PHOTO 1

MIDTERM REVIEW!

THESE TOPICS WILL BE ON THE EXAM & ARE COVERED IN THIS REVIEW
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Parts of the Camera Shutter speed Aperture Depth of field Point of departure Light metering Bracketing Equivalent exposures 9. Film speed 10. Parts of the enlarger 11. Easels 12. Processing film 13. Darkroom chemistry 14. Principles of Composition

parts of the camera

take-up spool

take-up spool

camera back

take-up spool sprockets

camera back

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder

camera back

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter

film advance lever

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter

film advance lever

shutter button

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial

film advance lever

shutter button

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe

film advance lever

shutter button

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe

film advance lever

shutter button

film rewind

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe

film advance lever

shutter button

film rewind

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe

film advance lever

shutter button

film rewind

aperture ring

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe

film advance lever

shutter button

film rewind

aperture ring

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism

pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe

film advance lever

shutter button

film rewind

aperture ring

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe

film advance lever

shutter button

film rewind

aperture ring

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror

film advance lever

shutter button

film rewind

aperture ring

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens BULB

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8 15

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8 15 30

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8 15 30 60

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8 15 30 60 125

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250

500

take-up spool sprockets viewfinder film compartment

camera back viewfinder prism aperture pressure plate rewind release button tripod mount shutter shutter speed dial hot shoe reflex mirror shutter film rewind film

film advance lever

shutter button

aperture ring

2

2.8

4

5.6

8

11

16

22

lens

1 BULB

2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250

500

1000

shutter speed

What is this?

What is this? shutter speed dial

What is this? shutter speed dial What does it do?

What is this? shutter speed dial What does it do? controls how long the shutter is open - in fractions of a second

What is this? shutter speed dial What does it do? controls how long the shutter is open - in fractions of a second What does shutter speed TECHNICALLY control in your photograph?

What is this? shutter speed dial What does it do? controls how long the shutter is open - in fractions of a second What does shutter speed TECHNICALLY control in your photograph? how long the shutter is open - how much LIGHT gets in

What is this? shutter speed dial What does it do? controls how long the shutter is open - in fractions of a second What does shutter speed TECHNICALLY control in your photograph? how long the shutter is open - how much LIGHT gets in What does shutter speed CREATIVELY control in your photograph?

What is this? shutter speed dial What does it do? controls how long the shutter is open - in fractions of a second What does shutter speed TECHNICALLY control in your photograph? how long the shutter is open - how much LIGHT gets in What does shutter speed CREATIVELY control in your photograph? a sense of MOVEMENT or MOTION

What does the “B” stand for?

What does the “B” stand for? “bulb”

What does the “B” stand for? “bulb” What does it do?

What does the “B” stand for? “bulb” What does it do? lets you have complete control over shutter speed

What does the “B” stand for? “bulb” What does it do? lets you have complete control over shutter speed How?

What does the “B” stand for? “bulb” What does it do? lets you have complete control over shutter speed How? press the shutter release once to open the shutter, then a second time to close it

What does the “B” stand for? “bulb” What does it do? lets you have complete control over shutter speed How? press the shutter release once to open the shutter, then a second time to close it When would you use this?

What does the “B” stand for? “bulb” What does it do? lets you have complete control over shutter speed How? press the shutter release once to open the shutter, then a second time to close it When would you use this? if you want a REALLY long exposure time - maybe to show city lights at night, or the movement of water over a long period of time, etc.

What is this?

What is this? a tripod

What is this? a tripod When do you use this?

What is this? a tripod When do you use this? at shutter speeds of 1/60 or below

What is this? a tripod When do you use this? at shutter speeds of 1/60 or below What happens if you don’t?

What is this? a tripod When do you use this? at shutter speeds of 1/60 or below What happens if you don’t? it will be blurry and you will be disappointed. I promise.

If you wanted to take a picture of a running man so that the action would be “frozen” - what shutter speed might you try?

If you wanted to take a picture of a running man so that the action would be “frozen” - what shutter speed might you try? 1/1000

If you wanted to take a picture of a running man so that the action would be “frozen” - what shutter speed might you try? 1/1000 What if you wanted to “show movement” - how would you do that?

If you wanted to take a picture of a running man so that the action would be “frozen” - what shutter speed might you try? 1/1000 What if you wanted to “show movement” - how would you do that? 1/30 (blur)

If you wanted to take a picture of a running man so that the action would be “frozen” - what shutter speed might you try? 1/1000 What if you wanted to “show movement” - how would you do that? 1/30 (blur)

1/30 & panning (sharper subject, blurred background)

aperture

What is this?

What is this? aperture ring

What is this? aperture ring What does it do?

What is this? aperture ring What does it do? controls the size of the aperture, measured in ƒ-stops

What is this? aperture ring What does it do? controls the size of the aperture, measured in ƒ-stops A low ƒ-stop number = a __________ aperture.

What is this? aperture ring What does it do? controls the size of the aperture, measured in ƒ-stops LARGE A low ƒ-stop number = a __________ aperture.

What is this? aperture ring What does it do? controls the size of the aperture, measured in ƒ-stops LARGE A low ƒ-stop number = a __________ aperture. What does aperture size TECHNICALLY control in your photograph?

What is this? aperture ring What does it do? controls the size of the aperture, measured in ƒ-stops LARGE A low ƒ-stop number = a __________ aperture. What does aperture size TECHNICALLY control in your photograph? how large an aperture - how much LIGHT gets in

What is this? aperture ring What does it do? controls the size of the aperture, measured in ƒ-stops LARGE A low ƒ-stop number = a __________ aperture. What does aperture size TECHNICALLY control in your photograph? how large an aperture - how much LIGHT gets in What does aperture size CREATIVELY control in your photograph?

What is this? aperture ring What does it do? controls the size of the aperture, measured in ƒ-stops LARGE A low ƒ-stop number = a __________ aperture. What does aperture size TECHNICALLY control in your photograph? how large an aperture - how much LIGHT gets in What does aperture size CREATIVELY control in your photograph? DEPTH OF FIELD

depth of field

Depth of Field

ƒ/2 ƒ/8 ƒ/16

Depth of Field • the “wall of focus”

ƒ/2 ƒ/8 ƒ/16

Depth of Field • the “wall of focus” • how much (forwards and backwards) of your image will be in focus

ƒ/2 ƒ/8 ƒ/16

Depth of Field

Depth of Field

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use?

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL Such as?

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL Such as? ƒ/16

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL Such as? ƒ/16

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL Such as? ƒ/16

If you want a shallow depth of field, what size aperture should you use?

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL Such as? ƒ/16

If you want a shallow depth of field, what size aperture should you use? LARGE

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL Such as? ƒ/16

If you want a shallow depth of field, what size aperture should you use? LARGE Such as?

Depth of Field If you want a great depth of field, what size aperture should you use? SMALL Such as? ƒ/16

If you want a shallow depth of field, what size aperture should you use? LARGE Such as? ƒ/2

point of departure

What are the settings for our “point of departure”?

What are the settings for our “point of departure”?

ƒ/8

What are the settings for our “point of departure”?

ƒ/8

125

What are the settings for our “point of departure”?

ƒ/8

125

How do we use point of departure?

What are the settings for our “point of departure”?

ƒ/8

125

How do we use point of departure? as a STARTING POINT for light metering

What are the settings for our “point of departure”?

ƒ/8

125

How do we use point of departure? as a STARTING POINT for light metering Why are those settings our point of departure?

What are the settings for our “point of departure”?

ƒ/8

125

How do we use point of departure? as a STARTING POINT for light metering Why are those settings our point of departure? they give you a lot of room to make changes in your aperture and/or shutter speed, in either direction

light metering

Remember that your camera’s ROBOT EYE (a.k.a. the light meter/sensor) is not smart enough to guess how you want the picture to come out.

HEY! I’m standing right here!

Remember that your camera’s ROBOT EYE (a.k.a. the light meter/sensor) is not smart enough to guess how you want the picture to come out.

HEY! I’m standing right here!

Remember that your camera’s ROBOT EYE (a.k.a. the light meter/sensor) is not smart enough to guess how you want the picture to come out. Meter directly from your subject. It’s a good idea to get REALLY CLOSE to your subject, meter, then back up and re-compose the frame. This is always important - but especially if your subject is backlit (has a strong source of light coming from behind it.)

bracketing

What is bracketing?

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures Why would you do this?

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures Why would you do this? to make sure you get a good exposure - especially in situations that are challenging to meter, or for photographs that are really important to you

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures Why would you do this? to make sure you get a good exposure - especially in situations that are challenging to meter, or for photographs that are really important to you How do you bracket?

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures Why would you do this? to make sure you get a good exposure - especially in situations that are challenging to meter, or for photographs that are really important to you How do you bracket? 1. light meter

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures Why would you do this? to make sure you get a good exposure - especially in situations that are challenging to meter, or for photographs that are really important to you How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed)

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures Why would you do this? to make sure you get a good exposure - especially in situations that are challenging to meter, or for photographs that are really important to you How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed) 3. identify the 3 settings you will use when bracketing (the one directly across from the “keep,” and also “one up” and “one down”.)

What is bracketing? taking the same photograph at different exposures Why would you do this? to make sure you get a good exposure - especially in situations that are challenging to meter, or for photographs that are really important to you How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed) 3. identify the 3 settings you will use when bracketing (the one directly across from the “keep,” and also “one up” and “one down”.) 4. take the three photographs

How do you bracket?

How do you bracket?

How do you bracket? 1. light meter

How do you bracket? 1. light meter

250 ƒ/8

How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed)

250 ƒ/8

How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed)

250 ƒ/8

How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed) 3. identify the 3 settings you will use when bracketing (the one directly across from the “keep,” and also “one up” and “one down”.) 250 ƒ/8

How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed) 3. identify the 3 settings you will use when bracketing (the one directly across from the “keep,” and also “one up” and “one down”.) 500 250 ƒ/8

How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed) 3. identify the 3 settings you will use when bracketing (the one directly across from the “keep,” and also “one up” and “one down”.) 500 250 ƒ/8 125

How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed) 3. identify the 3 settings you will use when bracketing (the one directly across from the “keep,” and also “one up” and “one down”.) 500 250 ƒ/8 4. take the three photographs 125

How do you bracket? 1. light meter 2. choose which setting you want to “keep” (aperture or shutter speed) 3. identify the 3 settings you will use when bracketing (the one directly across from the “keep,” and also “one up” and “one down”.) 500 250 ƒ/8 4. take the three photographs ƒ/8 at 1/500 ƒ/8 at 250 125

ƒ/8 at 125

equivalent exposures

Equivalent Exposures

Equivalent Exposures What are “equivalent exposures”?

Equivalent Exposures What are “equivalent exposures”? different combinations of aperture/shutter speed settings that give you the same exposure (range of light/dark values)

Equivalent Exposures What are “equivalent exposures”? different combinations of aperture/shutter speed settings that give you the same exposure (range of light/dark values) Why do they matter?

Equivalent Exposures What are “equivalent exposures”? different combinations of aperture/shutter speed settings that give you the same exposure (range of light/dark values) Why do they matter? • to help you make use of your CREATIVE controls (depth of field and the sense of movement) while still getting a properly exposed image

Equivalent Exposures What are “equivalent exposures”? different combinations of aperture/shutter speed settings that give you the same exposure (range of light/dark values) Why do they matter? • to help you make use of your CREATIVE controls (depth of field and the sense of movement) while still getting a properly exposed image • to help you NOT use a tripod but still get a clear and properly exposed image

USING Equivalent Exposures

USING Equivalent Exposures
Let’s say you are asked to shoot a photograph of a pinwheel in motion, for the “OMG it’s SPRING!!!” issue of a local magazine.

USING Equivalent Exposures
Let’s say you are asked to shoot a photograph of a pinwheel in motion, for the “OMG it’s SPRING!!!” issue of a local magazine. You find a pinwheel that is moving, and your camera’s light meter tells you that you should use 1/500 and ƒ/2. This is the picture you get:

USING Equivalent Exposures
Let’s say you are asked to shoot a photograph of a pinwheel in motion, for the “OMG it’s SPRING!!!” issue of a local magazine. You find a pinwheel that is moving, and your camera’s light meter tells you that you should use 1/500 and ƒ/2. This is the picture you get:

USING Equivalent Exposures
Let’s say you are asked to shoot a photograph of a pinwheel in motion, for the “OMG it’s SPRING!!!” issue of a local magazine. You find a pinwheel that is moving, and your camera’s light meter tells you that you should use 1/500 and ƒ/2. This is the picture you get:

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

USING Equivalent Exposures
Let’s say you are asked to shoot a photograph of a pinwheel in motion, for the “OMG it’s SPRING!!!” issue of a local magazine. You find a pinwheel that is moving, and your camera’s light meter tells you that you should use 1/500 and ƒ/2. This is the picture you get:

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec
You’re really happy with the exposure (the range of light and dark values) but it totally doesn’t show motion. Like at all.

USING Equivalent Exposures
Let’s say you are asked to shoot a photograph of a pinwheel in motion, for the “OMG it’s SPRING!!!” issue of a local magazine. You find a pinwheel that is moving, and your camera’s light meter tells you that you should use 1/500 and ƒ/2. This is the picture you get:

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec
You’re really happy with the exposure (the range of light and dark values) but it totally doesn’t show motion. Like at all. What should you do?

USING Equivalent Exposures

USING Equivalent Exposures

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

USING Equivalent Exposures
What setting was responsible for “freezing” the motion of the moving pinwheel?

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

USING Equivalent Exposures
What setting was responsible for “freezing” the motion of the moving pinwheel? shutter speed

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

USING Equivalent Exposures
What setting was responsible for “freezing” the motion of the moving pinwheel? shutter speed What could you do to create the sense of motion in your photograph?

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

USING Equivalent Exposures
What setting was responsible for “freezing” the motion of the moving pinwheel? shutter speed What could you do to create the sense of motion in your photograph? lower the shutter speed

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

USING Equivalent Exposures
What setting was responsible for “freezing” the motion of the moving pinwheel? shutter speed What could you do to create the sense of motion in your photograph? lower the shutter speed

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

Since you got the EXPOSURE right, that means you’re happy with the relationship between your settings, you just need to use a lower shutter speed such as perhaps 1/30 sec.

USING Equivalent Exposures
What setting was responsible for “freezing” the motion of the moving pinwheel? shutter speed What could you do to create the sense of motion in your photograph? lower the shutter speed

ƒ/2 and 1/500 sec

Since you got the EXPOSURE right, that means you’re happy with the relationship between your settings, you just need to use a lower shutter speed such as perhaps 1/30 sec. Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same EXPOSURE that you had with 1/500 sec.

USING Equivalent Exposures

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

500
ƒ/2

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

500
ƒ/2

250

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

500
ƒ/2

250

125

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

500
ƒ/2

250

125

60

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

500
ƒ/2

250

125

60

30

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/2

250

125

60

30

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/2

250

125

60

30

15

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/2

250

125

60

30

15

8

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250

125

60

30

15

8

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125

60

30

15

8

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60

30

15

8

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30

15

8

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15

8

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

ƒ/2 500

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

ƒ/2 500

ƒ/11 30

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

ƒ/2 500

ƒ/11 30

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

ƒ/2 500

ƒ/11 30

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

ƒ/2 500

ƒ/11 30

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

these images are equivalent exposures

ƒ/2 500

ƒ/11 30

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

these images are equivalent exposures

ƒ/2 500

ƒ/11 30

USING Equivalent Exposures
Use an Equivalent Exposure chart to figure out what aperture to use with 1/30 sec so that you have the same exposure as with 1/500 sec.

1000 500
ƒ/1.4 ƒ/2

250
ƒ/4

125
ƒ/5.6

60
ƒ/8

30
ƒ/11

15
ƒ/16

8
ƒ/22

these images are equivalent exposures

ƒ/2 500

USE A TRIPOD

ƒ/11 30

film speed

Film Speed

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes?

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO?

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO? scales we use to measure film speed

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO? scales we use to measure film speed LOW speed film has _______ silver particles.

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO? scales we use to measure film speed SMALL LOW speed film has _______ silver particles.

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO? scales we use to measure film speed SMALL LOW speed film has _______ silver particles. it can be only used in situations that have HIGH levels of light

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO? scales we use to measure film speed SMALL LOW speed film has _______ silver particles. it can be only used in situations that have HIGH levels of light HIGH speed film has _______ silver particles.

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO? scales we use to measure film speed SMALL LOW speed film has _______ silver particles. it can be only used in situations that have HIGH levels of light HIGH speed film has _______ silver particles. BIG

Film Speed refers to the level of light in which you can photograph What changes? the size of the silver particles What is ASA/ISO? scales we use to measure film speed SMALL LOW speed film has _______ silver particles. it can be only used in situations that have HIGH levels of light HIGH speed film has _______ silver particles. BIG it can be used in situations that have LOWER levels of light

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels.

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.”

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.”

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.”

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”)

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time HIGH speed film has _______ “pixels.”

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time BIG HIGH speed film has _______ “pixels.”

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time BIG HIGH speed film has _______ “pixels.”

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time BIG HIGH speed film has _______ “pixels.” • high light-sensitivity

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time BIG HIGH speed film has _______ “pixels.” • high light-sensitivity • high contrast

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time BIG HIGH speed film has _______ “pixels.” • high light-sensitivity • high contrast • high visibility of grain (“pixels”)

You can think about film speed like little light sponges. Or like pixels. SMALL LOW speed film has _______ “pixels.” • low light-sensitivity • low contrast • low visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs a lot of light or time BIG HIGH speed film has _______ “pixels.” • high light-sensitivity • high contrast • high visibility of grain (“pixels”) • needs less light or time

parts of the enlarger

Parts of the Enlarger

{

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse

{

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse

{ {

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse

{ {

bellows

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse

{ {

bellows

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

height adjustment knob

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

height adjustment knob

moves EVERYTHING up and down

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

height adjustment knob

moves EVERYTHING up and down

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

height adjustment knob

moves EVERYTHING up and down

fine focus

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

height adjustment knob

moves EVERYTHING up and down

fine focus
moves the bellows up and down

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

height adjustment knob

moves EVERYTHING up and down

fine focus easel goes here
moves the bellows up and down

Parts of the Enlarger

lamphouse negative carrier goes here bellows

{ {

height adjustment knob

moves EVERYTHING up and down

fine focus easel goes here
moves the bellows up and down

Parts of the Enlarger

the easels

Easels

Easels This is a ________ easel.

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making:

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms This is a __________________ easel.

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms PRINTING / MASKING This is a __________________ easel.

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms PRINTING / MASKING This is a __________________ easel. It is used when making:

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms PRINTING / MASKING This is a __________________ easel. It is used when making: • enlargements from negatives

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms PRINTING / MASKING This is a __________________ easel. It is used when making: • enlargements from negatives It helps your prints have:

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms PRINTING / MASKING This is a __________________ easel. It is used when making: • enlargements from negatives It helps your prints have: • neat, white borders

Easels This is a ________ easel. CONTACT It is used when making: • contact sheets • pinhole positives • collage negatives • photograms PRINTING / MASKING This is a __________________ easel. It is used when making: • enlargements from negatives It helps your prints have: • neat, white borders • regular sizes

processing film

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag?

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post)

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post)

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post) • 2 reels

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post) • 2 reels

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post) • 2 reels • can opener

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post) • 2 reels • can opener

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post) • 2 reels • can opener • your film

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post) • 2 reels • can opener • your film

Loading Your Film: What goes into the changing bag? • tank (including lid & post) • 2 reels • can opener • your film

you don’t need scissors!

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________. DEVELOPER

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________. DEVELOPER You mix developer using a 1:1 ratio (one equal part of each) of _______ and __________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________. DEVELOPER You mix developer using a 1:1 ratio (one equal part of each) WATER of _______ and __________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________. DEVELOPER You mix developer using a 1:1 ratio (one equal part of each) concentrated DEVELOPER WATER of _______ and __________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________. DEVELOPER You mix developer using a 1:1 ratio (one equal part of each) concentrated DEVELOPER WATER of _______ and __________. Developer is dependent on ______ and _____________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________. DEVELOPER You mix developer using a 1:1 ratio (one equal part of each) concentrated DEVELOPER WATER of _______ and __________. Developer is dependent on TIME ______ and _____________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 1. The 1st chemical to go into your tank is ____________. DEVELOPER You mix developer using a 1:1 ratio (one equal part of each) concentrated DEVELOPER WATER of _______ and __________. Developer is dependent on TIME TEMPERATURE ______ and _____________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 2. The chemical to go into your tank is ____________.
nd 2

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 2. The chemical to go into STOP BATH your tank is ____________.
nd 2

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 2. The chemical to go into STOP BATH your tank is ____________. What does stop bath do?
nd 2

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 2. The chemical to go into STOP BATH your tank is ____________. What does stop bath do? arrests the developing process
nd 2

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 2. The chemical to go into STOP BATH your tank is ____________. What does stop bath do? arrests the developing process What can you substitute for stop bath?
nd 2

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 2. The chemical to go into STOP BATH your tank is ____________. What does stop bath do? arrests the developing process What can you substitute for stop bath? water
nd 2

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 3. The 3rd chemical to go into your tank is ____________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 3. The 3rd chemical to go into your tank is ____________. FIXER

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 3. The 3rd chemical to go into your tank is ____________. FIXER What does fixer do?

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 3. The 3rd chemical to go into your tank is ____________. FIXER What does fixer do? removes unexposed silver from the film

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 3. The 3rd chemical to go into your tank is ____________. FIXER What does fixer do? removes unexposed silver from the film Fixer is the only chemical that cannot EVER be...

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 3. The 3rd chemical to go into your tank is ____________. FIXER What does fixer do? removes unexposed silver from the film Fixer is the only chemical that cannot EVER be... poured down the drain

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 4. Water wash!

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 4. Water wash!

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 4. Water wash!

+

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 4. Water wash!

+

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 5. The 4th chemical to go into your tank is ____________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 5. The 4th chemical to go into PERMA WASH your tank is ____________.

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 5. The 4th chemical to go into PERMA WASH your tank is ____________. What does Perma Wash do?

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 5. The 4th chemical to go into PERMA WASH your tank is ____________. What does Perma Wash do? Perma Wash is like soap for your film - it removes the fixer and other gross things

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 5. The 4th chemical to go into PERMA WASH your tank is ____________. What does Perma Wash do? Perma Wash is like soap for your film - it removes the fixer and other gross things

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 6. Water wash!

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 6. Water wash!

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 6. Water wash!

+

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 6. Water wash!

+

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 7. The chemical to go into your tank is ____________.
th 5

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 7. The chemical to go into PHOTO FLO your tank is ____________.
th 5

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 7. The chemical to go into PHOTO FLO your tank is ____________. What does photo flo do?
th 5

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) 7. The chemical to go into PHOTO FLO your tank is ____________. What does photo flo do? photo flo prevents water spots from forming on your negatives, similar to that stuff at the end of a car wash or in your dishwasher
th 5

Processing Your Film (the condensed version)

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) Woooo look at your film!

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) Woooo look at your film!

Processing Your Film (the condensed version) Woooo look at your film!

Maybe I need to fix these longer...

darkroom chemistry

sink

sink

developer

sink

developer

sink

stop bath

developer

sink

stop bath

developer

sink

fixer

stop bath

developer

sink

fixer

stop bath

developer

sink

water

fixer

stop bath

developer

sink

water

fixer

stop bath

developer

sink

water
what do I do?

fixer

stop bath

developer

sink

water
what do I do?

fixer

stop bath

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

sink

water
what do I do?

fixer

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

sink

water
what do I do?

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long?

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long?

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long?

30 sec

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long?

5 minutes

30 sec

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long?

5 minutes

5 minutes

30 sec

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long? I should be replaced when...

5 minutes

5 minutes

30 sec

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long? I should be replaced when...

5 minutes

5 minutes

30 sec

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)
if I am a brown color

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long? I should be replaced when...

5 minutes

5 minutes

30 sec
if I am a dark purple color

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)
if I am a brown color

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long? I should be replaced when...

5 minutes

5 minutes
if I get cloudy when you drip hypo check in

30 sec
if I am a dark purple color

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)
if I am a brown color

sink

water
what do I do? cleans the print
(washes off all the chemicals)

fixer
stabilizes the image

stop bath
stops the developing
(low pH = acid, neutralizes the developer)

developer
develops the paper (oxidizes silver)
(pH 11 or 12 = base)

(removes unexposed silver from the paper)

how long? I should be replaced when...

5 minutes N/A

5 minutes
if I get cloudy when you drip hypo check in

30 sec
if I am a dark purple color

1 1/2 minutes (90 sec)
if I am a brown color

sink

principles of composition

Principles of Photographic Composition

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Light Rule of Thirds Using the Edges of the Frame Frame Within a Frame Line Point of View Fill the Frame / Cropping Pattern / Texture

Principles of Photographic Composition:

LIGHT

Principles of Photographic Composition:

RULE OF THIRDS

Principles of Photographic Composition:

RULE OF THIRDS

Principles of Photographic Composition:

USING THE EDGES OF THE FRAME

Principles of Photographic Composition:

FRAME WITHIN A FRAME

Principles of Photographic Composition:

LINE

Principles of Photographic Composition:

POINT OF VIEW

Principles of Photographic Composition:

FILL THE FRAME / CROPPING

Principles of Photographic Composition:

PATTERN / TEXTURE

YAY! YOU DID IT!
email me with any questions you might have! caroline_sturges@hcpss.org

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