I. VERB……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1. Simple Present. Present Continuous 2. Simple Past. Past Continuous
3. 4.

5. 6. 7.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. IV. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Present Perfect Simple. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Simple. Past Perfect Continuous Simple Future. Future Continuous Simple Present for future events. Present Continuous for future events Future Perfect. Future Perfect Continuous Conditional tenses Indicative Subjunctive Infinitive Gerund Modal verbs Auxiliary verbs Irregular verbs Diagram of all tenses. Table of tenses. Example sentences for all tenses NOUN……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Gender Number Countable or uncountable Compound nouns Use of capital letters (proper nouns) Possessive form PRONOUN………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Personal Reflexive Possessive Intensive Demonstrative Interrogative Relative Indefinite Reciprocal ADJECTIVE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Function Form Order Gradable and non-gradable Premodifiers with degrees Comparative Superlative Irregular comparatives and superlatives Comparisons of quantity

V. ADVERB……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1. Function 2. Form 3. Comparative


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Manner Time Location Frequency Purpose Certainty Degree Interrogative Relative Negative Viewpoint and commenting

VI. ARTICLE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1. Definite 2. Indefinite VII. PREPOSITION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1. Time 2. Location 3. Direction 4. Position VIII. SYNTAX………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………........ 1. Sentence structure 2. Direct speech. Reported speech 3. Conditional sentences (clauses). The “zero”. Type 1. Type 2. Type 3 4. Mixed conditional sentences 5. Unless 6. Unreal past 7. Relative clauses 8. Active and Passive Voice


1. Simple Present Form A: S + VB -s/es N: S + don’t/doesn’t + VB I: Do/does + S + VB Examples: You speak English. You do not speak English. Do you speak English?

Use - repeated actions; can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.


I play tennis. Does he play tennis? The train does not leave at 9 AM.

- facts or generalizations; indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future.


Cats like milk. California is not in the United Kingdom. Windows are made of glass.

- scheduled events in the near future.


The train leaves tonight at 6 PM. The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM. When do we board the plane?

- now (non-continuous verbs); express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now.


I am here now. 3

this year. .longer actions in progress now. Examples: You are learning English now.with normal verbs to express the idea that something is happening now. Examples: I am meeting some friends after work. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb -ing". it can also be used to show that something is not happening now. Is he visiting his parents next weekend? . Are you sleeping? I am not standing. Do you have your passport with you? Present Continuous Form A: S + to be + VB -ing N: S + to be + NOT + VB -ing I: to be + S + VB –ing Examples: You are watching TV.to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future. Examples: I am studying to become a doctor.with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens.He does not need help now. today. Sometimes. at this very moment. Are you watching TV? Use . You are not watching TV. this month. but with negative emotion. Notice that the meaning is like Simple Present. this century. Examples: She is always coming to class late. "now" can mean: this second. however. I am not going to the party tonight. and so on. we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress. Aren't you teaching at the university now? . I am not studying to become a dentist. in English. 4 . we might not be doing it at this exact second.

usually. these actions happen 1st. Examples: I saw a movie yesterday. and then add the eggs? . Last year. You did not call Debbie. walked to the beach. Simple Past Form A: S + VB –ed or irregular verbs N: S + didn’t + VB –ed or irregular verbs I: Did + S + VB –ed or 3rd or irregular verbs Examples: You called Debbie. Examples: I lived in Brazil for two years. . 5 . Examples: I finished work. for 5 minutes.He is constantly talking. 2. pour in the milk. Examples: I studied French when I was a child. often. . 3rd. a duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for 2 years.to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past.to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. etc. They did not stay at the party the entire time. I don't like them because they are always complaining. Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid? . 2nd.we often add expressions such as: always. all day. never. and so on. 4th. I wish he would shut up. I didn't travel to Korea.list a series of completed actions in the past. all year.to describe a habit which stopped in the past. Did you add flour. and found a nice place to swim. Did you call Debbie? Use .

Last night at 6 PM. Examples: Last night at 6 PM. the interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Examples: I was watching TV when she called. we were still driving through the desert. Past Continuous Form A: S + was/were + VB –ing N: S + didn’t was/didn’t were + VB -ing I: Were/was + S + VB -ing Examples: You were studying when she called. You were not studying when she called. Were you studying when she called? Use . so I made several mistakes. a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. I was sitting at my desk at work. ! In the Simple Past. I was eating dinner. I ate dinner. At midnight.I started earlier. . What were you doing when you broke your leg? . 6 . I was in the process… . and at 6 PM. Were you listening while he was talking? I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter. However. the actions are parallel. Yesterday at this time. I was eating dinner .I started eating at 6 PM.Examples: She was shy as a child. In the Past Continuous. it started to rain. it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time.to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. but now she is very outgoing. you can also use a specific time as an interruption.. a specific time only interrupts the action. While we were having the picnic.when use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence. He didn't like tomatoes before. the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. Examples: I was studying while he was making dinner. Examples: Last night at 6 PM.described above.

yet. last week. We can use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever. Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established. the exact time is not important. when I lived in Japan. Examples: I have seen that movie twenty times. you cannot mention a specific time. at that moment. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb -ing. There have been many earthquakes in California. Have you read the book yet? Has there ever been a war in the United States? . or several times.with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. Maybe you have been there once. People have not traveled to Mars. 7 Examples: . before. already. many times. You have grown since the last time I saw you. Present Perfect Simple Form A: S + has/have + seen + VB at 3rd form N: S + hasn’t/haven’t + seen + VB at 3rd form I: Has/have + S + seen + VB at 3rd form Examples: You have seen that movie many times. Examples: Man has walked on the Moon. that day. You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence. Have you seen that movie many times? Use . . you cannot use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday. My English has really improved since I moved to Australia. is not used to describe a specific event.to describe your experience or to say that you have never had a certain experience." 3. The government has become more interested in arts education. when I was a child. etc. one year ago. never..to talk about change that has happened over a period of time. once. one day. .to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now.to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. I think I have met him once before. I have been to France three times. Examples: I have been to France. This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. etc. You have not seen that movie many times. several times. so far.

when we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. We have had many major problems while working on this project. Examples: Have you been to Mexico in the last year? I have seen that movie six times in the last month. we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. the exact time the action happened is not important. Examples: James has not finished his homework yet. this month. Susan hasn't mastered Japanese. but nobody knows why she is sick. The rain hasn't stopped. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible. She graduated from university less than three years ago. They have had three tests in the last week. . Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. Scientists have split the atom. I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester. . using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen. 8 . companies so far.to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. but she can communicate. etc. so far. . in the last year. this week. Bill has still not arrived. . we can do this with expressions such as: in the last week. up to now.Our son has learned how to read. Examples: The army has attacked that city five times.to say that an action which we expected has not happened. She has worked for three different My car has broken down three times this week. She has talked to several specialists about her problem. remember.sometimes.

What have you been doing? ! Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently.to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. the tense has a more general meaning of "lately". I have been feeling really tired. Lisa has not been practicing her English. She has been watching too much television lately. "for five minutes". It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly. hear or feel the results of the action. we often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning. You have not been waiting here for two hours. it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. Examples: Recently. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?".Present Perfect Continuous Form A: S + has/have + been + VB .ing N: S + hasn’t/haven’t + been + VB -ing I: Has/have + S + been + VB -ing Examples: You have been waiting here for two hours. 9 . without the duration. smell. We have been waiting here for over two hours! Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days? . A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. She has been working at that company for three years. What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? James has been teaching at the university since June. Have you been waiting here for two hours? Use . "for two weeks" and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used Examples: They have been talking for the last hour.can also use the Present Perfect Continuous without a duration such as "for two weeks". Have you been exercising lately? Mary has been feeling a little depressed.

Had you studied English before you moved to New York? Use .to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past. You had not studied English before you moved to New York. They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.4. ! If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time. Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. he had been in London for over eight years. Examples: I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? She only understood the movie because she had read the book. I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. ! Specific times with the Past Perfect Unlike with the Present Perfect. By the time Alex finished his studies. Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. Past Perfect Simple Form A: S + had/has + VB -ed + before N: S + hadn’t/hasn’t + VB –ed + before I: Had/has + S + VB -ed + before Examples: You had studied English before you moved to New York.expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. . it is usually not necessary. the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect 10 . We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance. it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Examples: We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. it can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. Example: She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. Although this is possible.

Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions. She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business. . She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996." "for two weeks" or "since Friday.to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. Examples: He was tired because he was exercising so hard. so the Past Perfect is optional. Sam gained weight because he had been overeating. Past Perfect Continuous. both sentences below are correct. Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class. notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous.when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. Examples: She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. Past Perfect Continuous Form A: S + had/has + been + VB -ing N: S + hadn’t/hasn’t + been + VB -ing I: Had/has + S + been + VB -ing Example: You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. Past Continuous vs. however. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first. Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived? Use . Examples: They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived. whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. the duration does not continue until now. This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact moment. If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes. You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. 11 . "for five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. James had been teaching at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia. For this reason.using before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect. it stops before something else in the past. Examples: Jason was tired because he had been jogging. This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Study the examples below to understand the difference." many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. He was tired because he had been exercising so hard. How long had you been waiting to get on the bus? Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.

I'll be careful. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future. Examples: He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. Examples: I will send you the information when I get it. Examples: I will call you when I arrive. Similarly."will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. they often express two very different meanings."will" is usually used in promises. but with time and practice. it does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not. .5. They are going to drive all the way to Alaska. I won't tell anyone your secret. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first.expresses that something is a plan. I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party. Simple Future Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to. Who are you going to invite to the party? 12 . Will you help me move this heavy table? I won't do all the housework myself! . Often. Michelle is going to begin medical school next year. Form A: S + shall/will + VB N: S + shall/will not + VB I: Shall/will + S + VB A: N: I: S + to be + going to + VB S + to be not + going to +VB To be + S + going to + VB Examples: I shall visit the seaside tomorrow. Are you going to meet Jane tonight? Use . You will not visit the museum tomorrow. Shall I visit the museum tomorrow? You are going to meet Jane tonight." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably. a voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. we also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something. the differences will become clear. it expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. Don't worry.

You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable. I will be in the process of eating dinner. Examples: I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. if anything happens and you need to contact me. Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight? You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore. The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year. He will be studying at the library tonight. Examples: The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. Form A: S + will + be + VB –ing N: S + will + not be + VB –ing I: Will + S + be + VB – ing Examples: A: N: I: S + to be + going to be + VB -ing S + to be + not going to be + VB -ing To be + S + going to be + VB -ing You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight? Use . I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives. I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel. remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. We will be in the process of driving through the desert. At midnight tonight. . we will still be driving through the desert. I am going to be eating dinner.. In "prediction" sentences. You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight. so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives. remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time. Unlike Simple Future forms.to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future.specific time as an interruption in the future Examples: Tonight at 6 PM. Future Continuous Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing".to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. 13 . .

? You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.describing atmosphere: When I arrive at the party. everybody is going to be celebrating. it can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future. 6. They always do the same thing. Form A: S + will have + VB -ed N: S + will not have + VB -ed I: Will + S + have + VB Examples: You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S. Examples: The plane arrives at 18. Use . She has a yoga class tomorrow morning. calendar. Others are going to be talking. Some will be dancing. I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock. schedule. Next Thursday at 14. Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.00 there is an English exam.S. The restaurant opens at 19. Future Perfect Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done". A few people will be eating pizza. and that some preparation has already happened.S. There is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event. = and I've already bought my train ticket. and several people are going to be drinking beer. I am leaving tomorrow.. and when these facts are something fixed like a time-table. We're having a staff meeting next Monday = and all members of staff have been told about it. I will have received my promotion. Unlike Simple Future forms. Simple Present for future events. Example: I'm meeting Jim at the airport = and both Jim and I have discussed this.expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. Present Continuous for future events The simple present is used to make statements about events at a time later than now.30 tonight. Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable. when the statements are based on present facts. The present continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at a time later than now. Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing? 14 .00 tomorrow. 7. Examples: By next November.

She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes. Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years. Examples: They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives. the words "live." many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Future Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs. the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future. with Future Perfect Continuous.before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.with non-continuous verbs and some non-continuous uses of mixed verbs. "For five minutes. Although the above use of future perfect is normally limited to non-continuous verbs and non-continuous uses of." "teach." and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable. mixed verbs. Form A: S + will + have been + VB –ing N: S + will not + have been + VB –ing I: Will + S + have been + VB –ing Examples: A: N: I: S + to be + going to + have been + VB -ing S + to be + going to + have been + VB -ing To be + not going to + have been + VB -ing You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives." "work. however.. How long will you have been studying when you graduate? . Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives? You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. Future Continuous vs. Susan is going to have had my book for a week.to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. Examples: I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave. Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour. You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives." "for two weeks" or "since Friday. You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. Future Perfect Continuous If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes. Be careful because this can 15 Examples: . we use the future perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future. Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives? Use . Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous." "for two weeks. By Monday." Unlike Simple Future forms.

in the main clause in type III of the if clauses. (You'll probably do it. (You'll probably have finished playing football at a special time in the future. This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment ." although "would" also has other uses. Examples: in the future. Here you concentrate on the fact) I would not have played football. Form would + infinitive Examples: I would play football. Would you play football? Present continuous conditional Use . in the sentence "I would eat it". Present conditional Use . . For example. whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Conditional tenses The verb tense that is used to indicate that an action or state of being is dependent on the occurrence of a condition. Would you be playing football? Perfect conditional Use . Form would + have + past participle past participle -> (infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs) Examples: I would have played football. I'd not play football. The condition does not need to be explicitly stated.for something that might happen.for something that might happen. I'd not be playing football.change the meaning of the sentence.) I would not play football. . .in the main clause in type II of the Conditional sentences. the condition is not stated but would be implied by the context.) I would not be playing football.in the main clause in type II of the Conditional sentences.for something that might have happened in the past. Would you have played football? Conditional Perfect Progressive (Perfect continuous conditional) 16 He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard. The conditional tense is formed using the auxiliary verb "would. Study the examples below to understand the difference. (You'll probably do it. Here you concentrate more on the progress of the action. Form would + infinitive Examples: I would be playing football. 8. I wouldn't be playing football. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions.

He is not a dancer. they may also be considered other "exceptional" verb forms. (You'll probably have finished playing football at a special time in the future. to own Present indicative I own he/she/it owns we/you/they own Present subjunctive I own he/she/it own we/you/they own Past indicative I owned he/she/it owned we/you/they owned Past subjunctive I owned he/she/it owned we/you/they owned to be Present indicative I am he/she/it is we/you/they are Present subjunctive I be he/she/it be we/you/they be Past indicative I was he/she/it was we/you/they were Past subjunctive I were 17 . Compare with the indicative: Everyone knows that we went to the back of the line. Form would + have + been + infinitive + ing Examples: I would have been playing football. but the form of the subjunctive verb required is present: It was required that we go to the back of the line. the form of "to go" for something in the past would be went. (If any other forms are considered a mood (e. We are very happy.in the main clause in type III of the if clauses. imperative). Subjunctive The subjunctive is easily distinguished in a great variety of contexts where the sense is past tense.Use . Indicative The declarative mood or indicative mood is the simplest and most basic mood. Were it not for the subjunctive. Here you concentrate on the progress of playing) 9.g. They are singing. 10. with the subjunctive as an "exceptional" form of verbs.) Examples are most commonly used verb forms: I think I thought He was seen I am walking home.for something that might have happened in the past. The overwhelming majority of verb use is in the indicative. which may be considered the "normal" form of verbs. .

wish. to indicate what something can be used for.after an adjective + noun when a comment or judgement is being made: It was a stupid place to park the car. agree. learn .in the pattern 'it is + adjective + to-infinitive' Examples: with 'to' : The elephant decided to marry the mouse The mouse agreed to marry the elephant You will have to ask her She has to go to Berlin next week It's easy to speak English without 'to' : I would rather visit Rome.to indicate the purpose or intention of an action (where the 'to' has the same meaning as 'in order to' or 'so as She's gone to collect her pay cheque.in the first person singular and third person singular of verb to be in the past tense. e. to'): . Would you rather eat steak or fish? Negative Infinitive. He asked me not to be late. . This is the right thing to do.as the subject of the sentence: To be or not to be.after adjectives in these patterns: It is + adjective +to-infinitive It is + adjective + infinitive + for someone + to-infinitive. 11. To form the negative infinitive. fail. .with nouns or pronouns. 18 . . . want. She would rather live in Italy. and ought to . To know her is to love her.with the verb to be in the present tense. to have to.after the auxiliaries to be to. It was an astonishing way to behave.or zero infinitive: Examples: I decided not to go to London. It may be preceded by 'to' (the to-infinitive) or stand alone (the base or zero infinitive). ! The modal auxiliaries do not have present subjunctive forms. place not before the to. Infinitive with or without 'to' is used: -after certain verbs. The children need a garden to play in. or what is to be done with it: Would you like something to drink? I haven't anything to wear. that is the question.in the third person singular of the present tense. decide. .g. the form of the subjunctive is distinguishable from the indicative in only three circumstances: . Use . It is + adjective + infintive + of someone + to-infinitive. Infinitive Form The infinitive is the base form of a verb.he/she/it were we/you/they were As shown in the above. mean. The three bears went into the forest to find firewood.

after a number of 'phrasal verbs' which are composed of a verb + preposition/adverb: to look forward to. Gerund This looks exactly the same as a present participle.. to be for/against. to keep on: I look forward to hearing from you soon.with too and enough in these patterns: too much/many (+ noun) + to-infinitive too + adjective + to-infinitive too + adverb + to-infinitive enough (+ noun) + to-infinitive adjective + enough + to-infinitive not enough (+noun) + to-infinitive not + adjective + enough + to-infinitive 12. . as it must be followed by a gerund: We are looking forward to seeing you. to be used to. then it is a preposition and must be followed by a gerund: I am accustomed to it (the cold). It is important to recognize that 'to' is a preposition in these cases. train-spotting . He kept on asking for money. to take to.after prepositions: One of his duties is attending meetings. to put off. to take to. It is possible to check whether 'to’ is a preposition or part of a to-infinitive: if you can put a noun or the pronoun 'it' after it. can't stand. She didn't really take to studying English. My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary. not as part of a to-infinitive: . ! There are some phrasal verbs and other expressions that include the word 'to' as a preposition. and for this reason it is now common to call both forms 'the -ing form'. One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed. and the adjective worth: 19 . to be accustomed to. so it can be used: . She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road. However it is useful to understand the difference between the two.as the subject of the sentence: Eating people is wrong.as the complement of the verb 'to be': . Flying makes me nervous.after the expressions: can't help. I am used to waiting for buses. She is good at painting. a swimming pool. to give up. When are you going to give up smoking? She always puts off going to the dentist. I am accustomed to being cold. We arrived in Madrid after driving all night. . it's no use/good. The gerund always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb).in compound nouns: a driving lesson. bird-watching. .to look forward to.

invitation. possibility. prediction. prohibition decision. prediction. Modal verbs The nine modals verbs in English are: can could may might must shall should will would Position of modal verbs Modal verbs always appear in the first position at the beginning of the verb phrase in English. permission. However. suggestion permission. suggestion deduction. intention. future. permission. obligation. preference. offer. permission. question. probability. promise. request. offer. probability. request ability. The seven possible verb phrase combinations that contain modal verbs in English are: modal verb + base form modal verb + be + present participle modal verb + have + past participle modal verb + be + past participle modal verb + have + been + present participle modal verb + have + been + past participle modal verb + have + been + being + past participle will eat will be eating will have eaten will be eaten will have been eating will have been eaten will have been being eaten Double modals Although most varieties of English only allow for the use of one modal verb per verb phrase. Definitions can – could – may – might – must – shall – should – will – would – ability.13. the double modal might could as in He might could build a new machine shed expresses both possibility and ability. prescriptive grammars proscribe against the use of double modals. possibility. recommendation decision. suggestion conditional. some English dialects such as Southern American English allow for double modals. modal verbs do not show tense or number. necessity. habit. suggestion advice. suggestion 20 . For example. request possibility. Unlike other verbs. request. future. question. necessity.

Base form = have Present form = have / has Past form = had Present Participle / Gerund = having Past Participle = had 21 . To have . To be .is one of the most common verbs in the English language.is one of the most common verbs in English. It can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb. to form the continuous tense. It is often used in questions: Base form = do Present form = do/does Past form = did Present Participle / Gerund = doing Past Participle = done ! Note . to form the perfect tense. They are used to form the passive voice.14. It is used a lot in its other forms: Base form = be Present form = am/is/are Past form = was/were Present Participle / Gerund = being Past Participle = been To do . which is not given by the main verb.is the most common verb in the English language.The auxiliary verb 'do' is always followed by the base form (infinitive). it can be used as an auxiliary and a main verb. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs are used together with a main verb to give grammatical information and therefore add extra meaning to a sentence.

Irregular verbs Simple Present arise awake be bear beat become begin bite bleed blow break bring build burn buy catch choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig dive do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight Simple Past arose awoke was. were bore beat became began bit bled blew broke brought built burned or burnt bought caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug dived or dove did drew dreamed or dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought Past Pariciple arisen awoken been borne beaten or beat become begun bitten bled blown broken brought built burned or burnt bought caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug dived done drawn dreamed or dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought 22 .15.

forbidden or forbade forgotten forgiven frozen gotten or got given gone ground grown hung or hanged had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt or kneeled knitted or knit known laid led leapt or leaped left lent let lain lit or lighted lost made meant met paid proved or proven put quit read ridden rung risen run sawed or sawn said seen 23 .find flee fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit know lay lead leap leave lend let lie (down) light lose make mean meet pay prove put quit read ride ring rise run saw say see found fled flew forbade or forbad forgot forgave froze got gave went ground grew hung or hanged had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt or kneeled knitted or knit knew laid led leapt or leaped left lent let lay lit or lighted lost made meant met paid proved put quit read rode rang rose ran sawed said saw found fled flown.

seek sell send set sew shake shave shear shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sneak speak speed spend spill spin spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strew strike swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw undergo understand sought sold sent set sewed shook shaved sheared shone or shined shot showed shrank or shrunk shut sang sank sat slew slept slid sneaked or snuck spoke sped spent spilled or spilt spun spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank or stunk strewed struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought thrived or throve threw underwent understood sought sold sent set sewn or sewed shaken shaved or shaven sheared or shorn shone or shined shot shown or showed shrunk or shrunken shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid sneaked or snuck spoken sped spent spilled or spilt spun spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewn struck or stricken sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived or thriven thrown undergone understood 24 .

Diagram of all tenses. never or several times actions that happen one after another actions that suddenly take place action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond that moment actions taking place at the same time action taking place before a certain moment in time puts emphasis on the result period of time Result action taking place before a certain moment in time Course / Duration puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action 25 . Table of tenses. Example sentences for all tenses moment in time action that takes place once.wake wear weave weep win wind wring write woke or waked wore wove wept won wound wrung wrote woken or waked worn woven wept won wound wrung written 16.

until that day if sentence type III (If I had talked. Q: Is he speaking? A: He spoke. N: He will not have spoken. never. N: He has not spoken. Q: Will he speak? all day. 2 minutes ago. Q: Will he have been speaking? A: He would speak. Q: Does he speak? A: He is speaking. Q: Has he spoken? Use action in the present taking place once. till now. all day long if sentences type II (If I were you. next …. N: He has not been speaking. Q: Had he been speaking? A: He will speak. never. Q: Would he speak? A: He would be speaking. ever. seldom.) assumption: I think. N: He had not spoken. tomorrow Future I Simple (going to) Future I Progressive A: He is going to speak. she will help you. N: He is not speaking. the last couple of hours. N: He would not speak. Q: Has he been speaking? A: He had spoken. now. Q: Did he speak? A: He was speaking. not yet. the whole day. just. just. the other day. tomorrow Future II Simple by Monday. never or several times actions taking place one after another action taking place in the middle of another action action going on at a certain time in the past actions taking place at the same time action in the past that is interrupted by another action putting emphasis on the result action that is still going on action that stopped recently finished action that has an influence on the present action that has taken place once. N: He will not have been speaking. so far. never or several times before the moment of speaking putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result) action that recently stopped or is still going on finished action that influenced the present action taking place before a certain time in the past sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration) action taking place before a certain time in the past sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action action in the future that cannot be influenced spontaneous decision assumption with regard to the future Signal Words always. Q: Will he be speaking? A: He will have spoken. how long?. last Friday if sentence type II (If I talked. since. normally. right now yesterday. Q: Will he have spoken? A: He will have been speaking. N: He does not speak. while. Listen!.Tense Simple Present Affirmative/Negative/Question A: He speaks. …) when. often. in 1990. once. N: He is not going to speak. N: He did not speak. N: He will not be speaking. N: He had not been speaking. …) for. decision made for the future conclusion with regard to the future action that is going on at a certain time in the future action that is sure to happen in the near future action that will be finished at a certain time in the future in one year. never. N: He would not be speaking. …) at the moment. Q: Had he spoken? A: He had been speaking. next week. usually if sentences type I (If I talk. since 1993. for 4 years. next week. as long as Present Progressive Simple Past Past Progressive Present Perfect Simple already. all day Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Progressive Future I Simple in a year. up to now Present Perfect Progressive A: He has been speaking. just. the whole week already. tomorrow If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her. in a week Future II Progressive action taking place before a certain time in the future putting emphasis on the course of an action action that might take place for ….) Conditional I Simple Conditional I Progressive action that might take place putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action 26 . N: He was not speaking. perhaps in one year. Q: Was he speaking? A: He has spoken. Q: Is he going to speak? A: He will be speaking. just now. I would go home. N: He will not speak. probably. every …. not yet. Look!. never or several times facts actions taking place one after another action set by a timetable or schedule action taking place in the moment of speaking action taking place only for a limited period of time action arranged for the future action in the past taking place once. sometimes.

Gender In general there is no distinction between masculine. a cry cries a fly flies 27 . leader. Arthur is my cousin. Peter is a doctor. parent. He is my cousin. She is a doctor. She (the car) is my greatest passion. we can add the word 'woman' (a woman doctor. I love my car. I traveled from England to New York on the Queen Elizabeth. However. In some cases nouns describing things are given gender. friend. feminine and neuter in English nouns. a woman journalist). doctor. relation. partner. I would have helped. teenager. cook. (a female student. Jane is my cousin. Different words: man father uncle boy husband Different forms: masculine / feminine actor prince hero waiter widower actress princess heroine waitress widow woman mother aunt girl wife Some nouns can be used for either a masculine or a masculine subject: cousin. teacher. gender is sometimes shown by different forms or different words. colleague. a male cousin). Mary is a doctor. Number Most nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es. N: He would not have spoken. Q: Would he have spoken? action that might have taken place in the past if sentences type III (If I had seen that. It is possible to make the distinction by adding the words 'male' or 'female'.) Conditional II Progressive A: He would have been speaking. She is my cousin. boat boats hat hats house houses river rivers A noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies. she (the Queen Elizabeth) is a great ship. France is popular with her (France's) neighbors at the moment. student. For professions. He is a doctor. puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action Q: Would he have been speaking? II NOUN 1. 2. action that might have taken place in the past N: He would not have been speaking.Q: Would he be speaking? Conditional II Simple A: He would have spoken.

30 p. athletics Athletics is good for young people. Some of the most common ones are listed below: woman women man men child tooth foot person leaf half knife wife life loaf potato cactus focus fungus nucleus syllabus analysis diagnosis oasis thesis crisis phenomenon criterion datum children teeth feet people leaves halves knives wives lives loaves potatoes cacti foci fungi nuclei syllabi/syllabuses analyses diagnoses oases theses crises phenomena criteria data Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural: sheep. billiards Billiards is played all over the world. aircraft Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb: news The news is on at 6.a nappy a poppy a city a lady a baby nappies poppies cities ladies babies There are some irregular formations for noun plurals. fish.m. darts Darts is a popular game in England. species. 28 . linguistics Linguistics is the study of language.

Here are some more uncountable nouns: music. . I haven't got many pens. advice. furniture. Have you got some paper? room: Our house has seven rooms.we can use some and any with uncountable nouns: I've got some money. we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it: I want an orange. ! Some nouns are countable in other languages but uncountable in English. information. Some of the most common of these 29 ."people" is countable. animal. tropics. congratulations. luggage.when a countable noun is singular. we cannot say "an information" or "a music" but we can say a something of: a piece of news. for example): Two teas and one coffee please. 3. Here are some more countable nouns: dog. !Nouns that can be countable and uncountable. art. thanks. glasses Those glasses are his. Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?). "People" is the plural of "person" Uncountable nouns are substances. . jeans Her jeans are black. . power. cup.we can use some and any with countable nouns: I've got some dollars. light: There are two lights in our bedroom. / Is there room for me to sit here? time: We had a great time at the party. Others include: savings. chair. Countable or uncountable Countable nouns are things that we can count. . Have you got any pens? . / Have you got time for a coffee? work: Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's greatest works. bottle.we do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. / Close the curtain. outskirts. plate. a grain of rice . box. / It's difficult to work when there is too much noise. we cannot count "milk".when a countable noun is plural. . news. the same noun can be countable and uncountable. Your luggage looks heavy. Have you got any rice? .we can use a little and much with uncountable nouns: I've got a little money. stair. I haven't got much rice. butter. man. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass. love. gas. water. There's too much light! noise: Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise. For example. spectacles. we use a singular verb: This news is very important. but we cannot count "milk" itself. we can use it alone: I like oranges. wages. rice.countable nouns can be singular or plural: My dog is playing. We can count "bottles of milk" or "liters of milk". dollar.we can use a few and many with countable nouns: I've got a few dollars. . Sometimes. We can count pens. currency. orange juice) are usually uncountable. sugar.Some nouns have a plural form and take a plural verb: trousers My trousers are too tight. Bottles can break.we usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. My dogs are hungry. wits . two. note. goods. often with a change of meaning. happiness. I need work! ! Drinks (coffee. etc. a bottle of water. money. electricity. paper: Have you got a paper to read? (= newspaper) / I want to draw a picture. customs. we can say (in a restaurant. fork.we can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns: A dog is an animal. steps. suitcase. Countable / Uncountable hair: There are two hairs in my coffee! / I don't have much hair. water. . table. coin. bag. person. three or more pens. / I have no money. liter. For example: "pen". We can have one. cat. concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. .(not I want orange).

These are very common.as two words joined with a hyphen: dining-table . water. Compound nouns Words can be combined to form compound nouns. Stress is important in pronunciation. news.are: accommodation. They normally have two parts. boyfriend . as it distinguishes between a compound noun (e. table. noun + noun noun + verb noun + adverb verb + noun bedroom rainfall hanger-on washing machine water tank haircut passer-by driving license motorcycle train-spotting swimming pool printer cartridge verb + adverb lookout take-off drawback adverb + verb output overthrow upturn input Compound nouns often have a meaning that is different from the two separate words. advice. green house). information. baggage. bread. 4. furniture. In compound nouns. weather.as two separate words: fish tank There are no clear rules about this . dining. and new combinations are invented almost daily. tank. The second part identifies the object or person in question (man. ! In good monolingual dictionaries. The first part tells us what kind of object or person it is.so write the common compounds that you know well as one word.g.as one word: policeman. behavior. room). uncountable nouns are identified by [U] and countable nouns by [C]. travel. progress. trouble. work . friend. . boy. the stress usually falls on the first syllable: a 'greenhouse = place where we grow plants (compound noun) a green 'house = house painted green (adjective and noun) 30 adjective + noun greenhouse software redhead adjective + verb dry-cleaning public speaking adverb + noun onlooker bystander . greenhouse) and an adjective with a noun (e. and the others as two words.g. bed): What type / what purpose police boy water dining bed What or who man friend tank table room The two parts may be written in a number of ways. luggage. or what its purpose is (police. traffic. etc.

months of the year. and animals.titles of works. output. or already ends in -s. The politician's hypocrisy.qualities: John's patience. The car of John = John's car.adjectives relating to nationality nouns . The boat of the sailors = The sailors' boat. Use of capital letters (proper nouns) . Thomas's book. but in writing it is possible to use either 's or just '. groups of people. outcome. There are also some fixed expressions where the possessive form is used : Time expressions / Other expressions a day's work / For God's sake! a fortnight's holiday / a pound's worth of apples.a 'bluebird = type of bird (compound noun) a blue 'bird = any bird with blue feathers (adjective and noun) * Many common compound nouns are formed from phrasal verbs (verb + adverb or adverb + verb): breakdown. . e. . America has some gold reserves. countries. feedback. books etc . cutback. add 's ('apostrophe -s') to the noun. makeup. takeaway. This is John's room.g. The sister of Charles = Charles' sister. If the noun is plural. ('America' is the owner). seasons.names and titles of people . The room of the girls = The girls' room. Clothes for men = Men's jobs. flyover. set-back. The 's form is more common.family relationship: John's mother… The Queen's daughter… .For names ending in –s inn speaking we add the sound /ª z/ to the name. James's shop.where someone works or studies or spends time: John goes to this school. just add:' (an apostrophe). a month's pay / the water's edge today's newspaper / a stone's throw away (= very near) in a year's time / at death's door (= very ill) 31 . hold-up. hangover. walkover. days of the week. outbreak. Possessive form The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people. John owns a car.geographical names . drop-out. outlet. This is John's school. 5. holydays . stand-in. drive-in. John sleeps in this room. outlay. . parks etc. It is John's car. To form the possessive.the personal pronoun 'I' is always written with a capital letter.names of streets. ('John' is the possessor or owner). They are America's gold reserves. inlet. 6. 'Belonging to' or 'ownership' is one of the relationships it expresses. buildings.

First person Singular MYSELF Plural OURSELVES Examples The logger cut himself with his ax. Examples: the grocer's. Reflexive (rename subjects of action verbs) They function as various types of objects. III PRONOUNS Pronoun is a word such as we. them. and objects of prepositions The noun that a pronoun refers to is called the antecedent of the pronoun (In the sentence “George wrote the essay in class and typed it later” the noun essay is the antecedent of the pronoun it) If you cannot point to the antecedent of a pronoun in your writing. 1. First person Second person Third person Singular I YOU HE/SHE/IT Plural WE YOU THEY Examples We are successful. places. the doctor's. indirect objects. Pronouns must match the number and gender of the noun they stand for and be in a case (form) that matches its function. the sentence will not make sense. restaurants. For her. you need to change the wording so that your meaning will be clear to the reader. 2.The possessive is also used to refer to shops. Personal (refer to specific persons. My aunt wrote me a letter. the dentist's. 32 . churches and colleges. Note that the following list is the same as the list of intensive pronouns above. If the reflexive pronoun is omitted. They like pizza. use the objective case. indirect objects (IO). The winners were Kim and I. or things) Subjective case: A personal pronoun should be in the subjective case (form) if the pronoun functions as a subject or subject complement. A subject pronoun usually comes before the verb. Objective case: If a pronoun stands for any other noun than a subject or subject complement. direct objects. Object pronouns can be direct objects (DO). Pronouns have the same functions as nouns: they may act as subjects and subject complements. a subject complement pronoun follows a linking verb. using the name or job title of the owner. I would do anything. the vet's. etc. the newsagent's. the chemist's. Smith's. Notice that you and it are in both lists. or anyone that replaces a noun or another pronoun. First person Second person Third person Singular ME YOU HIM/HER/IT Plural US YOU THEM Examples The secretary notified us today. or objects of prepositions (OP).

First person Second person Third person Singular MYSELF YOURSELF Examples The bank president himself called to apologize for the error. the sentence will still make sense grammatically. (adjective modifying problems) 33 . She herself was not as concerned as HIMSELF/HERSELF/ITSELF THEMSELVES others were about the problem. this that these those Examples: These problems are easy to solve. if an intensive pronoun is omitted. That backpack is mine First person Second person Third person 4. Demonstrative (the four demonstrative pronouns point out nouns) They often act as adjectives. Their cat sharpened its claws. or thing(s) are being referred to or as noun substitutes when the noun is understood. ! Do not confuse the pronoun its with the contraction it’s. indicating which person(s). which means it is. Plural OURSELVES YOURSELVES 5.Second person Third person YOURSELF Kim poured herself a cup of coffee. The old man was talking loudly to HIMSELF/HERSELF/ITSELF THEMSELVES himself. places(s). These possessive pronouns stand for an adjective possessive pronoun plus a noun: Singular MINE YOURS HIS/HERS Plural OURS YOURS THEIRS Examples The decision is yours to make. Possessive (act as adjectives that show ownership) First person Second person Third person Singular MY YOUR HIS/HER/ITS Plural OUR YOUR THEIR Examples My friend found his dog. Intensive (emphasize nouns or other pronouns) They immediately follow the noun they emphasize. YOURSELVES 3.

but I prefer those. 34 . those acts as a pronoun that stands for the noun apples.Do you like this wallpaper? (adjective modifying wallpaper) You like these apples.) 6. the word order may not be normal. (These acts as an adjective modifying apples. who whose whom which that Examples: The mystery novel that she recently completed will be published next year. Broder select as head of the committee? (direct object of the verb will select) In which of his two poems does the author express himself most effectively? (object of the preposition in) 7. Healing is more rapid for patients who have a positive attitude. Examples: Whose books are those? (adjective modifying books) Whom will Mr. the pronoun refers to a noun already mentioned in the main clause of the sentence. interrogative pronouns can have different grammatical functions. Relative (connects an adjective clause or a noun clause to the rest of the sentence) Introduce adjective clauses: When a relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause. Interrogative (introduces a question) who whom what which whose whoever whomever whatever whichever Like relative pronouns. As in all questions. Introduce noun clauses: who whom what which whose.

whoever whomever whatever whichever that Within a sentence. ! Who and whoever are used as subject pronouns. definite in meaning) Pronouns that refer to a non-specific noun: anybody. many. any both. and whom and whomever are used as object pronouns. none. ! When these indefinite pronouns are followed by a prepositional phrase. anyone. something Pronouns that refer to a specific noun whose meaning is clear only because of a previous mention or because of words that follow the indefinite pronoun: all. no one. the pronoun should agree in number with the noun that is the object of the preposition 35 . anything nobody. Plural Examples: Both of the documents were signed. a noun clause may function as a subject. 8. some. several ! Function simply as adjectives when they are directly followed by nouns. Indefinite (are noun substitutes that are not specific. Something unexpected is happening. The relative pronoun acts as a subject or object within the noun clause. everyone. and each has it own assignment. another. or object of a verb or preposition. appositive. though the normal word order may be changed. each. either few. My mother baked some pies for the picnic. Singular another anybody anyone anything each either everybody everyone everything both few many several neither nobody no one nothing one somebody something someone Examples: There are four groups of students. complement. someone. nothing everybody. Many in the audience agree with the speaker. Examples: Several students received awards. everything somebody. Examples: Whoever uses the kitchen should wash the dishes. neither one.

tell us about size and measurement: . Form Adjectives are invariable (they do not change their form depending on the gender or number of the noun): a hot potato.after the noun.tell us about age: . It was a wooden table. Our house is Victorian A wooden table.describe feelings or qualities: .tell us about color: .express a judgment or a value: He is a lonely man. The President elect . in some fixed expressions: The Princess Royal. one another IV ADJECTIVE 1. Paul wore a red shirt. 2. "to seem" . the order depends on the function of the adjective. Grammar is boring. some hot potatoes. Pierre is French. Position of adjectives: . They are honest people. some really hot potatoes. concerned: I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people who have something to do with the matter) 3.Singular or plural (depending on with the noun it stands for) all any some more either most none Examples: Some of the planning s finished. A square envelope A fantastic film. "to taste": The girl is beautiful. The knife is sharp.give nationality or origin: .usually in front of a noun: A beautiful girl. The sunset was crimson and gold. You look tired. To emphasis or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use 'very' or 'really': a very hot potato.tell more about a thing's characteristics: .tell us about material: . "to look". This clock is German.after verbs like "to be". . My coat is very old John is a tall man. She wore a cotton dress A rectangular box. This meat tastes funny. This is a very long film. 9. Function . present. The usual order is: Value/opinion Size Temperature Shape 36 .after the noun with the adjectives involved.tell us about shape: . . Reciprocal (refer to individual parts of a preceding plural noun) each other . Order Where a number of adjectives are used together. He's young man.

Color Origin Material Examples: a lovely old red post-box some small round plastic tables some charming small silver ornaments 4. Gradable and non-gradable Gradable - a gradable adjective can be used with "grading adverbs" that vary the adjective's grade or intensity. Look at these examples: grading adverbs: a little, dreadfully, extremely, fairly, hugely, immensely, intensely, rather, reasonably, slightly, unusually, very + gradable adjectives: angry, big, busy, clever, cold, deep, fast, friendly, good, happy, high, hot, important, long, popular, rich, strong, tall, warm, weak, young - a gradable adjective can also have comparative and superlative forms: !"Gradable adjectives" are also called "qualitative adjectives". "Grading adverbs" are also called"submodifiers". big, bigger, the biggest hot, hotter, the hottest important, more important, the most important My teacher was very happy with my homework. That website is reasonably popular. But this one is more popular. He said that Holland was a little cold and Denmark was rather cold. But Sweden was the coldest. ! The adjective dead is non-gradable because it is an absolute. Dead is dead. We cannot be more or less dead. One person cannot be "deader" than another. Other absolutes include: correct, unique, perfect. Non-gradable - a non-gradable adjective cannot be used with grading adverbs: It was rather freezing outside. (wrong!) The dog was very dead. (wrong!) He is investing in slightly nuclear energy. (wrong!) - non-gradable adjectives do not normally have comparative and superlative forms: freezing, more freezing (wrong!), the most freezing (wrong!) dead, deader (wrong!), the deadest (wrong!) nuclear, more nuclear (wrong!), the most nuclear (wrong!) - often, non-gradable adjectives are used alone: It was freezing outside. The dog was dead. He is investing in nuclear energy. However, a non-gradable adjective can be used with "non-grading adverbs" (which usually just give the 37

adjective extra impact), for example: non-grading adverbs absolutely utterly completely totally nearly virtually essentially mainly almost non-gradable adjectives awful extreme excellent terrified dead absolute impossible unique chemical classifying digital domestic

Her exam results were absolutely awful. She will have to take the exam again. Is there anything like it in the world? It must be virtually unique. It starts an essentially chemical reaction. Adjectives that can be gradable and non-gradable Some adjectives may have more than one meaning or sense. It's possible for the same adjective to be gradable with one sense and non-gradable with another sense. For example: sentence He's got a very old car. I saw my old boyfriend yesterday. He has some dreadfully common habits. "The" is a very common word in English. The two countries' common border poses problems. adjective gradable non-gradable gradable gradable non-gradable common not young former, exvulgar prevalent shared

Adverbs used with gradable and non-gradable adjectives The adverbs really (very much) and fairly and pretty (both meaning "to a significant degree, but less than very") can often be used with gradable and non-gradable adjectives: gradable Please don't forget! It's really important. He's a fairly rich man. He's pretty tall. non-gradable He was really terrified. It's a fairly impossible job. It's pretty ridiculous when you think about it.

"Quite" with gradable and non-gradable adjectives The meaning of the adverb "quite" changes according to the type of adjective we use it with: sentence It's quite warm today. Are you quite certain? Reference Non-gradable adjectives adjective gradable non-gradable quite fairly, rather completely, absolutely

5. Premodifiers with degrees


Both adverbs and adjectives in their comparative and superlative forms can be accompanied by premodifiers, single words and phrases, that intensify the degree. Examples: We were a lot more careful this time. He works a lot less carefully than the other jeweler in town. We like his work so much better. You'll get your watch back all the faster. The same process can be used to downplay the degree: Examples: The weather this week has been somewhat better. He approaches his schoolwork a little less industriously than his brother does. And sometimes a set phrase, usually an informal noun phrase, is used for this purpose: Examples: He arrived a whole lot sooner than we expected. That's a heck of a lot better. If the intensifier very accompanies the superlative, a determiner is also required: Examples: She is wearing her very finest outfit for the interview. They're doing the very best they can. Occasionally, the comparative or superlative form appears with a determiner and the thing being modified is understood: Examples: Of all the wines produced in Connecticut, I like this one the most. The quicker you finish this project, the better. Of the two brothers, he is by far the faster. Less versus Fewer When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer and less. Generally, when we're talking about countable things, we use the word fewer; when we're talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count, we use the word less. "She had fewer chores, but she also had less energy." The managers at our local Stop & Shop seem to have mastered this: they've changed the signs at the so-called express lanes from "Twelve Items or Less" to "Twelve Items or Fewer." Whether that's an actual improvement, we'll leave up to you. We do, however, definitely use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions: It's less than twenty miles to Dallas. He's less than six feet tall. Your essay should be a thousand words or less. We spent less than forty dollars on our trip. The town spent less than four percent of its budget on snow removal. Taller than I / me When making a comparison with "than" do we end with a subject form or object form, "taller than I/she" or "taller than me/her." The correct response is "taller than I/she." We are looking for the subject form: "He is taller than I am/she is tall." (Except we leave out the verb in the second clause, "am" or "is.") Some good writers, however, will argue that the word "than" should be allowed to function as a preposition. If we can say "He is tall like me/her," then (if "than" could be prepositional like like) we should be able to say, "He is taller than me/her." It's an interesting argument, but — for now, anyway — in formal, academic prose, use the subject form in such comparisons. We also want to be careful in a sentence such as "I like him better than she/her." The "she" would mean that you like this person better than she likes him; the "her" would mean that you like this male person better than you like that female person. (To avoid ambiguity and the slippery use of than, we could write "I like him better than she does" or "I like him better than I like her.") 39

we usually use "more than" in countable numerical expressions meaning "in excess of" or "over. "bigger" is the comparative form of the adjective "big": A1 A2 A1 is bigger than A2. or height: "His sister is over forty. There are two ways to make or form a comparative adjective: short adjectives: add "-er". pleasant all adjectives of 3 or more syllables: expensive. consonant. easy Normal rule: add "-er" old > older Variation: if the adjective ends in -e. vowel. "over 40. Comparative When we talk about two things. in the U. We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences.. double the last consonant big > bigger Variation: if the adjective ends in -y. In the example below. however. intellectual Normal rule: use "more" modern > more modern expensive > more expensive ! With some 2-syllable adjectives. some editors would insist on "more than 40. you will commonly hear "over" in numerical expressions of age. she's over six feet tall. change the y to i happy > happier Long adjectives one syllable adjectives not ending in –y: modern." In England." whereas in the UK. we can "compare" them.. long adjectives: use "more" Short adjectives one syllable adjectives: old. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways. We've been waiting well over two hours for her. Even in the U. we can use '-er' or 'more': quiet > quieter/more quiet clever > cleverer/more clever narrow > narrower/more narrow simple > simpler/more simple Exception The following adjectives have irregular forms: good > better 40 . time.000 traffic deaths" would be acceptable. ! We can use comparative adjectives when talking about two things (not three or more things)." 6. just add -r late > later Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant. fast two syllable adjectives ending in –y: happy. For instance. there is no such distinction. We can see if they are the same or different.000 traffic deaths in one year.More than / over In the United States.S.S.

double the last consonant big > the biggest Variation: if the adjective ends in -y. intellectual Normal rule: use "most" modern > the most modern 41 .760 6. We use a superlative adjective to describe the extreme quality of one thing in a group of things. pleasant all adjectives of 3 or more syllables: expensive.790 Mars is smaller than Earth. Moons 1 2 Mars has more moons than Earth. Often. easy Normal rule: add "-est" old > the oldest Variation: if the adjective ends in -e. We can use superlative adjectives when talking about three or more things (not two things). consonant. Short adjectives one syllable adjectives: old. As with comparative adjectives. change the y to i happy > the happiest Long adjectives one syllable adjectives not ending in –y: modern. just add -st late > the latest Variation: if the adjective ends in consonant. there are two ways to form a superlative adjective: short adjectives: add "-est" long adjectives: use "most" We also usually add 'the' at the beginning.well (healthy) > better bad > worse far > farther/further Use of Comparative Adjectives We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10 or 1. Superlative A superlative adjective expresses the extreme or highest degree of a quality. If we talk about the two planets Earth and Mars.000. the comparative adjective is followed by "than". we can compare them as shown in the table below: Earth / Mars Diameter (km) 12. 7. In the example below. only 2 things). fast two syllable adjectives ending in –y: happy. Surface temperature 22 -23 Mars is colder than Earth.000 things. Distance from Sun (million km) 150 228 Mars is more distant from the Sun. "biggest" is the superlative form of the adjective "big": ABC B is the biggest. vowel.

as few as. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. far > the furthest Use of Superlative Adjectives We use a superlative adjective to describe one thing in a group of three or more things. Surface temp. Chantal has fewer children than Eloise. farthest 9. Distance from Sun 150 228 778 Jupiter is the most distant from the Sun.800 Jupiter is the biggest. But Russia is the biggest. Chris is 1m85. Canada. Mars and Jupiter. David is 1m80. as little as With countable nouns: more / fewer Eloise has more children than Chantal. less. Look at these examples: John is 1m75. ! When we compare one thing with itself. we can use '-est' or 'most': quiet > the quietest/most quiet clever > the cleverest/most clever narrow > the narrowest/most narrow simple > the simplest/most simple Exception The following adjectives have irregular forms: good > the best. Comparisons of quantity To show difference: more. 22 -23 -150 Jupiter is the coldest. we do not use "the": England is coldest in winter. Length of day (hours) 24 25 10 Jupiter has the shortest day. Moons 1 2 16 Jupiter has the most moons.expensive > the most expensive ! With some 2-syllable adjectives. bad > the worst. Chris is the tallest. 42 .760 6. farther furthest.790 142. If we talk about the three planets Earth. fewer + than To show no difference: as much as . as many as. Irregular comparatives and superlatives These adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlative forms: Adjective Comparative Superlative good better best bad worse worst little less least much more most far further. China and Russia are big countries. we can use superlative adjectives as shown in the table below: Earth / Mars / Jupiter Diameter (km) 12. (not the most generous) 8. (not the coldest) My boss is most generous when we get a big order.

You've heard as much news as I have. Cats drink less water than dogs.There are fewer dogs in Cardiff than in Bristol I have visited fewer countries than my friend has. He's had as much success as his brother has. as many as. With uncountable nouns: more / less Eloise has more money than Chantal. So. There are as few houses in his village as in mine. He has read fewer books than she has. Jim has as little food as Sam. as little as as many as / as few as + countable nouns as much as / as little as + uncountable nouns Examples: With countable nouns: They have as many children as us. They've got as little water as we have. You know as many people as I do. 43 . With uncountable nouns: John eats as much food as Peter. Tom has as few books as Jane. I spend less time on homework than you do. This new dictionary gives more information than the old one. the rule is: MORE + nouns that are countable or uncountable FEWER + countable nouns LESS + uncountable nouns To show no difference: as much as . Chantal has less money than Eloise. as few as. I have visited the States as many times as he has. We have as many customers as them.

The senator ran to catch the bus. lonely. less and least to show degree with adverbs: With sneakers on. an adjective (He drove a very fast car. We often use more and most.IV ADVERB 1. many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. Thus we would say that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" . however. it is called an Adverb Clause: When this class is over. motherly. They lived in Canada during the war. it is called an adverbial phrase. friendly. Adverbs frequently end in -ly. Adverbs can modify adjectives. where. — How slowly did she move?) Adverbs often tell when. Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why): She hurried to the mainland to see her brother. but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. she could move more quickly among the patients. — How did he drive?). or under what conditions something happens or happened. Like adjectives. another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time. The student who reads fastest will finish first. we're going to the movies. She works on holidays. why. The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen. She worked less confidently after her accident. modifying the verb): He went to the movies. When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb. 44 . for instance. That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years. are adjectives If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence). The words lovely. Other kinds of adverbial phrases: He calls his mother as often as possible. adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree: Walk faster if you want to keep up with me. — How fast was his car?). neighborly. Function Adverbs are words that modify: a verb (He drove slowly.

o I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings. He walked slowly to the door. an adverb is formed by adding '-ly' to an adjective: cheap cheaply quick quickly slow slowly Examples: Time goes quickly. one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. or downtone: Emphasizes: o I really don't believe him. Adverbs (as well as adjectives) in their various degrees can be accompanied by premodifiers: She runs very fast. He carefully picked up the sleeping child. o The school was all but ruined by the storm. o We know this city well. She certainly had an interesting life. for sure. Form In most cases. Amplifiers: o The teacher completely rejected her proposal. In most cases. replace the 'y' with 'i' and add '-ly': easy easily 45 . and to the point. Downtoners: o I kind of like this college. o Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister. he couldn't seem to be on time for anything. the two forms have different meanings: He arrived late. o His mother mildly disapproved his actions. o They heartily endorsed the new restaurant." A handful of adverbs have two forms. Adverbs often function as intensifiers. quick. amplify. Lately.The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or equality: "He can't run as fast as his sister. o He literally wrecked his mother's car. o They're going to be late. . conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to something. o She simply ignored me. o I so wanted to go with them. In certain cases. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize.if the adjective ends in '-y'. however. the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual situations: She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers. o The boss almost quit after that. He spoke sharp. o We can improve on this to some extent. We're going to run out of material all the faster 2.

'-ible'. or '-le'. He drives very fast. We saw many high buildings.add -er or -est to short adverbs: Adverb Comparative hard harder late later fast faster Superlative the hardest the latest the fastest . Comparative and superlative In general.if the adjective ends in '-ic'. They swim well. The bird flew high in the sky. comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for comparative adjectives and superlative adjectives. She is a good pianist. . replace the '-e' with '-y': probable probably terrible terribly gentle gently . This is a hard exercise. She plays the piano well.angry happy lucky angrily happily luckily . add '-ally': basic basically economic economically tragic tragically ! Exception: public – publicly Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: early late fast near hard straight high wrong Compare: It is a fast car. They are good swimmers. He works hard. use more for the comparative and most for the superlative: 46 . He studies well.if the adjective ends in -'able'. 'Well' is the adverb that corresponds to the adjective 'good': He is a good student. Well' and 'good'. 3.with adverbs ending in -ly.

further little less well better ! Sometimes 'most' can mean 'very': Superlative worst farthest.some adverbs have irregular comparative forms: Adverb Comparative badly worse far farther. yesterday. 5. frequently. for a while. Specific to it--and to all subcategories of manner adverbs--is.Adverb quietly slowly seriously Comparative more quietly more slowly more seriously Superlative most quietly most slowly most seriously . introductory adverbs. badly. never. further. they explain "how" is the action performed. explanatory adverbs. last year For how long all day. I'm going to tidy my room tomorrow. therefore the meaning is unclear) I just did it for a joke. (common mistake in spoken English) I want to buy only some milk. adverbs of affirmation. This is a "neutral" position. since last year How often sometimes. very. often. Time Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened. (sometimes) by moving adverbs we could lose the meaning: Aunt Jane. (correct form) I only want to buy some milk. beautifully. degree. furthest least best 4. not long. later. etc. each subcategory deals with specific characteristics/circumstances. When today. 47 . (clear meaning) Aunt Jane who had been ill recently came to town. fluently. and probability. restrictive adverbs. but some "when" adverbs can be put in other positions to give a different emphasis. who had recently been ill. and how often. Manner Adverbs of manner name an entire. (correct form) The adverbs of manner are further sub-classified in: adverbs of quality. but also for how long. yearly "When" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence: Goldilocks went to the Bears' house yesterday. negation. intensifier adverbs. (this is a common mistake in spoken English) I did it just for a joke. now. global category of adverbs. ! Although the position of the adverbs within the sentence structure is very important to create accentuations. Some adverbs of manner are: slowly. came to town. (here recently may very well qualify the verb "came". amount. adverbs of quantity.

use them in this order: 1-'how long'. it is used in positive sentences and questions. (= simple negative statement) Haven't you finished yet? (= expressing slight surprise) . since 1997. !When a frequency adverb is placed at the end of a sentence it is much stronger. 3-'when' (think of 'low') 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year. He visits his mother once a week. (the time is more important) Goldilocks later ate some porridge. (= simple negative answer) They haven't met him yet. for two centuries. (after the auxiliary have and before the main verb forgotten) Some other "how often" adverbs express the exact number of times an action happens and are usually placed at the end of the sentence: This magazine is published monthly. (before the main verb) You must always fasten your seat belt. 2-'how often'. like a policeman's report) Goldilocks ate some porridge later.Compare: Later Goldilocks ate some porridge. (after the auxiliary must) She is never sea-sick. and is placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs (such as be. 1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year. 'Yet' and 'still' . might. will) I am still hungry. She is still waiting for you If you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence. not yet. (this is more formal. and is placed at the end of the sentence or after not. Have you finished your work yet? (= a simple request for information) No. Compare: She regularly visits France.yet is used in questions and in negative sentences. for several years. 1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year. 48 . "How often" adverbs expressing the frequency of an action are usually placed before the main verb but after auxiliary verbs (such as be. have. may. My mother lived in France for a year 'For' is always followed by an expression of duration: for three days. 'Since' is always followed by an expression of a point in time: since Monday.(after the auxiliary is) I have never forgotten my first kiss. no particular emphasis) "For how long" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence: She stayed in the Bears' house all day. (this is neutral.still expresses continuity. She visits France regularly. have. (before the main verb) He never drinks milk. for a week. since the last war. must): I often eat vegetarian food.

Frequency Adverbs of Frequency answer the question "How often?" or "How frequently?" They tell us how often somebody does something. up. John eats meat very seldom. abroad. rarely..after the main verb: I looked everywhere. over here. onwards. indoors. frequently and usually can also go at the beginning or end of a sentence Rarely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with "very"): We see them rarely. were): Susan is never late. or not with the speaker: Put it there (= away from me) It's in there (= go by yourself to see it) .are placed at the beginning of the sentence in exclamations or when emphasis is needed. along. Are adverbs of frequency: always. Occasionally. down. up here. regularly. . southwards.): Here it is! (followed by the pronoun) There she goes! (followed by the pronoun) Most common adverbs of place also function as prepositions. down. under. occasionally. homewards. outdoors. up.. . over. usually. downhill. often. behind. she. is (was. under here. around. Other adverbs of place: ending in '-wards'. sometimes. Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb (except the main verb "to be"): I have often done that. Examples: about. The position of these adverbs is: . ! 'Towards' is a preposition. forwards. by.6. inwards. in. never. round. sometimes. he etc. outwards.after the object: They built a house nearby. eastwards. overseas. Location Adverbs of place tell us where something happens. John looked away. . normally. 7. 'Here' and 'there' With verbs of movement. through.45.after a form of to be am. across.before the main verb: I always get up at 6. here means towards or with the speaker: Come here (= towards me) It's in here (= come with me to see it) There means away from. expressing movement in a particular direction: backwards. downwards. are. She is always late. . under there.are followed by the verb if the subject is a noun: Here comes the bus. not an adverb. over there. 49 . They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object: . so it is always followed by a noun or a pronoun Expressing both movement and location: ahead. around. sideways. seldom. westwards. She took the child outside. up there. (followed by the verb) or by a pronoun if this is the subject (it. upwards.are combined with prepositions to make many common adverbial phrases: down here. uphill. off. down there. northwards. on. often.

Such is the nature of an Adverb-Clause-of-Purpose. it means the speaker thinks something is true. just. In the following sentences you can see the Adverb Clauses of Purpose: Sleep well lest you will not write your exam very well. In order to. He was invited to the function in order to show him how wonderfully this function has been organized. an adjective or another adverb. Let us go now itself so that we can catch the train. In order that. these adverbs go between the auxiliary and the main verb: He has certainly forgotten the meeting. He drew the sword so that he could defend himself. In this sentence also the purpose for giving the map has been noted in the sentence in the form of an adverbclause. nearly. definitely. ! `surely`. Common adverbs of certainty: certainly.8. Common adverbs of degree: almost. but is looking for confirmation: Surely you've got a bicycle? 10. When it is placed at the beginning of the sentence. 9. Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of the sentence: Undoubtedly. 50 . quite. Come here so that I could bless you. completely.before the adjective or adverb they are modifying: The water was extremely cold. surely Adverbs of certainty go before the main verb but after the verb 'to be': He definitely left the house this morning. He will probably remember tomorrow. too. Adverbs of degree are usually placed: . Winston Churchill was a great politician. That means the verb ‘eat’ is addressing the purpose. Such an Adverb Clause of Purpose will begin with: So that. Certainty These adverbs express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event. With other auxiliary verb. hardly. Degree Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action. undoubtedly. extremely. Purpose The Adverb Clause of Purpose may indicate the purpose which the verb may address: We have to eat so that we may live. enough. He is probably in the park. Here the Adverb-Clause ‘so that we can live’ is the purpose for which we eat. very. probably. scarcely. Lest Example: I will give you a map so that you can find the way to your relative’s house. He was extra polite to his superiors lest something adverse should be written into his records.

when They are usually placed at the beginning of a question.. pretty.it also goes before nouns. ..if we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb. but also. and means 'as much as is necessary'. hardly. especially. depending on the adjective or adverb that follows: Positive: The teacher was rather nice. fairly. (adverb) `Enough` and `too` with adjectives can be followed by 'for someone/something' : The coffee was too hot for me. ! There is a big difference between too and very.. not especially. Interrogative These are: why. scarcely. (adverb) .goes after adjectives and adverbs: Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective) He didn't work hard enough. . or not very: The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautiful. `How` can be used in four different ways: . He worked slowly OR He didn't work very quickly. not only . than.. (adverb) . Negative: The film was rather disappointing. how. rather.`very` expresses a fact: He speaks very quickly.goes before adjectives and adverbs: This coffee is too hot. not until. ! `rather` can be positive or negative. (adjective) He works too hard. quite.before the main verb: He was just leaving. . (adjective) He worked very quickly. not particularly. Other adverbs and adverbial expressions that can be used like this: seldom.. we can use a word of opposite meaning.. She has almost finished.`too` suggests there is a problem: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand). Too as an adverb meaning 'more than is necessary or useful' .meaning 'in what way?': How did you make this sauce? How do you start the car? 51 . You're too young to have children! Very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger: The girl was very beautiful. The dress was too small… We can also use 'to + infinitive' after enough and too with adjectives/adverb: The coffee was too hot to drink. no sooner .. rather. particularly... Enough as an adverb meaning 'to the necessary degree'. In this case it is not an adverb. They don't have enough food. Other adverbs like very: extremely. but a 'determiner': We have enough bread. under no circumstances… 11. where.

the double negative can be eliminated by omitting or altering one of the 52 . but a clause containing two negative words expressed an affirmative meaning. For each of the above examples. The relative adverb where will begin a clause that modifies a noun of place: My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be minister.." A when clause will modify nouns of time: My favorite month is always February. He never told nobody the secret. In the case of a clause with two negative words.with adjectives: How tall are you? . Relative Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by what are called the relative adverbs: where. such as never. when. And a why clause will modify the noun reason: Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today? We sometimes leave out the relative adverb in such clauses. and why. so that an affirmative meaning results.with much and many: How much are these tomatoes? How many people are coming to the party? . The relative pronoun "where" modifies the verb "used to be" (which makes it adverbial). there is a rule that a clause containing one negative word expresses a negative meaning. it is considered that one of these words negates the other. when we celebrate Valentine's Day and Presidents' Day. However. clauses containing two negative words may be used to express a negative meaning: I'm not saying nothing about it. Although the entire clause is adjectival and will modify a noun. not and nowhere. such as hardly. and many writers prefer "that" to "why" in a clause referring to "reason": Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today? I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.with other adverbs: How quickly can you read this? How often do you go to London? 12. as well as adverbs with an implied negative meaning. but the entire clause ("where my great grandfather used to be minister") modifies the word "church. I know the reason that men like motorcycles. scarcely and seldom. the relative word itself fulfills an adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own clause). 13. this use of the double negative is considered to be grammatically incorrect in standard English. In modern English. In some dialects of English. Negative Negative adverbs include adverbs with an explicit negative meaning. The presence of two negative words in a clause is referred to as a double negative.

Some common Commenting adverbs: definitely. ideally. certainly. obviously. obviously. (= this is my frank. economically. or He never told anybody the secret. personally. Similarly. Viewpoint and commenting Adverbs of Viewpoint Frankly. confidentially. simply. surely. (= from a theoretical point of view but there may be another way of looking at the situation) These adverbs are placed at the beginning of the sentence and are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. 53 . or I'm not saying anything about it. I think he is a liar. surprisingly. and often the same words. officially.after the verb to be and before the main verb. honest opinion) Theoretically. but they go in a different position . Adverbs of Commenting These are very similar to viewpoint adverbs. Thus. clearly. Some common Viewpoint adverbs: honestly. undoubtedly. 14. seriously. the meaning of the first example could be correctly expressed by either of the following sentences: I'm saying nothing about it. the meaning of the second example could be correctly expressed by either of the following sentences: He told nobody the secret.negative words. you should pay a fine.

. the last chapter. 'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a.before superlatives and ordinal numbers: the highest building. a car. an opera ! ‘An’ before an h mute .to refer to something for the first time: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. . a unit. My house is the one with a blue door. 2. an honor.with decades. the world. they do not change according to the gender or number of the noun they refer to e. Which car did you scratch? The red one. He wants to be a dancer. THE . . Mary is training to be an engineer. the woman.in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object: The man who wrote this book is famous. .with adjectives.e. ‘A’ before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a European. an apple. Indefinite A / AN . . and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose. the old. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk.an hour.with nationalities and religions: John is an Englishman.when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about. the first page.use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels). . a university.o. .with names of geographical areas and oceans: the Caribbean.g. even if it has not been mentioned before: Where's the bathroom? It's on the first floor. 54 .VI ARTICLE 1. a house. or groups of years: she grew up in the seventies. Kate is a Catholic. an orange.refer to something which has already been mentioned: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. Definite Articles in English are invariable.i. the Sahara.u) Examples: a boy. That is. . the children. .to refer to objects we regard as unique: the sun.with names of jobs: John is a doctor. to refer to a whole group of people: the Japanese. . Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job. the boy. the moon. the Atlantic.

for weekend: at the weekend .marking the beginning and end of a period of time: from Monday to/till Friday Till / until By . ! We usually say a hundred.referring to a single object or person: I'd like an orange and two lemons please. after the words 'what' and 'such': What a shame! She's such a beautiful girl..from a certain point of time (past till now): since 1980 .in the sense of at the latest: I will be back by 6 o'clock. .to refer to a kind of. . They never change their form.months / seasons: in August / in winter . I had read five pages.for night: at night .up to a certain time: By 11 o'clock. the elephant had a long trunk .a certain time in the past: 2 years ago .after a certain period of time (when?): in an hour .telling the time: ten to six (5:50) . .over a certain period of time (past till now): for 2 years . or example of something: the mouse had a tiny nose.a certain point of time (when?): at half past nine .earlier than a certain point of time: before 2004 . gender etc.with singular nouns.time of day: in the morning . Most often they come before a noun. VII PREPOSITION Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns.with names of days: I was born on a Thursday. 1. Time On In .year: in 2006 . . of the word they are referring to.with musical instruments: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived. a thousand. 55 . The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting. pronouns and other words in a sentence. That we use 'one' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers: We've got six computers but only one printer. . a million.days of the week: on Monday . regardless of the case.in the sense of how long something is going to last: He is on holiday until Friday.telling the time: ten past six (6:10) At Since For Ago Before To Past To / till / until .

building.for events: at a concert.next to. etc: in the kitchen. at the party .2. in London -book.movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it): go 5 steps towards the house .overcoming an obstacle: climb over the wall .movement to person or building: go to the cinema . paper.being on a surface: on the table . etc. but not directly over it: a path above the lake .enter a room / a building: go into the kitchen / the house .for television. at the station . etc: in the car. . in the world . beside Under Below Over .getting to the other side (also over): walk across the bridge .car. taxi. on the radio -left or right of somebody or something: Jane is standing by / next to / beside the car. street. on a plane .for a certain side (left. world.getting to the other side (also across): walk over the bridge . right): on the left . work): at the cinema. town.: in the book . next to. by an object: at the door. At school.on the ground.for public transport: on the bus.picture. at .place: where you are to do something typical (watch a film.covered by something else: put a jacket over your shirt .movement to a place or country: go to London / Ireland . lower than (or covered by) something else: the bag is under the table .meaning more than: over 16 years of age .room.for a floor in a house: on the first floor . country.lower than something else but above ground: the fish are below the surface .for a place with a river: London lies on the Thames.getting to the other side: swim across the lake .higher than something else.attached: the picture on the wall . in a taxi . study.movement to the top of something: jump onto the table .in the sense of where from: a flower from the garden 56 Above Across Through To Into Towards Onto From . at work On By.for bed: go to bed . bottom and the sides: drive through the tunnel .something with limits on top. radio: on TV.for table: at the table . etc: in the picture. Location In .

is usually used to state that someone or something is in a place that is enclosed or within boundaries: in the city. Position Place prepositions . . . . at the table .in the general direction of: We were driving towards the city center when we had an accident.is usually used to state something or someone is at a specific place: at the mall. On on the wall.a destination on something: He put the plate onto the table and began to eat his dinner. are prepositions that are used to describe the place or position of all types of nouns. .in a circular direction: I've driven around this neighborhood three times and I still can’t find . Could you give this DVD to Jill. a person or an object: She ran away from home when she was sixteen. .descending motion expressing a final destination: The child fell down to the ground.leaving a place.is usually used to state someone or something is on top of a surface: on the table. At Away from Down Down to For Egypt. please.ascending. In . Into Onto Out of .having the view or destination of : The Israelites set out for The Promised Land when they left To . And hurry! This is an emergency. please? Towards Up Up to top of the tree. . on the floor. expressing specific destination: You'll be able to reach the cat if you climb up to the 4. . .in the (general) direction of: The little boy threw a stone at the little girl. It is common for the preposition to be placed before the noun.3.a destination outside of something: He ran out of the room as if he were on fire. At the work.in the specific direction of: To the hospital. Direction Around their house. in the park. .descending motion: Raindrops ran down the windscreen making it difficult to see the road. in the box.a destination within something: The frightened deer disappeared into the forest. . . . at 57 . in a general motion: The smoke from the fire went up into the sky.ascending.

Use 'tell' when you say who was being spoken to (i. Direct speech." Reported speech is usually used to talk about the past. Use 'say' when there is no indirect object: He said that he was tired. Examples: She said.. She told him she was happy. 'Talk' and 'speak' are used . Subject–Verb and negation–Indirect object–Direct object–Place–Time: I’ll not tell you the story at school 2. and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. 58 .VIII SYNTAX 1. We use reporting verbs like 'say'. or telling someone later about a previous conversation. When we use direct speech in writing. 'ask'. with an indirect object): He told me that he was tired. 'tell'. we place the words spoken between inverted commas (".. Examples: She says "What time will you be home?" She said "What time will you be home?" and I said "I don't know! " "There's a fly in my soup!" screamed Simone. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation). John said. She was speaking on the telephone.to describe the action of communicating: He talked to us. Inverted commas are not used. so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. "There's an elephant outside the window. Subject–Verb–Indirect object–Direct object–Place–Time: I’ll tell you the story at school tomorrow. Sentence structure Word order Positive: Negative: tomorrow. or quotes. 'That' may be omitted: She told him that she was happy. Subject–Verb–Object: I speak English..") and there is no change in these words. the exact words spoken. Reported speech Direct speech repeats.e." -> She said that she had seen him. "I saw him.

Type 2. The “zero”. Type 1 . Conditional Continuous She said that she would be using the car next…. the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present: ‘If’ clause (condition) If + Simple Present If you heat ice Main clause (result) Simple Present it melts. She said that she might bring a friend to the party. Present Perfect Continuous -> They complained. He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one. or if the original statement was about something that is still true. "We have been waiting 4 h". the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech: She said. Present Perfect "I have been to Spain". he said.g. he said. Present Continuous -> "I am reading a book". Present Conditional He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday. "I am tired. Past Perfect He explained that he had just turned out the light. should. Future Continuous -> She said. Past continuous -> "We were living in Paris". -> Past Perfect -> "I had just turned out the light. -> Simple Past She said that she always drank coffee. 59 . she said. e. Future -> "I will be in Geneva on Monday". Simple Present "I always drink coffee"." he explained. Type 3 In ‘zero’ conditional sentences." -> She said that she was tired.with 'about' to refer to what was said: He talked (to us) about his parents. "I'll be using the car next Friday". Past Perfect He told me that he had been to Spain.g. Note . Simple Past -> "Bill arrived on Saturday". Past perfect continuous They told me that they had been living in Paris. We explained that it could be difficult to find our house. . Conditional sentences(clauses). We explained that it is very difficult to find our house. ought to.you do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in the present. he explained. he told me. Past Continuous He explained that he was reading a book. they told me. Tense changes when using reported speech Normally. Past Perfect He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday. 3. would.these modal verbs do not change in reported speech: might. e.. could. Past Perfect Continuous They complained that they had been waiting 4 h.

the time is the present or future and the situation is real. Nobody will notice if you make a mistake. I'll finish that letter. They are based on facts. Examples: If you freeze water. 60 . In these sentences. This structure is often used to give instructions. and about particular situations.If it rains you get wet. If public transport is efficient. it is theoretically possible to fulfill a condition which is given in the if-clause. What will you do if you miss the plane? In a Type 2 conditional sentences. I'll call the police. it will break. tell him to meet me at the cinema! Ask Pete if you're not sure what to do! In a Type 1 conditional sentences. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result. it becomes a solid. the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple present. They are used to make statements about the real world. The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence: If I studied. and the tense in the main clause is the simple future: ‘If’ clause (condition) If + Simple Present If it rains If you don't hurry Main clause (result) Simple Future you will get wet. and they are used to make statements about the real world. I might pass the exams. the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. I would pass the exams. Plants die if they don't get enough water. If you don't drop the gun. I usually catch it. we will miss the train In these sentences. ‘If’ clause (condition) Simple Past If I studied If I studied If I studied Main clause (result) {would + infinitive or could + infinitive or might + infinitive} I would pass the exams. I might have passed the exams. such as scientific facts. I could pass the exams. I would pass the exams if I studied. I could have passed the exams. people stop using their cars. using the imperative in the main clause: If Bill phones. I'll shoot! Examples: If you drop that glass. and often refer to general truths. If my husband has a cold. In a Type 3 conditional sentences. ‘If’clause (condition) Past Perfect If I had studied If I had studied If I had studied Main clause (result) {would + have + past participle or could + have + past participle or might + have + past participle} I would have passed the exams. We often use such sentences to give warnings: If you don't leave. it is impossible to fulfill a condition which is given in the if-clause. If I have time.

Present If she had enough money. I would have passed the ex. I would be in then. Past I would have planned a trip to Vancouver... Future -> If I were taking this exam next week.(Unless + present): You'll be sick unless you stop eating. Future I would be spending my vacation in Seattle. I wouldn't have phoned him unless you'd suggested it. that is. (= If you don't provide them I won't pay) You'll never understand English unless you study this grammar carefully. Type 3. Like ‘if’. 5.. I wouldn't eat that food unless I was really hungry. (= You will be sick if you don't stop eating) I won't pay unless you provide the goods immediately. Past -> Future If I’d known that you’re going to come by tomorrow. Present I would be high-strung. Past If I had taken an aspirin. he would be at work. company 61 . They would have shot her unless she'd given them the money. a past tense or a past perfect (never by 'would'). ‘Unless’ Unless means the same as ‘if. (= You'll never understand if you don't study. the time of the if clause is different from the one of the main clause.) Type 2.not’. I would have passed the exams if I had stud. Mixed conditional sentences Unreal conditionals (type II + III) sometimes can be mixed.The if-clause can be at the beginning or at the end of the sentence: If I had studied.(Unless + past perfect): Our marketing director would not have signed the contract unless she'd had the legal expert present. Present If I were you. -> -> Past she could have done this trip to Hawaii. it is followed by a present tense. Future -> If I weren't flying to Detroit. 4. -> Present I wouldn't have a headache now. She would be here by now unless she was stuck in the traffic.. It is used instead of if + not in conditional sentences of all types: Type 1.(Unless + past): Unless he was very ill.

they would have many problems. but we can imagine the result!) Supposing I had given that man my money! (I didn't.. Unreal past The past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an 'unreal' situation.' Expressions like 'if' can be used to introduce hypothetical situations. we use the verb to wish followed by the past perfect: I wish I hadn't said that (= but I did) He wishes he hadn't bought the car (= but he did buy it. We call this use the unreal past. When we want to talk about a course of action we would prefer someone else to take. if only. but we are not referring to the past. If only I hadn't kissed the frog (= I did and it was a mistake because he turned into a horrible prince. what if). Although fell is in the past tense. so I'm stuck in Bristol) !When we want to talk about situations we are not happy about and where we want someone else to change them. 62 . we use I'd rather + past tense: I'd rather you went He'd rather you called the police I'd rather you didn't hunt elephants. we are talking about a hypothetical situation that might exist now or at any time.6. we are usually talking about the present: e. I want him to change it) I wish you would go away.) What if the elephant had trodden on the mouse? (She didn't. ‘supposing’. (= but I haven't). after the expression 'I'd rather. after the verb 'to wish'.g. but I can't change it now. (= I don't like it. (= I don't want you here.) ‘I'd rather’ and ‘it's time’ are also followed by an unreal past.) The verb ‘to wish’ is followed by an unreal past tense when we want to talk about situations in the present that we are not happy about but cannot change: I wish I had more money (=but I haven't) She wishes she was beautiful (= but she's not) We wish we could come to your party (but we can't) When we want to talk about situations in the past that we are not happy about or actions that we regret. we use to wish followed by would + infinitive: I wish he would stop smoking. I want you to take some action) I wish you wouldn't squeeze the toothpaste from the middle! (= I want you to change your habits. The verb is in the past tense. So. These expressions can also introduce hypothetical situations in the past and then they are followed by the past perfect.) I wish I had taken that job in New York (= but I didn't. Other situations where this occurs are: after other words and expressions like 'if' (supposing. although the tense is the past. but the situation is in the present. so I've still got my money now. ‘if only’. in a Type 2 conditional sentence: If an elephant and a mouse fell in love. ‘what if’ are followed by a past tense to indicate that the condition they introduce is unreal: Supposing an elephant and a mouse fell in love? (= but we know this is unlikely or impossible) What if we painted the room purple? (= that would be very surprising) If only I had more money.

or omit the pronoun completely: The doctor whom/who/that/ I was hoping to see wasn't on duty.. ‘Whom’ is very formal and is only used in written English. when we want to say that now is a suitable moment to do something. It was the best film that I've ever seen. Relative clauses There are two different types of relative clause: a "defining" or identifying clause. Example: The farmer (his name was Fred) sold us some potatoes. This is very common in spoken English. -> The farmer. It's time you paid that bill. Examples: There's something that you should know. either for ourselves or for someone else. everything. subject relative pronoun verb + rest of relative verb + rest of main clause of main clause cause ! ‘Who’. You can use who/that.you must use commas with a non-defining clause. Obviously. As the name suggests. It is important to see the difference between the two types of clause. which gives us more information about the person or thing we are talking about.the punctuation . ‘whom’ and ‘which’ can be replaced by ‘that’. but it is clear that we are only talking about the ones that like cats. we use it's time + past tense: It's (high) time I went. this is only necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved.the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause. The relative pronoun can be omitted when it is the object of the clause: The woman that the man loved was living in New York. . A tree whose leaves have fallen. The following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses: Subject Object Possessive Person who/ that who/ whom/ that whose Thing which/ that which/ that whose Place / Time where/ when where/ when where/ when Reason why why why ! The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun. these clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Has anyone seen the book I was reading? 63 . Noun. nothing. whose name was Fred.. which tells us which person or thing we are talking about. as it affects: . Defining relative clauses. all.Similarly. In this sentence we understand that there are many dogs. That normally follows words like something. anything.). Don't you think it's time you had a haircut? 7. and superlatives. A clown is someone who makes you laugh. This kind of clause could often be information included in brackets (. Example: Dogs that like cats are very unusual. sold us some potatoes. ‘Whose’ is used for things as well as for people: The man whose car was stolen. This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence: The woman who/ that spoke at the meeting was very knowledgeable. a "non-defining" or non-essential clause.

even when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause: He gave me the letter. (He went to the same school as me) My friend John.it is additional information). but it does not help us to identify them or it. you cannot use 'that' instead of who. many of which were broken. Gorillas. which was in a blue envelope. (This tells us which dogs we are talking about). which are large and originate in Africa. not just one type or group). The important information is the number of grandchildren.we are talking about all gorillas. whom or which. You cannot leave out the relative pronoun. It tells us more about someone or something. who went to the same school as me. and he only has one. He was carrying his belongings. The information in these clauses is not essential. (This gives us some extra information about gorillas . He gave me the letter. many of whom I had known for years. Punctuation: are always separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Compare: Dogs that like cats are very unusual. 64 . (We know who John's mother is. Non-defining relative clauses .Nothing that anyone does can replace my lost bag. Relative pronouns in non-defining clauses: Person who who/ whom whose Thing which which where Place Subject Object Possessive ! In non-defining clauses. has just written a best-selling novel. which I read immediately Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like: …. John's mother. who lives in Scotland. but the fact that she lives in Scotland might be followed with the words "by the way" . can sometimes be found in zoos. has 6 grandchildren. the commas have a similar function to brackets: My friend John has just written a best-selling novel.+ whom + which Person all of Any of (a) few of Both of Each of Either of Half of Many of Most of Much of None of One of Two of Examples: There were a lot of people at the party.

who explained the problem. I've just met Susan. A socialist and a conservative agreed on the new law. most of which he had read. can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the sentence. Examples: My grandmother. The old man looked at the tree. whose husband works in London. Chris did really well in his exams. I spoke to Fred. He had thousands of books. (= the fact that they agreed is unusual). which we'd never been into. rather than to just one word. which is most unusual. which was a big surprise.The relative pronoun which at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause. 65 . came from the North of England. under which he had often sat. She's studying mats. (= the fact that he did well in his exams was a big surprise). We stopped at the museum. which many people hate. who is dead now.

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