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Political Science

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Political Economy, Liberalization, Globalization


AHLUWALIA, MONTEK SINGH, Planning Then and Now, Seminar, 589, September 2008. Analyzing the relevance of planning in a world of economic liberalization and market economy, the article presents in great details the argument that transition to a market economy does not eliminate the need for planning but makes the challenge of planning very different from what was once envisaged. In the changed contexts, we need different instruments of planning to achieve the targets of growth and social development. The article discusses the shift to indicative planning in the recent years which has made it more relevant in a market economy increasingly integrated with the world. Indicative Planning defines broad national goals and objectives, sketching out a broad perspective of the economy evolving over a longer term. The article concludes with a discussion of the role of Planning Commission in the new economic environment of the country. ANAND, VINOD, Informal Sector: The Inhibiting Constraints, Indian Journal of Economics, LXXXIX (352), July 2008. A rapidly growing low skill labor force with declining employment opportunities has made employment creation a priority all over. A major challenge, therefore, is to provide employment for low skill labor through informal sector. Research studies on informal sector are linked with their various facets like, ownership, geographical dispersal, cost structure, income and output patterns, employment potential, their role in migration and urbanization process and their effectiveness in meeting the legitimate requirements of the local community. There is enough evidence to show that informal sector faces both exogenous and endogenous constraints in terms of risk aversions, additional demand, lack of innovation, bureaucratic red tape, and the policy of globalization reflected particularly in the context of the WTO regime. The article looks at these inhibiting problems as faced by the informal sector. It also mentions the outcome of a case study on the State of Himachal Pradesh in the context of the various constraints.

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ICSSR Journal of Abstracts and Reviews

ASHOKAN, A., Economic Reforms and Health Sector in India: Missings and Possibilities, Asian Economic Review, 50 (2), August 2008, pp. 339-350. The article aims at examining the implications of the economic reforms on the health care sector in India. It argues that the budgetary allocations to the health care sector across the Indian states have been consistently coming down since the initiation of economic reforms. Moreover, the unethical medical practices and physician induced treatment patterns and diagnostic tests have increased the cost of medical care substantially. The dominance of technology intensive and the individual/patient oriented health care services have further increased social exclusion and economic deprivation accentuating morbidity and co-morbidity deteriorating their health status further. The article emphasizes on the decreasing role of the state, increasing privatization of health care services and the relatively higher morbidity prevalence rates which have increased the out-of-pocket health care expenditures enlarging the web of misery and deprivation of the rural poor and other vulnerable sections of the population. BHARGAVA, P.K., Social Sector Development with Special Reference to Education in the Context of Globalization, Indian Journal of Economics, LXXXIX (352), July 2008. Though the Indian economy has been witnessing spectacularly high growth rates, the benefits of the same have not percolated and shared by the masses and the process of growth has not been inclusive. In this context, the article highlights he abysmally low level of expenditures in two important areas of social sector development, viz., Education and Health. Such a low level of expenditure on social sector services manifests itself in various problems, such as poverty, unemployment and inequality. The article deals with the importance of social sector and its development, especially education in the context of growth and development of an economy like that of India. It outlines the scenario of education at various levels- primary, secondary and higher- with reference to the Indian economy and brings out clearly the gaps and lapse between the stipulated objectives and the existing scenario. The article concludes with an emphasis on the need for initiatives to be taken by the state to

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improve the educational scenario in the country, more so with a view to improve the lot of the weaker and downtrodden sections of the society and the various issues that need to be addressed in the context of globalization. JAIN, ANIL KUMAR and GUPTA, PARUL, Globalization: The Indian Experience, Mainstream, XLVI (8), February 9, 2008, pp. 13-16. The article attempts to make a balanced evaluation of the Indian experience with globalization the seeds of which were sown in the early 1980s but the real thrust was provided by the New Economic Policy of 1991. Along with an analysis of the positive and negative effects off globalization on India since 1991, the article discusses the challenges thrown up by the process of globalization in ensuring balanced and inclusive development for India. It is suggested in the article that in order to make globalization work in Indias interest, it should be seen as apart of the development strategy and never a substitute for it. JAIN, VINNY, Authenticity and Derivativeness: Debating Nehrus Approach to Economic Planning in India, Man and Development, 30 (2), June 2008, pp. 139-162. As a post colonial intellectual and a statesman, Jawaharlal Nehru had the unique opportunity of elaborating a historical prospect- that of shaping the political and economic destiny of India. He was particularly responsible for the shape, emphasis and content of the State centered heavy industrialization and a mixed economy model that was to be Indias vehicle towards the journey to economic prosperity. The article argues that the genesis of that choice was in the hybrid location of Nehrus cultural values and that the choice had been made years before Independence. It also argues that the emphasis of planning process in the Nehru years, as visible in the three 5 year plans was on industrial development rather than on agriculture. The article concludes with an analysis of the impact of Nehrus economic policies on development process in India.

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ICSSR Journal of Abstracts and Reviews

KUMAR, ARUN, Socio Economic Aspects of Special Economic Zones, Social Action, 58 (3), 2008, pp. 235-245. Special Economic Zones are a source of much agitation and confusion in the country. Its proponents suggest that it will lead to high growth in the economy, industrialization, jobs for the youth and high exports for the country. The opponents of the policy and those being displaced by the creation of SEZs argue against this in a variety of ways. The article analyses these diverging arguments and suggests that SEZ policy will result in enclave development and aggravation of disparities that are already threatening the social fabric of the country and perhaps it will lead to lower growth over time. The article concludes by arguing strongly in favour of a need for democratic functioning of the country with minimum disparities. NALLATHIGA, RAMAKRISHNA, From Import Substitution to Export Promotion: The Changing Contours of Economic Policy, Asian Economic Review, 50 (3), December 2008, pp. 495-510. An important element of industrial policy is foreign trade policy, which, in the Indian case laid emphasis on import substitution for a long time after independence. In the post-liberalization scenario also, it existed for a decade. The contours of the economic policy in India took a major shift in 2003 with the new industrial policy and EXIM policy, which emphasized on export promotion policies with Special Economic Zones (SEZs) acing as the instruments. While the merits and demerits of SEZs are still softly debated, the article argues that they are nothing different from Free Trade Zones, but extended beyond that as they offer integrated infrastructure development. The article highlights the policy shifts that have taken place over time and details out the advantages of SEZ experiment as how it is expected to provide long-term and short-term impetus to the growth of industrial manufacturing sector. The article also discusses the issues associated with the SEZs and compares and contrasts with alternative policy models.

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PAL SINGH, AJIT, Globalization and its Impact on National Politics With Reference to India: An Overview of Different Dimensions, Indian Journal of Political Science, LXIX (4), OctDec. 2008, pp. 635-650. What is Globalization? When has Globalization emerged and spread? Why has globalization occurred in World Politics? How, if at all, has globalization generated social changes as well as political changes in various political systems of states worldwide, especially in post-Cold war era? The state-centric architecture of the Cold war system has been replaced by a supra-territorial and transnational networked global order. National politics is challenged both from above through new forms of international cooperation and a process of supranational integration, and from below at the regional and local level. In so far as globalization can have ill effects on the economies and polities of liberal democratic Third World countries like India, how might they be avoided? The article seeks to answer these questions which grip much contemporary political debate with a special reference to India. RAJASHEKHAR, C., WTO Litigation and India: An Overview, Think India Quarterly, 11 (4), Oct-Dec. 2008, pp. 38-48. The understanding of the Rules and Procedures governing the Settlement of Disputes forms the backbone of the WTO regime. Also known as the Multilateral Agreement on Dispute Resolution, the DSB is often showcased as the symbol of rules based multilateral trading system. Unlike other international tribunals, DSB is equipped with means to ensure compliance with its decision. The article presents the different aspects of the WTO litigation or Dispute Settlement System in a detailed and comprehensive fashion. It also discusses important aspects of Indias participation in the WTOs Dispute Settlement process, with a summary of a few important cases involving India at the WTO panel stage. SACHDEVA, GULSHAN, India and the European Union: Broadening Strategic Partnership Beyond Economic Linkages, International Studies, 45 (4), Oct-Dec. 2008. India and Europe share the vision of a democratic, multi-cultural and multi-polar world. In the recent past, trade and other economic

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ties have formed the core of India-EU partnership. Encouraged by positive trends, both have forged a strategic partnership and are negotiating for a broad-based bilateral trade and investment agreement. In the light of the growing ties between India and EU, the article traces the historical roots of this partnership before analyzing the trade trends between the two, especially in services, investments and technology transfers. The impact of Euro and other internal economic developments within the European Union on India-EU relations are also discussed. The article argues that despite many positive developments in the economic sphere, Indian policy makers are skeptical about Europes role as a major strategic player in Asia. Apart from the economic issues, Indias partnership with the EU is still at a dialogue level. The article concludes that the main challenge in the coming years will be to broaden the existing economic partnership to cover traditional and non-traditional security issues. SEN, AMARTYA, Is Nationalism a Boon or a Curse?, Economic and Political Weekly, XLIII (6), February 16, 2008, pp. 39-44. Exploring the pertinence of nationalism, the paper exhibits the inadequacy of treating nationalism as either an unmitigated evil or a universal virtue. Borrowing examples from Indian, Japanese, German and Irish nationalism, Sen argues that nationalism can be both, a boon and a curse, depending on the circumstances and contexts. Nationalism tends to be negative when people confront each other along the lines of national divisions; it can be productive enough when social divisions and hostilities tend to be based on other identities such as religion, community or ethnicity. The article argues that central to understanding this contingent variability of the role of nationalism is the need to see and appreciate nationality as one among the plurality of identities that we all have. SEN, AMARTYA, Why Planning?, Seminar, 589, September 2008. The insightful article, originally written five decades ago, seeks to highlight the significance of planning for the Indian economy. The author argues that since planning is more or less synonymous with socialism, we should try to understand the valid reasons for

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preferring socialism and hence socialist planning for India. Based on a comparison of capitalist path of development with that of socialist path, the article states that planned socialist countries in the world have, on the whole, much faster rates of growth than capitalist economies. It is argued that even in rural areas, there should be some movement towards socialist methods of production. In the light of these views, the article reviews the evolution of economic planning in India and concludes by warning that planning as practiced in India, without a really socialist economy, with a private sector responsible for producing consumer goods and a public sector concentrating on producer goods, was unlikely to achieve results. The model suffered from internal contradictionsthe middle path had run out and it was necessary to take a stand on whether we really wanted a socialist economy. TRIPATHI, RAHUL, Indias Economic Diplomacy at the World Trade Organization, International Studies, 45 (4), Oct-Dec. 2008. India has adopted a policy of pragmatic engagement with multilateral economic organizations in recent years. In the context of Indias economic diplomacy at the World Trade Organization (WTO), where it is seen as one of the major voices of dissent from the developing world, a shift in its traditional posturing is clearly evident. The article seeks to interpret the shift both in the context of structural changes within the WTO and the changing goals of Indias economic policy. In view of the stalemate at the Doha round of negotiations, the article argues that multilateral organizations like the WTO need to recognize the role of domestic lobbies and transnational civil society networks in shaping the aspirations of emerging economies like India. UBA, KATRIN, Labor Union Resistance to Economic Liberalization in India: What Can National and State Level Patterns of Protests against Privatization Tell Us?, Asian Survey, XLVIII (5), Sept-Oct. 2008, pp. 860-884. The article examines mobilization of the Indian labour movement by using a unique data set on protests against privatization in India during 1991 to 2003. The article seeks to address two broad sets of questions. First, how has the Indian labor movement reacted to

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ICSSR Journal of Abstracts and Reviews

liberal economic reforms since 1991? What mobilization strategies have been used and what organizations are behind the protests against privatization? Second, what role does a unions affiliation with political parties play in the labor movements mobilization against privatization? Since there are observed differences in antiprivatization protests across states, the article also attempts to examine the reasons for this variation by using the framework of social movement theory. The article provides a brief account of the privatization process in India at both the federal and state levels along with an overview of the nature of Indias labor movement and the relationship of labor unions to political parties. It also describes protest mobilization at the federal level and compares the annual protest cycle with the general trend of industrial disputes. The study broadly shows that workers in India, despite the relatively small trade union membership and declining number of officially reported strikes, have actively mobilized against privatization since the early 1990s though with significant inter state variations.