You are on page 1of 17

Section A (30 marks) Answer all questions. 1 Esters are sweet-smelling substances commonly used as food flavouring.

Which property of an ester can be used to check its purity before it is used as a food flavouring? A B C D 2 boiling point smell solubility in water colour The diagrams show the spacing of molecules in a substance at a pressure of 1 atm but at two different temperatures. at 150oC at 100oC

Which substance could the diagrams represent? Substance A B C D 3 Melting point/oC -183 -182 -169 -114 Boiling point/oC -89 -162 -104 -85

The apparatus shown is set up, using different gases in the beaker.

Which gas, when present in the beaker, causes the water level at X to rise? A B C D 4 carbon dioxide, CO2 chlorine, Cl2 nitrogen dioxide, NO2 methane, CH4 You are asked to separate a suspension of sand in a solution of sodium chloride and ammonium chloride so as to obtain all three substances. To do this, the following processes can be used: evaporation, filtration and sublimation. In which order should you carry out these operations? A B C D 5 1st sublimation evaporation filtration filtration 2nd filtration sublimation evaporation sublimation 3rd evaporation filtration sublimation evaporation

Solutions containing five known metal ions were chromatographed. After treating with a locating agent, the chromatogram is as shown.

Which metal ion has an Rf value of 0.25? A B C D Cu2+ Pb2+ Ni2+ Sn2+

Which of the following correctly describes the particles in a dilute sugar solution at room temperature? A B C D Sugar molecules Widely separated, moving at random Widely separated, moving at random Widely separated, not moving Close together, moving at random Water molecules Close together, moving at random Close together, not moving Widely separated, moving at random Close together, moving at random

Which of the following sets consists of electronic structures of metals in the same group of the Periodic Table? A B C D 2.5 2.7 2 2.1 2.6 2.8.7 2.8.2 2.8.1 2.7

Strontium is in Group II of the Periodic Table.Which atom has the same electronic configuration as the strontium ion? A B C D calcium krypton rubidium selenium

The elements P, Q and R have consecutive increasing proton numbers. If element Q is a noble gas, which of the following statements is true? A The compound formed by P and R is a gas at room temperature and pressure. B The formula of the ion formed by R is R-. C P is a diatomic element with chemical formula P2. D The oxide formed by R has chemical formula RO.


Element X has electronic structure 2.8.5. Element Y has electronic structure 2.8.7. What is the chemical formula of the compound formed by X and Y? A B C D XY X3Y XY3 X7Y5


Which of the following is least likely to be the melting point of the compound formed between X and Y in question 10? A B C D -186oC -72oC 18oC 782oC


The structure below represents an ethene molecule. H C H C H H

What is the total number of shared electrons in the ethene molecule? A B C D 13 6 8 10 12

The diagrams represent the structures of certain substances. 1 2 3

Which of the following sets of substances is best represented by the diagrams above? A B C D 14 1 hydrogen oxygen hydrogen fluorine 2 graphite argon sodium helium 3 hydrogen fluoride hydrogen fluoride carbon monoxide sodium chloride

The formula of the phosphate ion is PO4 3-. Which of the following chemical formulae correctly represents the named substance? A B C D rubidium phosphate RbPO4 barium phosphate Ba2(PO4)3 ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4 aluminium phosphate Al3PO4


The following illustrates the chemical equation for the reaction between copper and hot dilute nitric acid. 3Cu + 8HNO3 xCu(NO3)2 + 2NO + yH2O

What are the values of X and Y so that the above equation is correctly balanced? A B C D 16 A B C D 17 A B C D 18 A B C D 19 x 3 3 4 4 y 8 4 3 8

Titanium oxide has 60% by mass of titanium. The empirical (simplest) formula for titanium oxide is . TiO TiO2 Ti2O Ti2O3 How many carbon atoms are there in 10-carat diamond? Assume that the mass of one carat is 0.2g. 4x1022 6x1024 2x1023 1x1023 Which of the following is not true of 0.25 mole of nitrogen gas? It has a mass of 7g. It has a volume of 6000cm3 at rtp. It contains the same number of molecules as 8g of methane gas. It contains the same number of molecules as 6 dm3 (measured at rtp) of hydrogen gas. Which of the following describes the structure of diamond? A B C D a giant structure of atoms covalently bonded a regular arrangement of oppositely charged ions layers of rings of atoms positively charged ions surrounded by a sea of electrons


What is the concentration of a solution containing 1.0g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 250 cm3 of water? A B C D 0.025 mol/dm3 0.1 mol/dm3 0.25 mol/dm3 2.5 mol/dm3


Propane burns completely in oxygen according to the equation shown. C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O If 0.1 mol of propane is burnt completely, which volume of carbon dioxide is obtained, measured at room temperature and pressure? A B C D 0.1 dm3 0.3 dm3 2.4 dm3 7.2 dm3


Calcium reacts with water as shown. Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2 What is the total mass of the solution that remains when 40g of calcium reacts with 100g of water? A B C D 58g 74g 138g 140g


Sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide react according to the equation: H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + H2O An aqueous solution contains 7.0 g/dm3 of sulphuric acid. A certain volume of this solution is found to react completely with 25cm3 of a 0.1 mol/dm3 solution of sodium hydroxide. What is the volume of the acid solution used? A B C D 17.5 cm3 25.0 cm3 35.0 cm3 49.0 cm3


If, in volumetric analysis between an acid (in the burette) and an alkali, you need to reuse the titration flask after the first titration, which one of the following is the best procedure for rinsing the flask? A B C D rinse with tap water and then with acid rinse with tap water and then with distilled water rinse with a little of the alkali rinse with a little of the acid


The apparatus was set up as shown.

When the test-tube was heated, the indicator paper turned blue. What could solid Z be? A B C D 26 aluminium oxide ammonium sulphate zinc metal copper(II) carbonate In which reaction is dilute sulphuric acid not behaving as an acid? A B C D H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 + 2NaOH + BaCl2 + CuCO3 + Zn Na2SO4 + H2O BaSO4 + 2HCl CuSO4 + CO2 + H2O ZnSO4 + H2


The colour of an indicator X in solutions of different pH is shown below.

Indicator X would be suitable for distinguishing between A B C D 28 aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide. aqueous solutions of hydrogen chloride and carbon dioxide. aqueous solutions of ammonia and sodium hydroxide. water and an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. An element Y exists in two isotopic forms as shown in the table. isotope 146 X 154 X isotope abundance 25% 75%

What is the relative atomic mass of X? A B C D 29 148 150 151 152

A mixture of two liquids was fractionally distilled in the apparatus shown.


Which one of the following alterations would best improve the efficiency of the separation of the liquids? A B C D 30 place stopper at P insert thermometer at Q fill R with glass beads put anti-bumping granules into S The table shows information about particles S and T. number of protons 9 17 number of neutrons 10 20 electronic structure 2.8 2.8.8


Which statement is correct for both S and T? A B C D They are negative ions. They are atoms of metals. They are atoms of noble gases. They are isotopes of the same element.

Section B (40 marks) Answer all the questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided. B1. a. Give ONE name in each case for the following processes:

conversion of a liquid into a vapour and then cooling the vapour back to a liquid which is collected separately. ___________________________________________________________ b. random movement of gas molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

_____________________________________________________________ c. obtaining a solid by boiling off the liquid from a solution and subsequent cooling of the saturated solution. _____________________________________________________________ d. e. f. adding an acid to an alkali until an indicator just changes colour. _____________________________________________________________ burning of substances in air _____________________________________________________________ mixing of two aqueous solutions to obtain an insoluble substance. _____________________________________________________________ 11

[6] B2. Answer the questions which follow by selecting one or more of the substances listed below: oxygen, water, graphite, air, sodium chloride, neon, iron, fluorine Which of the substance(s) a. b. c. d. e. f. exists as individual atoms? ______________________ exists as diatomic molecules? ______________________ conducts electricity only when molten? ______________________ can be separated into its constituents by physical means? _________________ are elements? ______________________ are flammable? ______________________ [ 6]



Name all the types of particles present in the crystal lattices of i) copper metal ii) iodine ________________________ iii) sodium chloride ________________________ [3] _______________________


An element X has the electronic structure 2.8.4 i. Suggest the chemical formula of the compound which this element forms with fluorine. Draw a dot and cross diagram of the structure of this compound. {Show the valence electrons only.)


[2] Compare and contrast the boiling point and electrical conductivity of this compound with those of sodium chloride.

_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ [2] B4. Imagine that a lorry thought to be carrying acid crashes in a village and spills its acid onto a road. Without using indicators, how would you test to see if an acid was really present? Name the reagents used and the observations expected.


____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ [1] b. A local scientist suggests that the acid should be neutralized with a large amount of sodium hydroxide. This suggestion is partly correct but unwise. i) What is correct about the suggestion?

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ii) Why is the suggestion unwise?

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ iii) What would you recommend should be added to the acid? Give a reason for your answer. ______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ [4] B5. a. Write the balanced chemical equation for any two of the following reactions including the state symbols. dilute hydrochloric hydrogen acid + magnesium metal magnesium chloride solution +


solid sodium + dilute sulphuric magnesium sulphate + carbon + water carbonate acid solution dioxide sodium hydroxide + copper(II)nitrate copper(II) hydroxide +sodium nitrate 14





solution [6]


Epsom salts, a naturally occurring salt, is soluble in water. It can be found mixed with sand. Describe how you would obtain pure and dry crystals of Epsom salts from this mixture.

_________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ [3] b. Epsom salts has the formula MgSO4.xH2O. Its relative molecular mass is 246. Calculate the value of x and the percentage of water of crystallization in the crystals. Show your working clearly with complete statements.

[2] B7. The element boron forms several compounds that contain only boron and hydrogen. A sample of one of these compounds weighing 56g was found to contain 12g of hydrogen. Calculate the simplest (empirical) formula of the compound. [3] b. The mass of one mole of the compound is 28g/mol. What is the chemical formula of the compound? [2] Section C (30 marks) Answer all the questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided.




A drug tablet contains a weak acid. The acid can be represented by HnA and its relative molecular mass is 120. In an experiment, a student weighed a drug tablet (mass = 0.6g) and dissolved it in distilled water to form a solution. Then the solution was made up to 250 cm3. It was found that 25.0 cm3 of the acid solution required 20.0 cm3 of 0.05 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide for complete neutralization, using phenolphthalein as indicator.


What is meant by a weak acid? [1]


State the colour change you will observe at the end point. [1]


How many moles of sodium hydroxide are present in 20.0 cm3 of solution? [2]


Calculate the number of moles of HnA in 0.6g of the drug tablet. [1]


How many moles of HnA are present in 25.0 cm3 of acid solution? [1]


Calculate the value of n in HnA. [1]


What is the meaning of the value of n? [1]


Give the name and formula of an acid with the value of n calculated in (g). [2] 16


The time taken for equal volumes of different gases to pass through a small hole were measured. The results are tabulated below. All measurements were taken under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. Complete the table, by giving the chemical formula and relative molecular/atomic masses of ammonia , argon and sulphur dioxide. Time taken /s 9 25 32 38 49 [3] 28 Relative molecular/atomic mass Mr/Ar 2


Gas (Formula) Hydrogen (H2) Ammonia ( ) Carbon monoxide (CO) Argon ( ) Sulphur dioxide ( ) b. c.

Plot a graph of t against Mr. Using your graph or otherwise, estimate the Mr of a gas which takes 44 seconds to diffuse. [3] Explain the importance of taking all the measurements under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. [2] _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________


Phosphine, PH3, burns in air according to the following equation of reaction, 4PH3 (g) + 8O2 (g) P4O10 (s) + 6H2O (g)

A mixture of 5 dm3 of phosphine and 6 dm3 of oxygen was ignited. The mixture was then cooled to room temperature. Calculate the volume of gas(es) remaining? [2]


C3. Explain the following statements. a. Hydrogen gas, H2 diffuses much rapidly than nitrogen gas, N2 whereas nitrogen gas and ethene gas, C2H4 diffuses at the same rate. [3] __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ b. Macromolecules such as sand has a very much higher melting point than small molecules such as sugar. [4] __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________


Solid citric acid crystals does not react with sodium carbonate crystals whereas aqueous citric acid reacts readily with sodium carbonate crystals. [3] __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ End of Paper 18