# PROBLEM: First-born children tend to develop language skills faster than their younger siblings.

One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that first-borns have undivided attention from their parents. If this explanation is correct, then it is also reasonable that twins should show slower language development than single children and that triplets should be even slower. The following hypothetical data was gathered. The dependent variable is a measure of language skill at age 3 for each child. Single 8 7 10 6 9 Twin 4 6 7 4 9 Triplet 4 4 7 2 3
Anova: Single Factor SUMMARY Groups Single Twin Triplet

Count 5 5 5

Sum 40 30 20

Average 8 6 4

Variance 2.5 4.5 3.5

ANOVA Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total

SS 40 42 82

df 2 12 14

MS 20 3.5

F P-value F crit 5.714285714 0.018056 3.885294

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances Single Mean 8 Variance 2.5 Observations 5 Pooled Variance 3.5 Hypothesized Mean Di 0 df 8 t Stat 1.690309 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.064718 t Critical one-tail 1.859548 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.129437 t Critical two-tail 2.306004 Twin 6 4.5 5

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances Twin Mean 6 Variance 4.5 Observations 5 Pooled Variance 4 Hypothesized Mean D 0 df 8 t Stat 1.581139 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.076251 t Critical one-tail 1.859548 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.152502 t Critical two-tail 2.306004 Triplet 4 3.5 5

Not Significance

Not Significant

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances Single Mean 8 Variance 2.5 Observations 5 Pooled Variance 3 Hypothesized Mean Di 0 df 8 t Stat 3.651484 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00324 t Critical one-tail 1.859548 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00648 t Critical two-tail 2.306004 Triplet 4 3.5 5

Significant