. Shrinkage
strain generally develops during the frst two to three years after casting of concrete
(Figure 1.4).
Figure 1.4 Shrinkage-Time Curve for Concrete after 7 Days of Curing
8 Chapter 1
Table 1.2 Creep and Shrinkage Modifcation Factors
(Adapted from Table 1.2 of CSA A23.3-04 Standard)
Creep: Q
cr
= Q
a
Q
h
Q
f
Q
r
Q
s
Q
v
Shrinkage: P
sh
= P
c
P
h
P
f
P
r
P
s
P
v
Q
a
: to account for curing
Age at
loading
(days)
Q
a
Moist
curing
Steam
curing
1
7
20
60
1.25
1.00
0.87
0.77
1.00
0.94
0.85
0.76
P
c
: to account for cement content
Cement content (kg/m
3
)
225 300 410
P
c
0.89 0.93 1.00
Q
h
: to account for humidity
Relative humidity (%) Q
h
40
60
80
100
1.00
0.87
0.73
0.60
P
h
: to account for humidity
Relative humidity (%) P
h
40
60
80
100
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.00
Q
f
: to account for fne aggregates
Ratio of fne to total
aggregates
Q
f
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.70
0.95
0.98
1.00
1.05
P
f
: to account for fne aggregates
Ratio of fne to total
aggregates
P
f
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.70
0.72
0.86
1.00
1.04
Q
r
: to account for volume/surface ratio
Volume/Surface ratio
(mm)
Q
r
38
75
150
250
1.00
0.82
0.70
0.67
P
r
: to account for volume/surface ratio
Volume/Surface ratio
(mm)
P
r
38
75
150
250
1.00
0.84
0.59
0.37
Materials 9
Creep: Q
cr
= Q
a
Q
h
Q
f
Q
r
Q
s
Q
v
Shrinkage: P
sh
= P
c
P
h
P
f
P
r
P
s
P
v
Q
s
: to account for slump
Slump (mm) Q
s
50
70
125
0.95
1.00
1.15
P
s
: to account for slump
Slump (mm) P
s
50
70
125
0.97
1.00
1.09
Q
v
: to account for air content
Air (%) Q
v
6
8
10
1.00
1.18
1.36
P
v
: to account for air content
Air (%) P
v
6
8
10
1.00
1.01
1.03
According to ACI Committee 209-1982, the shrinkage strain may be estimated using
the following formula (Figure 1.4):


sh
s
shu sh
t
C t
P =
+

(1.8)
where

sh
= shrinkage strain

shu
= ultimate shrinkage strain, 0.0002
shu
0.0008. In the absence of a specifc
value, it is recommended to use
shu
= 0.00078.
C
s
= constant; C
s
= 35 for seven-day moist curing of concrete and C
s
= 55 for one- to
three-day steam curing
P
sh
= correction factor taking into account the conditions of use (relative humidity,
air content, aggregate and cement contents, thickness of the element)
[see Table 1.2]
t = time in days.

Thermal Expansion of Concrete
The coeffcient of thermal expansion of concrete is
T
= 10 10
6
mm/mm/C. The
thermal expansion strain,
th
, can therefore be represented as follows:


th T
T =

(1.9)
where T is the temperature variation assumed.
10 Chapter 1
1.3 Steel Reinforcement
Steel reinforcement for concrete can be achieved by using: a) deformed bars and wires,
b) welded wire fabric, or c) smooth wires. Smooth wires are allowed to be used for wire
fabric, spirals, stirrups, and ties with diameters of 10 mm or less.

Grades
The CSA G30.18 Standard defnes fve grades of steel reinforcement in concrete: 300R,
400R, 500R, 400W and 500W. The W grade indicates that a ductile and weldable steel
is required. The number of each grade indicates the minimum guaranteed specifed
yield strength in MPa. Grade 400R is the most frequently used for reinforcement, with
a specifed yield strength f
y
= 400 MPa. Table 1.3 presents the geometric and physical
characteristics of steel bars commonly used in practice.

Stress-Strain Curves
Figure 1.5 shows actual and idealized stress-strain curves for steel reinforcement. The
modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement is E
s
= 200,000 MPa.
Table 1.3 Characteristics of Reinforcing Bars
Bar Designation
No.
Nominal dimensions
Area
(mm
2
)
Diameter
(mm)
Perimeter
(mm)
Mass
(kg/m)
10M 100 11.3 35.5 0.785
15M 200 16.0 50.1 1.570
20M 300 19.5 61.3 2.355
25M 500 25.2 79.2 3.925
30M 700 29.9 93.9 5.495
35M 1000 35.7 112.2 7.850
45M 1500 43.7 137.3 11.775
55M 2500 56.4 177.2 19.625
Materials 11
Figure 1.5 Actual and Idealized Stress-Strain Curves for Steel Reinforcement

Thermal Expansion of Steel
The coeffcient of thermal expansion of steel is
T
= 12 10
6
mm/mm/C.
1.4 Examples
Example 1.1 Stress, Creep, and Shrinkage

Problem Statement
Consider a 3-m-high reinforced concrete column with a cross-section of 400 mm
400 mm. It is reinforced with 4 No. 30M steel bars. The column is subjected to an axial
compression load of 1600 kN after one week of moist curing.
a) Calculate the instantaneous compressive and tensile stresses in concrete and steel
and the corresponding instantaneous strain.
b) What is the shortening of the column after 180 days of loading?
Use: f
c
(at 7 days) = 20 MPa; Type GU cement (300 kg/m
3
); relative humidity = 60%; air
content = 5%; slump of fresh concrete = 125 mm; sand = 670 kg/m
3
; coarse aggregate
= 1000 kg/m
3
.
12 Chapter 1

Solution
a) Instantaneous Stresses and Strain
Stress in concrete, f
ci

E f
c c
= 4500

E
c
= = 4500 20 20 120 , MPa

n
E
E
s
c
=

n = =
200 000
20 120
9 9
,
,
.
A
c
= net concrete area = A
g
A
s
A
c
= = 160 000 2800 157 200
2
, , mm
A
ce
= equivalent concrete area = A
c
+ nA
s
A
ce
= + = 157 200 9 9 2800 184 920
2
, . , mm

f
P
A
ci
ce
=

f
ci
=

=
1600 10
184 920
8 65
3
,
. MPa
Stress in steel reinforcement, f
si

f nf
si ci
=

f
si
= = 9 9 8 65 85 6 . . . MPa
Instantaneous strain,
i

i
ci
c
f
E
=

i
= =

8 65
20 120
430 10
6
.
,
mm/mm
The instantaneous reduction is:

l l
i i
=

l
i
= =

430 10 3000 1 29
6
. mm
b) Shortening of the Column at t = 180 Days
Shortening due to creep
C
u
= 2 35 . (average value)

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
cr a h f r s v
=
(see Table 1.3)

Q
cr
= = 1 00 0 87 0 98 0 78 1 15 1 00 0 76 . . . . . . .
Note: Ratio (volume/surface) =
400 400
2 400 2 400
100

+
=
( )
( ) ( )
Materials 13

C
t
t
C Q
t u cr
=
+
0 6
0 6
10
.
.

C
t
=
+
=
180
10 180
2 35 0 76 1 24
0 6
0 6
.
.
. . .


cp t i
C =

cp
= =

1.24 430 10 mm/mm
6
533 10
6

l l
cp cp
=

l
cp
= =

533 10 3000 1 6
6
. mm
Shortening due to shrinkage

C
s
= 35

shu
= 0 00078 . mm/mm (suggested average value in the absence of a specifc value)

P P P P P P P
sh c h f r s v
=

P
sh
= = 0 93 0 80 0 86 0 76 1 09 1 00 0 53 . . . . . . .


sh
s
shu sh
t
C t
P =
+

sh
=
+
=

187
35 187
0 00078 0 53 348 10
6
. . mm/mm

l l
sh sh
=

l
sh
= =

348 10 3000 1 04
6
. mm
Total Shortening

l l l
cp sh
= +

l = + = 1 60 1 04 2 64 . . . mm
1.5 Problems
Problem 1.1
By analyzing the creep and shrinkage strain equations (Equations 1.7 and 1.8) and the
modifcation factors Q
cr
and P
sh
(Table 1.2), determine the three factors that have the
most infuence on creep and shrinkage.
Problem 1.2
Consider a rectangular section of a prestressed concrete column with dimensions
700 mm 700 mm 4 m. The section is subjected to a prestressed force of 2500 kN
acting at the centroid of the section. The force is applied after seven days of moist curing.
a) Calculate the instantaneous stress and the instantaneous strain in concrete.
b) Determine the shortening of the column one year after the prestressed force was
applied.
14 Chapter 1
Use: f
c
(at seven days) = 25 MPa; Type GU cement (300 kg/m
3
); relative humidity = 70%;
air content = 5%; slump of fresh concrete = 120 mm; sand = 660 kg/m
3
; coarse aggregate
= 1050 kg/m
3
.
Problem 1.3
Consider a 4-m-high concrete column having a 500 mm 500 mm square section. The
longitudinal steel reinforcement consists of 4 No. 25M bars, that is, one No. 25M bar
in each corner. The beam is subjected to a specifed dead load of 1000 kN (unfactored)
and a specifed live load of 900 kN (unfactored). The dead load is applied 14 days after
concrete casting.
a) What are the stresses in concrete and steel reinforcement, assuming an elastic behav-
iour and perfect compatibility between the concrete and steel strains, for the following
load cases:
specifed dead load (unfactored)?
total factored load?
b) What is the total strain experienced by the column due to creep and shrinkage,
365 days after concrete casting?
Use: f
c
(at 14 days) = 25 MPa; seven-day moist curing; Type GU cement: 300 kg/m
3
;
sand: 700 kg/m
3
; coarse aggregate: 1000 kg/m
3
; slump: 100 mm; air content: 6%; relative
humidity: 60%; unit weight of concrete = 24 kN/m
3
; C
u
= 2.35.