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Task 1

1. Describe the main stages of the purchase decision making process. In your

answer explain factors affect buyer behaviour. Ans: Consumers are individual and they buy products for personal consumption. Consumer behaviour is ‘the mental and emotional processes and the observable behaviour of consumers during searching purchasing and post consumption of a product and service (Batra & Kazmi, 2004). Understanding buying behaviour is a complex task for every manager. There are various factors which influence the consumer to buy products such as external factor internal factor and also marketing. Consumer behaviour involves study of people buy, what they buy and when they are buying. Buying behaviour is mingled with the consumer behaviour, psychology, culture and society.

In order buy any products consumer may pass through a series of steps which is illustrated in figure 2. groups and situation which affect the consumer buying behaviour and same goes with Marketing and Internal factors as well. Information search: . Consumer Decision making process: It is a process which is undertaken by the consumer when buying any products. Figure: The consumer purchase decision making process ( Blackwee et al (2000) Need: Mostly consumer purchase decision making process starts with when consumer recognizes any needs or problem. This is the vital stage where consumer recognises the needs and decided to buy any products or service.If we look the diagram above we can clearly see that in the External factor there are some division like culture. Consumer purchase decision making process is a problem solving or need-satisfaction process.

Post –purchase Actions: The art of affecting marketing is to create customer satisfaction. Evaluation also can be seen as a process which is depicted below diagram: Fig: The evaluation system ( Lancaster 1 Purchase: In this stage consumer try to select the brand and retail outlet to purchase the desired product. Consumer evaluates various features. .After recognizing the problem. If the customer is able to receive desired results from products that time there is a tendency that customer turns in to a repeat customer. commercial or personal experiences. option which might solve the consumer problem or need. if the products does not satisfy the consumer need s that time consumer will not go for future purchase from same products or retailer. consumer step forward to buy to the products. consumer now tries to find the solution by asking friends or goes to market to seek advice. Source of information can be including personal. Evaluation of alternatives: Before going to purchase consumer is always try to seek for the alternatives. Mostly consumer prefers to purchase less valuable products from nearby retailer and high valuable products from renowned retailer. After deciding where to buy. Most of the business wants repeat customer and they are also rely on it. On the other hand.

According to Teich (1997). regardless commitment. they will always have loyal consumer which are the repeat consumer. Loyal customer can be for the good quality of the brands or can be only brand name which allows the consumer to buy the products. corporate image and repeat purchasing connect together. we can say that brand loyalty. Task 2: Q. Marketing research can be conducted by two major ways. To create brand loyality and resonance consumer experience with the product must meet the functional needs of consumer. No Brand want to loose their corporate image as this is one of the main attraction for consumer and Brand knows that as long as can stay with image. accurate and timely information. Marketing research helps the organization to make decision by providing relevant. a promise and also a signal of quality. 2. Sometime people use a specific brand only for the social social image. Evaluates the different methods of market research. A consumer becomes loyal when he or she repeatedly buys the same brand products. loyalty is developed over period of time and loyal consumers are the repeat consumer that means consumer are re-buying of a brand. For individuals and markets identify theories that have been produced which explain buyer behaviour. How does brand loyalty. Ans: for the consumer Band is symbol of product. in-depth and seeks unstructured responses which able to evaluate and reflect the person’s inner mind.1. . qualitative research is an open ended. their service and what people have experienced over time. corporate image and repeat consumer are solely inter-related with each other. At conclusion. by remembering their name consumer gets a satisfaction as they are satisfied with their products and services. There are some bands. Ans: Research is all about the enquiry to find and acquire new knowledge. Customer satisfaction has frequently been suggested to be the leading determinant of loyalty is said by Lam and Burton (2006). feelings on the specific subjects. Brand lives in the minds of people by their products. They are a) Qualitative research b) Quantitative research Qualitative research: According to Ghauri et al (2006).

Quantitative research: According to Creswell (2003) “quantitative methods are used chiefly to test or verify theories or explanations. The aim is complete and with detailed description. Charles (1995) said that results of questionnaire remain quite similar over a period of a time and these attitudes of this method referred to as stability. 5. given repeatedly. relate variables in questions or hypothesis.41-42) Regarding questionnaire which is one of the methods of quantitative. . Recommended during earlier phase of research projects. Researcher is not fully focused or aimed what he or she is looking for 2.Here researcher use questionnaires. Qualitative research 1. 3. It is quite useful to get the information from the survey if the survey contain meaningful question and the responder respond truthfully. 2. For these methods discuss their validity and reliability Ans: According to Kirk and Miller (1986) there are three types of reliability which can be reffered to quantitative research.” This type of research involves with the numerical information from surveys. In this method researcher use in-depth interviews and also use participant’s observation. Quantitative research 1. identify variables to study. use statistical standard of validity and reliability and employ statistical procedures for analysis. surveys etc. Researcher is fully focused and know what exactly what he or she is looking for. Q. 4. To classify the features and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed is the main aim of quantitative research.Recommended during latter phase of research projects 5. remains the same b) The stability of a measurement over time c) The similarity of measurements within a given time period (pp. a) The degree to which a measurement.

j-sainsbury. “trustworthiness of a research report lies at the heart of issues conventionally discussed as validity and reliability” (p. Sainsbury: Sainsbury’s value remains just as relevant in the current economic climate though customers are concern for price as well as environmental Regarding this Seale (1999) said that. Performance of Tesco is monitored by both internal and external audit.266). Tesco: 5 year rolling business plan is the Tesco business strategy of long term growth and returns for shareholders.g food retail identify two companies and using some secondary sources describe the context they are trading in. Sainsbury closely works with their stakeholders and always try to understand the issues and their points of view.According to Joppe (2000). validity in quantitative research is all about to find to measure or how truthful the research results are or is research element helping the researcher to find the research objectives? The validity in quantitative research is about “construct validity” which was said by Wainer and Braun (1998). Mintel may be of Tesco divided its business into different units which follow their objectives to fulfil the Tesco use internal communication process to make sure that the entire employees have good knowledge on what is going on and also about their responsibilities to fulfil Tesco’s goal. Audit committee reports to board each year on its review of the effectiveness of the internal control systems for the financial year. value. Q: for a business sector e. Here author used the secondary data which can be found in http://www. positive attitudes and expected performance. All the information above was secondary data which can be found in Http://www. Tesco make sure that employee have good understanding of company’s strategy. Examination of trustworthiness is crucial to ensure the reliability in qualitative research. Sainsbury gives importance to conduct a research to find out the position of organization in the market. Beliefs of Sainsbury is that by considering environment as well as ethical issue is another way to do the business and this is the way they are meeting their customer’s need. Task 3: . Ans: Below there is a brief description on how Tesco and Sainsbury trade in market.

(http://news. it is clearly shown their growth and the profit was £2bn than previous year. 14. Tesco proved its strong establishment over all rivals in the supermarket wars. “ The core UK business has shown continued growth. Tesco also believes the worst of the recession is over and is sounding bullish about the year ahead. ( Tesco is now looking forward to expand their business in many more countries and want to establish more in nonfood areas such as CDs. Before 1995. struggling to absorb Safeway and in 2004. clothing and electrical goods. our international operations have delivered a strong start to the year. they are doing better than recession. our non-food market share has improved and our retailing services have also performed well”. which is another competitor of Tesco. 'Tesco's strategy is far ahead of Sainsbury ± it has grown a strong UK core. Tesco gained the belief of the consumer by consistently providing good service with good reasonable food retailing analysts. Tesco maintained their popularity by listening to customers and responding to their needs. Morrison. Tesco not only known for its food products. According to Tesco.freshplaza.6% sales growth was reported about UK supermarket Giant Tesco. UK customers came out of recession in summer of 2009 and these are not moments but long-term trends as world economies recover. Compared to the Tesco’s last year financial performance.stm). Sir Terry said: "The recovery has taken hold. Tesco not only successful in UK only. and then rapidly developed international stores. built good non-food sales. The grocery market has changed a lot regarding their range of products or price.6% of the UK grocery retail market by . this is what there next plans. According to Tesco. Clothing department of Tesco and Asda are quite famous . • Tesco.300 stores in 13 countries and Tesco’s one of the strongest competitors was Sainsbury which strategic errors was one of the main reasons for its downfall in 1995. Sainsbury was the strong supermarket but in 1995 Tesco overtook Sainsbury and able to occupied 15.• In the first quarter of its financial year. expanded into retailing services and exploited ecommerce successfully' Data monitor. Tesco focus on customer needs by providing various range of products. issued its first profit warning in 37 Asda is another strong competitor of Tesco and can be said that Asda is the only super market with the potential to become throne in the side for grew their international sales on a like-for-like (http://www." (http://www. they have more than 2. which operating their business more than 14 countries very successfully even though they have quite a lot competitors. Now Tesco wants to open in new branch in they are also quite strong brand as a non-food market as well.

To find how the ethnic products will affect towards Tesco. are the fastest growing in the UK both in value and in volume. Threats which Tesco can face regarding ethnic products could be the quality of the products as they are imported by Tesco from various countries to fulfil the demand of consumer. Tesco’s Asian Halal section is strong way to keep the existing customer as well as to attain new By introducing ethnic products Tesco gained more popularity as well as more regular customer which is the biggest asset for any organization. In spite of many rival organizations. AfroCaribbean. oriental. Task 4: . Kosher.4% market share. It is quite proven that ethnic products help the Tesco to gain more consumers with lots of profits. If the researcher take the help questionnaire process than it will help the Tesco to make future plan. Tesco feels that UK has diverse population and for this reason ethnic products getting more importance. Tesco claims that its clothing ranges. Questionnaire can accomplish by randomly chosen people or can be on focused group of people. researcher can take the help of qualitative research method. Till now Tesco successfully introduced Asian. Tesco always tried to fulfil the demand of the consumer and that is why Tesco decided to introduce some ethnic products to increase their range of products as well to keep their loyal customer. Tesco is still able to run the business successfully. Another can be. • How ethnic products influence the consumers as well as how ethnic products help the Tesco is important to find out. It is all about how the questionnaire is set up to meet the Tesco’s aim. Polish and Halal foods. Researcher also can take the helps of Quantitative research methods as well. Tesco also introduce halal chocolate for their Muslims consumer which was produced by Ummah foods. Market research always helps organization to find their organization’s position as well as to find out any products affect on consumer. By appealing to Muslim consumer Tesco extended their range of ethnic products as well able to retain their consumer. with a 4. Organization cannot make future plan without having clear idea about products especially if it is about ethnic products. UK. Qualitative research will help the researcher to find out about consumer reaction towards Tesco and its ethnic products. Tesco had to employee people from particular region to find about the products as well as Tesco had spend money for market research. (http://www. • Tesco is giant strong supermarket in UK retail market.justfood. Florence and Fred.

Participants were quite enthusiastic to answer the questionnaire and I have received a high number of positive responses. During the survey all the participants detail were kept confidential as long as they were agreed to openly participate. After conducting the survey. In my opinion. Participants are randomly chosen with different age range. I have selected 5 questions which contains different question to find about how consumer feel about ethnic products. to find about consumer’s response towards ethnic products.• For my research I have choose Tesco as my company. Some participants were really pleased as they get chance to taste different countries products. I can take the help of questionnaires. it is clearly shows that people are really appreciated the ethnic products. Tesco has variety of ethnic products range and has diverse consumer. Tesco’s halal section increases the number of loyal consumer. • An example of Consumer satisfaction survey sheet is blow: .

a) Definitely b) Don’t know what is halal c) May be Age 5) Are you satisfied what is Tesco offering as ethnic products? a) Agree b) Strongly Agree .Survey on Tesco’s Ethnic products Name: 1. What do you think about Tesco’s ethnic products: a) Don’t know b) It is a good start c) Very good 2. Tesco should introduce b) I don’t think Tesco need to introduce ethnic products c) Don’t care as long as I can get my products 3) Do you think Tesco gained more popularity because of ethnic foods? a) Agree b) Strongly agree c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree 4) Tesco’s Halal products gaining more loyal consumer. Do you want Tesco to introduce more ethnic products? a) Yes.

C (1999). . Qualitative Inquiry. Test validity. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. References: 1. H. H and Braun. 465-478) 2. Quality in qualitative research. Hilldale. Seale. 5(4).c) Disagree d) Strongly disagree Thank you for your corporation. Wainer.I (1998(.

com/news/tesco-extends-ethnic-food-range_id113419.3.aspx 5. ( 8.telegraph. (http://www.freshplaza.j-sainsbury. .uk/cr09/index.html 6. land-bank. 7.asp?pageid=21 4.asp?id=62319#SlideFrame_1).co. http://www. Http://www. http://www.