India at a Glance

BACKGROUND
India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress 0during the last 62 years of its Independence. India has become self-sufficient in agricultural production and is now one of the top industrialized countries in the world and one of the few nations to have gone into outer space to conquer nature for the benefit of the people. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km, extending from the snow-covered Himalayan heights to the tropical rain forests of the south. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west. Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' north, longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

GEOGRAPHY
Geographical information about India Particulars Location Description The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south. Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7' and 97° 25' longitudes east of it. Standard GMT + 05:30 3.3 Million sq. km Country +91

Geographic Coordinates Indian Time Area Telephone Code

Border Countries

Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons: i. ii. iii. iv. winter (December-February) summer (March-June) south-west monsoon season (June-September) post monsoon season (October-November)

Coastline Climate

Terrain

The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula. Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc. Monsoon floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides. - Air pollution control, energy conservation, solid waste management, oil and gas conservation, forest conservation, etc. - Rio Declaration on environment and development, Cartagena Protocol on biosafety, Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on climatic change, World Trade Agreement, Helsinki Protocol to LRTAP on the reduction of sulphur emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes (Nox Protocol), and Geneva Protocol to LRTAP concerning the control of emissions of volatile organic compounds or their transboundary fluxes (VOCs Protocol). India occupies a major portion of the south Asian subcontinent.

Natural Resources

Natural Hazards Environment Current Issues Environment International Agreements

Geography - Note

PEOPLE

Information about Indian Citizens Particulars Population Population Growth Rate Birth Rate Death Rate Description India's population, as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,028 million (532.1 million males and 496.4 million females). The average annual exponential growth rate stands at 1.93 per cent during 1991-2001. The Crude Birth rate according to the 2001 census is 24.8 The Crude Death rate according to the 2001 census is 8.9

Life Expectancy 63.9 years (Males); 66.9 years (Females) (As of Sep 2005) Rate Sex Ratio Nationality Ethnic Groups Religions 933 according to the 2001 census Indian All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India. According to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1,028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others. There are 22 different languages that have been recognised by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. Article 343(3) empowered Parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for official purposes. According to the provisional results of the 2001 census, the literacy rate in the Country stands at 64.84 per cent, 75.26% for males and 53.67% for females.

Languages

Literacy

GOVERNMENT
Information about Indian Government Particulars Country Name Description Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya

Government Type Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. Capital Administrative Divisions Independence Constitution Legal System Executive Branch New Delhi 28 States and 7 Union Territories. 15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule) The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country. The President of India is the Head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry. The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament. The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts. The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath. 26th January (Republic 15th August (Independence 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday) Day) Day)

Legislative Branch Judicial Branch Flag Description

National Days

PHYSICAL BACKGROUND
Physical Features
The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula. The Himalayas comprise three almost parallel ranges interspersed with large plateaus and valleys, some of which, like the Kashmir and Kullu valleys, are fertile, extensive and of great scenic beauty. Some of the highest peaks in the world are found in these ranges. The high altitudes admit travel only to a few passes, notably the Jelep La and Nathu La on the main Indo-Tibet trade route through the Chumbi Valley, north-east of Darjeeling and Shipki La in the Satluj valley, north-east of Kalpa (Kinnaur). The mountain wall extends over a distance of about 2,400 km with a varying depth of 240 to 320 km. In the east, between India and Myanmar and India and Bangladesh, hill ranges are much lower. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills, running almost east-west, join the chain to Mizo and Rkhine Hills running north-south. The plains of the Ganga and the Indus, about 2,400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad, are formed by basins of three distinct river systems - the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. They are one of the world's greatest stretches of flat alluvium and also one of the most densely populated areas on the earth. Between the Yamuna at Delhi and the Bay of Bengal, nearly 1,600 km away, there is a drop of only 200 metres in elevation. The desert region can be divided into two parts - the great desert and the little desert. The great desert extends from the edge of the Rann of Kuchch beyond the Luni River northward. The whole of the Rajasthan-Sind frontier runs through this. The little desert extends from the Luni between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur up to the northern wastes. Between the great and the little deserts lies a zone of absolutely sterile country, consisting of rocky land cut up by limestone ridges. The Peninsular Plateau is marked off from the plains of the Ganga and the Indus by a mass of mountain and hill ranges varying from 460 to 1,220 metres in height. Prominent among these are the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala and Ajanta. The Peninsula is flanked on the one side by the Eastern Ghats where average elevation is about 610 metres and on the other by the Western Ghats where it is generally from 915 to 1,220 metres, rising in places to over 2,440 metres. Between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip, while between Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal there is a broader coastal area. The southern point of plateau is formed by the

and may be grouped into three regions: the Himalayas and their associated group of mountains. rises near Mansarovar in Tibet and flows through India. the sediments and the basement rocks rose to great heights. the Beas. and thereafter through Pakistan. During the monsoon months. the Indo-Ganga Plain. Most of them are of an ephemeral character. Deccan rivers. and the Peninsular Shield. Most of them are non-perennial. The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats. Most of this area. The Peninsula is a region of relative stability and occasional seismic disturbances. Highly metamorphosed rocks of the earliest periods. Many of these are nonperennial. continuously flow throughout the year. The streams of inland drainage basin of western Rajasthan are few. The Deccan Rivers on the other hand are rain fed and therefore fluctuate in volume. and finally falls in the Arabian Sea near Karachi. now presenting some of the most magnificent mountain scenery in the world. lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap formation and younger sediments. The weathering and erosive agencies worked on these to produce the relief seen today. The Indus. The Coastal streams. and Rivers of the inland drainage basin. The Himalayan mountain belt to the north and the Naga-Lushai mountain in the east. was under marine conditions about 600 million years ago. the Ravi. and the . which is one of the great rivers of the world.Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the Western Ghats meet. Its important tributaries flowing in Indian Territory are the Sutlej (originating in Tibet). Himalayas receive very heavy rainfall and rivers swell. Rivers The rivers of India can be classified into four groups viz. Coastal rivers. especially on the west coast are short in length and have limited catchment's areas. dating back as far as 380 crore years. the Chenab. are the regions of mountain-building movement. the rest being covered by the coastal-bearing Gondwana formations. causing frequent floods.. Himalayan rivers. occur in the area. The Himalayan Rivers are formed by melting snow and glaciers and therefore. The main Himalayan river systems are those of the Indus and the Ganga-BrahmaputraMeghna system. Geological Structure The geological regions broadly follow the physical features. The Indo-Ganga plains are a great alluvial tract that separates the Himalayas in the north from the Peninsula in the south. In a series of mountain-building movements commencing about 70 million years ago.

Mahanadi. Dhansiri. there are the Desert Rivers which flow for some distance and are lost in the desert. Banas and Ghaggar. and of the Kaveri in the south. and finally falls into Ganga. The Padma and the Brahmaputra join inside Bangladesh. Below Rajmahal hills. There are numerous coastal rivers. the Mahananda and the Sone are the important tributaries of the Ganga. Uttar Pradesh. the Kosi. The Barak River. Saraswati. Rupen. and West Bengal. In the Deccan region. Katakhal. while the Padma continues eastward and enters Bangladesh. The major east flowing rivers are Godavari. Trang. . Cauvery. Barak continues in Bangladesh till the combined Ganga-Brahmaputra join it near Bhairab Bazar. The important tributaries of the river are Makku. the Ghaghra. etc. while the Mahanadi has the third largest basin. flowing to the Arabian Sea. falling into the Bay of Bengal are about the same size. Narmada and Tapti are major West flowing rivers. Besides these. the Bhagirathi. Bihar.. which join Yamuna before it meets the Ganga. Rivers Chambal and Betwa are the important sub-tributaries. The principal tributaries of Brahmaputra in India are the Subansiri. which are comparatively small. takes off. The Yamuna. Sonai. A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. It crosses into Bangladesh downstream of Dhubri. the Gandak. which join at Dev Prayag to form the Ganga. It traverses through Uttarakhand. though with different character and shape. Machhu. where it is known as Tsangpo and runs a long distance till it crosses over into India in Arunachal Pradesh under the name of Dihang. Near Passighat. Jia Bhareli. there are as many as 600 such rivers on the west coast. rises in the hills in Manipur.Jhelum. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet. Rukni. Pagladiya and the Manas. and continue to flow as the Padma or Ganga. the Ramganga. Jiri. Dhaleswari. The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna is another important system of which the principal sub-basins are those of Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda. etc. which used to be the main course in the past. While only handful of such rivers drain into the sea near the delta of east cost. Maduva and Jatinga. Langachini. They drain into salt lakes and get lost in sand with no outlet to sea. The basin of the Narmada in the uplands of the Deccan. These are Luni and others such as. most of the major river systems flowing generally in east direction fall into Bay of Bengal. The Brahmaputra in Bangladesh receives the flow of Tista. the Head stream of Meghna. Next to it is the Krishna basin in the region. Puthimari. Tuivai. the Debang and Lohit join the river Brahmaputra and the combined river runs all along the Assam in a narrow valley. The Godavari in the southern Peninsula has the second largest river basin covering 10 per cent of the area of India. Krishna.

Many conifers. Malabar and the Andamans. The temperate zone has forests of oaks. rainy southwestern monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon. Flora With a wide range of climatic conditions from the torrid to the arctic. junipers and dwarf willows also occur here. Its temperate zone is rich in forests of chir. forests of deodar.Climate The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. which only a few countries of comparable size possess. known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean. blue pine. whereas south-west monsoon. sugarcane and rice. There are four seasons: i. iv. Only small areas support forests of widely differing types. winter (January-February). the Indus plain. Assam. and the Bay of Bengal. namely. pine. The Deccan region comprises the entire . the western Himalayas. the eastern Himalayas. also known as northeast monsoon in the southern Peninsula (October-December). occasional thick clumps of bamboos and tall grasses. silver birch and junipers.the northeast monsoon and the southwest monsoon. It is dry and hot and supports natural vegetation. the Deccan. maples. The alpine zone extends from the upper limit of the temperate zone of about 4. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during a year in the country. western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat. The Indus plain region comprises the plains of Punjab. ii. The Western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon. spruce and silver fir occur. The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjeeling. rhododendrons. other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. Higher up. alder and birch. commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea. The characteristic trees of this zone are high-level silver fir. the Ganga plain. laurels. hot weather summer (March-May). the Arabian Sea. The Assam region comprises the Brahmaputra and the Surma valleys with evergreen forests. The Ganga plain region covers the area which is alluvial plain and is under cultivation for wheat. iii. The north-east monsoon. India can be divided into eight distinct-floristic-regions.750 metres or even higher. India's climate is affected by two seasonal winds . Kurseong and the adjacent tract. India has a rich and varied vegetation.

BSI brings out an inventory of endangered plants in the form of a publication titled Red Data Book. A scientific study of such plants has been made by BSI. Sikkim.336 plant species are considered vulnerable and endangered. pisces. pepper. beach and diluvia forests. with a large number of plants which are not found elsewhere. Possessing a tremendous diversity of climate and physical conditions. Bhutan. Besides being rich in forest vegetation. More than 800 plant species of ethno-botanical interest have been collected and identified at different centres. About 20 species of higher plants are categorised as possibly extinct as these have not been sighted during the last 6-10 decades.000 species. the gaur or Indian bison .451 species. Kolkata. which forms the conspicuous vegetation cover. reptilia.000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). A number of detailed ethno-botanical explorations have been conducted in different tribal areas of the country. . Meghalaya and Nagaland and the Deccan Peninsula is rich in endemic flora. with its headquarters in Kolkata and 16 regional stations is responsible for surveying the faunal resources of India. industrial and urban development. such as coconut. more than 35 per cent is endemic and has so far not been reported anywhere in the world. anthropoda. which include protista.tableland of the Indian Peninsula and supports vegetation of various kinds from scrub jungles to mixed deciduous forests. numbering 89. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far. The Malabar region covers the excessively humid belt of mountain country parallel to the west coast of the Peninsula. India is rich in flora. coffee and tea. About 1. the gigantic wild sheep of the Himalayas. India has great variety of fauna. this region produces important commercial crops. aves and other invertebrates. comprises 15. betel nut. The flora of the country is being studied by the BSI and its nine circle/field offices located throughout the country along with certain universities and research institutions. Available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. Fauna The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI). The Andaman region abounds in evergreen. The mammals include the majestic elephant. The Himalayan region extending from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh through Nepal. the great Indian rhinoceros. members of protochordata. several Indian plants are facing extinction. 47. The vascular flora. mammalia. rubber and cashew nut. Ethno-botanical study deals with the utilisation of plants and plant products by ethnic races.the largest of existing bovines. Of these. mollusca. mangrove. Owing to destruction of forests for agricultural. amphibia.

The salt-water crocodile is found along the eastern coast and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Depletion of vegetative cover due to expansion of agriculture. Among the cats. Many other species of mammals are remarkable for their beauty. epidemics. the Indian antelope or black-buck . Several birds. ibex. Rivers and lakes harbour crocodiles and gharials. are also found. the snow leopard. like pheasants. shrew and tapir. The panda and the snow leopard are found in the upper reaches of the mountains. introduction of toxic imbalance in community structure. the tiger and lion are the most magnificent of all. grace and uniqueness. mynahs. ducks. has been instrumental in saving the crocodile from extinction. two species of fish. other splendid creatures such as the clouded leopard. and beetles are considered vulnerable and endangered. and a large number of butterflies. the marbled cat. geese. overexploitation. 17 species of reptiles. moth. pigeons. 72 species of birds. cranes. the four-horned antelope. nilgai. etc. colouring. the latter being the only representative of crocodilian order in the world. . started in 1974.. parakeets.the swamp deer. floods. droughts and cyclones. pollution. A project for breeding crocodiles.the only representatives of these genera. the thamin spotted deer. hornbills and sun birds inhabit forests and wetlands. The great Himalayan range has a very interesting variety of fauna that includes the wild sheep and goats. More than 39 species of mammals. contribute to the loss of flora and fauna. three species of amphibians. markhor. habitat destruction.

increased to reach 1. depending on the convenience of different States/UTs. The population of India as recorded at each decennial census from 1901 has grown steadily except for a decrease during 1911-21. The second phase. began simultaneously all over the country from February 9. National Identity Cards will be given in a phased manner to all usual residents by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner.79 million sq km. Population Enumeration. India accounts for a meagre 2.DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND Census Census 2011 marks a milestone in the history of Census the country. Yet.1 million males and 496. It will have the biometric data and Unique Identification (UID) Number of every person (15 years and above).028 million (532. The first phase. it supports and sustains a whopping 16.28 per cent and Sikkim with 33. In addition to Kerala.7 per cent of the world population. The basic benchmark statistics on the state of human resources. which at the turn of the twentieth century was around 238.53 in Nagaland. 2011. Population India's population as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1. Census 2011 was conducted in two phases. culture and economic structure at this crucial juncture will be vital to guide and shape the future course of the nation.4 per cent of the world surface area of 135. self-reliant and modern nation.06 per cent registered very high growth rates. The landmark of Census 2011 is the creation of the National Population Register (NPR) which will build up a comprehensive identity database of usual residents of the country. Delhi with 47. Chandigarh with 40. called the House Listing or Housing Census was conducted between April and September. The population of India. demography.43 in Kerala to a very high 64. 2010 across the country. India. . It has come at a time when India emerges as a strong.4 million.028 million at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh registered low growth rates during 1991-2001.4 million females). 2011 and continued up to February 28. The per cent decadal growth of population in the inter-censal period 1991-2001 varies from a low of 9.02 per cent.

and thereafter showed continuous decline until 1941.24 per cent and female literacy with 87. West Bengal is still the most thickly populated state with a population density of 903 in 2001. The population density of India in 2001 was 324 per sq km. It is defined as the number of persons per sq km.68 per cent) and females (33. Sex Ratio Sex ratio. is treated as literate. pushing Kerala to the third place. A person.72 per cent.84 per cent. The results of 2001 census reveal that there has been an increase in literacy in the country. as the number of females per thousand males. who can both read and write with understanding in any language. closely followed by Mizoram (88. Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons. Notes : Manipur figures exclude those of the three sub-divisions. a person aged seven and above. Bihar with a literacy rate of 47. children below five years of age were necessarily treated as illiterates.66 per cent). Mao Maram. The sex ratio in the country had always remained unfavourable to females. 75. The literacy rate in the country is 64.Population Density One of the important indices of population concentration is the density of population.00 per cent ranks last in the country preceded by Jharkhand (53. Kerala retained its position by being on top with a 90. On the contrary. is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equality between males and females in a society at a given point of time. Literacy rates relate to the population aged seven years and above.52 per cent).26 for males and 53.80 per cent) and Lakshadweep (86. defined.. who can only read but cannot write. The density of population was increased in all States and Union Territories between 1991 and 2001. Literacy For the purpose of census 2001. is not literate.86 per cent literacy rate. Kerala also occupies the top spot in the country both in male literacy with 94.12 per cent). viz. Bihar is now the second highest densely populated state.56 per cent) and Jammu and Kashmir (55. It was 972 at the beginning of the twentieth century.67 for females. Among major states. . Bihar has recorded the lowest literacy rates both in case of males (59. In the censuses prior to 1991.

97 85. 4.14 85.62 88.67 81.75 80.53 . 7.30 81.66 Female State/UTs Kerala Mizoram Lakshadweep Chandigarh Goa Literacy Rate 87.01 81.53 90. 16.03 65. 2.62 70.Ranking of States/UTs by Literacy Rate Among Persons.47 75.48 73.76 86.33 86.42 67.35 83. 15.33 63.19 71. 3. Kerala Mizoram Lakshadweep Goa Chandigarh Delhi Andaman & Nicobar Islands Puducherry Daman & Diu Maharashtra Himachal Pradesh Tamilnadu Tripura Uttarakhand Manipur1 Punjab State/UTs Literacy Rate 90. Males and Females.90 67.37 Andaman & 75. 14.72 86.72 88. 6.46 60.33 79. 5.47 76. 12.45 73.42 81.80 86.42 87. 8.65 Kerala Lakshadweep Mizoram Puducherry Goa Delhi Daman & Diu Andaman & Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Maharashtra Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand Tamilnadu Tripura Manipur1 Gujarat Male State/UTs Literacy Rate 94.24 Nicobar Islands Delhi Puducherry Himachal Pradesh Maharashtra Daman & Diu Tripura Tamilnadu Punjab Nagaland Manipur1 74.88 76.36 61.91 64.33 86.24 78. 2001 Census Persons Rank 1.28 82.18 76.24 92.71 73.94 81.86 88.61 64.66 82. 11.02 80. 13. 9. 10.53 69.

87 55.64 67.52 54.83 Sikkim Uttarakhand West Bengal Meghalaya Gujarat Karnataka Haryana Assam Chhattisgarh Odisha Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Arunachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Uttar Pradesh 60.06 76.38 77. 28. 22.56 60. 18. 31. 23.85 43.80 56.47 60.53 43.81 68.40 59.49 77.25 63.70 75.61 51.14 68. 34. 29.56 Haryana Chhattisgarh West Bengal Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Sikkim Rajasthan Odisha Punjab Assam Dadra & Nagar Haveli Nagaland Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand Jammu & Kashmir Meghalaya Arunachal Pradesh 78.32 68.41 57. 24.66 63.43 50. 33.34 53.30 66.08 62.59 64. 19. 20.18 71.51 50.63 59.73 54.43 63.10 76.60 65.35 75.63 56.16 70. 32.04 75.64 66.91 66.23 71.23 Haveli Jharkhand 38.87 . 25.27 55.74 63.29 43.85 50.61 59. 21. Gujarat Sikkim West Bengal Haryana Karnataka Nagaland Chhattisgarh Madhya Pradesh Assam Odisha Meghalaya Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Dadra & Nagar Haveli Uttar Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Arunachal Pradesh Jharkhand 69.82 67.00 42.02 76. 26.28 71.22 Dadra & Nagar 40. 30.61 57.17. 27.

Bihar 47.35.68 Bihar 33.12 .00 Bihar 59.

caste. These are: i. some basic freedoms. Citizenship The Constitution of India provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India. iii. Gujarat. residence. association or union. Daman and Diu. child labour and traffic in human beings. sex or place of birth. decency or morality). which are justiciable. Punjab. Fundamental Rights The Constitution offers all citizens. 1955 deals with matters relating to acquisition. National Capital Territory of Delhi. Karnataka. or (b) either of whose parents was born in India. Tripura. Arunachal Pradesh. Bihar. individually and collectively. The Citizenship Act. race. These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental Rights. and equality of opportunity in matters of employment. friendly relations with foreign countries. or (c) who has been ordinarily resident in India for not less than five years. Maharashtra. public order. and (a) who was born in India. became a citizen of India. They are: Andhra Pradesh. Assam. Himachal Pradesh. iv. Jammu and Kashmir.The Polity The Union and its Territory India comprises 28 States and 7 Union Territories. Madhya Pradesh. Lakshadweep and Puducherry. and right to practice any profession or occupation (some of these rights are subject to security of the State. prohibiting all forms of forced labour. Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Union Territories are: Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sikkim. Mizoram. Tamil Nadu. movement. Kerala. Rajasthan. Dadra and Nagar Haveli. determination and termination of Indian citizenship after the commencement of the Constitution. and propagation of religion. prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion. Chandigarh. including equality before law. ii. Jharkhand. Article 12 to 35 contained in Part III of the Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. right to equality. practice. right to freedom of speech and expression. right against exploitation. assembly. Goa. right to freedom of conscience and free profession. Every person who was at the commencement of the Constitution (26 January 1950) domiciled in the territory of India. Manipur. Odisha. Haryana. Chhattisgarh. . Meghalaya. Nagaland. Uttarakhand.

and to ensure that operation of economic system does not result in concentration of wealth and means of production to common detriment. which though not justiciable. and right to constitutional remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights. separation of judiciary from executive. promotion of education and economic interests of scheduled castes. free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. Fundamental Duties of the citizens have also been enumerated. promulgation of a uniform civil code for whole country. equal pay for equal work and within limits of its economic capacity and development. These lay down that the State shall strive to promote the welfare of people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may. education and to public assistance in the event of unemployment. Some of the other important directives relate to provision of opportunities and facilities for children to develop in a healthy manner. sickness and disablement or other cases of undeserved want. Article 51 'A'. to abide by the Constitution. humane conditions of work.v. the State is to direct its policy in such a manner as to secure distribution of ownership and control of material resources of community to subserve the common good. protection of national monuments. which inspired India's struggle for freedom. These enjoin upon a citizen among other things. economic and political-shall form in all institutions of national life. promotion of justice on . adopted in 1976. old age. scheduled tribes and other weaker sections. organisation of village panchayats. The State shall direct its policy in such a manner as to secure the right of all men and women to an adequate means of livelihood. to make effective provision for securing the right to work. in which justice-social. and it is the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws. and to promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood transcending religious. are 'fundamental in governance of the country'. linguistic and regional or sectional diversities. Directive Principle of State Policy The Constitution lays down certain Directive Principles of State Policy. vi. The State shall also endeavour to secure to workers a living wage. and right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. a decent standard of life. contained in Part IV A of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Duties. to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so. language or script. Fundamental Duties By the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution. to cherish and follow noble ideals. and full involvement of workers in management of industries. In the economic sphere. a social order. right of any section of citizens to conserve their culture.

Chemical Weapons Convention Ministries/Departments of the Government All India Services Central Secretariat • Administrative Set-up o o o • Public Services o o • Official Language . protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife of the country. promotion of international peace and security. provision of free legal aid. The Union • Executive o o o President Vice President Council of Ministers Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Qualification of Membership of Parliament Functions & Powers of Parliament • Legislature o o o o • • • • • • • Parliamentary Committees Leaders of Opposition in Parliament Government Business in Parliament Consultative Committees Nomination of Members of Parliament on Government Committees/Bodies Youth Parliament Competition Other Parliamentary Matters o o o All India Whips Conference Matters Under Rule 377 and Special Mentions Implementation of Assurances Cabinet Secretariat National Authority. and settlement of international disputes by arbitration. respect for international law.a basis of equal opportunity. treaty obligations. just and honourable relations between nations.

and remits or commutes sentences in certain cases. prorogues. His term of office is five years. not less than 35 years of age. the Vice-President. respites or remission of punishment or suspends. When there is a failure of the constitutional machinery in a state. whereby security of India or any part of its territory is threatened. and is exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. President The President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of elected members of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states in accordance with the system of proportional representation. and the Union. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed in Article 61 of the Constitution. The President summons.o o o o o o • • • Policy Committees/Samitis Award Schemes Training Technical Publications Comptroller & Auditor General Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances Administrative Tribunals Executive The Union executive consists of the President. To secure uniformity among state inter se. he can assume to himself all. reprieves. and qualified for election as member of the Lok Sabha. and he is eligible for re-election. He may. sends messages to Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha. Supreme command of defence forces of the Union also vests in him. makes recommendations for introducing financial and money bills and gives assent to bills. and the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advise the President. promulgates Ordinances at any time. except when both Houses of Parliament are in session. resign his office. by means of single transferable vote. The President must be a citizen of India. grants pardons. whether by war or external aggression or armed rebellion. as well as parity between the states as a whole. Executive power of the Union is vested in the President. . The President can proclaim emergency in the country if he is satisfied that a grave emergency exists. suitable weightage is given to each vote. by writing under his hand addressed to the Vice-President. addresses. or any of the functions of the government of that state.

he ceases to perform the function of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. known as Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and House of the People (Lok Sabha). The Council of Ministers comprises Ministers who are members of Cabinet. and he is eligible for re-election. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed in Article 67 b. . The Vice-President is ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and acts as President when the latter is unable to discharge his functions due to absence. Council of Ministers There is a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President in exercise of his functions. resignation or removal or otherwise of President). Each House has to meet within six months of its previous sitting. While so acting. Ministers of State (independent charge). He must be a citizen of India. illness or any other cause. His term of office is five years. A joint sitting of two Houses can be held in certain cases. The Council is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. which is called Parliament. who also appoints other ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. of which 12 members shall be nominated by the President from amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature. not less than 35 years of age. or till the election of a new President (to be held within six months when a vacancy is caused by death. Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers. and not more than 238 representatives of the States and of the Union Territories. consists of the President and two Houses. Legislature Legislature of the Union. science. Rajya Sabha The Constitution provides that the Rajya Sabha shall consist of 250 members. art and social service. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to communicate to the President all decisions of Council of Ministers relating to administration of affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation and information relating to them. and eligible for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha.Vice-President The Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.

the total number of existing seats as allocated to various States in the Lok Sabha on the basis of the 1971 census. this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time. shall remain unaltered till the first census to be taken after the year 2026. if. Of these. in his opinion. is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. Following the Constitution 84th Amendment Act. However. and 12 members are nominated by the President. 233 members represent the States and the Union Territories. one-third of its members retire every second year. and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian community to be nominated by the President. unless dissolved earlier. The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution. has 245 seats. Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage. the same for all States. Rajya Sabha. 20 to represent Union Territories. while two are nominated by the President to represent the Anglo-Indian community. while a proclamation of emergency is in operation. at present. 530 members are directly elected from the States and 13 from Union Territories. as far as practicable. The Lok Sabha at present consists of 545 members. and not extending in any case. The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is now 552 (530 members to represent States. members representing States are elected by elected members of legislative assemblies of the States in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. beyond a period of six months after . Of these.Rajya Sabha Chamber Elections to the Rajya Sabha are indirect. that community is not adequately represented in the House). Lok Sabha Chamber The term of the Lok Sabha. and those representing Union Territories are chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. The total elective membership of the Lok Sabha is distributed among States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and population of the State is.

All legislation require consent of both the Houses of Parliament. overseeing of administration. The time at its disposal is limited. but considerable in volume. a person must be a citizen of India and not less than 30 years of age in the case of Rajya Sabha and not less than 25 years of age in the case of Lok Sabha. assume legislative power with respect to a subject falling within the sphere exclusively reserved for the States. It cannot make very detailed scrutiny of all legislative and other matters that come up before it.the proclamation has ceased to operate. the will of the Lok Sabha prevails. however. even in normal times. the Parliament can. Their appointment. Parliamentary Committees The functions of Parliament are not only varied in nature. national policies and international relations. transacted in the committees. functions and procedure of conducting business are also more or less similar and are regulated as per rules made by the two Houses under Article 118(1) of the Constitution. The distribution of powers between the Union and the States. A good deal of Parliamentary business is. Besides the power to legislate. Both Houses of Parliament have a similar committee structure. . Qualification for Membership of Parliament In order to be chosen a member of Parliament. Functions and Powers of Parliament As in other parliamentary democracies. under certain circumstances. with a few exceptions. therefore. In the case of money bills. Fourteen Lok Sabhas have been constituted so far. the Chief Election Commissioner and the Comptroller and Auditor General in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution. the Constitution vests in Parliament the power to initiate amendment of the Constitution. ventilation of public grievances and discussing various subjects like development plans. Additional qualifications may be prescribed by Parliament by law. terms of office. Apart from a wide-range of subjects. emphasises in many ways the general predominance of Parliament in the legislative field. the Parliament in India has the cardinal functions of legislation. passing of the Budget. The Parliament is also vested with powers to impeach the President and to remove the Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts. Delegated legislation is also subject to review and control by Parliament. followed in the Constitution.

The former are elected or appointed every year or periodically and their work goes on. It also examines whether the money is well laid out within limits of the policy implied in the estimates and suggests the form in which estimates shall be presented to Parliament. on a continuous basis.Broadly. 17 Department Related Standing Committees were set up on 8 April 1993. improvements in organisation.constitute a distinct group as they keep an unremitting vigil over Government expenditure and performance. b. It also examines whether public undertakings are being run efficiently and managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices. to consider the Demands for Grants of various Ministries/Departments of Government of India and make reports to the Houses. . Lok Sabha. rules were amended to provide for the constitution of seven more such committees. extravagance. The latter are appointed on an ad hoc basis as need arises and they cease to exist as soon as they complete the task assigned to them. thus raising the number of DRSCs from 17 to 24. to examine such Bills as are referred to the Committee by the Chairman. Accordingly. Parliamentary Committees are of two kinds . and make reports thereon. Rajya Sabha or the Speaker. c. the Rules Committee of the Lok Sabha recommended setting-up of 17 Department Related Standing Committees (DRSCs). as the case may be. if any. and d. and make reports thereon. Besides these three Financial Committees. Public Accounts and Public Undertakings .Committees on Estimates. to consider Annual Reports of ministries/departments and make reports thereon. Rajya Sabha or the Speaker. efficiency or administrative reform consistent with policy underlying the estimates' may be effected. While members of the Rajya Sabha are associated with Committees on Public Accounts and Public Undertakings.Standing Committees and ad hoc Committees. Standing Committees: Among the Standing Committees. the three Financial Committees . the members of the Committee on Estimates are drawn entirely from the Lok Sabha. loss or nugatory expenditure. The Estimates Committee reports on 'what economies. The Public Accounts Committee scrutinises appropriation and finance accounts of Government and reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. The functions of these Committees are: a. more or less. Lok Sabha. to consider policy documents presented to the Houses. as the case may be. The Committee on Public Undertakings examines reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. if referred to the Committee by the Chairman. In July 2004. It ensures that public money is spent in accordance with Parliament's decision and calls attention to cases of waste.

promises. Rules Committee considers matters of procedure and conduct of business in the House and recommends amendments or additions to the Rules. . etc. divided in terms of their functions. Committee on Papers Laid on the Table examines all papers laid on the table of the House by Ministers. b. The Rajya Sabha does not have such a committee. sub-rules. conferred by the Constitution or Statutes is being properly exercised by the delegated authorities. There is no such Committee in the Rajya Sabha. ii. recommends allocation of time for discussion on private members’ resolutions and examines Constitution amendment bills before their introduction by private members in the Lok Sabha. rules. to see whether there has been compliance with the provisions of the Constitution.. and d.. Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutions of the Lok Sabha classifies and allocates time to Bills introduced by private members. c. Committees to Inquire: a. It is the Business Advisory Committee of that House which recommends allocation of time for discussion on stage or stages of private members’ bills and resolutions. Committee on Subordinate Legislation scrutinises and reports to the House whether the power to make regulations. Committee on Petitions examines petitions on bills and on matters of general public interest and also entertains representations on matters concerning subjects in the Union List. rule or regulation under which the paper has been laid. given by Ministers in the House and pursues them till they are implemented. and c. Committee of Privileges examines any question of privilege referred to it by the House or Speaker/Chairman. Applications from members for leave or absence are considered by the House itself. ii. Committees to Scrutinise: a. Business Advisory Committee recommends allocation of time for items of Government and other business to be brought before the Houses. bye-laws. Committee on Government Assurances keeps track of all the assurances. Committees relating to the day-today business of the House: a. Act.Other Standing Committees in each House. b. and b. undertakings. other than statutory notifications and orders which come within the purview of the Committee on Subordinate Legislation. Committee on Absence of Members from the Sittings of the House of the Lok Sabha considers all applications from members for leave or absence from sittings of the House. are i. etc.

The Library Committee consisting of members from both Houses. iii. the Ethics Committee of the Rajya Sabha was constituted.. allowances and pension to Members of Parliament. Joint Committee to enquire into irregularities in securities and banking transactions. committees which are constituted from time to time. On 4 March 1997. iv. telephone. iii. Joint Committee on Fertilizer Pricing. House Committee deals with residential accommodation and other amenities for members. The Ethics Committee of the Lok Sabha was constituted on 16 May 2000. apart from framing rules for regulating payment of salary. constituency and secretarial facility. Joint Committees on Security in Parliament Complex. considers matters concerning the Library of Parliament. a Committee on Empowerment of Women with members from both the Houses was constituted with a view to securing. Joint Committee on Bofors Contracts. General Purposes Committee considers and advises Speaker/Chairman on matters concerning affairs of the House. vi. Committees on Draft Five-Year Plans.ii. On 29 April 1997. Offices of Political . either by the two Houses on a motion adopted in that behalf or by Speaker/Chairman to inquire into and report on specific subjects. Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament Act. status. Committees on the Conduct of certain Members during President's Address. considers all matters relating to the welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which come within the purview of the Union Government and keeps a watch whether constitutional safeguards in respect of these classes are properly implemented. Joint Committee on Offices of Profit examines the composition and character of committees and other bodies appointed by the Central and State governments and Union Territories Administrations and recommends what offices ought to or ought not to disqualify a person from being chosen as a member of either House of Parliament. dignity and equality for women in all fields.g. on which members from both Houses serve. Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Committee on Provision of Computers for Members of Parliament. 1954. Committees concerned with the provision of facilities to members: a. housing. Ad hoc Committees: Such Committees may be broadly classified under two heads: a. v. Committee on Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme. Joint Committee on Salaries and Allowances of Members of Parliament. ii. also frames rules in respect of amenities like medical. (e. among other things. postal. which do not appropriately fall within the purview of any other Parliamentary Committee. Joint Committee on Stock Market Scam. constituted under the Salary. and b. Railway Convention Committee.

Government Business in Parliament The Minister of Parliamentary Affairs is entrusted with the responsibility of coordinating. the Leaders of Opposition in the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha are accorded statutory recognition. etc. Besides this. of these Informal Consultative Committees are to be arranged during Session periods only. and arranges meetings thereof. Select or Joint Committees on Bills which are appointed to consider and report on a particular Bill. After the constitution of the 14th Lok Sabha. 32 Consultative Committees attached to various Ministries were constituted. planning and arranging Government Business in both Houses of Parliament. and b. 322 meetings of the Consultative Committees . Committee on Installation of Portraits/Statues of National Leaders and Parliamentarians in Parliament House Complex. both Houses of Parliament passed 57 Bills. Consultative Committees The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs constitutes Consultative Committees of Members of both the Houses of Parliament.). 16 Informal Consultative Committees of the sixteen Railway Zones have also been constituted. During the period 1 June 2006 to 31 May 2007. These Committees are distinguishable from the other ad hoc committees inasmuch as they are concerned with Bills and the procedure to be followed by them as laid down in the Rules of Procedure and Directions by the Speaker/Chairman. Leaders of Opposition in Parliament In keeping with their important role. Salary and other suitable facilities are extended to them through a separate legislation brought into force on 1 November 1977. he is assisted by his Ministers of State. The main purpose of these Committees is to provide a forum for informal discussions between the Government and Members of Parliament on policies and programmes of the Government and the manner of their implementation. Unlike the Consultative Committees attached to the Ministries. which are attached to various Ministries. In the discharge of this function. Meetings of these Committees are held both during the session and inter-session period of Parliament. The Minister/Minister of State in-charge of the Ministry concerned acts as the chairman of the Consultative Committee of that Ministry.Parties and Officers of the Lok Sabha Secretariat. Committee on Food Management in Parliament House Complex. meetings. The Minister also keeps close and constant contact with the presiding officers. the leaders as well as chief whips and whips of various parties and groups in both the Houses of Parliament.

as a separate scheme of Youth Parliament for Kendriya Vidyalayas at the National Level was launched in 1988. Subsequently. two new Youth Parliament Schemes at the national level.were held till 31 May 2007 after the constitution of the 14th Lok Sabha including 116 meetings held during the year 2006. set-up by the Government of India in various Ministries (except in case of statutory or other bodies where the statute or the bye-laws framed thereunder provides that the Member of Parliament to be appointed thereon will be nominated by the Presiding Officers of the respective Houses or will be elected by the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha.. Youth Parliament Competition In order to develop democratic ethos in the younger generation the Ministry conducts Youth Parliament Competition in various categories of schools and colleges/universities. Similarly. as the case may be). The 11th National Youth Parliament Competition for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas was completed. The Kendriya Vidyalayas located in and around Delhi were incorporated into the ongoing Scheme for Delhi Schools in 1978. Fourteen All India Whips Conferences have been organized so far since . Other Parliamentary Matters All India Whips Conference The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs. the 42nd Youth Parliament Competition for Delhi Schools was completed and 33 schools had participated. Boards and Commissions. one for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and the other for Universities/Colleges were launched. etc. The Youth Parliament Scheme was first introduced in the Schools in Delhi in 1966-67. with the purpose of establishing suitable links among the whips of various political parties at the Centre and the States who are concerned with the practical working of the legislatures to discuss matters of common interest and to evolve high standards to strengthen the institution of Parliamentary Democracy. in 1997-98. The 20th National Youth Parliament Competition for Kendriya Vidyalayas was held and 90 Kendriya Vidyalayas participated. Nomination of Members of Parliament on Government Committees/Bodies The Minister of Parliamentary Affairs nominates Members of Parliament on Committees. Councils. The Members are nominated on such Bodies keeping in view their aptitude and special interest in the subject. During 2007-08. The Ninth National Youth Parliament Competition for Universities/Colleges is in progress. Government of India has been organising All India Whips Conference from time to time.

Matters Under Rule 377 and Special Mentions The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs takes follow-up action on matters raised under Rule 377 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and by way of Special Mentions in Rajya Sabha. Though it is not mandatory. etc. Members raise matters of urgent public importance. 2008 at Mumbai.. Administrative Set-up The Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules. Secretariats and offices (referred to as 'Department') as per the distribution of subjects specified in these Rules. The administrative head of the Secretariat is the Cabinet Secretary who is also the ex-officio Chairman of the Civil Services Board. Each of the Ministries is assigned to a Minister by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. from the daily proceedings and forwards them to the concerned Ministries/Departments for implementation. Cabinet Secretariet The Cabinet Secretariat is under the direct charge of the Prime Minister. after due scrutiny of the implementation reports received from the various Ministries/Departments concerned. Ministers sometimes react to the points made by the Members. In the absence of concerned Minister the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs assures the House or the individual Members that their sentiments would be conveyed to the concerned Ministers. Implementation of Assurances The Ministry culls out assurances. 1961 are made by the President of India under Article 77 of the Constitution for the allocation of business of the Government of India. undertakings. Each department is generally under the charge of a Secretary to assist the Minister on policy matters and general administration. The Fourteenth All India Whips Conference was held on 4-5 February. Also after 'Question Hour' in both the Houses of Parliament. Statements showing action taken by the Government in implementation of the assurances.1952. The business of the Government are transacted in the Ministries/Departments. given by Ministers in both the Houses of Parliament. The Ministries/Departments of the Government are created by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister under these Rules. are laid periodically on the table of the Houses by Minister/Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs. promises. The inaugural function of the 14th All India Whips Conference was presided over by Hon'ble Vice President of India and the Valedictory function by the Hon'ble Speaker Lok Sabha. . after due scrutiny of the implementation of the assurances.

each State Party has to designate or establish a National Authority to serve as the national focal point for effective liaison with Organisation for Prohibition of the Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and other State Parties and hence the NA. The subjects allotted to this Secretariat are: (i) Secretarial assistance to Cabinet and Cabinet Committees. new policy initiatives are also promoted.In the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules. 1961 'Cabinet Secretariat' finds a place in the First Schedule to the Rules. Defence Research and Development. A high-level steering committee under the Chairmanship of the Cabinet Secretary with Secretary (Chemical and Petrochemicals). Secretary. Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was set up by a resolution of Cabinet Secretariat dated 5 May 1997 to fulfil the obligations enunciated in the Chemical Weapons Convention initially signed by 130 countries in a conference which concluded on 14 January 1993 for the purpose prohibiting of the development. Through this mechanism. production. Defence Secretary and Chairman. National Authority as its . The Transaction of Business Rules also require them to keep the Cabinet Secretary informed specially if there are any departures from these rules. The Secretaries felt it necessary to keep the Cabinet Secretary informed of developments from time to time. The Cabinet Secretariat is seen as a useful mechanism by the departments for promoting inter-Ministerial coordination since the Cabinet Secretary is also the head of the civil services. transfer. The Cabinet Secretariat ensures that the President. execution. National Authority. The Secretariat assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring Inter-Ministerial coordination. 1961 and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961. the Vice-President and Ministers are kept informed of the major activities of all Ministries/Departments by means of monthly summary of their activities. ironing out differences amongst Ministries/Departments and evolving consensus through the instrumentality of the standing and ad hoc Committees of Secretaries. The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules. Foreign Secretary. CWC under the administrative control of the Cabinet Secretariat was set-up. To fulfil its obligations. Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordinating activities of various Ministries in such a situation is also one of the functions of the Cabinet Secretariat. and (ii) Rules of Business. facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/Departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules. use and stockpiling of all chemical weapons by Member-States is a non-discriminatory process. Chemical Weapons Convention National Authority.

ii. liaison with CWC and other State Parties. Department of Telecommunications (Doorsanchar Vibhag) Department of Post (Dak Vibhag) Department of Information Technology (Soochana Praudyogiki Vibhag) . changes of orientation. Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers (Rasayan aur Urvarak Mantralaya) i. providing appropriate facilities for training national inspectors and industry personnel. Ministry of Coal (Koyala Mantralaya) 5. CWC is responsible for implementation of CWC Act. Dairying and Fisheries (Pashupalan. iii. etc. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (Krishi aur Sahkarita Vibhag) Department of Agricultural Research and Education (Krishi Anusandhan aur Shiksha Vibhag) Department of Animal Husbandry. ii. etc. Ministry of Agriculture (Krishi Mantralaya) i. List of the Ministries/Departments 1. Dairy aur Matsyapalan Vibhag) Department of Chemicals and Petro-Chemicals (Rasayan aur Petro-Rasayan Vibhag) Department of Fertilizers (Urvarak Vibhag) 2. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Vanijya aur Udyog Mantralaya) i. registration of entitles engaged in activities related to CWC. number and character varying from time to time on factors such as volume of work importance attached to certain items. political expediency. ensuring protection of confidential business information. checking declarations for consistency. Ministries/Departments of the Government The Government consists of a number of Ministries/Departments. negotiating facility agreements. ii. ii. Collection of data fulfilling of declaration obligations. 3. Department of Commerce (Vanijya Vibhag) Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (Audyogik Niti aur Samvardhan Vibhag) 6. accuracy and completeness.other members would oversee the functions of the National Authority. Ministry of Civil Aviation (Nagar Vimanan Mantralaya) 4. The NA. coordinating OPCW inspections. iii. On 15 August 1947. the number of Ministries at the Centre was 18. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Sanchar aur Soochana Praudyogiki Mantralaya) i.

Unani. ii. 12. Ministry of Culture (Sanskriti Mantralya) 10. iii. iv. 14. 15. Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises (Bhari Udyog aur Lok Udyam Mantralaya) i. i. 11. Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) (Ayurveda. i. Khadya aur Sarvajanik Vitaran Mantralaya) i. 17. Siddha aur Homoeopathy Vibhag) 18. ii. ii. Ministry of Corporate Affairs (Korporate Karya Mantralya) 9. Unani. iii. Department of Consumer Affairs (Upbhokta Mamle Vibhag) Department of Food and Public Distribution (Khadya aur Sarvajanik Vitaran Vibhag) 8. Yoga-Prakritik Chikitsa Paddhati. 16. Ministry of Defence (Raksha Mantralaya) Department of Defence (Raksha Vibhag) Department of Defence Production and Supplies (Raksha Utpadan aur Aapoorti Vibhag) Department of Defence Research and Development (Raksha Anusandhan aur Vikas Vibhag) Ministry of Development of North-Eastern Region (Uttar Poorvi Kshetra Vikas Mantralaya) Ministry of Earth Sciences (Bhoo Vigyan Mantralaya) Ministry of Environment and Forests (Paryavaran aur Van Mantralaya) Ministry of External Affairs (Videsh Mantralaya) Ministry of Finance (Vitta Mantralaya) Department of Economic Affairs (Arthik Karya Vibhag) Department of Expenditure (Vyaya Vibhag) Department of Revenue (Rajaswa Vibhag) Department of Disinvestment (Vinivesh Vibhag) Department of Financial Services (Vittiya Sewayen Vibhag) Ministry of Food Processing Industries (Khadya Prasanskaran Udyog Mantralaya) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Swasthya aur Parivar Kalyan Mantralaya) i.7. Ministry of Consumer Affairs. Department of Health and family welfare (Swasthya aur Parivar Kalyan Mantralaya) Department of Ayurveda. Yoga-Naturopathy. ii. Food and Public Distribution (Upbhokta Mamle. v. ii. Department of Heavy Industries (Bhari Udyog Vibhag) Department of Public Enterprises (Lok Udyam Vibhag) . 13.

iv. ii. Department of Personnel and Training (Karmik aur Prashikshan Vibhag) Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (Prashasanik Sudhar aur Lok Shikayat Vibhag) Department of Pensions and Pensioners' Welfare (Pension aur Pension Bhogi Kalyan Vibhag) 25. 23. vi.19. i. iii. iii. ii. Public Grievances and Pensions (Karmik Lok Shikayat tatha Pension Mantralaya) i. 29. 26. 31. 28. ii. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Soochana aur Prasaran Mantralaya) Ministry of Labour and Employment (Shram aur Rozgar Mantralaya) Ministry of Law and Justice (Vidhi aur Nyaya Mantralaya) i. Department of School Education and Literacy (School Shiksha aur Saksharta Vibhag) Department of Higher Education (Uchchatar Shiksha Vibhag) 22. Ministry of Home Affairs (Grih Mantralaya) Department of Internal Security (Antarik Suraksha Vibhag) Department of States (Rajya Vibhag) Department of Official Language (Raj Bhasha Vibhag) Department of Home (Grih Vibhag) Department of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs (Jammu tatha Kashmir Vibhag) Department of Border Management (Seema Prabandhan Vibhag) Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (Aawas aur Shahari Garibi Upshaman Mantralaya) Ministry of Human Resource Development (Manav Sansadhan Vikas Mantralaya) i. 21. 30. v. iii. 27. 24. 20. . Department of Legal Affairs (Vidhi Karya Vibhag) Legislative Department (Vidhayee Vibhag) Department of Justice (Nyaya Vibhag) Ministry of Mines (Khan Mantralaya) Ministry of Minority Affairs (Alpasankhyak Karya Mantralya) Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (Naveen Aur Navikarniya Oorja Mantralaya) Ministry of Overseas Indians Affairs (Apravasi Bharatiyon Ke Mamalon Ka Mantralya) Ministry of Panchayati Raj (Panchayati Raj Mantralaya) Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (Sansadiya Karya Mantralaya) Ministry of Personnel. ii.

46. Small and Medium Enterprises (Sukshma Laghu Aur Madhyam Udyam Mantralya) Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (Samajik Nyaya aur Adhikarita Mantralaya) Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (Sankhyiki aur Karyakram Kiryanvayan Mantralaya) Ministry of Steel (Ispat Mantralaya) Ministry of Textiles (Vastra Mantralaya) Ministry of Tourism (Paryatan Mantralaya) Ministry of Tribal Affairs (Janjatiya Karya Mantralaya) Ministry of Urban Development (Shahari Vikas Mantralaya) Ministry of Water Resources (Jal Sansadhan Mantralaya) Ministry of Woman and Child Development (Mahila Aur Bal Vikas Mantralaya) Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (Yuva Karyakram aur Khel Mantralaya) Department of Atomic Energy (Parmanu Oorja Vibhag) Department of Space (Antariksh Vibhag) . Department of Science and Technology (Vigyan aur Praudyogiki Vibhag) Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (Vigyan aur Audyogik Anusandhan Vibhag) Department of Bio-Technology (Biotechnology Vibhag) 37.32. Ministry of Micro. ii. 34. iii. Sarak Parivahan aur Raj Marg Mantralaya) i. 49. 33. 43. 51. 38. 42. 35. 40. 39. 36. ii. Department of Rural Development (Gramin Vikas Vibhag) Department of Land Resources (Bhumi Sansadhan Vibhag) Department of Drinking Water Supply (Peya Jal Poorti Vibhag) Ministry of Science and Technology (Vigyan aur Praudyogiki Mantralaya) i. 47. Road Transport and Highways (Pot Parivahan. ii. 41. Department of Shipping (Pot Parivahan Vibhag) Department of Road Transport and Highways (Sadak Parivahan Aur Raj Marg Vibhag) Ministry of Rural Development (Gramin Vikas Mantralaya) i. 44. 50. 45. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Petroleum aur Prakritik Gas Mantralaya) Ministry of Planning (Yojana Mantralaya) Ministry of Power (Oorja Mantralaya) Ministry of Railways (Rail Mantralaya) Ministry of Shipping. 48. iii.

the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). and they have the liability to serve both under the State and under the Centre. there was also the Indian Police Service. (ii) Central Secretariat Stenographers' Service (CSSS) and (iii) the Central Secretariat Clerical Service (CSCS). was created in 1966. it was felt that though the ICS was a legacy of the imperial period. 'A' and 'B' (merged) of CSS and LDS & UDC are decentralised. 'C'. and then allotted to different State cadres. the Indian Civil Service (ICS) was the senior most amongst the Services of the Crown in India. and the Indian Forest Service (IFS). (ii) Manipur and Tripura. 54. There are now 24 State cadres including three Joint cadres. The grade-wise cadre strength of these services as on 30 June. Goa. and (iii) Arunachal Pradesh. 2007 was as under: . there was need for the All India Services for maintaining the unity. Mizoram and the Union Territories (AGMUT). The Indian Administrative Service and The Indian Police Service are deemed to be constituted by the Parliament in terms of Article 312 of the Constitution. This aspect of the All India Services strengthens the unitary character of the Indian federation. but their services are placed under various State cadres.52. the Ministry of Personnel. Accordingly. 55. a new All India Service. Public Grievances and Pensions is the cadre controlling authority for the IAS. After the promulgation of the Constitution. A common unique feature of the All India Services is that the members of these services are recruited by the Centre. Of the three All India Services. (i) Central Secretariat Service (CSS). a provision was made in Article 312 of the Constitution for creation of one or more All India Services common to the Union and State. These officers are recruited and trained by the Central Government. Steno Grade 'D'. namely. namely. (i) Assam and Meghalaya. Cabinet Secretariat (Mantrimandal Sachivalaya) President's Secretariat (Rashtrapati Sachivalaya) Prime Minister's Office (Pradhan Mantri Karyalaya) Planning Commission (Yojana Ayog) Public Services ALL INDIA SERVICES Prior to Independence. namely. integrity and stability of the nation. After Independence. 53. The Section Officers Grade and Assistants Grade of the CSS. Besides the ICS. The recruitment to all the three services is made by the UPSC. The grades of Selection Grade and Grade I of CSS and as well as the Senior Principal Private Secretary and Principal Private Secretary of CSSS are centralised. the Indian Police Service (IPS). The Indian Forest Service. CENTRAL SECRETARIAT SERVICES The Central Secretariat has three services. namely.

of Post Grade-I (Group 'A' Gazetted) 1405 Selection Officer (Group 'B' Gazetted) Assistant (Group 'B' NonGazetted) 3000 4905 9750 PS (A & B) (Group 'B' Gazetted) 1598 Grade "C"/PA (Group 'B' NonGazetted) Grade 'D' Grade 'C' (NonGazetted) 2793 1958 6599 UDC/LDC (Group 'C' Non. of Post 68 182 Grade No. PPS (Group 'A' Gazetted) PPS (Group 'A' Gazetted) CSCS Grade No. of Post 110 330 Sr.Grade-wise cadre strength of services Service 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total CSS Grade Sr. Selection Grade (Group 'A' Gazetted) Selection Grade (Group 'A' Gazetted) CSSS No.9115 Gazetted) 9115 .

DOP&T monitors and assesses the overall requirements of different cadres for fixing zones of promotion against the vacancies in seniority quota and arranges centralised requirement against direct recruitment and departments examinations quota vacancies through open competitive and departmental examinations. Article 343(2) also provided for continuing the use of English in official work of the Union for a period of 15 years (i. Article 343(3) empowered the parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for official purposes even after 25 January 1965.Constitutional/Statutory Provisions Article 343(1) of the Constitution provides that Hindi in Devanagari script shall be the Official Language of the Union. Administrative and other Reports.. 1963. Notifications. In respect of the decentralised grades. The Act also lays down that both Hindi and English shall compulsorily be used for certain specified purposes such as Resolutions. Accordingly. Licences. section 3(2) of the Official Languages Act. Official Language Rules were framed under the provisions of section 8(1) of the Official Languages Act.e. The Government after careful considerations has taken several decisions in October 2003 for improving the career prospects of the CSS personnel and many of these recommendations have either been implemented. Press Communiqués. or are in various stages of implementation. which submitted its Report in February 2004. 1963 (amended in 1967) provides for continuing the use of English in official work even after 25 January 1965. Administrative and other Reports and Official Papers to be laid before a House or the Houses of Parliament. Pursuant to the recommendations of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs. Permits. up to 25 January 1965) from the date of commencement of the Constitution. Contracts. The committee submitted its Report in February 2002 and made several recommendations. Tender Notices and Forms of Tender. The Government had also constituted a 'Group of Officers' on Cadre Structure of the Central Secretariat Stenographers' Service (CSSS). the Government set-up a Committee on the Cadre Restructuring of CSS in February 2001. General Orders. Official Language Official Language . the Government has taken several decisions on Cadre Structure of CSSS. for improving the career prospects of the CSSS personnel. After considering the recommendations of the Group of Officers.Appointments and promotions in the Centralised Grades are made on all secretariat basis by Department of Personnel and Training (DOP&T). Rules. In 1976. etc. Its salient features are as under: . Agreements. Necessary executive orders for operationalisation of almost all the decisions have been issued.

etc. Communications from a Central Government Office to States/UTs in Region "B" comprising the States of Punjab. A Quarterly Progress Report is called for from the offices of the Central Government regarding achievements vis-à-vis the said targets. Rajasthan. in Hindi. etc. will be in Hindi in such proportions as may be determined from time to time.i. Jharkhand. including any office of a Commission.. vi. Notice Boards and various items of stationery... Gujarat. Uttarakhand. viii. telegrams. v. communication to any person in Region "B" may be either in English or Hindi. Headings of Registers. Codes and other Procedural literature relating to Central Government Offices are required to be prepared both in Hindi and English. Himachal Pradesh. Policy In compliance with the Official Language Resolution. All Forms. are also required to be in Hindi and English. They apply to all Central Government Offices. vii. Communications between Central Government Offices and from Central Government Offices to the Offices of the State Governments/Union Territories and individuals. telex. . It shall be the responsibility of the officer signing the documents specified in section 3(3) of the Act to ensure that these are issued both in Hindi and English Shall be the responsibility of the administrative head of each Central Government Office to ensure that the provisions of the Act. Communications from a Central Government Office to a State Government Office in region 'C' comprising all other States and UTs not included in region 'A' & 'B' or to any office (note being a Central Government Office) or person shall be in English. Communications from a Central Government Office to State/Union Territories or to any person in Region "A" comprising the States of Uttar Pradesh. An Annual Assessment Report is prepared on the basis of the Quarterly Progress Reports. However. 1968. iii. which is laid on the Tables of both Houses of the Parliament and copies endorsed to State Governments and the Ministries/Departments of the Central Government. iv. shall ordinarily be in Hindi. Madhya Pradesh. etc. All Manuals. Committee or Tribunal appointed by the Central Government and Corporation or Company owned or controlled by it. shall be in Hindi. Haryana and UTs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Delhi. the Rules and directions issued under Sub-Rule-2 are properly complied with and to devise suitable and effective check points for this purpose ii. Name Plates. Bihar. Chhattisgarh. an Annual Programme is prepared by the Department of Official Language in which targets are set for the offices of the Central Government with regard to originating correspondence. Maharashtra and the Union Territory of Chandigarh.

Mumbai. Cochin. Shields are given every year to Ministries/Departments. Hindi Salahakar Samitis have been constituted in all Ministries/Departments under the chairmanship of the Ministers concerned.Eight Regional Implementation Offices have been established at Bangalore. Award Schemes The Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Awards Scheme has been in operation since 1986-87. These Samitis periodically review the progress in the use of Hindi in their respective Ministries/Departments and the offices/undertakings and suggest measures to promote the use of Hindi. It is the apex policy making body which lays down the guidelines for the propagation and progressive use of Hindi as Official Language of the Union. The Presidential Orders on seven parts of its report have been issued and work is in progress on the eighth part. Guwahati. Under the directions of the Kendriya Hindi Samiti. It has so far submitted to the President eight parts of its report. Committees/Samities A Committee of Parliament on Official Language was constituted in 1976 under section 4 of the Official Languages Act. Besides.. Kolkata. Delhi and Ghaziabad to monitor the implementation of Official Language Policy of the Union. So far 255 Town Official Language Implementation Committees have been constituted all over the country. Bhopal. The Kendriya Hindi Samiti was constituted in the year 1967. Town Official Language Implementation Committees are constituted in different towns having ten or more Central Government offices. etc. Department of Official Language and consisting of Joint Secretaries (In-charge Official Language) of all the Ministries/Departments as ex-officio members] reviews the status of use of Hindi for official purposes of the Union. It is chaired by the Prime Minister. to review the progress made in the use of Hindi in their member offices and exchange experiences. Public Sector Undertakings and Town Official Language Implementation Committees for outstanding achievements in the implementation of the Official Language Policy of the . Banks and Financial Institutions. The Committee consists of 20 Members of the Lok Sabha and 10 of the Rajya Sabha. the Central Official Language Implementation Committee [headed by Secretary. 1963 to periodically review the progress in the use of Hindi as the Official Language of the Union and to submit a report to the President. The Committee have decided to submit its report in parts. training of its employees in Hindi and implementation of instructions issued from time to time by the Department of Official Language and suggests measure for removing the shortcomings and difficulties noticed in implementing these instructions.

with the objective of providing Hindi Training through condensed courses in Hindi language/typing and stenography as also training through correspondence in Hindi language and Hindi Typewriting. Banks and Financial Institutions of the Central Government for outstanding achievements in implementing the Official Language Policy of the Union and accelerating the progressive use of Hindi. Its sub-institutes were opened in Mumbai. of various Ministries/Departments.. Offices of the Central Government and Public Sector Undertakings. Public Sector Undertakings. forms. Chennai and Guwahati are providing academic and administrative support to the Hindi Teaching Scheme in the East. The Central Translation Bureau was set up in March 1971 for translation of different types of non-statutory literature. training in Hindi language is being imparted through 119 full-time and 49 part-time centres throughout the country. The National Awards Scheme for Original Book writing on Gyan-Vigyan has been renamed as Rajiv Gandhi National Awards Scheme for Original Book Writing in Hindi for promoting writing of books in Hindi on all branches of modern Science/Technology and contemporary subjects. Regional Official Language Awards are given each year to the Regional/Subordinate Offices. West. Initially. This Scheme is open to all citizens of India. etc. Five Regional Offices of Hindi Teaching Scheme at Kolkata. translation training courses of 3 months were being conducted . manuals/codes. etc. as a subordinate office of the Department of Official Language. Likewise. Banks. Financial Institutions. Kolkata and Bangalore in 1988 and in Chennai and Hyderabad in 1990. The Kendriya Hindi Prashikshan Sansthan was established on 31 August 1985. To fulfill the increasing demand of Hindi training of North Eastern region a new Regional Headquarter has been established at Guwahati and new Hindi training centres have been established at Imphal. Cash awards are given to the working/retired employees of the Central Government. Universities. The Bureau has also been entrusted with the responsibility of conducting translation training courses for the officers/employees associated with the translation work. Thus. Mumbai. administered by the Department of Official Language. Aizwal and Agartala. training in Hindi is being provided in 229 centres located in different parts of the country.Union. North-Central. Training Under the Hindi Teaching Scheme. South and North-East Regions. Delhi. Banks. Training Institutions and Autonomous Bodies of the Central Government for writing original books in Hindi. Town Official Language Implementation Committees. At Regional level. training in Hindi Stenography and Hindi Typing is being provided through 23 full-time and 38 part-time centres. Training of Hindi typing on computers is being imparted at almost all the typing/stenography centres in the country.

Technical seminars are held to help the users and manufacturers come face to face to discuss the use of Hindi software.rajbhasha.. Bangalore and Kolkata. Tamil and Telugu has been developed. Official Language Manual. Annual Assessment Report regarding the use of Official Language in different Ministries/Departments and offices of the Central Government/Public Sector Undertakings. . information technology. Besides. especially computers. MANTRA Rajbhasha. • • The Department of Official Language has now set up its portal www. Publications The Department of Official Language brings out 'Rajbhasha Bharati'.Under this programme LILA Rajbhasha.at the Headquarters in New Delhi. in Hindi and also to give wide publicity to the efforts being made in different Central Government Offices for the use and propagation of Official Language Hindi. dedicated for encouraging writings in the field of Official Language. technology. etc.Every year around 100 training programmes are conducted to impart training for the use of Hindi on computers Organising exhibitions and seminars on bilingual computing . are also brought out to give information regarding the activities relating to propagation and progressive use of Hindi as the Official Language.in(External website that opens in a new window).gov. Likewise. Malayalam. etc. Posters. So far 112 issues of Rajbhasha Bharati have been published.. a quarterly magazine. Films. English. Kannada. etc. The main activities of the Cell are as under: • Development of "Language application tools" .. Calendars. is also brought out every year and laid on the tables of both the houses of Parliament. literature. In order to strengthen training facilities and meet regional requirements. a self-learning package through the medium of Bangla. Technical In order to facilitate the use of Official Language with the help of Mechanical and Electronic equipment. Annual Programme for implementation of the Official Language policy is brought out every year. an aid tool for English to Hindi translation has also been developed Organising computer training programmes in Hindi . Translation Training Centres have been established in Mumbai. a Technical Cell was set up in the Department of Official Language in October 1983. etc. Central Translation Bureau also conducts short-term translation courses for Central Government employees.

The Department also undertakes activities in the field of international exchange and cooperation to promote public service reforms. 2009. sustainable and efficient administration for the country at all levels of the government has finished its term on April 30. A Commission on Review of Administrative Laws was set up by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances on 8 May 1998 with a view to identify proposals for amendment of the existing laws. The Department disseminates information on important activities of the Government relating to administrative reforms best practices and public grievance redressal through publications and documentation. The Commission set up to suggest measures to achieve a proactive. States/UT Administrations. Organisation and Methods. His reports on accounts of the Union and states are submitted to the President and respective governors which are placed before Parliament and state legislatures. award schemes. The President on advice of Comptroller and Auditor-General prescribes the form in which accounts of the Union and states are to be kept. e-governance and best practices in government. He is not eligible for further office under the Union or a State Government after he ceases to hold his office. efficient Grievance handling promoting modernisation. to improve Government functioning through process re-engineering. The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was setup in 2005 under the Chairmanship of Shri Veerappa Moily to prepare a detailed blueprint for revamping the public administrative system. accountable. responsive. regulations and procedures having intersectoral impact and also for repeal of all dysfunctional laws. Organisations and Civil Society Representatives. The mission of the Department is to act as a facilitator.Comptroller & Auditor General Comptroller and Auditor-General is appointed by the President. systemic changes. The remaining Acts are at various stages of processing. Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances is the nodal agency of the Government for Administrative Reforms as well as redressal of public grievances relating to the States in general and grievances pertaining to Central Government agencies in particular. Procedure and grounds for his removal from office are the same as for a Supreme Court Judge. The various Ministries/Departments have decided to retain 822 Acts (which include 700 Appropriation Acts and 27 Reorganisation Acts). . in consultation with Central Ministries/Departments. Citizens Charters.

5. peace for all.06.2008) Social Capital . (25.The Heart of Governance (30. under the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP).Friction to Fusion (17. The amount for an organisation is upto a limit of Rs. xv.3. Cash Award of Rs.. iii. iii.A Shared Destiny (8.2009) Strengthening Financial Management Systems (26. ii. In case of a group of officials total award money for the group is Rs. The Award comprise i.2007) Local Governance (27.2008) Refurbishing of Personnel Administration . The Awards are given away on the occasion of Civil Service Day being celebrated every year on April 21. 5 lakh. xii.11.01. A scroll.2007) Capacity Building for Conflict Resolution .10..00. x.07.06. Right to Information-Master Key to Good Governance (09. 5 lakh subject to a maximum of Rs. iv.2009) Citizen Centric Administration .2007) Public Order-Justice for each. e-Office .2009) State & District Administration (29.9.10.11.2009) A group of Ministers has been constituted to review the pace of implementation of the recommendations of ARC as well as to provide guidance to the concerned Ministries/Department in implementing the decisions. ix. xiv. one of the Mission projects.2006) Crisis Management-From Despair to Hope (31. xi. v. and.2008) Promoting e-Governance .5.2006) Unlocking Human Capital . The Department also instituted in 2005.02.. The initiative. All officers of the Central and State Governments individually or as a group or as organisations are eligible to be considered for the awards.The Smart Way Forward (20.2008) Combating Terrorism (17. xiii.2009) Organisational Structure of Government of India (19.. "Prime Minister's Awards for Excellence in Public administration" to recognise the extraordinary and innovative work done by the officers of the Central and State Governments.Scaling New Heights (27.3. 1. the Department is in process of implementing e-office.Entitlements and Governance-a Case Study (31. vii.In all. Under e-Governance. vi. A Medal. the Commission has presented the following 15 Reports to the Government: i. ii. viii.2006) Ethics in Governance (12. One lakh per person.000.5.

National awards for e-Governance are also given away during such conferences. organizing lecture series and producing documentary films. organizing seminars. service delivery or a combination of these. Through its regular publications. The Sevottam model was studied by the Second Administrative Reforms Commission and was of the view that this model is a step in the right direction. This Department is the nodal agency for implementing the project. It also provides a framework to assess the performance against the standards and to measure improvement and achievements of these standards. arranging presentations. The main objective of the project is to set standards in consultation with user group and include these standards in the citizen's charter. The Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances has the mandate of promoting good governance practices in the country. effectiveness of process. This initiative would be crucial in pushing GPR. etc. regional conferences. cost. The model is aimed to bring about excellence in service delivery standards in government organizations and is to be implemented in all Central ministries/departments. "Management in Government-a Quarterly Journal" and "Civil Service News-a Monthly News letter". 'Ideas That Have Worked'. it has brought out five books namely. the Department has adopted multi-pronged strategies like bringing out publications. incubation and dissemination of best practices is one of the tasks enumerated in its Vision and Mission Statement. Documentation. in one of the state capitals. New Delhi was awarded the first Sevottam certification in March 2008. These awards are in recognition of the best-inclass e-Governance initiatives that involve analysis and redesign of workflow and aim at improving the outcomes. Besides. The Commission also recommended that the Union and state government should make the seven-step model mandatory for all organizations having public interface. The DARPG has introduced this model through pilots in ten Central ministries and departments. the Department is creating awareness about best practices. In pursuance of this and in order to promote good governance practices in the country. The pilot in the remaining 9 Departments are at various stages of implementation. especially in G2G processes which eventually affects quality of services delivered to the citizens. which is attended by senior officials from the Central/state governments. experts from industry and academia. . quality. Out of the ten departments the pilot in the Department of Posts has been completed and Gol Dakkhana. related to efficiency. The Department has developed a Model-(SEVOTTAM) for benchmarking service delivery standards by the Government departments. The Department also organizes an annual conference on e-Governance.aims at significantly improving the operational efficiency of Central government ministries/departments through improvement in workflow mechanisms and associated office procedure manuals.

In pursuance of the provisions contained in the Administrative Tribunals Act. A portal of best practices called 'Governance knowledge Centre' has been launched to effectively pursue the objective of dissemination of best practices facilitating their replication. The Members are drawn. 1985. 'Splendour in the Grass'. Roofless Towers and 'BYOB . the objective of the Tribunal is to provide for speedy and inexpensive justice to the litigants. Vice-Chairman and Members. . the Administrative Tribunals set-up under it exercise original jurisdiction in respect of service matters of employees covered by it. Administrative Tribunals Act owes its origin to Article 323-A of the Constitution which empowers Central Government to set-up by an Act of Parliament. both from judicial as well as administrative streams so as to give the Tribunal the benefit of expertise both in legal and administrative spheres. the appeals against the orders of an Administrative Tribunal shall lie before the Division Bench of the concerned High Court. The procedural simplicity of the Act can be appreciated from the fact that the aggrieved person can also appear before it personally. The CAT was set-up on 1 November 1985. As a result of the judgement dated 18 March 1997 of the Supreme Court. The States The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. Today. The Administrative Tribunals exercise jurisdiction only in relation to the service matters of the litigants covered by the Act. The Government can present its case through its departmental officers or legal practitioners. Administrative Tribunals for adjudication of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to the public service and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union and the States. 15 of which operate at the principal seats of High Courts and the remaining two at Jaipur and Lucknow.Bringing Your Bytes'. The Department has also produced a DVD containing 73 select reports of commissions/committee on administrative reforms since 1812 till date.Learn From Them. The Act provides for establishment of Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) and the State Administrative Tribunals. In brief. These Benches also hold circuit sittings at other seats of High Courts. Administrative Tribunals The enactment of Administrative Tribunals Act in 1985 opened a new chapter in the sphere of administering justice to the aggrieved government servants. it has 17 regular benches. These books share experiences of success or failure of innovators. the tribunal consists of a Chairman. Thus.

In respect of Nagaland. after consulting Council of Ministers. Governor has been given special responsibility for peace and social and economic advancement of different sections of population.Executive GOVERNOR State executive consists of Governor and Council of Ministers with Chief Minister as its head. exercise his individual judgement as to the action to be taken. The Governor of a State is appointed by the President for a term of five years and holds office during his pleasure. Tripura and Mizoram as specified in para 20 of that Schedule. he may so direct by an order. in respect of Arunachal Pradesh. exercise their own judgement. Council Of Ministers . in the Sixth Schedule which applies to tribal areas of Assam. Governor shall. Sixth Schedule vests additional discretionary powers in Governors of Mizoram and Tripura in almost all their functions (except approving regulations for levy of taxes and money lending by non-tribal by district councils) since December 1998. These are. All Governors while discharging such constitutional functions as appointment of Chief Minister of a State or sending a report to President about failure of constitutional machinery in a State or in respect of matters relating to assent to a Bill passed by legislature. Executive power of the State is vested in Governor. Council of Ministers with Chief Minister as head aids and advises Governor in exercise of his functions except in so far as he is by or under the Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion. Likewise. Governor has special responsibility under Article 371H of the Constitution with respect to law and order and in discharge of his functions in relation thereto. temporary provisions if President. Governor has special responsibility under Article 371 A of the Constitution with respect to law and order and even though it is necessary for him to consult Council of Ministers in matters relating to law and order. In Sikkim. discretionary powers are given to Governor in matters relating to sharing of royalties between district council and state government. Meghalaya. he can exercise his individual judgement as to the action to be taken. Similarly. on receipt of a report from Governor or otherwise is satisfied that it is no longer necessary for Governor to have special responsibility with respect to law and order. Only Indian citizens above 35 years of age are eligible for appointment to this office. however.

which consists of Governor and one House or. engaged in teaching in educational institutions within the state not lower in standard than secondary school and a further one-twelfth by registered graduates of more than three years standing. Legislative Assembly Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) of a state consists of not more than 500 and not less than 60 members (Legislative Assembly of Sikkim has 32 members vide Article 371F of the Constitution) chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the state. there is a legislature. as far as practicable. Term of an assembly is five years unless it is dissolved earlier. cooperative movement and social service. is the same throughout the state. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Legislative Council Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) of a state comprises not more than one-third of total number of members in legislative assembly of the state and in no case less than 40 members (Legislative Council of Jammu and Kashmir has 36 members vide Section 50 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir). if proposal is supported by a resolution of the legislative assembly concerned. In the remaining states. Karnataka. Remaining members are nominated by Governor from among those who have distinguished themselves in literature. there are two Houses known as legislative council and legislative assembly. one-twelfth by electorate consisting of persons who have been. art. science. Legislative councils are not subject to dissolution but one-third of their members retire every second year. one-third by electorates consisting of members of municipalities.The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor who also appoints other ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister. two Houses as the case may be. Jammu and Kashmir. About one-third of members of the council are elected by members of legislative assembly from amongst persons who are not its members. Parliament may. Powers and Functions . by law. Legislature For every state. provide for abolition of an existing legislative council or for creation of one where it does not exist. In Bihar. Demarcation of territorial constituencies is to be done in such a manner that the ratio between population of each constituency and number of seats allotted to it. district boards and other local authorities in the state. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to legislative assembly of the State. there is only one House known as legislative assembly. for at least three years.

taxation and borrowing by the state government. Reservation of Bills The Governor of a state may reserve any Bill for the consideration of the President. Assembly can accept or reject these recommendations. debates. use all normal parliamentary devices like questions. discussions. They also have their committees on estimates and public accounts to ensure that grants sanctioned by legislature are properly utilised. Control Over Executive State legislatures. Legislative assembly of Union Territory of Puducherry may make laws with respect to matters enumerated in List II or List III in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution in so far as these matters are applicable in relation to the Union Territory. through an Administrator appointed by him. The Administrator of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is concurrently the Administrator of Daman and Diu. measures affecting powers and position of High Courts and imposition of taxes on storage. The legislative assembly of National Capital Territory of Delhi has also these powers with the exceptions that Entries 1. passed by the legislative assembly of the Union . Bills relating to subjects like compulsory acquisition of property. apart from exercising the usual power of financial control. Union Territories Union Territories are administrated by the President acting to such extent. The Governor of Punjab is concurrently the Administrator of Chandigarh. Certain categories of Bills. Some Bills. Financial powers of legislature include authorisation of all expenditure. Delhi and Puducherry are designated as Lieutenant Governors. Legislative council can make only recommendations in respect of changes it considers necessary within a period of fourteen days of the receipt of money bills from Assembly. Legislative assembly alone has power to originate money bills. as he thinks fit. Lakshadweep has a separate Administrator. adjournments and no-confidence motions and resolutions to keep a watch over day-to-day work of the executive. 2 and 18 of the List II are not within the legislative competence of the legislative assembly. The National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Puducherry each has a legislative assembly and council of ministers. require the prior approval of the Central Government for introduction in the legislative assembly. distribution and sale of water or electricity in Inter-state River or river valley development projects should necessarily be so reserved.State legislature has exclusive powers over subjects enumerated in List II of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution and concurrent powers over those enumerated in List III. however. Administrators of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. No Bills seeking to impose restrictions on inter-state trade can be introduced in a state legislature without previous sanction of the President.

i. The first such Municipal Corporation was set-up in the former Presidency Town of Madras in 1688. Constitution did not make the local self-government in urban areas a clear-cut constitutional obligation. State/UTs have set-up their election Commissions. The Government of India notified 1 June 1993 as the date from which the said Act came into force. and to the offices . However. and was followed by similar corporations in the then Bombay and Calcutta in 1726. Parliament enacted the Constitution (74th Amendment) Act. In order to provide for a common framework for urban local bodies and help to strengthen the functioning of the bodies as effective democratic units of selfgovernment.. which enshrines one of the Directive Principles of State Policy. if any. The Act received the assent of the President on 20 April 1993. authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government. lays down that the State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and. which places the subject of local selfgovernments as a responsibility of the states. Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas and Municipal Corporation for large urban areas. constitution of three types of Municipalities. constitution of Panchayats at village and other level or levels. The Constitution of India has made detailed provisions for ensuring protection of democracy in Parliament and in the state legislatures. Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages. Panchayats Article 40 of the Constitution. While the Directive Principles of State Policy refer to village Panchayats. A new part IX-A relating to the Municipalities has been incorporated in the Constitution to provide for among other things. 1992 relating to municipalities in 1992. appointment of state election commission. Local Government Municipalities Municipal bodies have a long history in India.Territory of Puducherry and National Capital Territory of Delhi are required to be reserved for consideration and assent of the President. appointment of state finance commission and constitution of metropolitan and district planning committees. there is no specific reference to Municipalities except the implicitly in Entry 5 of the State List. a new Part IX relating to the Panchayats has been inserted in the Constitution to provide for among other things. fixed duration of municipalities. direct elections to all seats in Panchayats at the village and intermediate level. Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to urban area.e. In the light of the above. Elections to municipal bodies have been completed in all States/UTs except Jharkhand and Puducherry.

Simultaneously. whichever is earlier. the Commission functioned as a single member body consisting of the Chief Election Commissioner. the said two Commissioners ceased to hold office on 1 January 1990 when those two posts of Election Commissioners were abolished. the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Act. and the conduct of. However. direction and control of preparation of electoral rolls for. The other Election Commissioners cannot be removed from office except on recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner. elections to Parliament and State Legislatures and elections to the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India are vested in the Election Commission of India. the President appointed two more Election Commissioners. Since its inception in 1950 and till October 1989. Election Commission The superintendence.December 1989. dismissed the petitions and upheld the provisions of the above law by a unanimous judgment on 14 July 1995. It is an independent constitutional authority. The validity of that Act (renamed in 1993 as the Election Commission) (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business) Act. Independence of the Election Commission and its insulation from executive interference is ensured by a specific provision under Article 324(5) of the Constitution that the Chief Election Commissioner shall not be removed from his office except in like manner and on like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court and conditions of his service shall not be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment. Again on 1 October 1993. reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population for membership of Panchayats and office of Chairpersons in Panchayats at each level. The Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court consisting of five judges.of Chairpersons of Panchayats at such levels. fixing tenure of five years for Panchayats and holding elections within a period of six months in the event of super session of any Panchayat. allowances and other perquisites as payable to a judge of the Supreme Court of India. the matter will be decided by the Commission by majority. On 16 October 1989. The term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners is six years from the date he/she assumes office or till the day he/she attains the age of 65 years. 1991 was amended to provide that the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners will enjoy equal powers and will receive equal salary. 1991 was challenged before the Supreme Court. however. the President appointed two more Election Commissioners on the eve of the General Election to the House of the People held in November. reservation of not less than one-third of the seats for women. Amendments . The Act further provided that in case of difference of opinion amongst the Chief Election Commissioner and/or two other Election Commissioners.

W. those service voters belonging to the Armed Forces and members belonging to a Force to which provisions of the Army Act applies.P. The Parliament on 28 August 2003 enacted the Representation of the People (Amendment) Act. for information of electors. Accordingly. Electoral Reforms In C. The Act also inserted Part A (Section 78A and 78B) regarding supply of copies of electoral rolls and certain other items to candidates of recognised political parties. Such service voter who opt to vote through proxy have to appoint a proxy in a prescribed format and intimate the Returning Officer of the constituency. 2003 whereby open ballot system was introduced at elections to the Council of States. The Election and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act. 4912 of 1998 (Kushra Bharat Vs. Union of India and Others).000 shall be reported to the Election Commission for any claim for Tax relief under the Income Tax Act. water. 2003 whereby Section 4 of the Principal Act was amended to provide that the Delimitation will be held on the basis of the 2001 Census figures. No.20. the Commission modified items 3(a)(iii) of the . telephone and transport (including aircrafts and helicopters) and any other dues should be furnished by the candidates and this information should be published by the election authorities under the Commission in at least two newspapers having local circulation. have been provided the facility to opt to vote through proxy. By these amendments in the Act and Rules. By this amendment. the Delhi High Court directed that information relating to government dues owed by candidates to the departments dealing with Government accommodation. subject to the condition that any contribution in excess of Rs. 2003 and Conduct of Elections (Amendment) Rules. 2003 which came into force with effect from 22 September 2003. 1961. new Section 29B and 29C were inserted in the Principal Act providing for contribution by any person or company other than a Government company to political parties. This Act also amended Section 77(1) regarding maintenance of election expenses by candidates whereby expenditure incurred by specified number of 'leaders' of a political party on account of travel by air or by any other means of transport for propagating programme of the political party alone shall be exempted from being included in the account of election expenses incurred by the candidate in connection with the election. 2003 (46 of 2003) was enacted in 11 September 2003. The requirement that a candidate contesting an election to the Council of States from a particular State should be an elector in that particular State was also dispensed with. In this system an elector who belongs to a political party is required to show the ballot paper after marking his vote to an authorised agent of that political party. The Parliament on 1 January 2004 enacted the Delimitation (Amendment) Act.The Parliament on 22 March 2003 enacted the Election Laws (Amendment) Act. electricity.

with polling to be held in four phases on 20 and 26 April and 5 and 10 May 2004. The phasing of polls pays rich dividends was brought out by the fact that poll Description 423 79 41 543 .000 million Description Number and Types of Lok Sabha Constituencies Particulars For General Candidates Reserved for Scheduled Caste Candidates Reserved for Scheduled Tribe Candidates Total Constituencies On 29 February 2004. Karnataka.format of the affidavit prescribed vide its order dated 27 March 2003 relating to right to information of electors regarding the background of candidates and also issued necessary directions to the District Election Officers regarding publication of the information furnished by the candidates in the newspapers as directed by the Delhi High Court.87.13. The General Elections to the 14th Lok Sabha.14. General Elections 2004 Elections in India are events involving political mobilisation and organisational complexity on an amazing scale. as well as fifteen bye-elections in various states during April-May 2004.075 million Approximately Rs.930 Approximately 4 million excluding para military and police personnel 1. The phasing of the elections has become a necessity over the years due to large requirement of paramilitary forces and time needed for their movement across various states. State Legislative Assemblies of Andhra Pradesh. the Election Commission of India announced the schedule of elections. the House of People were due in October 2004 but consequent to early dissolution of the House. General Elections 2004 Particulars Total Seats (Lok Sabha) Electorate Number of election personnel engaged Number of EVM's used Direct expenditure incurred 543 67. the Election Commission of India decided to hold the elections to the Lok Sabha. Odisha and Sikkim.

Government dues and criminal cases pending against them.7 million. Electronic Voting Machine The Representation of People Act. The polling personnel carried EVM's in convenient boxes. the Supreme Court of India ordered regulation of advertisements on electronic media to be put by the candidates and political parties. educational qualifications. forty five State Parties and 702 Registered Unrecognised Parties. Candidates There were 5. They have played a major role in Government formation through pre-poll and post poll alliances. In General Elections 2004. the overt publicity remained subdued. when the Commission took a bold initiative for introducing EVM's in 16 Assembly Constituencies during State Legislative Assembly Elections in November 1998.50.000 trees which would have otherwise been cut for production of about 8. media and the election staff.435 candidates for 543 Lok Sabha seats and 4. The use of EVM's made possible reduction in the number of polling stations from 0.200. if any. the Commission decided to hold elections for two seats in Tripura on 22 April instead of 20 April 2004 and for one seat in Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 20 April instead of 10 May 2004.related violence came down substantially. candidates. The use of EVM's saved around 1. as the maximum number of voters per polling station could be increased to 1. EVM's were used for the first time throughout the country making the elections go fully electronic. The failure rate of the machines was negligible. Since about a decade. However.504 candidates for 697 seats in four State Legislative Assemblies. there were six National Parties. electricity was not a problem.000 tonnes of paper required for printing the ballot papers. The user-friendly EVM's could be used even by the illiterates with ease. due to strict observance of Model Code of Conduct and monitoring of election expenses. Since the EVM's work on battery. EVM's were transported to polling stations by all imaginable means. These affidavits were displayed on . Later. political parties. Political Parties For these elections. if traditional system of ballot boxes was adopted. regional and smaller parties gained importance in Indian polity. The candidates were required to file affidavits declaring their assets and liabilities. they were really put to use only after a decade. The number of women candidates was 354 and 324 respectively. There are no permanent friends or foes in politics becomes clear when Indian context is analysed. 1951 was amended by the Indian Parliament in 1989 to facilitate the use of EVM's. The use of EVM's was preceded by an elaborate training programme and widespread campaign to educate the voters. Though the ceilings for expenses to be incurred by the candidates were raised.500 from earlier prescribed limit of 1. To ensure a level playing field.77 million to about 0.

Madhya Pradesh. Results There were more than 1. Nagaland and Tripura were held on 26 February 2003. The General Elections to the Legislative Assemblies of Mizoram was held on 20 November 2003 and that of Chhattisgarh.the notice boards of the offices of the Returning Officers. Similarly poll to the Legislative Assemblies of Himachal Pradesh. . Meghalaya. The Commission's website received more than 10 million hits on the day of counting. other State Legislative Assemblies and bye-elections on 13 May. The Commission made elaborate arrangements to receive directly results from the Returning Officers using GENESYS software. The counting of votes for Andhra Pradesh State Legislative Assembly was undertaken on 11 May 2004 and for Lok Sabha. Rajasthan and NCT of Delhi were held on 1 December 2003. The use of EVMs made the process of counting easier and faster. Some NGOs compiled this information and circulated the same for the benefit of the voters.200 counting centres spread over about 850 towns in the country. Elections to Legislative Assemblies: The General Election to the Legislative Assemblies of Gujarat and Jammu and Kashmir were held on 12 December and in September-October 2002 respectively. and placed on the website of the Commission to enable the electors make their informed choice.

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