Receiving and Storing U. S.

Grain at Destination

Carl Reed International Grains Program

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Grain Export from the U. S.

Trigo Maíz Soya Sorgo
“Inland Export Route – New”

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7 % M.7 % .0% Sorghum 13.Exported U. other grains Wheat 11.5 – 13. Corn Average m.2% Average Damage 2.C. S.8 kg/hl 2.5% Soybeans 12. Average TW Average BCFM 14.3 % 72.c.

S.Receiving and Storing U. special precautions must be taken – Dealing with moisture variations – Dealing with variations in broken kernels and fine material – Quality maintenance in storage (>6 weeks) . Corn • Contract specifications are critically important. • If the grain is to be stored in a warm climate.

Dealing with Moisture Variation • If grain must be stored…. • Segregate by moisture at reception • Use wetter grain first .

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6 14.9 14.8 14.c.7 14.7 13.9 * * *Compañia CentroAmericana .7 13.1 14.1 15.0 14.7 14. 14.7 14.5 15.4 14.1 13.7 15.Example of Moisture Variation Ship Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Pacific Bulker Med Faith Med Faith Med Faith Med Faith Med Faith Med Faith Med Faith Med Faith Date 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 5/25/00 6/21/00 6/21/00 6/21/00 6/21/00 6/21/00 6/21/00 6/21/00 6/21/00 Truck 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Temp 26 25 24 25 24 25 26 25 25 24 24 25 24 22 23 23 22 22 23 22 23 21 22 22 21 22 22 m.7 14.7 14.0 15.8 14.7 13.9 14.3 14.0 15.4 14.9 13.1 14.

Dealing with Fine Material in Corn • Sample and analyze to know FM level • Clean before storage. or • Core bins before storage .

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Dealing with Insects in Any Grain • Recognize that commercially-handled grain is infested • Insect density has to be high before the infestation can be detected • More insects are tolerated in feed grains than in wheat • May fumigate en-route. or • Fumigate at destination .

Life Cycle of Stored Product Beetles Adult Eggs Pupa Larva .

Life Cycle of Stored Product Beetles Adult These forms are “invisible”Eggs in grain samples Pupa Larva .

a single. The study showed that the probability of detecting insects is about 3 times smaller than what probability alone would predict. Hagstrum et al. 1-Kg sample had a 1in-3 chance of containing an insect. Environ.Laboratory Study on Probability of Detection Probability of Detection (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 The USDA study showed that when 1 insect/kg was present. 1985. Entomol 14:655-661 2 3 4 5 6 Insect Density (#/kg) .

then there are 1.000 insects in the grain represented • The probability of detecting insects if a one-kg sample is taken is one in three • If the true insect density is only one in 10 kg. and the grain contains 1 insect/kg. • If only one of every 10 insects in an adult. there are 120. the probability of detection is one in 300 .000 insects per MT • If the lot subsample represents 120 MT.then the probability of detection is one in 30.000 one-kg samples in a MT of corn • If the insect density is 1/kg.Significance of Sampling Probability Numbers • There are 1.

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Dealing with Mold-Produced Deterioration • • • • Segregation by moisture at reception Control of fine material Use of mold inhibitors Maintain cool temperatures – If grain arrives cool. maintain cool temperature – Use aeration if needed .

Cladosporium. are common in the soil and inside plants of growing corn.Common field fungi including species of the genera Fusarium. . Cephalosporium. etc.

the field molds have become dormant. .The field molds require a high moisture content in their environment. By the time corn has dried enough to harvest.

Grain arrives at storage infected with dormant field molds. those that can survive in dry grain in storage. . In handling equipment and bins it is inoculated with a new group of molds.

* *Or field-type situation .Molds and Mycotoxins Myco = mold • Aflatoxin – produced by Aspergillus flavus and others. • Field fungus – toxin produced in the field. • Almost always produced on the plant*. though the fungus can grow in storage. • Zearalenone – produced by Fusarium roseum and others • DON (vomitoxin) – one of several trichothecenes produced by Fusarium tricinctum and others.* • Field fungus – toxin produced in the field.

and others • Field fungus – toxin produced in the field.* • Field fungus – toxin produced in the field. toxin production appears associated with storage of cool.2 • T-2 – another trichothecene produced by Fusarium molds • Fumonisin – produced by Fusarium moniliforme and others • Ochratoxin – produced by and Penicillium species.* • Both field and storage fungi. Aspergillus ochraceus.Molds and Mycotoxins . damp grain *Or field-type situation .

Field-Type Situation? .

Field-Type Damages .

so toxin can not be produced in the grain unless it gets wet .What does grain-mold biology mean for importers of US grain? • At harvest. and any grain can be tested for toxins at the purchaser’s request • Exported grain is dry. the US domestic market quickly identifies the origin of any grain containing mycotoxin • Exporters attempt to avoid grain from that production area • Exported corn is assayed for aflatoxin.

Root of Infected Embryo Mold Spores and Hyphae .

14.c. Linear (14.5 % m.c.c. glaucus Infection (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Weeks at 25 °C .c.6 % m. 16.) A.c.) Linear (16.c.5 % m.6 % m.) Linear (18 % m.Effect of Grain Moisture on Growth of Storage Molds 120 18 % m.

5 DML 20 15 14 % m.c. 16 % m.c. 15 % m.c. 10 5 0 15 59 F 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 77 F Temperature (º C) .Effect of Temperature on Growth of Storage Molds 25 Months to 0.

and 24 – 28 C 75-82 F Damaged Kernels(%) 40 30 20 10 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 y = 1.4x + 3.c.3 R2 = 0.95 Bin Avg Linear (Bin Avg) Weeks of Storage .Increase in damaged kernels in corn at 14.6 % m.

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Increase in Infections by A. at 14.6 % m. 80 Internal Infection (%) A. glaucus and Decrease in Fusarium spp. glaucus 60 Fusarium 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Weeks at 25 °C .c.

Decrease in Total Mold Counts of 18. Corn on General-Purpose Agar over Time 100 200 All Aspergillus spp.c. Internal Infection (%) 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 80 60 40 20 0 Rose Agar 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Weeks at 25 °C cfu/g (000) .0 %-m.

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5 Untreated 0.9 0.4 Prod B 0.Respiration of Pellets 0.6 mg O2/hr/kg DM 0.2 0.3 Prod A 0.8 Oxygen Consumption Over Time (averages by mold inhibitor and dose) 0.1 kg/t 0.1 kg/t 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Days of Incubation .1 0.7 0.

0 % m.5 kg/t 1.0 Untreated 4.0 0.0 1.Corn at 15.0 0.0 kg/t 3.0 1 11 21 32 42 54 Days of Incubation . Treated with Product A 5.c.0 kg/t mg O2/h/kg Dry 3.0 2.0 kg/t 2.

Aeration .

3 % m. and 77 ºF 0 2 Weeks of Storage 4 6 8 10 .3 % m. and 86 ºF 14. c. c.Effect of Grain Temperature on Rate of Deterioration 180 Percent Kernels Infected by Molds* 160 140 120 100 80 60 º * Percent Infection as % of Original 14.

stop as soon as cooling is complete • Only if the grain is heating should aeration be used regardless of the air temperature and RH *stored less than 3 months .Recommendations for Aeration of Imported Corn* in Warm Climates • Do not aerate – If the grain is cooler than 20 C and the grain temperature is stable – When the air is as warm or warmer than the grain • Aerate only when air is at least 3 C cooler than the grain • Monitor aeration with grain temperature monitoring system.

Receiving and Storing U. S. Grain at Destination Carl Reed International Grains Program .

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