TIME-LIFE BOOKS

EDITOR
Maitland A. Edey
EXECUTIVE EDITOR
Jerry Korn
TEXT DIRECTOR
Martin Mann
ART DIRECTOR
Sheldon Cotler
CHIEF OF RESEARCH
Beatrice T. Dobie
PICTURE EDITOR
Robert G. Mason
Asistant Text Directors:
Harold C. Field, Ogden Tanner
Asistant Art Director: Arnold C. Holeywell
Asistant Chief of Research: Martha Turner
PUBLISHER
Rhett Austell
General Manager: Joseph C. Hazen Jr.
Circulation Director: Joan D. Manley
Marketing Director: Carter Smith
Business Manager: John D. McSweeney
Publishing Board: Nicholas Benton,
Louis Bronzo,James Wendell Forbes
Library of Congress catalogue card
number 68-11546.
Published simultaneously in Canada.
FOODS OF THE WORLD
SERIES EDITOR: Richard L. Williams
EDITORIAL STAFF FOR THE KITCHEN GUIDE:
Associate Editor: James Wyckof
Designer: Albert Sherman
Assistant Designer: Robert Pellegrini
Chief Researcher: Helen Fennell
Researchers: Penny Grist, Helen M. Hinkle,
Helen Isaacs, Diana Sweeney
Test Kitchen Chef)ohn W. Clancy
Test Kitchen S  Fil Bergman, Joel Levy,
Leola Spencer
EDITORIAL PRODUCTION
Color Director: Robert L. Young
Asistant: James). Cox
Copy Stf: Marian Gordon Goldman,
Rosalind Stu ben berg, Florence Keith
Picture Department: Dolores A. Littles
Trafc: Arthur A. Goldberger, Douglas B. Graham
Art Asisant: John Woods
The following individuals and departments of Time Inc. gave
valuable aid in the preparation of this book: the Chief of the
Time Inc. Bureau of Editorial Reference, Peter Draz; the Chief
of the TIME- LIFE News Service, Richard M. Clurman.
Credits and Acknowledgments: Consulting Editor, Michael Field. Photographs: cover and pages 5, 6-
7, 8, 10-11, 12, Richard Jefery; pages 41, 42, 45, 47, 48-49, 51, Richard Meek; pages 9, 13, Charles
Phillips; page 46, Mark Kaufman. All drawings by Otto van Eersel, except the drawing on page 15, by
Matt Greene. Text written by Margaret Elliott and Diana Walton. The editors are indebted to The Bridge
Company, New York City, for the use of kitchen equipment, and to the National Dairy Council, Chicago,
Illinois; the National Live Stock and Meat Board, Chicago, Illinois; the American Spice Trade Associa­
tion, New York City; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, for illustration and research material.
:ods o the "orld
itchen Cuide
BY THE EDITORS OF TIME-LIFE BOOKS
/
TIME-LIFE BOOKS, NEW YORK
Introduction
You can enj oy readi ng the enti re FooDs
OF THE WoRLD series wi thout ever stirring
from your armchair to stir a pot. But you
will enjoy i t much more i f you put the books
-or at least their compani on recipe book­
lets-to work i n the ki tchen.
The i ndi vi dual volumes of the seri es, the
recipe booklets and this Kitchen Guide all
assume the same thing about your ki tchen :
that it is not j ust the " drudge center" of
your home, a place where three meals a day
must be gotten over wi th, but a room to be
creative i n, a place i n whi ch to fnd the satis­
faction of personal accompl i shment.
I n cooki ng there is always somethi ng new
to be learned, whether from the French, the
Chi nese, or a cui sine closer to home. When
properly performed, cooking-in whi ch any­
body can be part arti st, part scienti st-en­
gages all the senses, and i n fact al l of oneself.
We also assume-whether you already
possess many, few or none of the nearly
1 , 200 cookbooks already available i n the
U. S. -that you start thi s series wi th some
enthusiasm for good food and good cook­
i ng. What cannot be taken for granted is
how much knowledge you start out wi th.
Accordi ngly, our reci pes have been made as
clear and complete as possible. All have been
tested i n the FooDs OF THE WoRLD ki tch­
en. Some are accompanied by step- by- step
photographs or drawi ngs, to help gui de you
through procedures that may be complicat­
ed the frst time around.
Thi s gui de i s i ntended as a manual to
help the begi nner, as well as the experienced
cook, i n understandi ng the basic require­
ments of equipment, marketi ng, stori ng
food, planning and servi ng meals. It can be
used in conj unction wi th the other books
i n the FooDs OF THE WoRLD Li brary (or
with any cookbook) as an easy reference i n
whi ch to look up any basi c cooking process,
from freezing meat to trussing a chicken.
For more detailed i nformati on the reader
can turn to the books in the Li brary i tself.
-The Editors
© 1%8 Tirc Inc. All ri
g
hts reserved.
Gonte nts
:
Basic Kitchen Equipment
Selecting and Storing Food
Glossary of Food and Cooking Terms
Carving and Slcing
Meal Planning and Serving
Herbs and Spices
Equivalents and Measures
Cooking utensi l s : constructi on, preferred materi al s and a suggested
selection of basic types. Essential tools for mi xi ng and measuri ng, baki ng,
cutting and choppi ng, and mi scellaneous ki tchen chores.
A general primer on meat. Detailed i nformati on, wi th di agrams, on
beef, veal , lamb and pork. How to choose and store fsh, poultry, eggs,
mi l k products, frui ts, vegetables, staples, canned goods and frozen foods.
The most i mportant and wi dely used terms i n cooki ng, l i sted alphabetical l y,
along wi th detailed explanati ons and i l l ustrati ons of techni ques
that are essential to si mple and complicated recipes al i ke.
Step- by- step i nstructions wi th detai l ed drawings to gui de you i n carvi ng
and slicing vari ous roasts, a rack of lamb, fank or porterhouse steak, ham,
l eg of l amb, roast chi cken, turkey and a whol e fsh.
How to prepare a meal for your fami l y and for guests. Tabl e setti ngs
for a bufet, a formal di nner pary and an i nformal one.
How to place si lverware, glasses, plates and the servi ng di shes.
An alphabetical l i sti ng of the maj or herbs and spi ces,
with an i ndi cation of their strength and qual i ty of their favor, and some
suggesti ons on how to use them i n the ki tchen.
Charts l i sting U. S. weights and measures, commonly used forei gn vol umes
and U. S. equi val ents, and a l i st of weight and volume equi valents for many
10/Wf.Qf foods that change in form duri ng preparati on.
Page4
Page 14
Page40
Page 52
Page 58
Page 62
Page64
Casic X che n equime nt
In selecti ng ki tchen equi pment that wi ll
save you time, money and frustrati on i t i s
important to take several poi nts i nto con­
si deration: how much you cook, how many
people you ordi narily cook for, how experi­
enced you are, what kind of ki tchen you
have now.
In thi s section of the Kitchen Guide,
POTS AND PANS
The most i mportant thi ng to know when
buyi ng any cooking utensi l i s how efcient­
ly it cooks. You can' t really tell by looking
at i t, but you can get a good idea if you
know what i t i s made of and how i t i s con­
structed.
First check i ts weight, or gauge. A li ght
pan, which heats rapi dl y, i s useful for mak­
i ng sauces or blanching vegetabl es, but i t
may be too thi n for other ki nds of cook­
i ng. A heavier pan, which heats more slow­
ly and more evenly, is a better choice for
most general cooki ng. A very heavy pan,
although good for long, slow stewing or
simmering, may prove too cumbersome for
constant use. I t ' s a good i dea to ask a
salesperson in the store what he knows of
the quality of the piece of equi pment i n
whi ch you are i nterested. Al so read the man­
ufacturer ' s tag careful l y.
Check the pan for balance ; i t shoul d not
tip while standing empty. Find out i f the
handle is heat resistant. Wooden and plas­
tic handles generally keep cool on top of
the stove, but will burn or melt in the oven.
(Some enameled cast-iron and gl ass-ceramic
utensi ls have removable handl es so you may
4 Basic kitchen e
q
uipment
you wi l l fnd basic ki tchen tools, grouped
accordi ng to the jobs they do. Some i tems
are i ncluded that are not absolutely neces­
sary, but that are especially useful for spe­
cifc tasks. The degree of your ski l l wi l l
determi ne whether you wi l l want to obtai n
them now, or add them when you have be­
come more expert in the ki tchen.
use them both ways. ) Try the l i d to see
that it fts the pot ti ghtl y. Consi der each
pot or pan i ndi vi dually with an eye to the
quanti ti es it will hold and how you plan
to use it. One large casserole, for i nstance,
can be used i n several ways : to roast meat,
simmer a stew or make soup-and to serve
them at the table. It is usual l y unsati sfac­
tory to buy a large set of matched pots and
pans, pretty as they might look i n your
ki tchen ; no one material or weight is perfect
for all cooki ng, and whi le some of the pots
and pans may ft your needs, others will re­
main unused.
You wi ll fnd that some materi al s make
better cooking utensi ls for all- around use ;
enameled cast iron and alumi num are ex­
amples. But for certai n cooking operations,
other materi al s with more speci ali zed qual­
ities can prove i nvaluabl e-such as glass­
ceramic ware, whi ch can go di rectly from
the freezer to the oven wi thout cracki ng.
To hel p you thread your way through the
great variety of today ' s cookware, here i s
a l i st of the maj or materi als and how they
perform, along wi th i ndi cati ons of price,
ease of cl eani ng and durabi l i ty.
Skilets: Shape and materi al are your gui des. The straight- si ded copper pan and the covered
aluminum one are for sautei ng. The cast-iron pan at right is used for fryi ng. The slope- si ded
aluminum pan is for omelets. The enameled ski l let i nsi de it may get the heavi est use of all.
Copper: handsome, very expensi ve, and an
excellent conductor of heat. The copper
should be heavy (at least 1/s i nch thi ck) wi th
a tin li ni ng. After prolonged use the l i ni ng
will wear through. I t should be reti nned
right away ; a toxi c chemical reaction may
occur i f food i s left i n a poorly lined cop­
per pot. A store that sel ls copperware wi l l
usually arrange for the reti nni ng.
Aluminum: moderately priced, easy to
clean, durable and a good conductor of
heat. Weight i s i mportant ; the thi cker the
alumi num, the more evenly i t cooks. Me­
di um- and heavy-gauge pans are the best
and the longest lasti ng.
The problem wi th alumi num i s that i t
tends to di scolor certai n foods. For foods
cooked wi th wi ne, egg yol ks, vi negar or
lemon, use a pot or pan made of some
other materi al . Al umi num i s bound to stain
somewhat, but these stai ns usually can be re­
moved by scrubbi ng wi th vi negar or by
boi l i ng vi negar i n the pan.
Stainless steel: expensive, but easy to clean
and durable if i t is thi ck. In i tself stainless
steel i s a poor conductor of heat ; to over­
come this, most stai nless pans have a layer
of copper or cast al umi num on the bottom.
To be efecti ve, thi s must be at least 1/s i nch
thi ck. Often thi s heat-di stri buti ng l ayer i s
hi dden between two sheets of stainless steel.
Check the rag on the utensi l to be sure.
Basic kitchen e
q
uipment 5
Cast iron: heavy to handle, but durable
and not expensi ve. Cast i ron heats slowly,
evenly and holds the heat welL If not clear­
l y labeled "preseasoned, ready to use, " cast
iron must be seasoned before usi ng or food
wi l l stick. To season, wash the pan thor­
oughly wi th hot water and soap, ri nse, rub
i t wi th an unsalted oi l and heat i t slowly
i n the oven at about 250° F. for at least
an hour. To maintain the seasoni ng, wash
the pan wi th soap, not a detergent, or sim­
ply wipe clean after each use.
Be sure you dry pans thoroughl y after
washing ; cast iron rusts easi l y. It also tends
to di scolor eggs and foods contai ni ng acid
such as wine or vi negar.
Enameled cast i ron, though more expen­
sive, needs no seasoni ng, i s easy to clean
and will not di scolor food.
Enamelware : thi s materi al ranges wi dely
i n pri ce, i s easy to clean but a poor conduc­
tor of heat. All enamelware is constructed
by fusing a glasslike coating or gl aze onto
a steel base. The cheaper, lighter enamel­
ware heats qui ckl y but unevenl y and food
can burn easi l y. The heavi er, more expen­
sive variety heats more slowly and evenly
but is sti ll subj ect to some scorchi ng.
Handl e enamel ware wi th care ; i t chips
and cracks easi l y. It should not be sub­
j ected to abrupt changes in temperature.
Heavy enamelware is more resi stant to sur­
face damage. Di scard enamelware when the
surface begi ns to deteri orate; chemi cal re­
acti ons may occur between food and sub­
stances i n the enamel or undercoati ng.
Glass and earthenware: moderately priced
and easy to clean, these material s heat un­
evenly but hold heat for a long ti me. Not al l
gl ass and earthenware utensi l s can be used
for top-of-the- stove cooki ng, so check the
tags. Some pieces will crack when used over
di rect heat. Gl ass and earthenware are best
for oven cooking and servi ng. Both must be
handled with care; rapid changes i n tem­
perature wi l l cause cracking or breaki ng.
Saucepans: Si ze and material are i mportant. The orange one (of enameled cast i ron) is good
for slow simmeri ng. The al umi num pans heat evenly and the ivory- colored enamelware heats
rapi dl y. The heat- resi stant glass pot wi th cover allows you to watch the food while i t cooks.
6 Basic kitchen e
q
uipment
Glass-ceramic: expensive, heavy to handle,
easy to clean, heats unevenly but hol ds heat
well. I t can wi thstand extreme changes i n
temperature. Thi s makes i t a good material
i n which to freeze cooked food and reheat
frozen food.
Nonstick fnishes: these are coati ngs ap­
plied to the cooki ng surface of convention­
al utensi ls. The fni sh does not change the
heat- conducting properti es of the basic ma­
teri al. Food does not stick to the surface.
You don' t need to use grease i n cooki ng
wi th these fni shes, except for favori ng. Plas­
tic spatulas, forks and spoons are sold for
use with nonsti ck surfaces because they do
not scratch the fni sh, but metal utensi l s are
all right if used wi th care ; small, shallow
scratches do not afect the nonstick quali­
ties. Wash i n hot soapy water ; do not scour
with abrasi ves. A common problem i s di s­
colorati on, usually due to overheating or
washing wi th a detergent ; it does not afect
the surface adversely.
WHAT YOU NEED
Double boiler: 1 quart. Each part can be
used separatel y. The set has one cover.
Saucepans: 2 quart, 3 or 311 quart, and 5
quart, all wi th covers.
Frying pans: one, 6 or 8 inches i n di am­
eter ; one, 10 or 12 i nches i n di ameter. Cov­
ers are opti onal.
Saute pan: 10 or 12 i nches i n di ameter wi th
cover.
Large kettle : 8-10 quarts, with cover.
Loaf pan: 9 by 5, by 3 i nches deep.
Roasting pan: 17 by 11, by 9 inches deep,
wi th a roasting rack to ft.
Csseroles: one of 3-31/ quart capaci ty,
round, wi th cover ; one of 5 -6 quart ca­
paci ty, oval, wi th cover.
Caseroles: Colored enameled cast iron, earthenware, and ovenproof glass- ceramic and glass
i ndicate the variety of casseroles i n whi ch food can be roasted, stewed, baked or browned. They
are as attractive i n the di ni ng room as i n the ki tchen, and so are often used for servi ng.
Basic kitchen e
q
uipment
7
MIXING
The tools that you use to beat, whi p, cream,
fold, stir, blend-every form of mi xi ng­
are essenti al. Si nce there are not a great
many i tems, you might j ust as well buy the
best quality. You will need the followi ng:
Rotary beater: for thoroughly beating all
sauces, i cings, eggs ; a sturdy, medi um size
with a comfortable handle and a smooth
turni ng moti on.
Wire whisk: for beating egg whi tes and
whi ppi ng heavy cream, sti rri ng sauces and
gravi es; an 8- or 10- i nch si ze. You may
al so want a large balloon- shaped whi sk spe­
cifcally for egg whi tes ; it adds more air
and i ncreases the vol ume.
Wooden spoons or spatulas: for creami ng,
beati ng and stirring ; 10- or 12- i nch si ze, of
unvarni shed wood. The spatul as are more
conveni ent for stirring because they can be
scraped clean easily on the edge of the mix­
ing bowl ; the spoons are better for cream­
ing because they move smoothly agai nst
the curved side of the bowl .
Mixing bowls: Stai nless steel and glass do
for most j obs ; for beating egg whi tes, the
acid i n unl i ned copper helps them expand.
s  Basic kitchen equipment
Rubber spatula: for fol di ng foods, as well
as for cleani ng out pans and bowl s; standard
size. As thi s is one of the most i mportant
tool s i n the ki tchen, you may want several
i n vari ous sizes.
Mixing bowls: for al l mtxmg not done
over di rect heat ; a graduated set of sizes
i n stai nl ess steel, glass or pottery. Avoi d
al umi num bowls; they tend to gi ve egg
yolks a grayi sh cast.
Metal spoons: for general mi xi ng, stirrin
g
and blendi ng ; you should have several i n
conveni ent sizes.
MEASURING
Correct measuring requires ski l l and the
proper tools. Unless a recipe speci fes other­
wi se, use level measurements of both liquid
and dry i ngredi ents. Here i s what you wi l l
need :
Measuring spoons: a standard set of 114 tea­
spoon, 11 teaspoon, 1 teaspoon, and 1 table­
spoon ; for measuri ng both li qui d and dry
i ngredi ents. A second set comes in handy.
Glass measuring cups: for measuri ng l i q­
ui ds ; 1-cup si ze and 1- quart size, wi th pour­
ing l i p.
Metal measuring cups: for measuri ng dry
i ngredi ents ; a graduated set of 1/4 cup, l
3
cup, 11 cup, 1 cup.
For measuri ng heat, thermometers gi ve you
more certai nty i n oven cooki ng, roasti ng
meats, candymaking and deep fryi ng. Onl y
these two are essenti al:
Oven thermometer: for gaugi ng the de­
gree and uni formity of heat i n an oven ;
either columnar or di al type.
Meat thermometer: for measuri ng the in­
ternal heat of meat and poultry ; either
round or columnar type. I nsert the spiked
end i n the deepest part of the meat ; do not
l et i t touch the bone or rest i n fat.
BAKING
Baking is a special ki nd of cooking and
requires its own speci al equi pment. One
thing is essenti al : the pan must be the ri ght
size. A cake in the wrong pan is a di saster.
Fortunatel y, most recipes speci fy the use
of standard sizes, so the problem i s not di f­
fcult to solve. The followi ng equipment
should take you through most simple bak­
i ng and pastry making.
Round cake pans: 8 or 9 i nches in di am­
eter, 1 1/ inches deep.
Springrm pan: for cake that i s del i cate
i n texture. The rim can be removed with­
out di sturbing the cake.
Rectangular cake pan: 13 by 9, by 2 i nches
deep.
Wire coolng racks: sli ghtly larger than the
selected cake pan.
Piepan: for dessert pi es, qui ches, recipes
calling for a shallow casserol e; 9- i nch di ­
ameter by 1 1/ i nches, either gl ass or metal .
Baking sheet: for cooki es, bi scuits, me­
ringues ; shi ny, si deless ones are easiest to
use and they promote li ght browni ng.
Mufn pan: for cupcakes, mufns, bi s­
cui ts, tart s ; they come accordi ng to cup
size-smal l , medi um or large.
Roling pin: a heavy 14- 1 6- i nch si ze i s best.
Pastry board: for rolli ng and kneadi ng
dough; a 14- by-20- i nch hardwood board.
Formica and marble are al so excellent sur­
faces for worki ng with pastry.
Flour sier: for si fti ng and addi ng ai r to
four, and for si fti ng sugar ; a 5 - cup size
with several mesh screens for aerati on.
Pastry blender: for cutti ng i n shorteni ng.
Two kni ves al so can be used to do thi s j ob
(see "ct in," page 43 ).
Pastry brush: for appl yi ng l i qui ds-fat,
mi l k, water-to piecrusts, breads or any
surface you wi sh to coat evenl y ; a medi um
si ze with fexi ble but sturdy bri stles.
Baking equipment: You wi l l need a rol l i ng pi n, pastry board, cake pans and a pastry blender
(foreground). Al so i mportant are a mufn ti n, shown here with a nonsti ck fni sh, a gl ass pi e
plate, a pastry brush, wire racks for cooling hot cake layers, and at least one baki ng sheet.
Basic kitchen equipment 9
CUTTING AND CHOPPING
A knife is one of your most important
tool s. Be sure i t i s well constructed. The
extension of the blade seated in the handle
of a kni fe i s called a tang ; i t may go the
full length of the handle, or only half way.
I n good kni ves the tang i s held in the han­
dle by rivets, as you can see i n the sketch
below. Thi s is the most durable construc­
tion. Some less expensi ve knives have a
short " rattail" tang secured by friction or
cement to the handle. These tend to work
loose rather qui ckl y.
PINT BACK lAN<.
..
/
 
EDE BLADE RIVES HADLE
Two ki nds of steel are used in kni fe
blades, carbon steel and stai nless steel. Ei ­
ther ki nd must be of hi gh qual i ty to take
a sharp edge. Carbon steel hol ds a fne cut­
ting edge l onger. However, it rusts and
stains easi l y. To remove stai ns, rub the
blade of a carbon- steel kni fe wi th a soft
cloth or damp cork dipped in scouring pow­
der ; then wash the blade in warm water and
dry. Stainless steel kni ves are shinier than
carbon steel, and, as the name suggests, are
resi stant to most stains.
The formati on of a kni fe' s cutti ng edge is
known as the gri nd. The two basi c kinds are
the fat gri nd and the hol low grind. I n the
fat gri nd, which tends to be less easily dam­
aged, the sides of the blade are smooth. In
the hollow grind there i s a marked curve or
bevel along the length of the bl ade (see
sketch}; when the bevel begi ns hi gh on the
blade, it i s cal led a concave gri nd. Because
the blade i s thi nner at the cutting edge, the
hollow grind tends to hold an edge longer
than the fat gri nd. Other types of edges
include the scalloped, or wavy, edge and
the serrated edge, composed of many small
10 Basic kitchen e
q
tipment
sharp points or teeth. Both work more or
less l i ke a saw and are parti cularl y good
for sli cing soft foods such as bread and
tomatoes, or liverwurst.
There are a few general rules for taki ng
care of kni ves. Use a kni fe onl y on a wood­
en cutting surface, and only for the proper
j obs. Do not use a good ki tchen kni fe for
cutting string or paper or for pryi ng of
l i ds. Do not let the blade enter a di rect
fame; this rui ns the temper of the steel. A
kni fe should be washed and dri ed, or si m­
ply wiped clean, i mmedi ately after usi ng.
Wooden- handled kni ves and those wi th
carbon- steel blades should not be washed
i n a di shwasher. Store knives separatel y,
ei ther on a magnetized kni fe rack or i n hol ­
sters or slotted hol ders whi ch sheathe the
bl ade to protect i t and you from damage.
A kni fe must keep a sharp cutting edge
for maxi mum efciency. You can take it pe­
riodically to a professi onal kni fe sharpener,
or gri nd i t yoursel f wi th an electric sharpen­
er, an oi l stone or a sharpening steel (see
page 57}. An electric sharpener is easi est and
i s efcient if operated wi th care. An oil stone
takes time but gives the sharpest edge. Do
not sharpen bl ades wi th scall oped edges i n a
mechanical sharpener ; use an abrasive stick
or oi l stone, and only on the fat si de of the
blade. There i s no need to sharpen the dura­
ble serrated bl ades.
Knives: A basi c collection incl udes (from
top) a 10- inch bread kni fe with a serrated
edge, a 10- inch cook' s kni fe, a 1 0- inch ham
or roast beef sli cer, and a 5- i nch tomato
knife wi th serrated edge, a sharpening steel,
an 8- i nch chopper, a 5 - i nch uti l i ty kni fe.
THE KNIVES YOU NEED:
Your ski ll at handl i ng a kni fe should de­
termi ne which kni ves you use. A ski lled
cook can make the 10- i nch, wi de- bladed
French chefs or cook' s kni fe do almost
any kitchen job. But for most people, a
better all- purpose kni fe is the 8- i nch cook' s
kni fe; i t i s smaller and easier t o manage.
Here are some suggesti ons for a basic
kni fe collection. Supplement i t i f you li ke
from the variety of more speci alized kni ves:
a curved grapefrui t kni fe, a scalloped to­
mato slicer, a steak carver, a boning kni fe,
a cheese slicer.
Paring kni: 3-312 i nches; for li ght jobs
-peeling, paring and cutting small frui ts
and vegetables.
Utility kni: 5 -7 i nches ; for heavier jobs
-peeli ng, paring and chopping large frui ts
and vegetables, and meat tri mmi ng.
Chopping knif: wi de, 8- i nch blade ; for
chopping, mi nci ng and di ci ng frui ts, vege­
tables and meat.
Narrow slicer: 8- 1 0 i nches ; for slicing cold
meat, poultry, cheese.
Crving knif: 9 i nches ; for carvi ng hot
meats. An electric one makes i t easier.
Food mils: For pureeing wi thout destroy­
i ng texture. Choose the American model
(right}, or the French wi th al ternate blades.
OTHER CUTTERS AND CHOPPERS
There are many efcient small machi nes to
help you in cutti ng and chopping chores.
You could start wi th just two or three basic,
essential items and add as you become
more specialized i n your cooki ng. Here are
some of the most useful .
Food mil: for pureei ng, mashi ng, gri nd­
i ng al most any food. Get a si ze that clamps
easily to one of your mi xi ng bowls or
saucepans.
Grater: for grating and sli ci ng. Get a mod­
el that stands upri ght, wi th several si zes of
teeth and a sl i cer.
Meat grinder: for gri ndi ng meat, nuts, veg­
etables. Get a sturdy metal one that clamps
to the table or counter.
Kitchen shears: for every ki nd of ki tchen
cutting. Get a pair that i s sturdy and com­
fortable to handle.
Chopping board: for every operati on that
requires a cutti ng surface ; 16 by 20 i nches
i s a good size. Make sure i t i s a durable
hardwood, such as maple, wi th a thi ckness
of
3
/4 to 1 i nch.
MISCELLANEOUS
The clutter of a ki tchen, or a ki tchen drawer,
usually comes from the many pieces of nec­
essary equi pment wi thout which, i t seems,
no cook can operate comfortably. Everyone
has candi dates for thi s essenti al mi scellane­
ous department, but most cooks agree on
thi s basic l i st. Certai nl y, you wi ll add to the
collecti on as you wi den the scope of your
cooki ng and as you learn what speci al tools
are just what you need for favorite di shes.
CAN OPENERS:
a well - mounted one,
plus a bottle or beer-can opener
SLOTTED SPOON
NARROW METAL SPATULA
POTATO MASHER OR RICER
WIDE METAL TURNER
COLANDER
SIEVE
BULB BASTER
METAL TONGS
JUI CER
CORKSCREW
Basic kitchen equipment 11
FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES
Once you have stocked your ki tchen wi th
the basi c tools, consider what makes cook­
i ng fun. Do fancy desserts i ntrigue you? Or
do your tastes run to subtly favored soups,
or richly crusted country pates? Once you
get i nvolved i n exploring a particular aspect
of cookery i n some depth, you probably
will want to buy the equi pment that is es­
peci ally designed to produce i t most ef­
ciently and di splay i t most efecti vely.
On these two pages you wi l l fnd a sam­
pling of pots, di shes and other equi pment
for speci al tastes. You can cook wi thout
them, but for certain enthusi asts they are
as necessary as an egg beater. Many cooks
fnd electric appliances so useful that they
do not consider them luxuri es.
Soufe dishes: The classi c French type (top),
with strai ght sides futed for added elegance,
i s one of the most versatile baking di shes.
It can be used for a crusty, high- ri si ng souf­
fe, or a li ght, frui t- favored cold one. It i s
also suitable for any deep- di sh dessert, and
i t makes a handsome extra servi ng di sh. The
smaller si zes can double as i ndi vi dual serv­
i ng di shes for creamy appeti zers, fancy cus­
tards or rich pots de creme.
12 Basic kitchen e
q
tipment
Electric beater: for beati ng, whipping and
creami ng. Hand- held ones are easy to store
but the standi ng models, wi th a pastry hook
for moving heavy food, are more efci ent.
Electric blender: for gri ndi ng, grati ng, pu­
reei ng, blendi ng. The l i st of i ts accompl i sh­
ments i s long, and so i s the list of models.
Electric frying pan: for fryi ng, sauteing,
stewi ng. A pan for many purposes, i t can
be used for servi ng at the table or bufet.
Electric can opener: not essenti al , but i t
saves cranki ng.
Electric carving knif: to hel p you carve
and slice wi th greater ease and accuracy.
Molds: Suggesti ng arrays of rich desserts or
deli cately favored aspics, these decorative
molds are among the classic ones that are
easi ly available. From the top, they i ncl ude
a futed copper mold i n whi ch cakes can be
baked ; a shi ny ti n " melon" mol d for aspics;
the hi gh- sided and versatile charlotte mold,
which can be used for a custard, soufe or
mousse ; and a sturdy whi te earthenware
mold that can be flled with a Bavari an cream.
The true luxury items of cooking shown
below are a delight both to look at and to
use. Each can be bought as a treat for one­
self or as a present for another appreciative
cook, or even for a beginner.
The copper fsh poacher at the back is not
only beautiful but functional . Its long, slen­
der shape allows you to cook a whole fsh
and, i f i t has been wrapped in cheesecloth,
to l i ft i t out intact. The shallow crepe pan
on top of i ts own compact heating unit is
perfect for warming thin, cooked pancakes
in a liqueur-favored syrup. You can ignite
the crepes at the table to gi ve your dinner
an extra li ft.
The long skewer wi th the ornamental
handle has a cup- shaped copper guard to
catch the fat as you l i ft a shi sh kebab, brown
and si zzling, from the gri ll. The little pots
d creme can be flled wi th a rich chocolate
or delicate vani lla cream; they can also be
used for serving a mustard sauce.
In the foreground is a shiny batte cotelette,
i ts handle shaped to ft the hand. Made of
soli d brass, i t i s heavy, and can be used to
pound boned chi cken breast or veal for scal­
lopine. To the right is an elegant terrine or
loaf dish which holds a pate. You can bake,
then cool and serve the pate right from the
di sh.
The heart- shaped basket at the center i s
for coeur a fa creme. Thi s si mpl e dessert of
cream and soft cheese i s poured i nto the
cheesecloth-li ned basket, where i t drains and
sets. It is then unmolded, and can be gar­
nished wi th whole strawberri es.
Basic kitchen equipment 13
Je lecting and Jtoring :od
Anyone who eats three meals a day-1 , 095
a year-and especially anyone who shops
for food, is at least a part- ti mer in the food
busi ness. As a matter of self- i nterest and to
ensure fami l y health as well as fami l y plea­
sure, i t behooves the shopper to be busi ness­
li ke i n buying and stori ng food efci ently.
Intelli gent shopping takes ti me and ex­
perience; i t requi res knowi ng something
about the grading and butchering of meat,
the di ferences between varieties of frui ts
and vegetables, the relative usefulness of the
myri ad ki nds of packages and cans that are
ofered in the stores.
Modern technology has created many new
forms of food-frozen and ready-cooked
" convenience foods , " new oi l s, sugars and
fours-and all of them are well worth learn­
ing about.
Thi s secti on of the Kitchen Guide i s i n­
tended to help you select and store the good
food-rich i n nutritive values, full of favor,
attractive to look at-that i s the frst essen­
tial of good meals .
Shopping. The frst problem-determi ni ng
that food is sani tary and wholesome-has
largely been solved for you. Under federal
and state laws, standards have been set and
are enforced to ensure that most food, par­
ticularly commercially packed and processed
food, is clean, contai ns no harmful ingredi ­
ents or residues and i s what i t clai ms to be.
Federal laws require that all foods entering
i nterstate commerce have labels honestly de­
scri bi ng the contents.
Thi s is an i mportant-though not abso­
lute-protecti on, and today' s shoppers are
fortunate that a measure of safety i nsurance
14 Selecting and storing food
is bui l t i nto some foods. Beyond thi s, fed­
eral and state authori ti es set standards for
grading quali ty, and in some cases sizes,
of certai n foods. Thi s gradi ng should be
kept i n mi nd when shopping for foods to
which i t appl i es. On the following pages
devoted to meat, eggs and dai ry products,
the grades and thei r di ferences are di scussed.
Personal taste and style play a large part
i n how you shop and what you buy. For the
economy- mi nded there are many ways to
save money and sti ll get food of hi gh qual i ­
ty ; for those who care l ess about the pri ce,
there is a great variety to fl l thei r shoppi ng
bags. Whatever your style or the state of
your pocketbook, the rules of good food
buyi ng are the same.
The carefll shopper knows the local retail
markets and how they functi on. Do they
seem to have a rapid turnover i n fresh pro­
duce? Are the packages i n the frozen- food
cabinets frmly frozen, wi thout torn wrap­
pings? Are the dai ry products refrigerated?
The answer in each case shoul d be yes . The
fresher a merchant ' s food and the more care
he takes wi th perishable items, the happier
you wi ll be in deali ng wi th him. As sources
of i nformation on special buys and new
products , trustworthy merchants can be i n­
valuable t o t he shopper. Tal k to your butch­
er and greengrocer. They can gui de you t o
better ways of di sti ngui shi ng t he qual i ties
and varieties of foods i n thei r speci al ti es.
Storing. The best-qual i ty food can be dam­
aged or even ruined by careless or i ncorrect
storing. It pays to learn how to handle each
food to properly preserve i ts parti cular qual ­
i ty and favor.
FREEZING COMPARTMENT
FRESH MEAT, POULTRY, FISH-loosely wrapped
MILK, CREAM, SOFT CHEESE-well covered
BUTTER, MARGARINE-ti ghtl y covered
EGGs-in covered carton or other container
HARD CHEESE-tightly covered
LEFTOVER COOKED FOODS: MEATS, VEGETA-
BLES, FRUITS-covered
OPENED CANS AND BOTTLES-covered
RIPE FRSH FRUITS-uncovered
RIPE TOMATOES, UN HUSKED CORN, LIMA
BEANS AND PEAS IN PODS-uncovered
CRISPER OR HYDRA TOR
MOST FRESH VEGETABLES-covered in
plastic wrap i f no container i s provided
The refrigerator is the most i mportant
storage aid i n your househol d. Some foods
need very col d temperatures while others
keep better i n sl ightly warmer air. It is use­
ful to know j ust how cold the vari ous parts
of your refrigerator are. Si nce temperatures
vary within any refrigerator depending on its
construction, i ts efciency and how i t is
used, the most reliable test i s a thermometer
placed at di ferent levels over a period of
ti me. As a general gui de, the ai r i n a refriger­
ator i s coldest next to the freezer and warmer
at points farther from it. Frost - free refrigera­
tors with fans for rapid circulation of air tend
to have less variation i n temperature. The
drawing above shows how to place food in
a refrigerator to take advantage of these tem­
perature variati ons.
DOOR
EGGs-onl y if covered
BUTTER-onl y enough for i mmedi ate use
HARD CHEESE-ti ghtl y wrapped
SMALL OPEN JARS-covered
TALL BOTTLES: SOFT DRINKS, FRUIT JUICE-
covered or corked
Ai r i s constantl y moving in a refrigerator,
and this causes dryi ng. Most foods should
be covered to avoid losing essential mois­
ture ; exceptions are most frui ts, whi ch decay
quickly i n moist condi ti ons, and a few veg­
etables such as ripe tomatoes, unhusked corn
and unshel led peas . Meat shoul d be wrapped
loosely si nce some ai r circulation helps pro­
tect i ts qual i ty. How long food may be kept
safel y i n a refrigerator is di scussed on the
fol lowing pages deal i ng with the various
foods.
Some vegetables and frui ts such as apples,
potatoes and dry onions are better sui ted to
cool storage (about 60°) than refrigerator
storage. Staples l i ke sugar and four and
canned goods may be stored at moderate
room temperatures (about 70°).
Selecting and Jtoring food 15
�eat Primer
" What are we havi ng for di nner tonight?"
usually means what kind of meat. To many
people meat is the meal, so the wi se cook
will learn as much as possible about i t. The
more you look at meat, handle i t and pre­
pare it, the shrewder your eye and the surer
your touch will become.
Rely on the help of a good butcher ; he
is the master when it comes to knowi ng
quality and cut in meat. Ask hi m questi ons.
He can gui de you through the bewildering
array of si zes and shapes i n meat and often
can suggest how to cook them. Hi s answers
will mean more i f you already have some
notion of the various components of meat
and the bone structure of the ani mals (pages
17-22 ). Helpful too is an acquai ntance wi th
the U. S. Department of Agriculture's grad­
i ng system for meat.
The composition and structure of meat
Any cut of meat you fnd in a retai l store
consi sts of muscle fbers and connective ti s­
sue (the fesh) , fat and someti mes bone.
What makes one cut di ferent from another
i s how these components are di stributed. In
the lean porti on of meat, the muscle fbers
are bound together by connective ti ssue.
The more a muscle i s used, the more con­
nective ti ssue, the tougher the meat. The
muscles that li e along the backbone of an
animal get little exerci se, so there is only a
small amount of tough connective ti ssue.
The cuts that include these muscles-loin
cuts and ri b roasts and chops-are the ten­
derest ones of al l . The muscles in other
areas-the shoulder, the fank, the leg, the
breast-are used more, so the cuts from
these areas are not so tender.
The fatty porti ons of meat are found
ei ther on the outside of the cut, where they
are easily trimmed of if desired, or di stri b­
uted i n small quantities through the lean.
When ti ny parti cles of fat appear in the lean,
this is called " marbling. " Marbling tends to
reduce the tougheni ng that occurs in muscle
fbers during cooki ng and thus helps in-
1 6 Selecting and storing food
crease tenderness. Bones, i f they have not
been removed i n butcheri ng, gi ve a good
i ndication of the age of an ani mal . As a
rule, young ani mals have red, porous bones
whi le older ones have whi te, bri ttle ones.
The shape of the bones, coupled wi th a
general i dea of the ani mal ' s anatomy, can
tell you where the retail cuts come from. In
the di agram on page 17, the cross- section
views show the di ference in the shape of
bones i n a si de of beef. (Lamb, pork and
veal are similar enough so that thi s di agram
can be used for them as well . ) The T- bone,
rib and wedge- shaped bones from the back­
bone area are signs of the more tender cuts.
The round l eg and arm bones and the blade
bones from the shoulder i ndi cate less ten­
der ones. I n cuts where there is no bone or
where the bone has been removed, the shape
of the lean portion is i mportant. Study the
chart for characteri sti c shapes and then look
closely at the cuts di splayed at your butcher
store or supermarket. Only a practiced eye
can i denti fy the great variety of meat cuts
with any certai nty.
Government inspection and grading
Fortunately no one is completely on hi s own
when buyi ng meat. The round, purplish
" U. S. I nspected and Passed" stamp on the
outside of carcasses means that the meat is
safe for human consumpti on : the ani mals
were healthy, and proper sani tary condi ­
ti ons prevai led during the slaughtering and
processi ng.
The U. S. Department of Agri culture' s
grading system for meats (see diagram,
page 18) is one gui de to quali ty. Thi s sys­
tem i s based on the general contour of the
whole ani mal before butchering, the amount
of meat that can be used from the carcass,
and the quality of the lean portion i n terms
of i ts general palatabi l i ty.
Thi s l ast factor has the most relevance
for you si nce it i nvolves the same thi ngs
you look for when you buy a small retai l
cut of meat. The extent of the marbling i s
checked because it afects the tenderness
and j ui ci ness of the meat ; the more marbl ­
ing i n meat the better i t tastes. The color
BONES FOUND IN THE BASIC MEAT CUTS
BLADE BONE
SHOULDER
..
CHUCK
SHANK
RIB BONE T-BONE WEDGED HIP BONE
ARM BONE
BREAST AND LOWER RIB BONES LEG BONES
and texture of the lean is also j udged ; i t
should be bright colored wi th a frm, fne
texture. Thi s i s a si gn of good qual i ty. The
age of the animal i s determi ned by an i n­
spection of t he skeleton and i ndi vi dual
bones. The older the animal the tougher
the meat i s li kely to be.
The top grades obviously have the great­
est abundance of desirable characteri sti cs.
But the other grades have many uses and
are not i gnored by the careful shopper. The
relative importance of the gradi ng factors
varies with the di ferent ani mals; on the fol­
lowing pages the speci al characteristics of
each meat-beef, veal, lamb and pork-are.
treated i n detai l .
Usually there i s no gradi ng stamp vi si ble
on the smaller retai l meat cuts, but don ' t.,
be put of by thi s. Do not hesitate to ask
your butcher what grade of meat you are
buying. General l y, retail stores tend to carry
the same grades consistentl y. They know
what thei r customers want and wi l l purchase.
One of the problems i n buying meat i s
t he variety of names for t he same cut . A
cut of meat i n the East wi ll often bear a
di ferent name in the West. Beef top loin
steak has several names, including New
York cut, Kansas Ci ty steak, strip steak and
si rloin steak ( hotel style) . The trouble i s
that i ndi vi dual stores sometimes invent pi c­
turesque names for already- established cuts
of meat as a sel l i ng poi nt. The wi se shopper
will be prepared for this by havi ng studi ed
basic cuts, and by aski ng the butcher when
in doubt.
What is aging?
Aging is a process by whi ch hi gh-qual i ty
meat i s held ei ther at a controlled tempera­
ture or in a vacuum package to i ncrease
tenderness and favor. The length of ti me
vari es from two days to si x weeks dependi ng
on the method used. Actual l y in the or-
Selecting and storing food 17
U.S.D.A. GRADES FOR MEAT
BEEF LAMB
Prime Prime
Choice Choice
Good Good
Standard Utility
VEAL PORK
Prime U.S. No.I
Choice U.S. No.2
Good U.S. No.3
Standard Medium
dinary handling of meat from the packer to
you some of this tenderizing action takes
place anyway.
How to cook meat
There are two ways of cooking meat, either
by dry heat-broiling, roasting or pan- fry­
i ng, or by moist heat-brai sing, poaching
or stewing. The tender cuts from the back­
bone are usually broiled or roasted, depend­
ing on size. Meat from the breast, fank,
leg and shoulder i s most often braised or
stewed. There are exceptions, of course-a
leg of lamb, for instance, i s roasted or
brai sed, not stewed-and certain cuts may
be made more tender by marinating or
pounding to break down the connective
tissue. The important thing i s that not ev­
erything called a roast should be roasted ; i t
depends on whi ch ani mal i t came from, the
grade of the meat and the location of the
cut. Thi s is a maj or source of confusi on in
meat buying and cookery. On the pages
which deal indi vi dually with each of the
meats, there i s a short guide on cuts and
the proper cooking methods.
How much to buy
In small boneless cuts of meat, 1t IS fairly
easy to j udge how much you wi ll need.
You can see how much is there, you know
the number of people you have to feed,
and you divide i t. About 1/4 to 1 1 l b. for an
average serving is a good estimate. In large
18 Selecting and Jtoring food
cuts of meat and bone- in roasts esti mating
is more di fcult. As a gui de, you can allow
1/ to 1/ l b. for each person, a bit more i f
there are l arge areas of fat or bone. I f you
buy a large piece to di vi de for several meals
and several methods of cooking, calculate
each of the parts separately and remember
that certain recipes for stews and casserole
di shes make the amount of meat you have
go further.
How to store meat
Fresh meat can be stored, loosely wrapped,
for three to si x days near the freezer part of
the refrigerator. Wrapping is not necessary
i f you have a separate meat container in your
refrigerator. I f meat i s purchased in a moi s­
tureproof vacuum wrapping, remove it or
loosen it unless you intend to cook the
meat right away. Do not wash meat before
storing (the water may hasten spoilage) ; i t
may be wiped, i f necessary, wi th a damp
cloth. The ci rculation of ai r around meat
parti ally dries i ts surface and helps protect
its quali ty.
Ground and chopped meat as wel l as the
variety meats-brai n, liver, heart, sweet­
breads, etc. -are very peri shable and should
not be refrigerated more than one or two
days. Variety cuts which cannot be used
soon after purchase should be cooked in
order to keep them. Cured meats, sausages
and luncheon meats should be refrigerated
in their original packages. Cooked leftover
meat should be covered and placed in the
refrigerator after a meal.
Meat bearing thi s stamp has been approved
by federal inspectors for wholesomeness and
for sani tary condi ti ons during handling.
Chuck
BLADE POT ROAST
CHUCK SHORT RIBS
SHOULDER STEAK
I BriJket
FRESH BRISKET
CORNED BRISKET
BEEF SHANKS
STEWING BEEF
C
e
e
Rib
RIB ROAST
RIB STEAK
RIB EYE ROAST
Short Plate
SHORT RIBS
SKIRT STEAKS
PLATE BEEF
Because of the greater variety of quali ti es
and cuts of beef, i t i s i mportant to know
the di ferences in the four principal grades.
Prime-Beef from young, intensively fed
ani mals. I t has a bright cherry color and l i b­
eral marbling of fat wi thi n the l ean. Much of
the prime beef produced i s used by hotels
and restaurants but some i s available in re­
tail stores.
Choice-Very close to prime in qual i ty but
with somewhat less fat, this i s the most
widely available grade in most retai l markets.
Ribs and loin cuts are parti cularly tender
and j ui cy.
Good-There i s sti ll less fat i n t hi s grade
than in the frst two, but i t i s acceptable meat
with good favor.
Standard-With a very thin covering of fat,
it i s tougher and of poorer favor, but proper
cooking can produce tender meat.
The two top grades of beef may be cooked
Short loin Rump
T-BONE STEAK
PORTERHOUSE STEAK
FILET MIGNON
RUMP ROASTS
Round
FLANK STEAK
SIRLOIN TIP
GROUND BEEF
Sirloin ·
ROUND STEAK
EYE OF ROUND
HEEL OF ROUND
BONE-IN SIRLOIN STEAK
BONELESS SIRLOIN STEAK
by several methods, depending on the cut.
Tender cuts from the ri b, short loin and si r­
l oi n can be broi l ed or roasted. Cuts from
the other, less- tender areas are usually bet­
ter braised or pot- roasted. Cuts from the
lower grades are also usual l y more tender i f
cooked wi th moi st heat. The di agram above
shows some of the standard cuts and where
they come from. Cubes of beef for stewing
and ground beef for hamburgers may come
from any of the cuts. Remember that cuts
from the same general area of an ani mal of­
ten may be used interchangeably in reci pes.
Below i s a l i st of other common cuts of beef
and suggested cooking methods.
Chuck-Arm and shoulder pot roasts,
chuck roll ; braised or stewed.
Short loin-Tenderloin steak, cl ub steak,
top loin steak ; broi l ed.
Round-Top round steak, bottom round
steak; broiled if from a top-grade animaL
Selecting and storing food 19
Shoulder ( Boston Butt)
BOSTON BUTT
BLADE STEAK
SAUSAGE
Shouldr ( Picnic) Rib
Loin
CHOPS
LOI N ROAST
TENDERLOI N
Bacon ( Bely)
Leg
SMOKED HAM
FRESH HAM
Feet
FRESH PI CNI C
SMOKED PICNI C
ARM ROAST
SPARE RI BS SALT PORK
BACON
PIG' S FEET
Pork
Pork i s one of the most versati le and ten­
der meats. Unlike the other meats i t is avail­
able i n two forms, either fresh or processed
( smoked or cured) . The best- quali ty fresh
pork i s a delicate pi nk color and frm to the
touch. The lean has some marbling and an
exterior covering of solid whi te fat. Even
though U. S. D. A. grades are assigned to
pork, they are not generall y used because
the tenderness of pork vari es so l i ttle. The
smoked or cured cuts of pork-hams, pork
butts, Canadian bacon-are available under
brand i dentifcations. The brand name is
one guide to quality; another i s the printed
material on the wrapper which i ndicates the
kind of pork and the process that was used
i n preparing it.
Dependi ng on the si ze and cut, fresh pork
may be broiled or roasted; i t i s often braised
for extra j uiciness and favor. Whatever the
method, i t must be well cooked. However,
22 Selecting and storing food
since the tri chi na parasite with which fresh
pork is occasi onally i nfected is ki lled by an
i nternal meat temperature of 1 37
°
, there i s
no need to overdo the cooking and dry out
the meat. At 1 80- 1 85
°
, pork is thoroughly
cooked but still j uicy and tasty with the
meat a pale gray color.
The wrapper on a processed pork cut usu­
ally has a gui de to cooking times. Be sure
that you read it careful l y. Some cuts are
ready to eat or onl y need heating; others
require cooki ng.
The di agram above shows the most com­
mon retai l cuts of pork and where they come
from. Here are other common ones.
ShoulderRolled Boston butt, smoked
shoulder butt.
Loin-Canadi an bacon, back ribs, rolled
roast.
Leg-Ham sl i ce, canned ham.
Shoulder (picnic) -Arm steak, hocks.
Vari
e
ty r
e
ats
Variety meats, the other edi bl e porti ons of
animals, are often neglected by cooks out
of ignorance or i ndi ference. It i s worth
knowing what they are and what you can
do with them. Fresh variety meats, or " i n­
nards, ' ' are very peri shable. Try to buy them
the day you intend to use them, to be sure
of their freshness and qual i ty. Store them,
if necessary, loosely wrapped in the refri g­
erator for one or two days, no longer.
Liver-There are slight variations i n the l i v­
er of each type of ani mal . Veal l i ver i s the
tenderest and pal est i n color ; calf liver i s
slightly darker. Lamb and cal f l i ver are both
tender. Beef and pork l i ver tend to be tough­
er. The l i ver of veal and l amb may be broi l ed
and any of them may be pan- fried or brai sed.
Brains-Delicately favored and very tender,
brai ns have a soft consi stency and range in
size from 1/4 l b. i n lamb and pork to 3/4 lb. in
beef. Brai ns must be washed and blanched
to frm them up before bei ng subj ected to
any other cooking process. After blanching
they may be broi l ed, sauteed or brai sed.
Sweetbreads-Similar i n texture to brai ns,
sweetbreads are of two types : the elongated,
two- lobed thymus gl and that can be ob­
tained only from calves, young beef cattle or
lambs, and the round " heart" sweetbreads,
which are actually pancreas. Lamb and
veal sweetbreads are whi te and tender ; beef
sweetbreads are reddi sh. Sweetbreads must
be blanched before further cooki ng. Then
they may be broi led, sauteed or brai sed.
Kidneys-Ki dneys come ei ther sti ll encased
i n their thick coveri ng of fat or separated.
Veal and lamb ki dneys are tender and may
be broi led or sauteed. Beef ki dneys are
tougher and need to be brai sed.
Heart-Heart has a good favor but tends
to be tough. It vari es i n si ze, dependi ng on
the animal. Beef heart i s the largest, around
3 lbs. ; lamb i s the smallest, around 1/4 l b.
Heart from any ani mal must be brai sed or
simmered until tender.
Tripe-Tripe i s the i nner l i ni ng of a cow' s
stomach. It i s delicatel y favored but not
very tender. You may buy i t fresh, canned
or pickled. Fresh tripe is usually only partly
cooked when you buy i t so si mmer i t unti l
tender no matter how you pl an to serve i t.
Tongue-Beef tongue i s the largest and can
weigh from 2 to 5 lbs. Veal tongue is smaller
weighi ng from 34 to 1 1/ lbs. You can
usual l y fnd fresh beef and veal tongues.
Tongue from al l the ani mals i s available i n
processed forms : pi ckl ed, corned, smoked
or canned. Tongue i s not very tender and
usually requi res long cooki ng. There are
some ready- to-eat types ; check the wrapper
to make sure what ki nd you are buyi ng.
Process
e
d r
e
ats
The enormous variety of processed meats
can be di vi ded i nto two categori es : those
you cook or at least heat before servi ng, and
those that may be served as they are.
Sausages make up the bulk of the frst
category. Consisting of ground meat sea­
soned wi th spices and shaped by an outer
casi ng, they come i n various forms : fresh,
smoked, dry or semi dry. Sausages may be
made with one meat such as pork or beef,
or a combination of several . Check the wrap­
per for i ngredients, which are l i sted in
descendi ng order of the amounts used. The
wrapper will also tell about cooking meth­
ods. Fresh sausages usual l y require cooking ;
most smoked ones do not. Usually favor
i s i mproved wi th heati ng, though actual
cooking may not be necessary.
Luncheon meats and some sausages spe­
cifcally known as " ready- to-eat" are often
served cold. For use in sandwiches, salads or
by themselves, these i ncl ude bologna, liver­
wurst, salami , pepperoni and cervelat, to
name a few. The ingredients used in these
meats are ful l y cooked.
Whatever the form, al l processed meats
should be stored i n the refrigerator, i n their
original wrappi ng. They may be kept safel y
for from 3-7 days. The exception i s the dry
or semidry sausage ; it may be kept two or
three weeks.
Selecting and storing fod 23
:ish
Thanks to fast transportation and i mproved
methods of preservation-notably freezi ng
and canni ng-a large variety of fsh and
shellfsh is available i n most retai l markets,
even well i nland.
How fesh is the fsh?
The good fresh fsh has fesh that i s frm and
elastic, and does not easily pul l away from
the bones. It has no strong " fshy" odor ; i ts
eyes are bright and bulgi ng. ,The eyes tend
to cloud and si nk i nto their sockets when
the fsh has been out of water too long. )  The
gills are red and free of sl i me. The ski n is
shiny with an iridescent quali ty, and the
characteristic color of the fsh is present.
How do you buy fsh?
Fi sh are commercially avai lable in several
forms. The one you select depends on your
preference i n fsh and how you i ntend to
cook and serve i t.
Whole fsh-Fi sh straight from the water.
Whether you must scale i t and evi scerate it
before cooking depends on the size of the
fsh and type of scales. Some small fsh, such
as smelt, need only their entrai l s removed.
Trout, with their very fne scales, are often
not scaled before cooki ng. Whether you re­
move the ski n is a matter of taste.
Drawn-A whole fsh with entrai l s removed.
Dressed or pan-dressed-A whole fs h that has
been both evi scerated and scaled, and has
had i ts head, tail and fns removed. You can
cook i t as i t i s.
Steaks-Cross- section slices of a large
dressed fsh. They are 3/4 to 1 i nch thi ck and
are cooked as they are.
Filets-The sides of a fsh cut lengthwi se
from the backbone, and vi rtually boneless.
A butterfy fllet has both si des of the fsh
connected by the fesh and ski n of the bel l y.
Sticks-Long pieces of boneless fsh cut
from the fllets.
There i s no hard and fast rule about quan­
tity for fsh. It varies with the cooking meth­
od and whether you stuf i t or combine i t
..  Selecting and storing food
with other foods. If you i ntend to serve i t
alone, the followi ng wi l l serve as a gui de.
Whole or drawn fsh-11 to 3/4 l b. per porti on.
Dressed-11 to 11 l b. per porti on.
Steaks and flets-11
3
l b. per porti on.
How to store fsh
Once you have taken care to select the fresh­
est fsh you can fnd, it is i mportant to cook
i t i mmediately, preferably the same day. If i t
i s t o be stored for a short period of time,
wrap it in heavy wax paper and place in the
upper part of the refrigerator. Handle i t
gentl y ; bruised or punctured fesh or ski n
deteriorates more rapi dl y.
Variations in fsh
Fi sh vary not onl y i n si ze and bone structure
but in texture of fesh-dense or l i ght-and
i n fat content. Experi ence soon teaches you
these di ferences and how to handle them i n
cooki ng. Lean fs h may need fat added dur­
ing cooki ng, especi al l y i f you are broi l i ng
i t ; fat fsh lose some fat during cooki ng so
you need to add less fat to them. If you sub­
stitute one fsh for another in a recipe, it i s
better to substi tute a fat fsh for another fat
one, or a lean fsh for another lean one.
Fat fsh i nclude butterfsh, eel, herri ng,
mackerel , pompano, sablefsh, salmon, shad,
tuna, trout, whi tefsh.
Lean fsh i ncl ude sea bass, bluefsh, cod,
croaker, founder, grouper, haddock, hake,
hali but, mullet, rockfsh, porgy, sea trout,
striped bass, swordfsh, whiting, carp, pi ck­
erel, smelt, perch, pi ke and all shellfsh.
Names of fsh
One of the most confusing thi ngs about
buyi ng a fsh is, oddly, i ts name. In various
parts of the country, even in di ferent parts
of the same state, the same fsh may go by
several di ferent names. The founder fami ly
is a good example : it i ncludes the vari ous
soles-gray, lemon and the several Paci fc
soles, Dover, Engl i sh, Petrale and rex-as
well as f uke, blackback and dab. And these
have variations as well. However, for your
purposes-cooking and eating-these fsh
are essentially the same. The i mportant t hi ng
to know is that when a recipe calls for a cer­
tain fsh you may have to buy i t locally un­
der another name. It i s wise to be ready wi th
alternatives when you go to the fsh market.
Here i s a list of the better known fsh and
some of their variations i n names.
Salt water fsh:
BLUEFISH: tailor, skipjack
BUTIERFISH: harvestsh
CROAKER: hardhead, tomcod
BLACK DRUM: oyster cracker, oyster and sea drum
RED DRUM: channel bass, redfsh, spoted bass
GROUPER: sea bass
RED HAKE: mud hake
WHITE HAKE: common hake, squirrel hake
KING MACKEREL: cero, kingsh
KING WHITING: kingsh, ground mulet, whiting
LINCOD: blue cod, bufalo cod, cultus cod
MULLET: jumping mulet, striped mulet, silver
mulet
OCEAN PERCH: rosefsh, redfsh, red perch
POLLOCK: Boston bluefsh
ROCKFISH: rock cod, red cod, snapper
SABLEFISH: black cod
SHAD: American shad, white shad
STRIPED BASS: rockfsh, rock bass
SWELLFISH: pufer, swel toad, globefsh, blowfsh
WHITING: silver hake
Fresh water fsh:
CHUB: longaw, blackn, bluefn
PICKEREL: chain pickerel, grass pickerel
SUCKERS: mulet, redfn
TROUT: rainbow trout, brook trout
YELLOW PERCH: lake perch
YELLOW PIKE: pike perch, waleye pike
¿/./¸.b
The shellfsh you are most li kely to fnd i n
your market are shrimp, lobster, crab, scal­
lops, clams, oysters and mussels. Most ki nds
are sold ali ve, fresh, frozen or canned. Usual­
ly shellfsh are sold by si ze si nce they vary
considerably. The best temperature for stor­
i ng fresh shellfsh is close to 32
°
; tempera­
tures only slightly higher will cause rapid
deterioration i n quali ty. Here i s what to look
for when buying the live and fresh varieties.
Shrimp
Fresh shri mp are available headless with
shells on, or headless and peeled. The meat
of fresh shri mp should be frm with little or
no odor. (Thawed frozen shrimp often have
a more pronounced odor. ) The shells range
from gray to a light pi nk. Shrimp are sold by
size, ranging from j umbo to very small.
You get 15 or fewer per pound i n the largest
size and as many as 60 or more i n the small­
est size. Obviously you get fewer shrimp i f
you buy them with the shells attached, since
this adds to the weight: on the other hand,
shelled shrimp are more expensive. Don' t try
to keep shrimp more than 24 hours. Cook
and refrigerate them if you need to store
them for a longer time.
Lobster
Fresh varieties of whole lobster are the
Northern lobster and the spiny or rock lob­
ster. When buyi ng live lobster you should
be able to see the legs moving and when a
lobster is picked up, i ts tail should curl up
under the body. Cook lobsters soon after
buying. You may keep them briefy in the
refrigerator at a temperature close to 32
°
,
but do not attempt to keep them " fresh" by
putting them i n salted water. The water wi l l
not be cold enough and the salt content wi l l
be di ferent from what the lobster i s used to.
There i s l i ttle meat i n a lobster, so al l ow 1 to
1 1/4 lbs. of whol e lobster per person. It i s
also available cooked ; i ts shell should be a
bright red with no unpleasant odor.
Spiny or rock lobster tails are often sold
frozen; the meat should be clear white, with­
out odor. Weight varies from l4 lb. to 1 lb.
Allow '13 to '1 lb. per person.
Crabs
Two ki nds of crab are available, the hard­
shell crab and the soft- shell crab, which has
shed its hard shell and has not yet had time
to harden i ts new one. The latter may be
bought alive or frozen. Live crabs should
show movement i n their legs. They can be
Selecing and storing food . : 
kept briefy (up to 24 hours) in the refrig­
erator. Cooked crab should be bright red
and have no di sagreeable odor.
Cams
Clams are available either i n the shell or
shucked. The shells of l i ve cl ams should be
closed tightly or spring closed when tapped.
I f the shel l wi l l not close, the cl am i s dead
and should not be used. The shells open
when cooked. Live cl ams may be kept i n the
refrigerator at around 3 2 ° for several days.
The col or of fresh shucked clams ranges
from pale to deep orange. Their l i qui d should
be clear and they should have a fresh odor.
Oysters
Li ke clams, live oysters in the shell should
be closed tightly or spring closed when
tapped. I f the shell does not close, the oys­
ter i s dead and should not be used. When
cooked the shells open. You can keep oys­
ters live i n the refrigerator at close to 32°
for several days. Shucked oysters should be
plump and cream-colored. They should be
packed i n a clear l i qui d.
Scalops
Scallops are available either fresh or frozen.
The meat you buy i s actual l y the adductor
muscle of the scallop, which opens and
closes the shell. There are two varieti es. The
sea scallop comes i n marshmal low shapes
ranging i n color from white to orange or
pi nk. The smaller, more delicate bay scallops
are either creamy whi te, light tan or pi nki sh.
Both have a sl i ghtl y sweeti sh odor before
cooking. Fresh scallops may be kept in the
refrigerator for several days at around 32° .
Mussels
Mussels are available alive in the shell or
canned. Alive, mussels have a dark purpli sh,
oval shell with pi nk-orange fesh. The shells
should be tightly closed. I f not, run cold
water over them for a mi nute or two. If
the shells remain open, the mussels are dead
and should not be used. The shells open
when cooked. Mussels may be refrigerated
for several days at around 3 2° .
.:  Selecting and storing food
Poultry
The most popular and wi dely available forms
of poultry-chicken, turkey, duck and goose
-are all graded by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture. There are three grades-A, B,
and C-but usually onl y Grade A i s specifed
for sale i n retai l markets. The grades are
based on the proportion of meat to bone
in the bird, the amount of fat in and j ust
under the ski n and whether the ski n is free
from bruises or tears. A fresh bird of hi gh
qual i ty i s plump, wi th moi st, undamaged
ski n and a good di stribution of fat. I n ad­
di tion, birds are classifed by age-young,
mature or old. Chi cken is usually sold by a
designation such as broiler, roaster or stewer.
The chart below outlines the relation of age,
si ze and designation.
DESIGNATION
Broiler (very young) :
Fryer (young) :
Roaster (mature) :
Capon (mature) :
Stewing hen (old) :
Cock or rooster (old) :
WEI HT
i ···.·· !bs.
. to ) !bs.
) ··· : lbs.
.· ·  !bs.
over ) lbs.
over ) !bs.
Chickens are available m several forms :
live, dressed, ready- to-cook or frozen. The
live and dressed birds have not been graded.
The dressed bi rds have been plucked and
bled but still have head, feet and i nternal
organs. The ready- to-cook birds are the most
widely available.
Turkeys come ei ther fresh or frozen. They
are available i n a wi de range of si zes. The
smallest are the young fryer- roasters starti ng
at about 4 lbs. The largest, the young hen
or tom turkeys, weigh up to 24 lbs. The
l arge ones are general l y roasted.
Ducks are usually sol d as ducklings and
come fresh or frozen. They range i n size from
3 to 5 l bs. Geese are sold fresh or frozen
and come anywhere from 4 to 14 l bs. Geese
weighi ng from 8 to 1 2 l bs. are the most com­
monl y available. Both ducks and geese are
usually roasted but are equally good when
braised.
Fresh poultry should be stored not more
than 3 days. It should be loosely wrapped­
the circulation of air helps protect i ts quality
-and put i n the coldest section of the re­
frigerator. Remove the neck and gi blets
from the i nsi de of the bird before stori ng.
How much to buy
The number of servi ngs you can get from
diferent bi rds depends on the total weight
of the bird and how you prepare i t. The
lighter the bird for i ts speci es, the greater
the proportion of its weight is i n bone. Thi s
i s why a large turkey yi el ds more meat per
serving. Here i s a guide to the average num­
ber of servi ngs each bird wi l l provi de:
Chickens
BROILERS: 114- 1/z bird per serving
FRYERS: 1/- 3/4 lb. per serving
ROASTERS: 1/- 34 lb. per serving
STEWERS: '1 lb. per serving
Turkeys
UNDER 1 2 LBS. : 3/4 lb. per serving
OVER 12 LBS. : ·· lb. per serving
Ducks
3· 5 LBS. : t lb. per serving
Geese
8- 1 2 LBS. : Z/
3
lb. per serving
eggs
There is no reliable way to j udge the quality
of an egg from the outsi de. You have to
break i t to know for sure. That i s why every
shopper must depend on the U. S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture' s gradi ng system for
eggs. Also, there is no relati on between size
and qual i ty. They are two di ferent things ;
you can buy small Grade AA eggs and you
can buy large Grade B eggs.
There are four U. S. grades for quality :
Grade AA-Thi s is an egg of top quality.
When broken, i t stands hi gh and spreads
little. The yol k is frm and the whi te thi ck.
Grade A-Thi s egg spreads somewhat when
broken. I t stands fai rl y hi gh with a white
that i s reasonabl y thi ck and a frm yol k.
Grade B-Thi s egg spreads a good deal
when broken. The white i s thinner and the
yolk i s fatter.
Grade C-This egg covers a wide area when
broken. Its white i s thin and watery and its
yolk i s fat and apt to break.
Quality i s i mportant i n terms of appear­
ance and favor. The two top grades are best
for eggs that are to be served alone, boiled,
fri ed, baked or poached ; they may, of course,
be used for al l cooki ng. The two lower
grades are fne for scrambli ng or for com­
bi ni ng with other foods.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture also
classifes eggs by size. The si ze of the egg i s
determined by weight per dozen, not by the
si ze of the i ndi vi dual egg. There are mi ni ­
mum standards for each si ze and thi s l i mi ts
the variation of the i ndi vi dual egg si ze. Here
are the mi ni mum weights :
JUMBO: 30 ozs. per dozen
EXTRA LARGE : z· OZS. per dozen
LARGE : z. ozs. per dozen
MEDIUM: zt  ozs. per dozen
SMALL: ts ozs. per dozen
PEEWEE : t : ozs. per dozen
Experience wi l l teach you which eggs are
best buys. The larger eggs are often pre­
ferred for servi ng alone. In cooking, most
recipes mean l arge eggs unl ess otherwi se
specifed. There can be a considerable varia­
tion i n prices of eggs of di ferent size. In
late summer and fal l , small and medi um­
si zed eggs are often l ower i n price.
To get fresh, good-quality eggs, buy from
a store that refrigerates them. Eggs deteri ­
orate rapi dl y in quality when exposed to
heat. The color of the shel l has nothing to
do with the qual i ty or favor of the egg i n­
si de, but i n some areas brown eggs are l ess
expensive than whi te ones.
Store eggs ei ther i n their carton or cov­
ered i n the refrigerator. Because the shells
are porous, they lose favor and moi sture if
left uncovered i n a warm room.
Selecting and storing food z· 
1airy Products
The basis for al l dai ry products is mi l k i n
one form or another. Cream, ice cream, but­
ter and cheese are the best- known products
but research i s constantly provi di ng varia­
ti ons and refnements of all these. Grade A
i ndi cates qual i ty fui d mi l k and i s the grade
avai l abl e i n retai l stores. Mi l k used for man­
ufacturing milk products-butter, cheese
and ice cream-i s desi gnated as manufac­
turing grade. Here is a l i st of the most wi de­
l y available retai l mi l ks and rel ated products.
Fresh milk products
Whole fuid milk-Cow' s mi l k whi ch contai ns
both fat and other nonfat soli ds. (Once
known onl y as butterfat, the fat component
is now often called mi l k fat because i t i s the
fat common to all mi l k products-not j ust
butter. ) Mi ni mum requi rements for both fat
and nonfat components are establ i shed by
the i ndi vi dual states; fat content is usual l y
not permi tted to fal l bel ow 3 per cent and
nonfat sol i ds bel ow 8 per cent. Al most ev­
erywhere mi l k i s pasteurized as a matter of
course. Thi s destroys harmful bacteria and
makes the milk easier to keep.
Homogenized milk-Whole mi l k whose fat
globules have been broken up and di strib­
uted permanently through the mi l k. Ho­
mogenized mi l k di fers from ordi nary mi l k
i n that there i s no separation of cream, and
the product remai ns uni form throughout.
Most of the fresh whole milk that i s sold to­
day i s homogenized.
Skim milk-Mi l k that has had a porti on of its
fat removed. In some areas i t is any mi l k
whose fat portion i s l ess t han t he mi ni mum
standard for whol e mi l k. However, the exact
fat content i s general l y l i sted on the con­
tainer, so check for the varieties available in
your communi ty.
Fortied milk-Ei ther whole or ski m mi l k to
which certai n nutrients have been added.
The most common addi ti ons are vi tami ns A
28 Selecting and storing fod
and D, and mi neral s. Check the container
to know what you are buyi ng.
Chocolate milk-Whol e mi l k with chocolate
and sugar added.
Buttermilk-Commerci al l y produced, butter­
mi l k is a product of speci al processi ng, not
the byproduct from churni ng cream i nto
butter. Most of the buttermi l k sold in the
U. S. i s made of fresh ski m mi l k to whi ch
bacteria cultures have been added in order
to convert the mi l k sugar i nto lactic aci d.
Thi s resul ts in a mi l k that has a tangy favor
as wel l as a ri ch, smooth texture.
Sour cream-A commercial product, thi s i s
l i ght cream whi ch has been subj ected to a
fermenti ng process.
Yoghurt-Another cul tured mi l k product,
thi s is made from fresh, parti al l y ski mmed
mi l k or concentrated whole mi l k and often
contai ns other favori ngs. It is thick, wi th
a characteri sti c acid favor.
Cream-The part of the milk which contai ns
the fat.
Light cream, cofee cream, table cream-Cream
which contai ns 1 8- 20 per cent fat ; i t often
is homogeni zed.
Heavy or whipping cream-Cream wi th 30- 36
per cent mi l k fat.
Hal-and-hal-A mi xture of mi l k and cream,
usually contai ni ng 10- 1 2 per cent milk fat.
Ice cream-A mi xture of mi l k, cream, sugar
and a stabi l i zer that is frozen whi l e bei ng
stirred and whi pped. Ice cream shoul d have
a fresh favor, a fne-grained texture and frm
body. Eggs are sometimes added for ri ch­
ness; in thi s case the product is often sold
commerci al l y as " French" or " New York"
ICe cream.
Ice milk-Made l i ke i ce cream, it contai ns
less mi l k fat and more nonfat mi l k sol i ds.
It is often sold frozen on sticks, or in a·soft
form in cups.
Sherbet-A low- fat frozen substance contai n­
i ng milk soli ds, sugar, stabili zer, food aci d,
water and frui t or frui t j uices for favori ng.
Canned and dry milk products
Evaporated milk-Thi s is canned, steri lized,
homogenized mi lk from which about 60 per
cent of the water has been removed by heat­
ing. Vitami n D i s generally added to it. Re­
frigerate evaporated milk after openi ng.
Sweetened condensed milk-Canned whole mi l k
from whi ch roughly 50 per cent of the wa­
ter has been removed and sugar added as a
preservative.
Dr whole milk-This i s fresh whole mi l k
from whi ch the water has been removed. It
i s reconstituted by addi ng water.
Nonfat dry milk-Whole milk from which
both water and fat have been removed.
Storing milk products
All the fresh, fui d mi lks, cream, buttermi l k
and yoghurt may be stored, tightly covered,
in the refrigerator for up to a week. Take
only the amount you need out of the con­
tai ner and return the rest to the refrigerator.
Any extended exposure to room tempera­
ture or sunlight harms both the favor and
the quality.
Both dry mi l ks-the whole and the non­
fat varieties-may be kept unopened i n a
dry, cool place. Once opened, the dry whole
milk, which i s used primarily for feeding i n­
fants, must be tightly covered and refrig­
erated. Dry nonfat mi l k may be stored cov­
ered even after opening, at room tempera­
ture. After reconstituting, both ki nds must
be refrigerated. The canned mi lks, unopened,
may be stored at room temperature. Opened,
they must be refrigerated and treated like
any fuid mi l k.
Ice cream, ice mi lk and sherbet should be
stored i n the freezi ng compartment of the
refrigerator.
1o//.·
Butter is made by churning fresh or soured
cream. By law it must contain at least 80 per
cent mi l k fat ; the remai ni ng 20 per cent i s
largely water wi t h some mi l k sol i ds. It may
be either salted or unsalted ; the latter is
someti mes labeled sweet butter. Check the
wrapper for i ngredients. Because sweet but­
ter does not have the salt that acts as a pre­
servative, its keeping qualities are less than
those of salted butter. Read recipes carefully
for the type of butter recommended ; i f used
i n desserts, cakes or sauces, salted butter
could drastically change the favor.
On most butter containers you will fnd
a shi eld i ndicating the U. S. grade of the but­
ter. There are three grades. U. S. Grade AA
i s the best. It i s made from high-quality fresh
sweet cream, and has a pleasant aroma and
a sweet favor. U. S. Grade A i s next. These
two are the ones you are most l i kely to fnd
i n retai l stores. Grade B butter i s generally
made from sour cream and does not have
the fresh, sweet favor of the higher grades.
Whipped butter has had ai r or gas whipped
into i t during i ts manufacturing process.
Thi s i ncreases the volume of the butter and
makes i t easi er to spread, but makes i t gen­
erally unsatisfactory for cooking purposes.
It i s usually available i n small tubs and is
generally unsalted.
Butter shoul d be stored, wel l wrapped, i n
t he refrigerator. Keep onl y a small amount
of i t for i mmedi ate use i n the special butter
compartment. Do not expose i t to heat or
sunlight for long peri ods of time. You
should always use butter within two weeks
after you buy i t.
Margarine, though not actually a dai ry prod­
uct, i s the most common substitute for but­
ter. It consists mainly of vegetable oils, with
some nonfat mi l k solids, and usually an ar­
tifcial colori ng. Some brands may have a
small proporti on of butter or butter favor­
ing; others may be fortifed with additional
vitamins. Use and store margarine as you
would butter.
Selecting and storing food 29
Gh
ees
e
The most versatile of all the dairy products,
cheese i s a delight to any cook. It i s also a
challenge to the imagination. Dependi ng on
the cheese you select, you may serve it as a
separate course after the entree or as an ac­
compani ment to a frui t dessert ; you may
grate i t and use it to favor or decorate
cooked foods and salads ; or you may simply
taste i t as you do a fne wi ne. The more you
know about cheeses and the subtle di stinc­
tions i n favor and texture among them, the
more imaginative your use of them will be.
How is natural cheese made?
Natural cheese-which i s cheese processed
di rectly from milk-is made by causing mi lk
to separate, by means of rennet or a bacterial
culture, i nto curds (soft, milky lumps) and
whey (a thin, opaque li qui d) . Dependi ng on
the variety, whole cow' s mi lk, skim milk,
cream, whey or a blend of all of them are
used. Most of the cheese produced i n the
United States i s made from cow' s mi l k. In
some countries, such as Norway and France,
goat ' s and sheep' s milk are used i n certain
types of cheese. After breaking up the curds,
salt or seasonings, bacteria or molds may be
added. The cheese i s then shaped and pro­
tectively coated or wrapped and allowed to
age. The amount of moisture i n the variety
of cheese has much to do with how long
i t must be cured, or aged ; generally, the less
moi sture, the longer the curing peri od. At
any poi nt i n this process, variations i n meth­
od or ingredients wi ll produce a di ferent
cheese, hence the enormous variety available.
Kinds of natural cheese
The natural cheeses are generally classifed
according to the ripening or curing time i n­
volved. Si nce there tends to be some si mi ­
lari ty i n texture, these classi fcations are help­
ful for keeping track of the better- known
varieties and their characteri stics. The di fer­
ences i n favor and aroma, even within one
category, can be great ; you can learn about
these only through testi ng and cooking with
)^  Selecting and storing food
the di ferent varieties. Use the following li st
as a gui de, but let your personal taste and ex­
perience be the fnal j udge.
Unripened cheese-The moist, soft varieti es
such as cottage cheese, cream cheese and the
Italian ricotta are eaten fresh; they are not
allowed to age at all. The frmer ones-Moz­
zarella and the two di sti nctive tasting Nor­
wegian cheeses, Gj etost and Mysost-may
be eaten fresh but because they contain
relatively little moi sture they may also be
kept longer before usi ng.
Sof, ripened cheese-Aged for from four to
ei ght weeks ; curi ng begi ns from the ri nd and
works i nward to the center. The texture i s
soft and smooth and the favor, as in Cam­
embert and Brie, i s usually mild. An excep­
tion to this i s Li mburger with its very strong,
pungent taste.
Semisof, ripened cheese-Aged from one
week to four months, depending on the va­
riety ; curing starts both at the outside ri nd
and the i nterior. The texture ranges from a
true semisoft to a medi um frm and the favor
from mi ld to moderately strong. Bel Paese,
Munster and Port du Salut are some of the
best-known varieties.
Firm, ripened cheese-Aged up to one year
or more; curing occurs through the entire
cheese. Smooth- textured and mild to ex­
tremely sharp i n favor, this category in­
cludes the well - favored Cheddar, the Dutch
Edam and Gouda, and Swiss cheese.
Very hard, ripened cheese-Aged i n some
cases up to two years ; curing i s slow because
of little moisture and a higher salt content.
Sharp tasting and granular, I talian Parmesan
and Romano are the best-known varieties.
Parmesan i s known also as Grana (which
means granular) , and is mostly used grated
i nto cooked dishes, or on soups and pasta.
Blue-vein, mold-ripened cheese-Aged
from two to 1 2 months ; curi ng i s promoted
by a characteri stic mold culture. The texture
is generally semisoft and crumbly and the
favor sharp. Roquefort, Gorgonzola and
Stilton are the wel l - known vari eti es of thi s
kind of cheese. I t i s served as a dessert,
as an hors d' oeuvre or crumbled i n a salad.
Process cheese-Process cheese is a com bina­
tion of fresh and cured natural cheeses that
i s pasteurized by heati ng. Si nce there i s no
further aging after its manufacture, there i s
no change i n t he favor. Variati ons i nclude
pasteurized process-cheese food and cheese
spreads. These have di ferent proportions in
the ingredients, often i ncl udi ng the addi ti on
of nonfat mi lk sol i ds, whey and water as well
as such favori ngs as pi mento, frui t and
vegetables. Process cheeses have a smooth
texture, often with a bland taste, and they
melt quickly when they are heated.
Cold pack or cl ub cheese is also a blend of
fresh and aged natural cheese but i t i s not
subj ected to heat. I t tends to be closer i n
favor to the ori gi nal cheese. Its texture i s
quite soft and i t spreads easi l y.
Buying cheese
The best way to buy natural cheese is in bul k.
This way you can i nspect the whole cheese
and, hopeful l y, sample i t before you buy.
You can do thi s most often at a store selling
only cheese or i n a large store with a cheese
department. Notice how the store keeps its
stock; cheese should be covered and refrig­
erated to maintain its quali ty. Cheese i s usu­
ally i n better condi ti on i f the store does a
brisk business and has a rapid turnover. Tast­
ing a cheese i s your best gui de to i ts good­
ness ; i f that i s i mpossi bl e, be sure i t looks
good for its type.
Most cheese i s sold prepackaged, particu­
larly i n supermarkets and smaller general
stores. Check the packages careful l y ; the
wrapping should be clean and should stick
to the cheese ; i t should not be torn or
stai ned. The odor of the cheese (if any can
be detected) should be approximately right
for the variety. Be sure that the cheese is
kept under refrigerati on.
Process cheese does not need to be refrig­
erated until after i t i s opened. The wrappers
of process cheese list all of the i ngredients
used i n i ts preparati on. Check them to know
whether you are getting simple process
cheese, cheese food or deese spread.
How much to buy depends on the ki nd of
cheese. I t i s better to buy smal l quantities
of the soft, unripened natural cheeses such
as cottage or cream cheese, and the soft,
ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie.
They are peri shable, and they lose their fa­
vor and texture quickly. Firmer, ripened
cheese and process cheese will keep much
longer, and these may be bought safel y m
larger quanti ti es.
Storing cheese
The i mportant thi ng in keeping cheese i s
t o prevent i t from l osi ng moisture. Larger
cheeses which already have a protective coat­
ing need only the cut side covered. Al umi ­
num foi l or a plastic wrapping whi ch wi l l
adhere cl osel y to the surface are fne. Or you
may di p the cut end i nto hot parafn. Small­
er pieces of cheese should be wrapped care­
ful l y and completel y. Blue-veined cheeses
should be put in a domed cheese storer or
wrapped in a damp cloth. The bl ue vei ni ng
needs some ai r to conti nue ri peni ng and both
the dome and the damp cloth maintain the
moisture whi le allowing some ai r to reach
the cheese. If mold should develop on any
cheese, simply scrape i t of. It i s not harm­
ful to the rest of the cheese.
Al l cheese must be refrigerated. Hi gh
temperatures cause cheeses to " sweat" and
l ose their moisture. The more moi sture a
cheese has, the more peri shable it i s. The soft,
unripened cheeses, cottage and cream cheese,
should be used within a few days of pur­
chase. The frmer unripened varieties such as
Mozzarella may be kept l onger. The very
hard cheeses such as Parmesan and Romano
may be kept a long ti me-even six months
or more-under proper conditions.
Cheese, except for cottage cheese, should
not be served chi lled. Be sure to remove it
from the refri gerator i n ti me for it to warm
to room temperature. Only at room temper­
ature can the favor and qual i ty of each cheese
be properly tasted and enj oyed.
Selecting and storing food 3 1
[·.s/[·o//
To fnd the perfect peach, at the peak of its
favor and j uiciness, i s not easy. The whole
busi ness of buying fresh frui t can be a con­
si derable challenge even to the shrewdest
of food shopper
s
.
The best place to start is at a store that has
a fairly rapi d turnover i n fres h produce and
that allows you-as not all do-to choose
your own frui t. A good look at all sides of
any piece of frui t wi ll tell much about its
quality. Check for blemi shes, gently test the
frmness and j udge the wei ght of the frui t
i n relation to its si ze-thi s bei ng the ki nd of
j udgment you si mpl y have to learn.
The U. S. Department of Agri culture
grades many fruits at the wholesale level,
but except for apples-which you occasi on­
ally see tagged "Extra Fancy" or " Fancy"
(the two top grades) -there is usually no i n­
di cation of grades at the retail level . Whole­
sale grading determines mi ni mum standards
of si ze and quality. The extremely perish­
able nature of frui t allows for too many var­
iables during packing and shipping for the
grades to be of much meaning when the
frui t reaches retail markets.
The bright-colored, well - formed, unblem­
i shed frui t-the one that looks the most de­
li ci ous-wi ll general ly taste better than i ts
less-appeti zi ng-looking neighbor. However,
this i s not an absol ute guarantee ; by relying
on appearance alone even an expert can go
wrong on what may be i nsi de. In most cases,
blemi shes, bruises and broken ski n are to be
avoided si nce they are open doors to de­
terioration. (Exceptions are the thicker­
ski nned citrus frui ts, i n whi ch minor ski n
defects rarely afect the qual i ty i nsi de. )
Because ripe frui t spoils easily during
shipping and is hard to handle without
brui si ng, many frui ts are pi cked at a mature
but unripe stage. They may sti ll be hard to
the touch when they get to your store. But
i f the other characteristics such as color and
shape are good, they can ripen at home.
Keep them at room temperature, out of the
sun, until they are ripe.
32 Selecting and storing food
How to store
Ripe, fresh frui t should be used as soon as
possi ble. I f i t i s prepackaged, sort out and
di scard any damaged pieces . Wipe the
frui t if necessary ; if you wash i t, dry it well­
dry frui t keeps better. You may store frui t
uncovered in the refrigerator a few days .
The ski n of citrus frui ts pits and the fesh
darkens if kept in the refrigerator more than
a week, and the ski n of bananas darkens
from the col d. Unripe or hard apples are
better kept at a temperature of 60 to  0�
Pineapple needs to be wrapped if stored i n
the refrigerator because a too- dry atmos­
phere causes it to shri nk.
APPLES: Know t he ri ght color for the variety.
Firm, bright-colored apples free from soft
spots and cuts are the best. For eati ng, De­
li ci ous (red or golden) , Mcintosh and Jona­
than are among the best. For cooking and
baking, large or medi um- l arge Greeni ng,
Northern Spy and Rome Beauty are ex­
cellent choices.
APPRI COTS: Tree-ri pened apricots are hi ghl y
peri shable, so you are l i kely to fnd mature
but hard ones in the market. Check for an
even orange-gold color. The best are plump
with no si gn of shri veli ng or brui si ng.
AVOCADOS: They may be large or small, green
or almost black, with a smooth ski n or a
leathery one. They should be heavy for their
si ze with a ski n free from bruises . It doesn' t
matter i f they are not completely ripe ; allow
them to ripen at home unti l the skin yi elds
to gentle pressure.
BANANAS: Bananas of any variety may be
bought when plump but sli ghtl y green. They
should feel frm and be well developed. They
can ripen at home to the best eating stage,
bright yellow fecked wi th brown.
BERRIES AND CHERRIES: Col or i s important in
all these frui ts ; be sure it is bright and uni ­
form. Except for strawberri es, select frui t
that i s free from leaves or stem caps ; ei ther
of these i ndi cates i mmature frui t. Culti vated
blueberries tend to have uni formly large­
sized berri es, while wild blueberries vary
considerably i n size. Good sweet cherries
are frm and sour cherries a little less so.
Cranberries are available i n either the large,
bright-red, sli ghtl y sour variety or i n the
smaller, darker-colored, sweeter type. Straw­
berries should have a portion of the cap and
stem still attached. Very small strawberries
are usually poor buys in the U. S. All of these
fruits should be dry and clean when pur­
chased ; di rt and moisture i nvite i mmedi ate
decay. But do not wash, or remove the hul l s
of berries , unti l j ust before usi ng them.
CITRUS FRUITS: The best citrus frui ts are heavy
for their si ze, whi ch i ndicates their j uiciness ;
they should be of a regular shape and frm
with a fne-textured s ki n and bri ght color.
Because of its naturally loose ski n a ripe tan­
gerine may not seem frm; i ts fattened ends
shoul d feel a l i ttle soft .
GRAPES Plump, fresh-looki ng grapes, frmly
attached to stems, are best. Check by gently
shaking the bunch ; few i f any should drop
of the stems . The color should be bright,
and can be whi te, green, purple or black.
Most whi te and green grapes are ripe when
they begi n to show an amber shade. With
other varieti es, only taste tel l s.
MELONS: These are the most di fcult of all
frui t to buy. There i s no foolproof way to
know the quality before you cut one open.
All varieties shoul d be ful l y ri pe for the best
favor and sweetness. Ripe melons usually
have a strong characteri sti c odor and a soft­
ening at the blossom, not the stem, end.
Each variety, however, has i ts own speci al
characteri sti cs. A Casaba melon has a yellow
rind with deep lengthwise furrows and no
aroma. The vei ni ng, or " netti ng, " on the
rind of cantal oupe should stand out sharply
against a background of yellowi sh-gray.
Honeydew melon ri nds should be relatively
smooth and either creamy-whi te or creamy­
yellow. As wi th any melon, the key to qual­
ity i n a watermelon i s i ts i nterior, and luck­
i ly, these are often halved or quartered so
you can i nspect them. The fesh shoul d be
red with dark brown or black seeds.
NECTARINES: A cross between a pl um and a
peach, a nectari ne has the odor but not the
fuzzy skin of a peach. I t should be plump
and frm but not hard when ripe, wi th a
sli ght softeni ng along the "seam" at the si de.
PEACHES: The best peaches are frm, but not
hard, and have a good yellow or creamy
background color. Thi s color i s the most i m­
portant ; a red bl ush by itself doesn' t i ndi ­
cate a good peach. Avoi d peaches wi th
brown spots or shriveled ski n.
PEARS: The best pears are those whi ch have
ripened after being picked. They may be
fai rly frm to the touch when purchased and
allowed to ripen at home. Wel l - shaped wi th
a cl ean ski n, they should have a bright color ;
russeti ng, or brown rougheni ng, occurs on
Bose and Anj ou pears (but does not afect
the taste) , and Corice pears are still al ­
most green when ripe. Ri pe Bartletts are
clear yellow, occasi onally blushed.
PINEAPPLES: A good, ripe pi neapple should be
heavy for its si ze, frm to the touch, and
have the strong, fresh odor of pineapple.
The color may range from a golden yellow
to a pale red in the Red Spani sh variety and
from a l i ght yellow to a deep golden yellow
i n the smooth Cayenne variety. If stored
where the ai r i s too dry, moi sture wi ll be
lost, and the pi neapple will shri nk and deep­
en i n color. Decay appears as soft , some­
times almost black areas near the base.
PLUMS AND PRUNES: Rangi ng from yellow­
green to a purpli sh- black, ripe plums are
well rounded and j ust soft enough to yi eld
to a l i ttle pressure. Sti cki ness or undue soft­
ness usual l y means the frui t has begun to
decay. Fresh prunes are freestone pl ums.
RHUBARB (a vegetable, but eaten as a frui t) :
The stalks should be of moderate si ze wi th
a cri sp, fresh l ook. Smal l , i mmature leaves
usually mean tender stal ks.
Selecting and storing food 33
,·.s/ .

.s
The wise selection of fresh vegetables takes
at least as much expertness as selecting frui t.
As i n the case of frui t, the U. S. Department
of Agriculture grades vegetables only at the
wholesale level. (A bag of potatoes some­
times has U. S. Fancy or U. S. No. 1, the two
top grades, pri nted on i t, but thi s is j ust
about the only evidence of grading that ap­
pears at the retail level. ) Wholesale grading
ensures minimum standards of quality ; i t is
up to the customer to fnd the freshest and
most favorful vegetables.
As a rule, young vegetables are the tend­
erest and best-tasti ng; the biggest vegeta­
ble i s not likely to be the best. Be sure to
look most carefully at the part of the vege­
table that counts. Wilted tops of beets and
carrots are uni mportant i f the roots have
good shape, texture and color. The leaves
of spinach and lettuce are the i mportant
part ; buy only clean, fresh-looki ng ones. In
asparagus, the stalks are what count ; they
should be green the entire length with
closed tips at the end. Freshness i s i mport­
ant to both favor and quality i n all vegeta­
bles, so buy i n quantities that you can use
i n a relatively short time.
Most fresh vegetables should be kept in
the refrigerator, i n the vegetable drawer or
compartment designed for them, or covered
in the lower part of the refrigerator. Ripe
tomatoes, unhusked corn, unshelled lima
beans and peas i n the pod should be refrig­
erated but not covered. Sort all vegetables
before storing and di scard any that show de­
cay. Wash them i f they are very dirty but
dry them well. If possible, simply shake the
di rt of or wipe them clean before stori ng.
Take care that lettuce and other greens are
dry before storing; otherwise they wi ll lose
their crispness. It is best to wash and dry
them j ust before using.
There are a few vegetables that should not
be stored i n the refrigerator : potatoes, dry
onions, rutabagas, turnips, parsnips, hard­
rind squash and eggplant. These should be
stored at a cool temperature, around 60°; a
34 Selecting and storing fod
cellar or utility room i s a good place for thi s
ki nd of storage. Oni ons and potatoes sprout
at a high room temperature and soon dete­
riorate. Onions should be stored in loosely
woven bags, potatoes i n a dry, dark place
with good air circulation. Both should be
bought i n small quantities if this kind of
storage is unavailable.
Here i s what to look for when selecti ng
fresh vegetables :
ROOT VEGETABLES: I n beets, carrots, parsni ps,
radishes, turnips and rutabagas, look for
smooth, frm, well- shaped roots. The color
should be good and characteri stic for the
vegetable. Any fabbiness, moist spots or
shriveli ng i ndi cates decay or age.
In the case of carrots and radishes remove
both tips and tops before storing; they drai n
needed moi sture from the root i f left on. Re­
move the tops of beets but not the tips,
lest they lose color and moi sture.
LEAFY GREEN VEGETABLES: This group i ncludes
the cooking greens-chard, kale, collards
and spinach; and the salad greens-leaf­
type lettuce, chicory, escarole and water­
cress. The leaves should be clean and fresh­
looking, and have a characteri stic green
color. Seedstalk, or sprouting, on any of
these vegetables means age and i t may show
toughness. Too many wilted leaves or di s­
colorations should be avoi ded.
ARTICHOKES: They should be globular, plump
and heavy, wi th tight- ftting green scales.
Si ze has l i ttle relation to an artichoke' s fa­
vor or quality.
ASPARAGUS: As said before, the tenderest
asparagus is green along its entire stalk.
Firm, closed tips are a sign of freshness.
BEANS AND PEAS: Look at the pods of these
vegetables. In snap and yellow beans, they
should be crisp and tender, flled wi th very
i mmature seeds. The pods of lima beans
should be fresh, dark green and wel l flled
with plump beans. Pea pods should be a
light green color with a soft texture and
flled with well-developed peas. Once shelled,
both Iimas and green peas should be used
immediately ; their favor and quality fade
quickly i n the open air.
BROCCOLI AND CAULI FLOWER: The fower clus­
ters should be compact and frm and not
dried out. Broccoli bud clusters range from
dark green to purpli sh-green and their stalks
should be tender and frm. Good cauli fower
fowerets are white or creamy-white and the
outer leaves of the caulifower should look
fresh and green.
CABBAGE AND BRUSSELS SPROUTS: The best heads
of cabbage should be solid and relati vely
heavy for their size, wi th stems tri mmed
close to the head and leaves that show little
or no di scolorati on. Brussels sprouts are tiny
cabbages that should be frm to the touch
and have a bright green color.
CELERY: Crisp, clean stalks of medi um length
are the best. Test to see that they are brit­
tle ; avoid stalks that are di scolored around
the heart and leaves.
CORN: Milky, well- developed kernels are i m­
portant. Husks should be a fresh- looking
green, and still moist enough to ft frmly
around the cob. Avoid corn with brown,
mushy kernels at the tip of the far.
cucuMBERS: The freshest cucumbers are
shiny, bright green and frm to the touch.
Avoid yellowing or pufy ones.
EGGPLANT: A good one i s dark purple and
feels frm and heavy, with no bruises or cuts
on the smooth skin.
GARLIC: A good bulb of garlic i s one with
plump cloves compactly set i n an unbroken
outer skin. Cloves that are sprouting and
shriveled or have a broken skin are of poor
quality and should be avoi ded.
ICEBERG LETTUCE: Easily packed and shipped,
iceberg lettuce is the most widely available
variety. Its leaves should be crisp and bright-
colored and i n a fairly frm shape. " Rust"
and small, j agged brown spots on the i nner
leaves are not good signs.
MUSHROOMS: Clean, preferably without any
scars or browni ng, the best are a good white
or creamy-whi te, with their caps completely
closed so that no gi l l s can be seen between
the cap and the stem.
ONIONS: Green, fresh tops wi th necks whi te
2 or 3 inches up from the root are the marks
of the choicest green onions, scallions and
leeks. Dry, mature onions should be globu­
lar i n shape, bright with dry ski ns. Moi sture
at the neck or on the outer skins i s a sign of
probable decay.
POTATOES: The best are frm, fairly smooth
and free from eyes, wi th a regular shape for
the variety. " New" potatoes bruise easily,
and they do not keep well ; " late" or " old"
potatoes are more durable. Avoid mottled,
leathery or scarred potatoes.
PEPPERS: Both sweet and hot peppers should
look shi ny, have a strong red or green color
depending on their variety and be fairly frm
to the touch.
SQUASH: There are many species, divided i nto
two general ki nds to shop for : summer and
wi nter. Summer squash, which include zuc­
chini and Whi te Bush Scallop, are best when
i mmature with a soft ri nd. Feel to see that
they are heavy for their si ze and not brui sed
or di scolored. Wi nter squash such as Butter­
nut and Acorn have a hard ri nd. The rinds
should be free of soft spots because these
squash decay easi ly.
TOMATOES (technically a frui t, but sold and
eaten as a vegetable) : The best ones are
ripened on the vine but this is often i mprac­
tical for packing and shipping. They should,
however, have begun to turn red before pick­
i ng. Check for a plump shape with a general
red color and a skin free from cracks or scars.
If still hard, ripen them at home at room
temperature out of the sun.
Selecting and storing food 3 5
:reezing
The freezing of fresh foods that can be kept
safely for long periods of time has made a
drastic change in the pattern of modern
shopping. By greatly reducing the natural
spoilage i n food that i s caused by bcteri a,
enzyme action and oxidation, freezing
maintains much of the quality, favor and
texture of high-quality fresh food.
Home freezers
If you freeze large quantities of food and
i ntend to store them for several months,
you need a separate home freezer. Buy a
model that fts your needs : consider how
much food and what kind you freeze at one
time, the number of people i n your fami ly
and how large a freezer you have room for.
A freezer works most efciently when i t i s
used to full capaci ty. Refrigerator- freezer
combi nations, preferably the ones with two
separate doors, one for each compartment,
are good for long- term storage as long as
proper temperatures can be maintai ned. Re­
frigerators with a freezing compartment i n
the i nterior storage area and ones with only
an ice-cube compartment are not adequate
for long- term storage. Food may be kept
frozen i n these areas for only a few days.
You must mai ntai n a temperature of Oo
or lower i n the entire freezer or freezi ng
compartment. Get a thermometer and sam­
ple the temperature i n various locations
over a period of time. If your freezer has a
compartment on the door, check this too.
Hard- frozen packages are not i n themselves
proof that the temperature i s cold enough
to protect the food at all ti mes.
When storing and removi ng frozen food,
put newly purchased or newly frozen foods
i n the bottom or back of the freezer so you
will use the oldest food frst. Take several
things out at once rather than opening the
door at frequent i ntervals. Know what is
i n your freezer and when you put i t in. You
can mark the packages with name and date
of freezing and keep a list to remind you
what you have.
· s  Selecting and storing food
How to freeze
The quality of the food you are goi ng to
freeze is i mportant. It must be absolutely
fresh and of high quali ty ; freezi ng doesn' t
add or i mprove favor or quality. Freeze it
as quickly as you can after purchase to main­
tain qual i ty. Not all food i s sui table for
freezing; certai n processed meats, tomatoes,
bananas, pears and cooked foods such as
custards do not freeze well.
You need do no more than trim or sort
some foods before freezi ng. Some frui ts
and most vegetables require bri ef precooking
or blanching. Combi nation di shes cooked
before freezing are better if slightly under­
cooked, especially if they contain vegetables;
they wi l l be cooked more when you reheat
them for servi ng. Learn the necessary pre­
paratory steps and follow them. Most re­
frigerator- freezer companies publish pam­
phlets with freezi ng advice. In addition, a
valuable gui de is Home and Garden Bul­
letin A 1 . 77 : 10, " Home Freezing of Fruits
and Vegetables, " obtainable for 20 cents by
wri ting to the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Government Printing Ofce, Wash­
ington, D. C. 20402.
Wrapping i s also i mportant. Use a type
designed for freezi ng ; several varieties of
moisture- and vapor-proof wraps are avail­
able. Be sure you exclude as much air as pos­
sible before seali ng. The properly wrapped
food should be frozen immediately. Speed
all along the way i s essential, so that the
food will be frozen as quickly as possible.
To do this, i t i s best to adj ust the tempera­
ture of your freezer to a lower setti ng, -10
to -20
°
, and leave it there until the food
has frozen. Do thi s some hours or a day
ahead. When putting i n new unfrozen foods,
place the packages so they do not touch­
and warm-foods already in the freezer. Any
i ncrease in temperature at any time duri ng
the l i fe of frozen food is detrimental to both
favor and quality.
It i s a good i dea to package foods for
freezi ng in the quantities you will use for
one meal. A smaller package is easier to
freeze and to thaw. There is no advantage i n
keeping frozen food to the limit of its
storage l i fe. Since there are so many variables
i n freezi ng-the quality of the food, the
wrapping, temperature control-i t i s better
to err on the side of caution and use frozen
food well before the limit. The accompany­
ing lists suggested maximum storage times.
Buying commercialy fozen foods
The freezer in your retail store is as i m­
portant to you as the one i n your home.
Notice whether i t i s cl ean and not over­
loaded. Most freezing cabinets i n stores have
a line around the i nsi de i ndicating the top
limit for storing packages ; check to see that
the food is not stacked above this line. Ex­
amine the packagi ng of frozen foods care­
ful l y. It should be solid to the touch, with­
out stai ns or punctures. A transparent wrap
enables you to check the color of the con­
tents. There should be little or no frost or
frozen liquid i n the package. If there is, it
means i t has probably thawed and been re­
frozen, a bad sign. After opening and thaw­
i ng or cooki ng, check texture and favor.
During the time i t takes to carry frozen
foods home, some rise i n temperature is
bound to occur, even if you use i nsulated
bags. Transfer the food i mmedi ately to
your freezer and place i t touching one of
the refrigerated surfaces to restore i t to low
temperature quickly. Allow air to circulate
on the other sides. When the food has
reached its proper temperature, i t may be
moved anywhere in the freezer.
Thawing frozen foods
An important and someti mes neglected step
i s proper thawing. Some foods-vegetables,
some meats and cooked preparations-may
be cooked unthawed. For those that re­
quire thawing before cooki ng or servi ng,
refrigerator thawing i s t he best ; i t takes
l onger but preserves the food values better.
Food wrapped i n sealed packages or con­
tainers may be thawed i n cold running
water. Thawing at room temperature is
quick but there i s the danger of the outsi de
thawing more quickly than the i nterior. You
must use thawed frozen food immedi ately
before quality and favor begi n to deteri orate.
SUGGESTED STORAGE TI MES
FOR FROZEN FOOD
The chart below lists maxtmum
storage times for frozen foods. There
are many variables in the freezing
process so i t i s wi se to use frozen
food well before the limit i s reached.
Food
MEAT
Fresh beef
Fresh veal, lamb
Fresh pork
Approximate storage
time at 0' or lower
6- 1 2 months
6-9 months
3-6 months
Ground beef, veal and lamb 3-4 months
Ground pork 1 -3 months
Variety meats 3-4 months
Cooked meat combinations
Meat pies (cooked) 3 months
Swiss steak (cooked) 3 months
Stews (cooked) 3-4 months
POULTRY
Chicken- whole 6- 1 2 months
Chicken-cut up 6 months
Turkey 6 months
Duck, goose-whole 6 months
Cooked poultry
Fried chicken 3 months
Sliced meat and gravy 3-6 months
Pies 12 months
FISH
Fillets of lean fsh 4 months
Fillets of fat fsh 3 months
Shellfsh 2-4 months
Cooked fsh 1 -3 months
VEGETABLES 8- 10 months
FRUITS 8- 1 2 months
Fruit j uice concentrates 8- 1 2 months
ICE CREAM, SHERBET 1 month
Selecting and storing food · 9
r (lossary o :od and Gooking Crms
Every good recipe i s precise (though not ev­
ery precise recipe i s a good one) , and a care­
ful cook takes the trouble to learn the exact
meani ng of a recipe' s terms. In this glossary
many foods, utensi ls and methods are de-
a la king: a method of preparing delicately
favored meat, fsh or poultry i n a creamy
seasoned sauce.
a la mode: " i n the style" or " i n the man­
ner" of, generally used i n reference to a par­
ticular city or region (a Ia mode de Caen ).
In American cooking, it means serving cake
or pie with ice cream.
antipasto: i n Italian cooking, the frst
course, served before the pasta dish. Anti­
pasto serves the same purpose as the French
hors d' oeuvre. It usually includes an assort­
ment of fsh, vegetables and/or cold meat.
appetizer: a small servi ng of j uice, fruit,
seafood or other food served at the begi n­
ning of a meal.
aspic: a favored j ellylike substance, made
from meat or vegetable stock, or from frui t
j uice to whi ch gelati n has been added. It i s
used to coat meat, poultry or fsh or to form
a molded salad.
au gratin: the word gratin means the
brown coating on food formed by broi li ng
or baking in the oven. Au gratin or gratinfe
has come to mean a method of prepari ng
food i n a sauce whose top surface i s covered
40 A glossary of food and cooking terms
fned, and some of the basic techniques that
reci pes call for are described. The more of
these you understand-for example, the dif­
ferences between stir, beat and whip-the
more successful your cooking wi ll be.
with butter, bread crumbs or grated cheese
and baked or broi l ed until brown.
au jus: a French term applied to meat
served with only the natural, unthickened
pan j uices that come out during cooking.
batter: a mixture of four and a variety of
other i ngredi ents such as milk, eggs, leaven­
i ng agents and seasonings, used as the basi s
for cakes, fritters, coati ngs or pancakes. Its
consi stency may range from a thin liquid to
a stif, thick one depending on the propor­
tions of the i ngredients.
bake: to cook i n an oven by dry heat.
barbecue: to roast or broil on a rack or
revolving spit over hot coals, or i n the oven.
Meat or fowl cooked this way is usually
basted wi th a highly seasoned sauce.
bard: to cover a bird or roast with thin
sheets or strips of fat i n order to protect
such delicate parts as a chicken breast, or to
provide automatic basting of meat.
baste: to keep food moist and add favor
while cooking, usually by spooning melted
fat, pan j uices, wi ne or other liquid over the
surface.
beat: to mi x ingredients together with a
circular up-and- down moti on, usi ng a whi sk,
a spoon, or a rotary or electric beater. To beat
egg whites, place the whites i n a clean bowl ,
preferably of unl i ned copper, and usi ng a
balloon- shaped wi re whi sk, beat gently unti l
the whites reach a pale, foamy stage. Then
beat more vi gorously with a steady circular
up-and- down motion unti l the whites peak
frmly when the beater i s raised from the
bowl (see picture above). If you use an elec­
tric beater, be sure the beater blades move
completely around the bowl . The point i s to
incorporate as much air as possi bl e i nto the
egg whites as you beat, thus i ncreasing their
volume. Beaten egg whites should be used
i mmediately ; they may be kept for a short
time by covering the bowl securely with
plastic wrap.
bechamel: a basic white sauce of four and
butter to which milk i s added.
bind: to thicken or smooth the consi stency
of a l i qui d. Egg yol ks, four, potatoes or
rice are commonly used.
bisque: a thick cream soup, often made
from fsh or vegetable purees ; also a frozen
creamy dessert contai ni ng frui ts, macaroons
or nuts.
blanch: to pl unge into boiling water for
the purpose of softeni ng a food, for remov­
i ng an unwanted favor, or for parti al pre­
cooki ng.
blend: to stir, rather than beat, i ngre­
di ents unti l they are thoroughl y combined.
boil: to heat or cook in a l i qui d whose
temperature reaches 2 1 2
°
(at sea level) ; the
surface wi l l be broken by a steady bubbl i ng
acti on. In a rapi d boi l , the bubbl es are vigor­
ous and rol l i ng ; i n a medi um boil the bub­
bles are gentle. A very slow boi l , where the
liquid hardly moves, is called a si mmer.
bone: to remove bones from meat or
fowl . To bone meat, use a boning kni fe or
any thin, very sharp kni fe about 5 or 6 i nches
long. Insert the poi nt between the fesh and
the bone to get started. Then turn the blade
so i t i s fat agai nst the bone, with the sharp
edge always poi nti ng away from you. Use
short, sawi ng, scraping strokes as you follow
the di recti on of the bone. Do not be alarmed
at j agged edges on the meat as i t comes
away ; these can be patted back i nto shape
when you are done.
To bone a chicken breast, frst remove the
ski n by i nserti ng your thumb between fesh
and skin and gently pul l i ng the skin of.
With the fesh side down, take the breast in
both hands and bend i t back unti l the
breastbone pops up. Gently pul l i t out and
cut the two breasts apart. Put one breast
with the bone side up on a chopping sur­
face. I nsert the point of the kni fe between
the fesh and the single small ri b bone that
comes away from the ri b cage. Turn the
blade so i t i s fat agai nst this bone and cut
to release i t. Pul l the bone up and hold i t ;
with the kni fe i n the other hand, use short,
scrapi ng strokes to cut away the fesh on
the succeedi ng ribs. When the entire ri b is
removed, cut the remai ni ng bones away.
Pat the boned fesh i nto i ts original shape.
Repeat wi th the other breast.
bouilon: stock or broth made by cook­
i ng meat, fsh or vegetables i n a l i qui d.
A glossary of food and cooking terms 4 I
bouquet garni: a small bundle of herbs,
usually parsley, thyme and bay leaf, wrapped
i n cheesecloth or tied together and added to
cooking mixtures for favor. It is removed
before servi ng.
braise: to cook i n a tightly covered pan
with a smal l amount of l i qui d at a low tem­
perature.
bread: to coat food with dry bread or
cracker crumbs. The food i s often di pped
frst in a liquid or beaten egg to help the
crumbs stick to its surface.
brochette: a skewer used for broi ling
small pieces of meat or vegetables. En bro­
chette means "cooked on a skewer. "
broth: the li qui d in which meat, fsh,
poultry or vegetables has been cooked.
brown: to turn the surface of food brown
i n color by cooking quickly in hot fat on
top of the stove or at a high temperature in
the oven or broiler.
brush on: to apply a liquid to the surface
of food with a small brush.
caramelize: to cook white granulated su­
gar wi th a smal l amount of water unti l i t
turns into a nut-brown- colored syrup. Thi s
i s used either to line a dessert mold or to
add favor or color to other mixtures.
chil: to make cold, not frozen, i n a re­
frigerator, over cracked ice or i n any other
sui table cold place.
chop: to cut into small pieces. A good
kni fe for this i s the French chef' s or cook' s
kni fe. As shown in t he picture at right, grasp
the blade between thumb and fngers near
the point, with your other hand at the heeL
Now move the blade vigorously up and
down on the food, hol di ng the tip station­
ary. Repeat several times, gathering the food
i nto a heap each time, unti l all of it is thor­
oughly chopped.
42 A glossary of food and cooking terms
clari: to make a substance pure or clear.
To clari butter, cut sticks of butter i nto
half- i nch slices and melt in a saucepan over
low heat. Do not let the butter brown. Re­
move pan from heat and ski m the foam of
the top of the butter. Spoon the clarifed
butter (the clear l i qui d under the foam) i nto
another container and di scard the mi l ky res­
idue that has settled at the bottom of the
original pan.
To clarif stock, heat it and bring to a
vigorous boil with one crushed egg shell
and one egg white beaten to a froth for
every two cups of stock. Stir constantly,
until the mixture al most overfows. Remove
from heat and let sit for a few minutes, then
ladle into a sieve l i ned with a moistened
ki tchen towel or cheesecloth, set above a
bowL Do not di sturb i t ; the clear liquid wi ll
drain through.
coat: t o cover food lightly but thorough­
ly with either a liquid or dry substance.
coat a spoon: a term that describes the
degree of thickness of a cooking li qui d, par­
ticularly of a cream soup or sauce. To test
the thickness, stir the liquid with a spoon.
When the spoon is held above the pan and
allowed to drip, it wi l l retain an even flm
or coating of the l i qui d.
·
coddle: to cook slowly in a l i qui d heat­
ed to j ust below the boi l i ng point.
combine: to mix or blend together two
or more ingredients.
compote: fresh or dried frui ts cooked
and served i n a favored sugar syrup.
condiment: any seasoning added to food
to enhance i ts favor. In common usage, i t
general ly refers to prepared sauces ard rel­
ishes eaten with food.
consomme: a clear, strongl y favored soup
made from stock.
cool: t o allow t o stand unt i l heat has re­
duced. The food or utensil should no longer
feel warm to the touch.
core: to remove the inedible central porti on
of certai n frui ts or vegetables with a paring
kni fe or corer.
correct seasoning: to taste food at various
stages of the cooking process and to add
more seasoni ng i f required.
court bouilon: a well- seasoned l i qui d usu­
ally favored with root and stock vegetables
used for cooking fsh, vegetables and variety
meats.
cream: to soften solid fats such as butter,
often by addi ng another i ngredient such as
sugar. Work the fat around the i nsi de of a
bowl by pressing and beating it with a spoon
or with the pastry arm of an electric beater,
until i t i s soft and creamy.
crepes: delicate pancakes of egg and four
batter. Crepes may be flled with meat, fsh
or vegetable mixtures, covered with sauce
and served as an entree ; made with a sweeter
batter, the crepes may be served with a frui t
or liqueur sauce as a dessert .
crisp: to make frm. Leafy vegetables such
as lettuce are washed, dried and chi l led ; dry
foods such as bread or crackers are subj ected
to dry heat.
croquette: a thi ck, creamy mixture con­
. rai ni ng various foods ( meat, vegetables, rice,
etc. ) that i s shaped, coated with egg and
crumbs and then fri ed.
croite: hard- toasted slices of French bread,
used as garnishes for soups or toasted bread
cases, flled and served as hors d' oeuvre. En
croute: "i n a crust" (as pate) .
croiton: a small croute, used as a garnish for
soups and salads.
crumb: to break i nto small pieces. Fresh
bread crumbs are made by pulling a piece of
fresh bread i nto small, soft particles, or pul ­
veri zi ng i t i n an electric bl ender. Stal e bread,
cracker or cereal crumbs are made wi th a
rol l i ng pi n or in a blender.
crush: to pulverize by rol l i ng with a rol l i ng
pi n or by mashi ng unti l dry food is the con­
si stency of coarse powder. Fruits, parti cular­
ly berri es, are usually crushed by mashi ng
unti l they lose their shape.
cube: to cut i nto small, equal- sized squares,
general l y 114 to 11 i nch.
custard: a mi xture of sugar, eggs, mi l k
and/or cream and favori ng, baked until frm.
A custard sauce i s a si mi lar mi xture, cooked
atop the stove and used i n l i qui d form.
cut in: a method of combi ni ng solid fat
with four in pastry maki ng. Use your fngers,
a pastry blender or two knives i n a cutting
motion to break the fat i nto small pieces
mixed throughout the four. The resulti ng
mi xture should have a coarse, mealy consis­
tency.
deep-ry: to cook food i mmersed in hot fat
or oi l .
deglaze: to collect the concentrated cook­
ing j uices remai ni ng i n the pan after saute-
A g!oJary of food and cooking terms 43
i ng or roasting food. After the food is re­
moved and the fat poured of, heat a small
amount of l i qui d (water, stock, wi ne, cream)
i n the pan, scraping the browned particles
and meat j uices i nto the liquid as i t cooks,
thus di ssolving them. Use thi s glaze as the
base of a sauce or gravy.
degrease : to remove fat from a hot l i qui d.
Let t he l i qui d stand for a few mi nutes so the
fat will rise to the top. Skim the surface with
a spoon to collect the fat. Then draw strips
of paper toweling across the surface to soak
up any remai ni ng fat. A bulb baster also
can be used to draw of the fat. If time per­
mi ts, refri gerate the liquid i n i ts container
unti l the fat congeals on the surface, maki ng
it easier to remove.
devein: to remove the black or whi te vei n
running al ong a shri mp' s back. With a sharp
kni fe make a shallow cut along the vei n l i ne,
then l i ft or scrape out the vei n.
dice: to cut i nto very small, even cubes.
dilute : to add l i qui d to another substance
in order to thin or weaken i t.
disjoint: to cut or break fowl or a cut of
meat i nto smaller pieces at the bone j oi nts.
dissolve: to make a solution by addi ng l i ­
qui d to a sol i d substance or by heating i t
unti l i t melts.
dot: to place small pieces of butter or other
substances over the surface of food.
dough: a four and l i qui d mi xture, of vary­
ing density-with or without a leaveni ng
agent-which i s shaped or worked by hand.
drain: to remove l i qui d, usually by allow­
ing food to stand i n a colander or strainer
until the liquid has dri pped of.
dredge : to coat food heavi l y with a dry
mi xture such as four, sugar, bread or cracker
crumbs.
44 A glOJsary of food and cooking terms
drippings: the j uices and fat of meats that
come out during the cooki ng process.
dust: to spri nkle the surface of food li ght­
ly with sugar, four or crumbs.
enrich: to add cream, eggs or butter.
entree: the main course of a meal. I n a tra­
di ti onal French menu the entree is the thi rd
course, generally a hot di sh in a whi te or
brown sauce.
escalope: a thin sl i ce of meat, usually veal ,
that has been somewhat fattened.
fllet: a boneless strip of lean fsh or meat ;
to cut strips of lean fsh or meat.
fnes herbes: a mi xture of mi nced herbs
-parsley, chives, tarragon and chervi l­
used to favor soups, sauces, omelets and fsh.
fake: to break i nto small pi eces with a fork,
as with cooked fsh.
fmbe: to favor food wi th an alcoholic
liquid by igniting the l i qui d ; the alcohol
burns of, but the favor remai ns.
fan: a straight-si ded, open pastry shel l
baked i n a bottomless metal ri ng. It i s si mi ­
l ar to a pi e shel l except that the ri ng mold i s
set on a baki ng sheet duri ng cooking and
then removed before fl l i ng the shell. When
flled wi th a sweetened frui t mi xture a fan is
often called a tart ; when fl led with a sea­
soned fsh, vegetable or meat mi xture, i t may
be called a quiche or a gratin. In Medi terra­
nean countries fan also means a molded,
custardl i ke dessert.
four: the fnely ground meal of grai n; to
cover evenly with a thi n layer of four. To
coat a baking pan with four, frst rub grease
on the i nner surfaces of the pan, then shake
the four i n and rotate the pan unti l a thi n,
even layer adheres to the si des and bottom.
Rap t he pan sharply agai nst a solid surface to
di slodge any excess four.
To four meat or poultry: it is often conve­
ni ent to put four and seasoni ngs, then the
food, i nto a plastic or paper bag and shake
vigorously. Do not four foods unti l j ust be­
fore they are to be cooked. If foured food is
al lowed to stand, moi sture seeping from the
food will make the four coating gummy. In
the picture above, fsh are being di pped in
four and l ai d on a rack ready to cook.
fold  to i ncorporate a del i cate mi xture i nto
a thicker, heavier one so that the character of
the lighter one is retai ned. To fold sti fy
beaten egg whi tes i nto a soufe sauce, spoon
a small porti on of the egg whites onto the
surface of the base mi xture. Then with a rub­
ber spatul a cut down through the center of
the whi tes to the bottom of the bowl or pan,
sl i de the spatula along the bottom to the
edge and bring i t back up to the top, as
shown i n the picture. Gradually fold i n the
rest of the egg whi tes wi th vertical cutting
strokes until al l the whi tes have been ab­
sorbed. Thi s should be a qui ck but gentle
operati on.
fondue : a name appli ed t o several qui te
di ssi mi lar preparati ons. An American cheese
fondue i s a l i ght, baked mi xture of eggs,
mi l k and cheese, wi th the addi ti on of bread
or cracker crumbs to give i t body. A Swi ss
fondue i s a melted mi xture of cheese and
wine i nto whi ch chunks of bread are di pped
and then eaten. A beef fondue, also known
as Fondue Bourguignonne, consists of cubes
of lean, tender beef di pped i nto very hot fat,
cooked a few moments and then eaten wi th
assorted sauces. A vegetabl e fondue i s a di sh,
such as tomato fondue, i n whi ch vegetabl es
are cooked briefy unti l they " melt. "
force meat: a pastel i ke mi xture made from
meat, vegetables or fsh. It may be used as a
stufng, fl l i ng or spread.
fricassee: to cook pi eces of meat or chi ck­
en frst i n butter and then i n a seasoned l i ­
qui d unti l tender.
fritter: any meat, vegetable or frui t di pped
i n a batter and then fried i n very hot fat.
frosting: another term for i ci ng. A sweet,
thick coating for cakes, cupcakes, cookies.
¸,· to cook i n hot fat . As opposed to deep
fryi ng, the oi l or fat i n the pan reaches a
depth of only 1/s i nch or so.
garnish: to decorate or accompany a di sh
by addi ng other foodstufs, such as chopped
sprigs of parsley, vegetabl es, sauteed mush­
rooms or ol i ves, before servi ng.
A glossary of food and cooking terms 45
glace: a sweet, frozen l i qui d, usually an ice
or ice cream. It may also refer to any food
that has been coated with a thin, sweet syr­
up and cooked at high heat until the syrup
forms a hard coating that cracks.
glaze: to apply a thin l ayer of syrup, j elly
or aspic to the surface of food. Braised
meat or fowl i s glazed by putting i t un­
covered i n a very hot oven briefy j ust before
servi ng. The meat can be additionally coated
with reduced j uices from the brai si ng pan.
grate: to reduce a food to small parti cles
by rubbing i t on the teeth of a grater.
grease: to rub fat on food or utensi ls.
gril: to cook on a gridiron over hot coals
or under a hot broi ler.
grind: to cut food i nto small pieces with a
meat grinder or food mi ll. Herbs and spices
can be ground to a fne, powdery consi st­
ency with a mortar and pestle.
high-altitude cookery: cooks in moun­
tainous areas (over 2, 500 to 3, 000 feet) must
allow for the efects of decreased atmos­
pheric pressure, especi ally i n boi li ng and
baking. Breads and cakes rise more readi l y,
and boiling takes longer. For adj ustments
that may be needed i n your area, write the
home economics department of your state
college or your county home demonstration
agent.
holandaise: a delicate sauce of egg yolks,
butter and lemon j uice, served mainly with
fsh and vegetables.
hors d'oeuvre: smal l amounts of food
eaten before a meal or as a frst course.
icing: a thin, shiny, sweet coating for
cakes, cupcakes or cookies.
infusion: the favored liquid extract result­
i ng from steeping herbs, vanilla or tea i n a
liqui d.
.:  A gloJJary of food and cooking termJ
julienne: to cut a food such as tomato or
ham i nto thin, matchl i ke strips.
knead: to work dough by pressing i t wi th
the heels of the hands, fol di ng and turni ng
it and pressing it until it has been worked
i nto a contained, elastic texture, as shown
in the photographs above.
lard: to i nsert fat, usually pork fat, i nto
lean meat, either by threading the fat through
the meat with a lardi ng needle or by mak­
i ng i ncisions in the meat and forcing the fat
through. Thi s process i ncreases the favor of
dry meat by basting i t i nternall y.
leavening: the producti on of a gas i n a bat­
ter or dough to cause i t to rise. Leavening
agents such as baking soda, yeast or bak­
ing powder react with heat and elements in
the dough to make i t expand i n si ze and
grow lighter i n consistency.
legumes: vegetables like peas and beans
that are contained in pods. I n French ligumeJ
means simply " vegetables. "
madrilne: a clear soup, favored with to­
matoes, served chi l led and often j el l i ed. Also
a descriptive term used with other prepara­
tions favored with tomato j uice.
marinade: a liquid i n which food, usually
meat, i s placed both to enhance i ts favor
and to make i t more tender. Marinades can
be any seasoned liquid but they are usually
a brine or a wine and oi l mixture with herbs
added for favor.
marzipan: a confection made from almond
paste, egg whites and sugar. It i s frequently
molded i nto special shapes and decorated.
mash: to soften and break down food by us­
ing a masher, the back of a spoon or by
forcing the food through a ricer or press.
mask: to cover food completely before i t
i s served, usual l y with a sauce, for both
favor and decorati on.
mayonnaise: a col d, thi ck sauce of egg yol k
and oi l , usually seasoned wi th l emon j uice
or vi negar, salt and pepper. Also a name ap­
plied to cold di shes, usually of fsh or poul­
try, covered with mayonnai se.
melt: to change fat and solid di ssolvable
foods i nto a liquid state by heating.
meringue: a combination of beaten egg
whites and sugar. It is formed into small
cakes and baked, or used as a topping for
a pie and baked until brown.
mince: to cut or chop i nto very fne pieces.
mincemeat: a mi xture of fnely chopped in­
gredients, including suet, apples, candied
fruits, raisins, nuts, and someti mes meat.
(American mi ncemeat often contai ns meat ;
the Engl i sh variety usually does not . )
mirepoix: fnely diced carrots, onions, cel­
ery and sometimes ham, cooked slowly in
butter and used as a favoring for meats,
stufngs, stews and brai ses.
monosodium glutamate ¸ MSG )   a white
crystal l i ne substance added to food to bring
out and enhance natural favors. I t i s often
used as part of a meat tenderizer.
mousse: a very deli cate mixture contai n­
ing whi pped cream or beaten egg whi tes.
Mousses wi th pureed meat, fsh, poultry or
vegetables as a base are usually bolstered by
gel ati n or a j el l y stock and are served cold.
Dessert mousses contain favored whipped
cream and eggs, and are either frozen or
chi l led. Mousse i s also used to describe hot
di shes of a particularly smooth texture.
ofal: variety meats, or i nnards.
pan fry: to cook uncovered i n a fryi ng pan
i n a small amount of hot fat or the fat whi ch
accumulates from the meat as i t cooks.
parboil: to boi l i n a liquid unti l parti ally
cooked. Thi s i s usually a prel i mi nary step.
The cooki ng i s completed by another meth­
od, such as baking.
pare: to remove the outer covering and
stem of a frui t or vegetable with a kni fe or
other paring tool. To do thi s easi l y, drop
the frui t or vegetable (in the picture, a to­
mato) into a pan of boiling water for 1 0 to
A glossary of food and cooking terms . ¯ 
20 seconds. Li ft it out with a slotted spoon,
plunge i t i nto cold water and peel of the
skin with a sharp kni fe.
pasta: a dough of either four and water or
four and egg used i n maki ng macaroni ,
spaghetti, noodles, etc. Also appli ed to the
fni shed product as a generi c name.
paste : a smooth blend of a dry i ngredi ent
and a l i qui d. The most common pastes are
four and water or four and melted butter ;
they are used primarily as thi ckeni ng agents
for sauces and gravi es.
pate: a rich, well- seasoned bl end of ground
meat, poultry or fsh often baked i n a crust.
When baked in a dish l i ned with stri ps of fat,
it is called a terrine, after the di sh. After
chi l l i ng, it i s usually sl iced and served with
bread as an appeti zer or frst course.
pate a choux: a pastry of water, butter,
four and eggs. Mi xed with cheese or baked
as i s, it makes small pufs that are served as
hors d' oeuvre. For dessert pufs, sugar i s
added. When mashed potatoes or cooked
semolina is beaten i n, i t becomes gnocchi.
With ground fsh, meat or poultry, it i s
quenele paste.
pate en croute : the proper name for a pate
that i s baked i n a crust of pastry.
patty shel: a deli cate, cooked pastry case
of puf paste i nto which i s poured a creamed
mi xture contai ni ng chicken or fsh.
pectin: a substance found naturally i n cer­
tain frui ts, parti cularly apples and currants ;
when boi led with sugar it acts as a j el l i ng
agent.
peel: see pare.
pilaf a ri ce preparati on in which the rice i s
frst cooked briefy i n fat and then brai sed
in a seasoned l i qui d. Fi sh, meat, poultry or
vegetables may be added to make a more
substantial di sh.
48 A glossary of food and cooking terms ·
pit: to remove seeds or stones from frui t
or vegetables.
poach: to cook food i mmersed i n a l i qui d
that i s barely si mmering. The photograph
. above shows an egg being poached.
praline: a mi xture of carameli zed sugar and
almonds that is al l owed to harden and i s
crushed or ground. It i s used as a favori ng
or a decorati on for desserts or sweet sauces.
Prali nes are also a candy made by coati ng
whole almonds, pecans, or other nuts wi th
a carameli zed sugar mi xture.
preheat: to heat an oven or broiler to a de­
sired temperature for about 15 mi nutes be­
fore usi ng.
preserves: a thi ckened mi xture of frui t and
sugar syrup i n whi ch the frui t retai ns i ts orig­
i nal shape. It i s served as a condi ment or
used i n desserts.
press: a ki tchen i mplement for extracting
the j uice from a food such as garlic or l em­
ons.
puree: to push food through a si eve or food
mi l l to obtain a thi ck, smooth l i qui d.
quiche : a savory custard poured i n a fan or
pie shel l and baked unti l pufy and brown.
Quiche lorraine, wi th i ts combination of
eggs, bacon and cream, is among the best
known.
ramekin: a small i ndi vi dual baking di sh.
reduce: to boil a li qui d rapidly, reducing
i ts quantity by evaporation and thus con­
centrating and intensifyi ng i ts favor.
refresh: to plunge hot food i nto cold wa­
ter, quickly stopping the cooking process.
I n the case of vegetables thi s procedure can
be used to avoi d overcooki ng, and helps to
retai n the ori gi nal color.
render: to heat pieces of solid fat slowly to
obtai n liquid fat.
·
ribbon: an expression used to describe a de­
sirable stage i n the blending of sugar and
egg yolks. When this point i s reached, the
pale yellow egg and sugar mixture, dropped
from an uplifted beater, wi l l form a slowly
di ssolvi ng, ribbonlike line on the surface.
If you beat beyond thi s stage, the egg yolks
may become granular.
rice: to force food through a utensi l called
a ricer, which has small holes that permi t
the food to come through i n smal l particles
resembling rice.
rind: the outer skin of frui t and vegetables.
Grated or candied orange and lemon ri nds
are frequently used i n cooki ng.
rissole: a seasoned meat, fsh or vegetable
mixture enclosed i n a pastry case or turn­
over and deep- fried or baked.
roast: to cook uncovered in the oven by dry
heat, almost always without the addition of
any liquid.
roulade: thi n pieces of meat rolled around
a stufng and cooked i n a seasoned liquid
or sauteed.
roux: a cooked mixture of four and butter,
a common thickening agent in many sauces.
salt: to add salt to food, or to rub with salt.
saute: to cook food i n a small amount of
hot fat. Thi s can be done bri efy to brown
food before cooking i t by another method ;
or food such as chi cken or thi n strips of
beef may be sauteed unti l done.
scald: to heat a li qui d to j ust below the boi l .
Also, to di p food i nto boiling water or to
pour boi li ng water over food.
score: to make sharp, shallow cuts on the
surface of food, usually i n a diamond de­
sign as wi th hams, both for decoration and
to permi t seasoni ngs to permeate the food.
sear: to brown the surface of food qui ckly
and produce richer pan dri ppings using hi gh
heat, i n the oven or on top of the stove.
season: to add salt, herbs, spices or other
i ngredients to i ncrease the favor of food.
Al so, to season a cast- iron cooking utensil
(see page :)  
semolina: coarse granules of cereal, usually
wheat, from whi ch puddi ngs, soups and
vari ous ki nds of pasta are made.
separate: To separate egg yolks fom the
whites, crack the egg on the edge of a
bowl, separate the two halves of the shell,
letting some of the white dri p i nto the
bowl. Sl i de the egg yolk i nto your hand,
letting the rest of the whi te run between
your fngers i nto the bowl (see picture) and
place the yolk i n a separate bowl. Or,
crack the egg i n half and carefully pour the
A glossary of fod and cooking terms 49
yolk back and forth from one half of the
shell to the other, letting the white run i nto
the bowl.
set: a condition i n which liquids have con­
gealed and retain their shape. Custards be­
come set after baking ; gelatin and egg mi x­
tures are set by bei ng chi l led.
shred: to cut or break i nto thi n pieces.
shuck: to remove an outer covering of
food such as corn husks, or shells of clams,
oysters and mussels.
sif: to pass a granular substance such as
four or sugar through a metal screen or
sieve. This i s done i n order to make the
grai ns fner and the consi stency lighter.
simmer: to cook a l i qui d barely at the boi l­
ing point. The surface should show only a
few bubbles breaki ng slowly.
singe: to pass through a fame to remove
small feathers or hair, most frequently wi th
plucked poultry.
skewer: a wooden or metal pi n. The short
variety i s used to hold meat i n place during
cooking. Small pieces of meat and vegeta­
bles are threaded onto the longer vari ety for
gri l l i ng.
skim: to remove a substance, usually fat,
from the surface of a l i qui d. When the l i qui d
i s hot, thi s i s done wi th a spoon drawn
across the surface. If the l i qui d i s chi lled,
the fat rises to the surface and hardens. It
may then be easi l y removed.
soufe: a fufy baked preparation of a fa­
vored sauce or base i nto whi ch i s folded
sti fy beaten egg whites, which cause the
di sh to puf up when baked. It i s served hot,
ei ther as entree or as dessert, dependi ng on
the i ngredi ents. Di shes called cold soufes
and contai ni ng gelatin and cream are not
real ly soufes ; they are more l i kely Bavarian
creams or mousses.
50
A glossary of fod and cooking terms
spit: a long metal rod onto which a piece of
meat or whole bi rd i s threaded and then
roasted or gri l led by di rect heat.
steam: to cook by means of vapor from
boi l i ng l i qui d ri si ng through the food.
steep: to place a soli d substance i n a l i qui d
j ust below the boi li ng point for a period of
time to extract favor.
.rtew: a thi ck combination of various foods
usually i ncl udi ng meat, fsh or poultry
cooked in l i qui d at a low temperature for a
long period of ti me. Also, the process of
cooki ng a food or a combi nation of foods
covered wi th a seasoned li qui d for a l ong
period of ti me.
stock: a l i qui d i n whi ch meat, poultry, fsh,
bones, or vegetables and seasonings have
been cooked. Because of i ts good favor, i t
i s often strained for use as the basi s of soups,
sauces and gravies.
tart: a smal l , i ndi vi dual pie fl led wi th a
sweetened mi xture and baked in a si ngle·
crust. I n France, tart means a large, free­
standing pastry shell (fan) flled either wi th
a savory mi xture and served as an entree or
appetizer, such as a quiche, or a sweetened
mi xture often contai ni ng frui t and served
as a dessert.
terrine: an earthenware dish i n which meat,
poultry or fsh pates are cooked. Terrine i s
also used to refer to a pate cooked i n such
a di sh.
thicken: to make a l i qui d mi xture more
dense by addi ng an agent li ke four, corn­
starch, egg yolks, rice or potatoes.
timbale: a custardl i ke mi xture of fnely
chopped meats, fsh or vegetables along
with eggs, mi l k and seasonings, baked i n
i ndi vi dual mol ds or rameki ns and usual ly
served unmol ded. Also, a hi gh-si ded pastry
crust i n which food mi xtures are cooked or
served.
trufe: an underground fungus not unli ke a
mushroom, but much rarer, used as a garn­
i sh for other foods or as a del i cate season­
i ng i n egg di shes, pates and some sauces.
There are both whi te and black trufes avail­
able canned.
truss: to arrange for cooking by bi ndi ng
the wings or legs of a fowl . To truss a
fowl, place the bird on its back wi th the
legs pointing away from you. Place the mi d­
dl e section of a 3- foot pi ece of ki tchen
string under the ends of the drumsticks,
cross the string over the top of the drum-
sticks and pul l ti ght. Then pull the stri ngs
toward you, sl i di ng them between the l egs
and the body of the fowl , as shown i n the
top picture. Turn the fowl over with the
tail faci ng you and sl i de the stri ngs under
the wi ngs (see center picture). Pull the
stri ngs ti ght, and bring them up through
the V' s of the wings, close the neck openi ng
by tucking the loose neck ski n under the
string, and ti e ti ghtly across the back. Now
twist each protrudi ng wi ng tip up over
the back (see bottom picture}. Trussi ng
holds the shape of meat whi le cooki ng.
unmold: to remove from a mold. To un­
mold aspics and other gelati ni zed di shes,
run the blade of a sharp, thi n kni fe around
the i nner edges of the mold. Di p the bot­
tom of the mold i nto hot water for 2 or 3
seconds, cover the top of the mold wi th a
chi l led plate, and i nvert the mold onto the
plate. Holdi ng plate and mold together,
tap the plate on the table to loosen the con­
tents, which should then sl i de out onto the
plate. I f the contents sti ck, rub the mold
gently wi th a hot, damp towel, or turn the
mold and plate over and repeat the enti re
process.
veloute: a basic whi te sauce made from
poultry, veal or fsh stock and white roux.
vinaigrette: an oi l and vi negar dressing wi th
salt and pepper to whi ch other seasoni ngs
and herbs are someti mes added. It i s used as
a salad dressi ng or as a marinade or sauce
for vegetables, fsh and meat.
whip: to beat qui ckl y and steadi l y, either
by hand with a whi sk or rotary beater or
with an electric beater. Whi pping adds ai r
to a li qui d, such as heavy cream, and there­
by i ncreases i ts volume and li ghtens its con­
si stency. Al l utensi l s used for whi pping
heavy cream should be clean and thoroughl y
chi l led. Heavy cream shoul d be whipped
only to the poi nt requi red by the reci pe. A
Bavarian cream, for i nstance, requires softly
beaten cream; other reci pes, such as dessert
toppi ngs, need cream whi pped more sti fy.
A glossary of food and cooking terms 5 1
Garving and Jlicing
For proper carvi ng you need a sturdy carv­
i ng kni fe, a sharpeni ng steel co keep i t razor­
sharp and a two- ti ned fork co hold the meat
frmly . The fork should have a guard co pro­
ten your hand from sli ps of the kni fe.
Know t he struccure of the meat co be
carved : where t he bones ar e, how t hey li e,
and where they are j oi nced. Chan your cut­
t i ng course before you begi n ; you don ' t
want t o stri ke an unexpected bone mi dway
through a sli ce.
Check the grai n of the meat. In nearly
all large cuts (except tender steak) you wi ll
Standing rib roaJt. Lay meat on i ts wi der
end and steady i t wi th a fork. Slice unci ! the
kni fe touches a ri b. Wi th the kni fe ti p, cut
carefully along the ri b to release the sli ce.
52 Carving and slicing
i ncrease the tenderness of the sli ces by cut­
ti ng across the fbers. For a thi n cut of meat,
l i ke fank steak {oposite}, cut not only
crosswi se, but at a sli ght slam to the per­
pendi cular. For very tender cuts, like loi n
steaks not more than an i nch thi ck, you can
cut wi th the grai n.
Carvi ng i s best learned i n t he ki tchen,
where nei ther you nor the meat i s on public
di splay ; if you should make a mi stake no
one need be the wi ser. When you have be­
come adept, you can confdently carve at
the table i n front of your guests.
Rolled roaJt. Stand roast on end and steady
i t wi th a fork. Sli ce from the right strai ght
across the face. Remove the strings around
the roast one at a ti me as you reach them.
RoaJt loin of pork. Steady wi th fork. With
ribs facing up, cut of the backbone, remov­
ing as l i ttle meat as possi bl e. Place roast so
ribs face you. Use the fork to steady the
roast as you slice cl ose to the ri bs. Remove
the slices as you go; one slice wi l l contain
a rib bone ; the next one wi ll be boneless.
Rack of lamb. Lay the meat so the bone
ti ps poi nt away from you. Cut between the
ribs, begi nni ng at the point where they j oi n.
Flank Jteak. Begi n at the narrow end wi th
the kni fe paral l el to the meat, but at an an­
gl e ; cut across the grai n i nto narrow sl i ces.
PorterhouJe Jteak. Insert a fork to hold the steak steady. Wi th the ti p of the kni fe, cut care­
fu\y around the bone and di scard it (above left). Sl i ce the steak across its entire wi dth, cutting
through both the top loin and the tenderl oi n. If the steak i s very thick, sl i ce i t di agonally rather
than with the grain as shown i n the drawing (above right). Sl ice the tai l i nto smal l , even pieces.
Carving and slicing ·  
WHOLE HAM
l . Place ham fat si de up wi th shank at your
right. Secure with fork and sli ce length­
wi se pieces from thi n side to form a base.
2. Place ham on newly cut base. Remove
a wedge at the start of the leg bone. Cut thin
perpendi cular slices down ro the leg bone.
3. Release the slices by cutting hori zontally
under them. Stand leg up and steady wi th
fork or hand while you slice rest of meat.
54
Carving and slicing
ROAST LEG OF LAMB
l . The frst step i s ro make a base : Steady
the leg wi th the fork and cut several length­
wi se sli ces on the thi n side of the leg.
2. Place roast on thi s base and slice per­
pendi cularly down to the leg bone. Slice
horizontally underneath ro release the meat.
3. Turn the leg up on large end and steady
i t wi th a fork or your hand. Resume cut­
ting on the t hi n undersi de, as shown above.
Roast chicken. Place the bird on i ts back with neck toward you (top left) and cut away
the thighs, with legs attached. Turn the bird' s neck away from you ; cut careful l y with
poultry shears along the breastbone toward the neck (top center}. Spread the chi cken open
and cur along both sides of the backbone (top right}, removi ng the breasts. Cur di agonally
through each breast, leavi ng some breast meat attached to the wi ng. Wi th a kni fe, cur the
drumsticks from the thighs. For bi rds over 4 pounds carve as you would a turkey (page ,  
c···o  ··as/  Place a fork i n the si de of the roast to steady i t and slice down from top
to bottom between each ri b. The bones are separated at the bottom so you may remove
each ri b as you cur. Or you may cur double chops. Center stufng may be served as you go.
Carving and s!idng 55
TURKEY
1 . With l egs poi nti ng to the ri ght of the
carver (who i s standi ng behi nd the turkey) ,
cut the leg on the far si de and remove.
3. Begi nni ng about hal fway up the breast,
sli ce downward at a slight angl e. Start to slice
a l i ttle hi gher wi th each succeedi ng slice.
5. Hold the leg upri ght and cut between
drumsti ck and thi gh bone. I nsert fork i n the
thigh and slice the meat from the bone.
56 Carving and slicing
2. Holdi ng the kni fe almost vertical l y, cut
between the wi ng and the body. Now gently
pul l the entire wi ng away from the body.
4. When the front is done, sli ce at an angle
on the back portion of the breast. Repeat the
entire process on the other side of the bi rd.
6. Ei ther serve the drumsti ck whole or cut
slices from it by hol di ng it up by hand and
sl i ci ng downward through the meaty end.
u·o /·  as. a s/a·¡.oiog s/../  Hold the steel horizontally in your left hand at a sl i ght angle
away from you. Hol d the kni fe i n your right hand, the heel of the blade touching l i ghtl y the
near side of the steel ' s tip. Pull the blade down and across the steel to its point. Repeat thi s
on the other si de of the steel for the other edge of the kni fe. Do both edges several times.
l/·/. ¡·a./.! ]s/·  To carve a sea bass or salmon of 3 to 5 pounds, cut through the ski n i n
back of the head. Carefully peel the ski n back to the tai l , i n one piece or i n strips. Reverse the
fsh onto a servi ng plate and repeat the process. Cut to the backbone for serving portions and
remove by l i fting with a fexibl e spatul a sl i pped between the backbone and meat. Grasp the
tail and ease the backbone from the fsh. Carve the meat underneath i nto servi ng porti ons.
Carving and slicing 5 7
�ea l Planni ng and Jerving
I n planning any meal-and any meal de­
serves some planning-try to keep two
basic points in rind : the course-by-course
construction of the menu and presentati on
or servi ng of the food.
whi ch the human bei ng coul d not functi on.
Esthetical l y, food does something else:
it ei ther pleases the senses or fai l s to. The
i mpressi ons that the di ner receives with a
meal are most i mportant, for we know how
depressing a poorly served,
p
oorl
y
con­
ceived meal in dul l or unpleasant surround­
ings can be. In pl anni ng meals, remember
that i t matters how the food looks and
smells and how the various colors and tex­
tures relate to each other, as well as how
the food tastes. The wise cook would not
serve a meal of fl et of sole in cream sauce
Nutritional l y, the food we eat does three
things : i t provi des material (through pro­
tein, carbohydrates and mi nerals) for the
body' s bui l di ng and mai ntenance needs; it
provides vari ous regulators (through vita­
mins and minerals) that enable the body to
use other mi nerals and to run smoothly ;
and it is the source of energy, wi thout
SELECTING FOODS FOR PROPER NUTRITION
Almost everyone knows that man does not live (very wel l ) by bread alone, and that chi ldren should not be
allowed to live on hamburgers and soft dri nks alone. But it i s easy to slip i nto an unbalanced di et. I n plan­
ni ng your meals, select foods that will provi de the balance of nutrients necessary to maintain heal th. A
simple way to achieve thi s balance is to serve foods from each of the groups below, along with moderate
amounts of such foods as butter or margarine for vitamin A, and sugar for body energy.
MILK GROUP .
MEAT GROUP .
VEGETABLE-FRUIT GROUP .
BREAD-CEREALS GROUP .
Mi l k (i n al l forms), the leading calci um source, also provides some
protein, ribofavi n, vi tami ns A and (if fortifed) D. Serve 2 cups a day
or their calci um equivalent (e.g. , 3 ounces of cheddar-type cheese) .
Thi s group provides hi gh- quality protei n, iron, B vitamins. It includes
al l meats and poultry, eggs, fsh, as well as such protei n- rich plant
products as nuts, dried beans and peas. Serve 2 or more porti ons dai ly.
Ci trus frui ts and tomatoes are prime sources of vi tami n C; dark-green
and deep- yellow vegetables are rich i n vitami n A. Potatoes are another
good vitamin C source, and almost all frui ts and vegetables provide
some vitamins or mi nerals or both. Serve 4 or more portions dai l y,
maki ng sure not to neglect the foods ri chest i n vitami ns A and C.
A principal source of energy-gi vi ng carbohydrates, most grain products
sold i n the U. S. also provi de iron and B vitamins and some protei n.
Thi s group i ncl udes not onl y bread but al so ri ce, pasta, breakfast cere­
al s and pastries. Serve 4 or more portions dai l y.
5 8 Meal planning and serving
along with mashed potatoes and caulifower,
with rice pudding for dessert. All are soft
and too si mi lar in color.
Don' t be afraid to use your imagination,
but be practical. Cook what you know you
are able to cook, especially when you are
giving a party. Save your experimenting for
yourself or a small group. Be aware of the
nutritive values that should go i nto the dai­
l y diet ; study the basic food chart below,
but don' t be constricted by i t. Your com­
mon sense will probably plan a meal that has
most i f not all the requi red elements any­
way. As for serving a meal, study the ma­
terial given here, and then feel free to im­
provise. Remember that the best hostess is
a relaxed hostess, and the relaxed hostess
(or host) i s one who i s wel l prepared to
please the guests.
Do your marketing earl y. Arrange fow­
ers and set the table ahead of time. Prepare
as much of the food as possible early i n the
day. If one or more courses must be cooked
at the last mi nute, have all your i ngredients
and equipment ready.
One of the easiest ways of giving a party
Bufet setting
Salad
Butter Breads
Dressing
Plates Main dish
i s the bufet. You can entertain a large group
without servants and a big di ni ng room.
The most comfortable arrangement i s to
have tables set wi th si lver, napkins and glass­
es, to which guests bri ng their fl led plates
and sit down. If this is not possible, trays
should be provi ded, or possibly small tables ;
your guests should not have to balance
di nner pl ates and si lverware on their laps
except as a last resort.
For a large group, prepare duplicate ar­
rangements of food, either on separate ta­
bles or on both sides of a l ong table. Other­
wise you wi l l fnd that some guests wi l l have
fnished eating while others are j ust reachi ng
the head of the l i ne.
Guest l i nes should move from left to
right. Pl ace a single servi ng i mplement by
each platter; otherwi se the guest must put
down hi s plate to serve hi mself. Relishes and
sauces are posi tioned after the entrees. Soups
should be within easy reach-preferably at
the end of the table-to avoid spilling. Un­
less you have room for everyone to si t down
at a table, serve soup i n mugs ; it may not
seem elegant, but i t avoi ds the necessity for
Relish
Salt and pepper Soup pitcher Mugs
Vegetables Napkins Knives and forks
Meal planning and serving 59
a balancing act, and guests wi l l appreciate i t.
Si lver and napki ns are picked up l ast, i f
not already on tables, so that the guest has
one free hand as l ong as possi bl e. Si lver
may be wrapped i n a napki n. Remember that
bufet food should not require cutting wi th
a kni fe unless tables are provi ded.
Dessert and cofee servi ce should be set
up in an appropriate area separate from the
main bufet.
For a smooth-runni ng bufet, try to sta­
tion someone to presi de over the self- servi ce,
taking care of spi l l s, repleni shi ng food and
being generally helpful . Whether a fami l y
member, a guest or a hired hand, thi s per­
son can be your i nsurance agai nst di saster.
A si t-down di nner can be either formal or
i nformal, as shown i n the di agrams on pages
60-6 1 ; or they may i nclude elements of each
according to your needs.
Place setings: For formal and i nformal set­
tings the plates should be placed about 24
i nches apart, and an inch from the edge of
the tabl e. The silverware should " march"
Formal place seting
Salt and pepper
evenly from the outsi de toward the plate i n
the order of i ts use. The kni fe bl ades should
face the plate.
Napkins: Formal i ty demands a white cloth
napki n, folded oblong or square, on each
plate. On an i nformal table, use napki ns of
any color-even paper ones-folded i nto
any shape that sui ts your fancy. Place them
left of the forks if the frst course is in place
when the guest is seated ; if not, pl ace
them on each guest ' s plate.
Silver: The formal rule is that no more than
three forks and three kni ves appear at one
time. If an oyster fork i s used, i t belongs to
the right of the service plate. Dessert si l ver
(and plate) is presented j ust before use. I n­
formal l y, use as much silver as you l i ke. I n
t he i l l ustrati on on page 61 , dessert si lver i s
placed crosswise above the mai n plate.
Glasses: Wi ne glasses are always to the right
of the water gl ass. Formal order, left to
right, is water, burgundy, champagne; or,
as in the di agram, water goblet, red wtne,
Water Red
White
Fish Meat Salad Service plate with napkin Salad Meat Fish Soup
^  Meal planning and serving
white wi ne. At i nformal di nners usual l y j ust
one wine i s served.
Plates : In a formal setting the service plate
remai ns i n place unti l exchanged for the
next plate. There i s often no bread and but­
ter plate ; i n that case, rolls are passed and
laid on the tablecloth and butter i s rarely
served. For i nformal meals the service plate
i s omitted and a bread and butter plate, wi th
a butter kni fe on i t, i s placed j ust beyond
the forks.
Seating: At a formal di nner the host si ts at
the head of the table, the hostess at the
foot. A male guest of honor sits at the left
of the hostess, a female guest of honor at
the host ' s right. Married couples should be
separated and the sexes alternated. I nfor­
mally, host and hostess occupy the head
and foot of the table, but other guests may
arrange themselves more casual l y.
Serving: A formal di nner requires more
help, usually one wai tress for si x to eight
guests. The female guest of honor i s served
Informal place setting
Bread and butter
Napki n Meat Salad
frst, wi th service conti nui ng toward the
right. The waitress never puts servi ng di shes
on the table, nor does she permi t place set­
ti ngs to be without plates. As she removes
a used plate with her right hand she places
the plate for the next course with her left.
Food i s presented to each guest from hi s
left si de. The table i s completely cleared be­
fore dessert service.
For i nformal service the necessary platters
and di nner plates are stacked in front of the
host or hostess, who flls each plate and pass­
es i t to guests. The salad may be mi xed by
the server and passed ei ther as a frst course,
wi th the main course or after the entree.
Cofee: At a formal di nner the cofee is
served from a tray after the di ners have left
the table. Demi tasse cups are preferred. The
handle of each cup should be to the guest ' s
right. Spoons are on each saucer, parallel to
the cup handl e. The same procedure is also
proper for i nformal di nners, but i f the hos­
tess prefers she may serve the cofee at the
table. The cups are passed i n the same way
as the di nner plates were.
· 
Dessert spoon and fork
Water
Soup bowl and pl ate Meat Soup
Meal planning and serving 6 1
:rbs and Jpices
HERBS are the leaves-or the seeds and
fowers-of- aromatic plants. Fresh herbs are
preferable because once dri ed they may lose
their aroma. If dried herbs are used they
should be freshly dried, and should not
be used i n cold di shes unti l they have been
soaked or cooked. I n general, use about
half as much of a dried herb as a fresh one.
Herbs should be stored i n ai rtight contai n­
ers, and these must be kept i n a cool place.
SPICES are the roots, barks, stems, buds,
seeds or frui t of aromatic tropical plants.
They should be bought in small quanti ti es;
they tend to l ose their favor qui ckl y.
ALLSPICE: Not a blend of spices but a dri ed
berry ; i ts fragrance suggests a mi xture of
ci nnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Available
either ground or whole. Use the whole ber­
ries i n soups, broths and gravies ; use ground
allspice i n vegetables, cookies and cakes.
BASIL : The fresh or dried leaves of thi s herb
are especially sui ted to most tomato dishes,
as well as vegetables, meats, fsh and salads.
BAY LEAF: Thi s strong herb, also known as
laurel leaf, enhances soups, meat stews and
pot roasts and i s part of a bouquet garni.
CARAWAY: A small, brown herb seed, cara­
way i s found i n rye bread and i s also good
i n sauerkraut, cheeses, and soups and stews.
CARDAMOM: Thi s sweet bl ack spice i s availa­
ble ground or as a whole seed, i n or out of
i ts pod. I t i s used wi del y i n Dani sh pastri es.
Try i t al so i n spiced wines, frui t compotes,
sauerbraten, pickles and curry.
CHERVIL: One of France' s fneJ herbeJ, thi s
lacy leaf enhances soups, green salads, po­
tato salad, and egg and fsh di shes.
CHIVES: The most delicate member of the
oni on fami l y, and the only one that i s con-
62
sidered an herb. The chopped slender leaves
give a deli cate onion accent to green salads,
egg and fsh dishes, soups and light sauces.
CINNAMON: Thi s pungent spi ce comes ei ­
ther i n sti cks or as reddi sh- brown ground
cinnamon. Use the sticks i n pickli ng or sug­
ar syrups ; use ground cinnamon i n baki ng,
with cooked frui ts and on puddi ngs.
CLOVE: The nai l - shaped whole clove i s the
tradi ti onal spice used for studding smoked
ham. Ground cloves are used to favor spice
cakes, sweet potatoes and carrots.
CURRY POWDER: A prepared blend of from
four to 40 spices, usual l y i ncludi ng turmeri c,
gi nger, cori ander, cumi n, cloves and mus­
tard. It i s added to all curries, and frequently
to some egg, seafood or vegetable di shes.
DILL: Thi s herb i s avai l abl e packaged as
seeds or weed, or fresh, as leaves. Use the
seeds with fsh and chicken. The weed or
fresh leaves are excellent wi th tomatoes, po­
tatoes, fsh, in salads and cream sauces.
FENNEL: Use the whole seeds of thi s herb
with fsh or chicken, i n breads, rolls and
apple pies , mari nades and spaghetti sauce.
GINGER: The gi nger plant root has a hot,
sweet favor ; i t i s avai lable as a whole,
ground or cracked spice. Bits of gi nger root,
found i n Ori ental or Spani sh stores, are used
i n pickling, mari nades and preserves. Ground
gi nger, more common, i s used in baki ng,
meat and poultry di shes.
MACE: A spice that i s the l acy coveri ng of
the nutmeg shel l , i t has a less deli cate favor
than nutmeg. Use ground mace i n pound
cake, puddings and i n fsh sauces.
MARJORAM: The leaves of thi s versatile herb
of the mi nt fami l y can be used whol e or
ground in poultry stufng, tomato di shes ,
salads, green vegetables and with meats .
MINT: The leaves of the spearmi nt and pep­
permint herbs add a fresh, cool favor to
sauces for lamb and veal, to peas or carrots,
frozen deserts, cold dri nks and frui ts.
MUSTARD: Two main vari eti es of mustard­
white or yellow, and brown or Ori ental­
are grown as spi ces. Dry, powdered mus­
tard can be used in sauces, salad dressi ngs
and cheese di shes. The ti ny whole mustard
seeds go i nto pickles and vegetable reli shes.
NUTMEG: Avai lable as a whole or ground
spi ce. Freshly grated whole nutmeg seed i s
best. Use i t i n desserts, i n breads or cakes,
sprinkled on vegetables and on eggnog.
OREGANO: Al so called wi l d marj oram.
Use the whol e leaves or ground herb i n
pizza, pasta, tomato di shes, and wi th vegeta­
bles ;md eggs.
PAPRIKA: Most of the papri ka used i n the
U. S. is bright red i n color and has a mi l d,
sweet favor. Hungarian papri ka i s l ess vi vi d
but has more of a bi te. Thi s spice can be
used to garni sh l i ght- colored foods and to
favor fsh, meat and poultry, as wel l as
goulash.
PARSLEY: Thi s herb i s available fresh i n two
varieti es: curl y- leaf and fat- leaf (al so called
Italian) . Chopped fresh parsley i s one of the
fnes herbes, and the spri gs are part of a
bouquet garni. It is an attractive garni sh
and adds a pleasa

t taste to stufngs, soups,
salads, meat and fsh di shes.
PEPPER (BLACK AND WHITE): Black pepper­
corns are dri ed, unripened berri es. Whi te
peppercorns are the pale kernel from a fully
ripened peppercorn (the dark outer hul l has
been removed) . Black pepper, available
whole, cracked or ground, has a strong, hot
taste. Thi s spice is best i n the freshly ground
form for salads, vegetables and i ndeed al­
most any food. For light- colored sauces use
white pepper, whole or ground.
PEPPER ( RED) : Ground or crushed red pep­
per (unrelated to ei ther whi te or black) and
ground Cayenne are avai l abl e si ngly or as a
blend. In varyi ng shades of red, these spices
have a hot, strong favor. Use them spari ng­
ly i n sauces for seafood, pi zza and pasta.
ROSEMARY: The spi ky leaves of thi s fragrant
herb are excellent wi th lamb, beef and pork,
green beans or boiled potatoes.
SAFFRON: The most expensi ve spice, i t is
avai lable powdered or in threads, which
must be crushed with the back of a spoon
or with a mortar and pestle. Safron is used
spari ngly for its gol den color and its some­
what bi tter favor i n many rice and fsh
di shes, curries and stews.
SAGE: The gray- green l eaves of thi s herb are
dried and are avail able whole, rubbed or
ground. It i s used wi del y i n poultry and
fsh stufngs and wi th pork and veal.
SAVORY: There are two varieties, summer and
wi nter savory. Summer savory i s more com­
mon and more aromati c. Both herbs are
available as whole or ground leaves, and are
used i n poultry stufngs, dri ed bean "nd
pea di shes, and meat loaf.
SESAME SEED: Thi s spice i s the dri ed, hul l ed
frui t of a tropical plant, and i s the source
of a cooking oil used wi del y in the East. I t
i s sold whole and untoasted, and can be
baked on rolls, breads and buns. Toasted,
it can garni sh salads and cooked noodles.
TARRAGON: Thi s herb i s avai lable fresh or as
dried leaves. I t is a must i n bfarnaise sauce
and is also good with eggs, poultry or fsh.
and spri nkled over a green salad.
THYME: An herb wi th strongl y aromatic
gray-green leaves, i t i s available whole or
powdered. Use fresh i n a bouquet garni, and
i n clam chowder, poultry stufngs and in
almost any meat stew.
63
c¸o/:/.e/se4´ so·.s
U. S. MEASURES
3 tsp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I tbsp.
2 pints . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l i qui d quart
4 tbsp. . .   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1·4 cup
4 quarts . . . . . . . I l i qui d gallon
5 11 tbsp.
1 2 tbsp.
16 tbsp.
2 cups
U. S. cups & spoons
I tsp . . . . .
I tbsp . . .
2 tbsp . . . .
6'/' tbsp.
I cup . . . .
I pi nt
4V, cups . .
· · · · · · · · · · · • . 1 ' cup DRY MEASURES
. . '· • cup
8 quarts
. . I cup 4 pecks · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I pi nt I pound .
LIQUID MEASURE EQUIVALENTS
Fl ui d ounces
. -/6 . . . .
. lf . .
European equi val ents
. . . . . . . I cofee spoon
. . I soup spoon
.28 deci l i ter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
. • . . • . . . • . . . . . . . 311 . . . . • . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . I deci l i ter
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 16 . . . . .
. . . 35V6 . . .
. . . 2. 25 decili ters
. . 4. 5 deci l i ters
. . . . . . . . . . ! l i ter ( 1 0 deci l i ters)
. . . . I peck
. . I bushel
1 6 ozs.
NOTE : British measures are based on the Imperial gallon, which contai ns four Imperial (40-ounce) quarts.
The British pi nt contai ns 20 ounces and the cup, 1 0 ounces.
A TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS
Fooc Amount
ALMONDS, unshelled, whole . . . I lb.
ALMONDS. blanched, whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I lb.
APPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .
APRICOTS
. . I l b. (3 medium) .
. I lb . .
Equi valent
. . . . P 4 cups nutmeats
. 31 z cups nutmeats
. . . . . . 31 2 cups pared and sliced
. . . . . . . 3 cups dried, 6 cups cooked
BANANAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I lb. (3 medi um) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- 21 2 cups sl i ced
BEANS. kidney, dried . . . . I l b. ( 21 ' cups) . . . . 9 cups cooked
BEANS, l i ma or navy, dried . . I lb. ( 21 ' cups) . . . . . . 6 cups cooked
BEANS. lima i n pod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I lb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2., cup shelled
BEETS . .
BREAD
BREAD
BUTTER (or margarine) . .
BUTER (or margarine) .
CABBAGE . .
64 Equivalents and measures
. . . . I lb. (4 medi um) .
. . . . I slice.
. . . . . . I slice.
• • • • • 1 •- l b. stick (4 ozs. ) .
. . 2 cups di ced and cooked
.
.
1

1 ' cup dry crumbs
. ' · I cup soft crumbs
. 8 tbsp .
. . I lb. . . . 2 cups (or 32 tbsp. )
. . . I lb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 cups shredded
Food
CANDIED FRUIT and FRliiT PFFI-� .
CARROTS
CELERY.
<H�Est. cream .
< HEESE, hard . .
CIKKEN .
CHOCOLATE, unsweetened .
CORNMEAL.
CRACKERS. graham .
<RACKERS. soda
CRANBERRIES
CREAM. heavy
DATES . .
EGG WHITES
EGG YOLKS
fi(S
FLOUR, al l -purpose .
FLOUR, cake . .
GARLIC . .
GELATI N.
LEMON o r LIME .
I.EMON, rmd . .
MACARONI .
MEAT .
MILK, evaporated
MILK. sweetened, condensed
MUSHROOMS, fresh .
NOODLES .
ONIONS .
ORANGE .
ORANGE. ri nd
PEANUTS. unshelled
PEAS, i n pod.
PEAS, spht . . . . . . . . . . .
PECANS, unshelled
POTATOES .
PRUNES. dned .
RAISINS
RICE, raw
RICE. precooked .
SHALLOTS
SPAGH�'I
SUGAR, brown
SUGAR. confecti Oners .
SUGAR, granulated
TOMATOES.
WALNUTS. m shell .
WALNUTS, shelled
Amount
1 z l b
I lb. ( H- 1 0) .
. . I l b. ( 2 med. bunches) .
. _ OZS.
I l b.
\ 1 z l bs.
I S'uare
I cup uncooked
. 1 5
2 2 . .
I l h
1 z p1nt (I cup)
. . I l b.
. H- 1 1
1 2 - 1 6
I l b.
. I l b.
. I l b.
I medi um clove . .
1 -·Ounce cnvelopr
I medi um
. I med1 um .
I (UP (1 ' pound) .
I l b.
1 1 1 2- oz. can .
l l - 01. can
1 z pound
. I cup uncooked .
I med1 um
. . . I redJ Ur
. I medi Um
I l b
l i b
I l b.
I lb
I lb ( \ potatoes)
I l b.
I l b.
I cup ( 1 z l b. )
. I c up . .
I medi Um
I l b. uncooked
. I l b.
I l b.
. I l b.
. . . I l b (l medJ Um)
. l i b.
I l b.
Equi val ent
. 1 1 z cups cut up
. 2 ' ' cups sl i Ced or d1 ced
l cups di ced
6 tbsp .
· cups grated
. 2 cups cooked and dJCed
I oz. ( I tbsp. mel ted, 5 tbsp. grated)
. . . · cups cooked
. . . I cup fne crumbs
I cup fne crumbs
I cups
2 cups wl11 pped
. 2 cups pmed
I cup
. . . I cup
. . . 2 ' • · . cups chopped
· cups si fted
. .   1 , cups sifted
. ' . tsp. chopped
I tbsp.
\- 4 tbsp. J UICe
. I ' z-2 tsp. grated
. 2 cups cooked
. 2 cups diCed
I '
'
cups
• 1 1 • cups
. . 21 z cups shced
I 1 ·-2 cups cooked
. ' z cup chopped
I I cup J UI Ce
. . 2 tbsp. grated
2 - 2 1 2 cups nutmears
I cup shelled and cooked
. . 2 cups
. . 2' 4 cups nutmeats
21 z cups shced ch ced, 2 cups mashed
. . 21 z cups; l cups cooked
. \ cups
\ cups cooked
2 cups cooked
I tbsp. m1 nced
7 cups cooked
. . 21 1 cups packed
. \' z- 4 cups Si fted
21 z cups
1 1 z cups J Ui ced. chopped pul p
1
2
\ cups nutmeats
I cups nutmeats
E
q
uivalents and measures 65

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