01. Ans :

Draw the block diagram of computer and explain.

Block diagram of a computer is as shown. Input Units : Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. o The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device. Other commonly used input devices are the mouse, Scanners, Joystick, etc. All the input devices perform the following functions.  Accept the data and instructions from the outside world / user.  Convert it to a form that the computer can understand (i.e. Binary Language / low level language).  Supply the converted data to the computer system for further processing.


Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit, before they are processed. o It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use. The various storage devices of a computer system are divided into two categories :  Primary Storage: Stores and provides very fast. This memory is generally used to hold the program being currently executed in the computer, the data being received from the input unit, the intermediate and final results of the program.



 PREPARED BY : PROF. the results are transferred to the storage unit by the control unit and then it is send to the output unit for displaying results. o Whenever calculations are required. PROFESSOR. etc.g. Some of the commonly used secondary memory devices are Hard disk. The programs that you run on the computer are first transferred to the primary memory before it is actually run. CD. data bases etc. =. again they get stored in the secondary memory. o The control unit is generally referred as the central nervous system of the computer that control and synchronizes its working. „etc. where to store the data after receiving it from the user. E. etc and does logic operations viz. division. Control Unit: It controls all other units in the computer. the data has to be transferred to the secondary memory. multiplication. Visual Display Unit (VDU / Monitor) are the commonly used output devices.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING The primary memory is temporary in nature. o Printers. o It also does comparison and takes decision. when the computer is switched off (i. In order to store the data permanently. <. volatile in nature). Output Unit: The output unit of a computer provides the information and results of a computation to outside world.COM . Arithmetic Logical Unit: All calculations are performed in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of the computer. The secondary memory is slower and cheaper than the primary memory. documents. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. DJMIT. The data is lost. >. Whenever the results are saved. o The control unit instructs the input unit. subtraction. o It also controls the flow of results from the ALU to the storage unit.e. RAM Secondary Storage: It stores several programs. o The ALU can perform basic operations such as addition. o It controls the flow of data and instructions from the storage unit to ALU.. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. the control unit transfers the data from storage unit to ALU once the computations are done.

o The CPU is like brain performs the following functions:  It performs all calculations. Entertainment : Watching movies. 02.  It takes all decisions. Playing Games Medical Field : For different Cardiac and Xray application Education : E-learning process. and information sharing on the internet.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Central Processing Unit: The control unit and ALU of the computer are together known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU).  It controls all units of the computer. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.g. PROFESSOR. Mathematical Calculations : Business : E. Email. Ans : Give applications of Computer. DJMIT. Space Technology : Word Processing and Data Processing * NOTE : Explain all the point yourselves with appropriate examples. Fax. PREPARED BY : PROF. in Banks for online transactions and producing other financial reports Telecommunications : Internet. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. Video Conferencing etc.COM .

they carry on. Versatility o We can perform many different tasks on the computer at a time.Q. without any human assistance. until the job is finished. o User can determine what tasks the computer will perform. lack of concentration. Large Storage : o Computer is free from problems like exhaustion. They cannot go out find their own problems and solutions. Give characteristics of Computer Ans : Speed : A computer is a very fast and accurate device. o They have to be instructed. computer being machines can not start them selves.. Accuracy o Degree of accuracy of the computer is very high. I. o It can continuously work for hours without creating any error human beings in doing regular types of jobs. etc. o However. unlike human beings. It is no intelligence of it‟s own. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. confusion. o Computer can perform the number of calculation with exactly the same accuracy and speed as the first one. DJMIT. o Errors can occur in computerized system also but most of them occur due to human mistakes rather than technical problems in the computer. o o PREPARED BY : PROF. which requires great accuracy.(Intelligence Quotient) o A computer is not a magical device.COM . o One moment it might be busy in calculating the statistical data of a business organization for annual performance evaluation and at next moment it is capable of working on inventory control. o Computers are automatic machines. because one started on a job.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 03. Automation o A machine is no sooner than done to be automatic if it. Diligence o A computer is free from dullness and lack of concentration. works by itself without human intervention. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can. It can process thousands of instructions within a few seconds for which a human being can take several days or months. No. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. PROFESSOR. o A computer can not take it own decision in this regard.

PREPARED BY : PROF. be it a full QWERTY keyboard or a smaller number pad.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 04. The most common input devices are the mouse and keyboard. mice are the most common type of input device. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. and microphones are considered input devices as well. light. However. such as a touch screen or laptop's touchpad. joysticks.  Touch screens may eventually overcome the keyboard as well. Explain following giving examples : a. It is a Hardware Device. and they make navigating the screen much easier than trying to use just a keyboard.  Similar peripherals. Input Devices Ans : An input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). PROFESSOR.  It is possible to interact with most computers solely through the keyboard.  Nearly every computer has one. touch screens.  They provide visual data to the computer in the form of images and video.  Webcams and digital cameras can also be considered input devices. and even joysticks are “pointing” input devices.  Touch screens are becoming an increasingly popular pointing device. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. DJMIT. because they are usually the default input device. without even a mouse. Types of Input Devices : o Mice and other Pointing devices :  Other than the keyboard. and someday may replace mice altogether. trackballs.COM . or a laser to track movement.  Mice usually use a ball. by providing an onscreen keyboard to save space. webcams.  It is almost unheard of for a computer to be without some form of keyboard. o Audio/Video Input. graphics tablets.  Some webcams can even be used as pointing devices by tracking the location of a person's hands or face. o Keyboards :  The keyboard is the most common input device.

PROFESSOR. It manages users. but view it through the operating system. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. items called input devices allow users and other systems to send data to the computer. Printers allow the computer to produce documents. but display images over a much larger area. Monitors.G. DJMIT. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs. Text. processes. and even tactile experiences. Plotters. They function in a way similar to monitors. printing. can run. images. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING  Microphones and digital musical instruments. The operating system provides a layer of abstraction between the user and the bare machine. This information can be in any form. telecommunication. called application programs. networking etc. Output Devices Ans : Output devices are pieces of computer hardware that allow a computer system to communicate information to a user or another system. Computer Speakers etc. allowing users to interact with computer programs and receive data. and other images are displayed on the monitor. pictures. memory management. or OS. An OS takes care for all input and output in a computer system. a computer would be useless. b. Operating Systems Ans : An operating system. Without a computer operating system. Printers. Video projectors. is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. pictures. Some of the most common output devices allow computers to present information visually. c. PREPARED BY : PROF. are audio input devices that provide the computer with audio data. and images on paper through the use of inks and other dyes. Users and applications do not see the hardware directly. and includes sound. E. such as midi keyboards.COM . Output devices can usually only be used to send data from the computer.

SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. Operating systems can be classified as follows: o multi-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. and dial-up ports. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. and Windows. but others are available. o It handles input and output to and from attached hardware devices. printers. PROFESSOR. the most popular operating systems are DOS. o multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU. PREPARED BY : PROF. such as hard disks. General-purpose operating systems. such as DOS and UNIX. For PCs. o It manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen. o It can offload the management of what are called batch jobs (for example. printing) so that the initiating application is freed from this work. DJMIT.COM . an operating system can manage how to divide the program so that it runs on more than one processor at a time. o real time: Responds to input instantly. OS/2. are not real-time. o multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. An operating system performs these services for applications: o In a multitasking operating system where multiple programs can be running at the same time. o It sends messages to each application or interactive user (or to a system operator) about the status of operation and any errors that may have occurred. such as Linux. o On computers that can provide parallel processing. the operating system determines which applications should run in what order and how much time should be allowed for each application before giving another application a turn. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. o multithreading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently.

or erased on the computer Hardware faults are physical. printer. Hardware starts functioning once software is loaded. RAM. power supply. as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). incomparison with software and data. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed. DJMIT. floppy disk. Software System software. Hardware does have increasing failure at the last stage. video display controller. Software does not wear out over time. PROFESSOR. Hardware wears out over time. and Application software. monitor. video card. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. computer bus. Adobe Acrobat. CPU.COM . Programming software. Collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer. scanners. Software needs constant testing after upgrades. Software is generally not needed to for the hardware to perform its basic level tasks such as turning on and responding to input. zip drive. Software does not have an increasing failure rate. Software failure is systematic. label makers. Software is installed on hardware. To perform the specific task you need to complete. Internet Explorer .TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 05. Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task. and modems. modified. CD-ROM drive. which are “soft” in the sense that they are readily created. Hardware stays at steady reliability level in useful life. Microsoft Word . routers. Devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. CD-ROM. Hardware failure is random. Examples: Inter dependency: Definition: Function: Fault: Lifetime: Failure: Hardware serve as the delivery system for software solutions. Software faults are not. Differentiate between Hardware and Software giving examples Ans : Types: Hardware Motherboard. Microsoft Excel To deliver its set of instructions. BIOS. Reliability: PREPARED BY : PROF.

. d. average = sum /2 5. PROFESSOR. An algorithm can be presented or written in words. i. sum = x + y 4. in a program (structured code) for a computer or as a flowchart. Explain Algorithms and Flowcharts by providing Characteristics Advantages Disadvantages Examples 06. input x 2. Example of Algorithm: finding the average of two numbers Algorithm: Input: two numbers x and y Output: the average of x and y Steps: 1. DJMIT. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.A. for obtaining a required output for any legitimate input in a finite amount of time.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 06.COM . 03. Finiteness : terminates after a finite number of steps Definiteness : rigorously and unambiguously specified Input : valid inputs are clearly specified Output : can be proved to produce the correct output given a input Effectiveness : steps are sufficiently simple and basic. valid 05. Algorithms : An Algorithm is just a detailed sequence of simple steps that are needed to solve a problem. Characteristics of Algorithm: 01. 04. a.e. 02. An algorithm is a sequence of instructions. b. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous (having only one meaning ) instructions for solving a problem. output average PREPARED BY : PROF. which are followed in order to complete a task. input y 3. c.

TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 06. Hence. PROFESSOR. it is correct to say that a flowchart is a must for the better documentation of a complex program. DJMIT. Once the flowchart is drawn. it becomes easy to write the program in any high level language. Often we see how flowcharts are helpful in explaining the program to others. These flowcharts play a vital role in the programming of a problem and are quite helpful in understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems. neat and easy to follow. o The flowchart should be clear. Flowcharts are usually drawn using some standard symbols. however. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL.COM .B. There should not be any room for ambiguity in understanding the flowchart. o Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol. Flowchart : A flowchart is a graphical representation of an algorithm. o The usual direction of the flow of a procedure or system is from left to right or top to bottom. or PREPARED BY : PROF. The following are some guidelines in flowcharting: o In drawing a proper flowchart. all necessary requirements should be listed out in logical order. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST.

MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. o Only one flow line is used in conjunction with terminal symbol. It is useful to test the validity of the flowchart by passing through it with a simple test data. should leave the decision symbol. Example of a simple Flowchart showing if a student is Pass or fail based on marks. Ensure that the flowchart has a logical start and finish. PREPARED BY : PROF. DJMIT. o o o o If the flowchart becomes complex.COM . SOHIL VOHRA (ASST. Avoid the intersection of flow lines if you want to make it more effective and better way of communication. but two or three flow lines. it is better to use connector symbols to reduce the number of flow lines. PROFESSOR.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING o Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol. one for each possible answer.


The arrows are commonly labeled with a simple "yes" or "no" but can also have more specific answers. but overall the direction is vertical. PROFESSOR. Even if the user cannot reach a solution by answering the questions. Directional Arrows The arrows in a flow chart are key to its movement---they represent the choices the user has in the flow between the inputs and outputs. Certain parts of the chart move to the left or right horizontally to accommodate additional decision making elements. Outputs The output of the flow chart is either the solution or the next tier of a pattern of questions that will eventually lead to a final output. The answers will allow the user to move through the chart to the ideal solution. The box may be clearly labeled "End" or simply be a note stating that a solution is impossible.COM . The head of the one-way arrow shows the direction of movement for the flow chart and helps the user move on to the next step of the decision making process. The start box is usually either the first input question or the title of the problem. Inputs The inputs of the flowchart are the questions asked of the user. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. Start and End Boxes A flowchart has a well-defined start and end. PREPARED BY : PROF. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Characteristics of Flowchart Vertical Linear Design The overall design of most flowcharts is a vertical pictorial of various elements that flow downward until the user reaches a decision or solution. there is a box that represents the termination of the flow of inputs and outputs. DJMIT.

PROFESSOR. 3. flowchart becomes complex and clumsy. 3. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part Disadvantages of Flowcharts: 1. Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase. 4. Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation. The essentials of what is done can easily be lost in the technical details of how it is done. which is needed for various purposes. PREPARED BY : PROF. In that case. 2. Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely. Complex logic: Sometimes. Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned. reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem. DJMIT. 4. problem can be analyzed in more effective way. 5. the program logic is quite complicated. 2. Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process. SOHIL VOHRA (ASST.TUTORIAL : 01 – INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING The Advantages of flowcharts are as follows: 1.COM . Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed. Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart. MOGAR) CONTACT : VOHRASOHILHIS@GMAIL. 6. Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart.

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