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Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures

**Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures
**

Second Edition KAI CHANG LUNG-HWA HSIEH

A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and speciﬁcally disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or ﬁtness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of proﬁt or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print, however, may not be available in electronic format. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Chang, Kai, 1948– Microwave ring circuits and related structures / Kai Chang, Lung-Hwa Hsieh.—2nd ed. p. cm.—(Wiley series in microwave and optical engineering) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-471-44474-X (cloth) 1. Microwave circuits. 2. Microwave antennas. I. Hsieh, Lung-Hwa. II. Title. III. Series. TK7876.C439 2004 621.381¢32—dc22 2003056885 Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

Preface xi

1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 Background and Applications Transmission Lines and Waveguides Organization of the Book

1 1 4 4

2 Analysis and Modeling of Ring Resonators 2.1 2.2 2.3 Introduction Simple Model Field Analyses 2.3.1 Magnetic-Wall Model 2.3.2 Degenerate Modes of the Resonator 2.3.3 Mode Chart for the Resonator 2.3.4 Improvement of the Magnetic-Wall Model 2.3.5 Simpliﬁed Eigenequation 2.3.6 A Rigorous Solution Transmission-Line Model 2.4.1 Coupling Gap Equivalent Circuit 2.4.2 Transmission-Line Equivalent Circuit 2.4.3 Ring Equivalent Circuit and Input Impedance 2.4.4 Frequency Solution 2.4.5 Model Veriﬁcation 2.4.6 Frequency Modes for Ring Resonators 2.4.7 An Error in Literature for One-Port Ring Circuit 2.4.8 Dual Mode

5 5 6 7 7 9 11 11 13 14 16 16 22 25 27 29 29 32 34

v

2.4

vi

CONTENTS

2.5

Ring Equivalent Circuit in Terms of G, L, C 2.5.1 Equivalent Lumped Elements for Closed- and Open-Loop Microstrip Ring Resonator 2.5.2 Calculated and Experimental Results 2.6 Distributed Transmission-Line Model 2.6.1 Microstrip Dispersion 2.6.2 Effect of Curvature 2.6.3 Distributed-Circuit Model References

35 36 40 40 41 44 45 52 55 55 55 58 61 63 64 66 67 67 70 75 77 81 85 90 93 97 97 98 99 103 109 112 115 117 124 125

3 Modes, Perturbations, and Coupling Methods of Ring Resonators 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Introduction Regular Resonant Modes Forced Resonant Modes Split Resonant Modes 3.4.1 Coupled Split Modes 3.4.2 Local Resonant Split Modes 3.4.3 Notch Perturbation Split Modes 3.4.4 Patch Perturbation Split Modes Further Study of Notch Perturbations Split (Gap) Perturbations Coupling Methods for Microstrip Ring Resonators Effects of Coupling Gaps Enhanced Coupling Uniplanar Ring Resonators and Coupling Methods Perturbations in Uniplanar Ring Resonators References

3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11

4 Electronically Tunable Ring Resonators 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Introduction Simple Analysis Varactor Equivalent Circuit Input Impedance and Frequency Response of the VaractorTuned Microstrip Ring Circuit Effects of the Package Parasitics on the Resonant Frequency Experimental Results for Varactor-Tuned Microstrip Ring Resonators Double Varactor-Tuned Microstrip Ring Resonator Varactor-Tuned Uniplanar Ring Resonators Piezoelectric Transducer Tuned Microstrip Ring Resonator References

CONTENTS

vii

5 Electronically Switchable Ring Resonators 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Introduction PIN Diode Equivalent Circuit Analysis for Electronically Switchable Microstrip Ring Resonators Experimental and Theoretical Results for Electronically Switchable Microtrip Ring Resonators Varactor-Tuned Switchable Microstrip Ring Resonators References

127 127 128 130 131 134 138 139 139 139 145 147 148 149 152 153 153 153 161 164 171 179 186 187 188 191 193 197 197 197 197 203 209 211 217

6 Measurement Applications Using Ring Resonators 6.1 6.2 Introduction Dispersion, Dielectric Constant, and Q-Factor Measurements 6.3 Discontinuity Measurements 6.4 Measurements Using Forced Modes or Split Modes 6.4.1 Measurements Using Forced Modes 6.4.2 Measurements Using Split Modes References

7 Filter Applications 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 Introduction Dual-Mode Ring Bandpass Filters Ring Bandstop Filters Compact, Low Insertion Loss, Sharp Rejection, and Wideband Bandpass Filters Ring Slow-Wave Bandpass Filters Ring Bandpass Filters with Two Transmission Zeros Pizoeletric Transducer-Tuned Bandpass Filters Narrow Band Elliptic-Function Bandpass Filters Slotline Ring Filters Mode Suppression References

8 Ring Couplers 8.1 8.2 Introduction 180° Rat-Race Hybrid-Ring Couplers 8.2.1 Microstrip Hybrid-Ring Couplers 8.2.2 Coplanar Waveguide-Slotline Hybrid-Ring Couplers 8.2.3 Asymmetrical Coplanar Strip Hybrid-Ring Couplers 180° Reverse-Phase Back-to-Back Baluns 180° Reverse-Phase Hybrid-Ring Couplers

8.3 8.4

3 Asymmetrical Coplanar Strip 180° Reverse-Phase Hybrid-Ring Couplers 90° Branch-Line Couplers 8.2.4 9.3 Waveguide Ring Filters 10.5 9.1 Approximations and Fields 11.5 CPW-Slotline 180° Reverse-Phase Hybrid-Ring Couplers 8.3.2.2 Reduced-Size Uniplanar 180° Reverse-Phase Hybrid-Ring Couplers 8.3.3.4.2 Single-Cavity Dual-Mode Filters 10.5.3 Forced Resonant Modes 10.2.2 Ring Antenna Circuit Model 11.2.1 Introduction 10.2 Split Resonant Modes 10.1 217 223 226 227 227 231 233 238 241 241 243 244 254 258 262 270 271 271 272 276 281 283 285 287 289 292 295 297 297 298 298 300 303 305 9 Ring Magic-T Circuits 9.2 Wall Admittance Calculation 11.3 Asymmetrical Coplanar Strip Branch-Line Couplers References 8.2.3 9.2 9.1 Decoupled Resonant Modes 10.viii CONTENTS 8.2 Waveguide Ring Resonators 10.1 Introduction 11.1 9.6 Introduction 180° Reverse-Phase CPW-Slotline T-Junctions CPW Magic-Ts 180° Double-Sided Slotline Ring Magic-Ts 180° Uniplanar Slotline Ring Magic-Ts Reduced-Size Uniplanar Magic-Ts References 10 Waveguide Ring Resonators and Filters 10.1 Microstrip Branch-Line Couplers 8.2.4.5.3 Two-Cavity Dual-Mode Filters References 11 Ring Antennas and Frequency-Selective Surfaces 11.2 CPW-Slotline Branch-Line Couplers 8.1 Regular Resonant Modes 10.2.4.5.4 Other Reactive Terms .3 Input Impedance Formulation for the Dominant Mode 11.

2 12.1 12.4 12.5 11.7 11.3 12.6 Introduction Rat-Race Balanced Mixers Slotline Ring Quasi-Optical Mixers Ring Oscillators Microwave Optoelectronics Applications Metamaterials Using Split-Ring Resonators References Index .5 12.6 11. and Other Applications 12. Oscillators.4 11.6 Computer Simulation Circular Polarization and Dual-Frequency Ring Antennas Slotline Ring Antennas Active Antennas Using Ring Circuits Frequency-Selective Surfaces Reﬂectarrays Using Ring Resonators References 306 306 307 308 314 319 322 326 330 330 330 333 334 342 347 349 352 12 Ring Mixers.3 11.2.5 Overall Input Impedance 11.CONTENTS ix 11.2.

The objectives of the book are to introduce the analyses and models of the ring resonators and to apply them to the applications of ﬁlters. all of the attractive features of the ﬁrst edition have remained in the second edition. and Zhengping Ding. antennas. Wang. T. Klein. James L. Especially. coplanar waveguide. The book is based on the dissertations/theses and many papers published by graduate students: Lung-Hwa Hsieh. After these theories and analyses. Extensive additions are given in the ﬁlter and coupler design and applications. Carroll. couplers. Julio A. a new transmission-line analysis pointing out a literature error of the one-port ring circuit is added and can be used to analyze any shapes of the microstrip ring resonator. Introduction on analysis. To meet the needs for students and engineers. the ring resonator has been widely used in measurements. modeling. the updated applications of ring circuits in ﬁlters. couplers. C circuit. and so forth. Lu Fan and F. the ﬁrst edition of the book has been updated by adding the latest material for ring circuits and applications. the ring resonator can be represented in terms of a lumped-element G. Tae-Yeoul Yun. Ganesh K. Miller. couplers. Visiting Scholars or Research Associates of the Electromagnetics and Microwave Laboratory. using the same analyses. Dr. James M. xi . many new analyses. Recently. slotline. Goplakrishnan. frequency selective surfaces. Richard E. Scott Martin. Moreover. and applications of the ring resonators have been reported. oscillators. Chun-Lei Wang. antennas. power dividers/combiners. and perturbation methods is included. oscillators.Preface For the past three decades. oscillators. ﬁlters. coupling methods. Chien-Hsun Ho. Cheng-Cheh Yu. and waveguide. and so on. Hooman Tehrani. These applications are supported by real circuit demonstrations. there is an abundance of new applications in bandpass and bandstop ﬁlters. L. Navarro. and tunable ring resonators are described. models. The revised book covers ring resonators built in various transmission lines such as microstrip. mixers. In the theory chapter. Also. antennas.

Texas . The book will also included many recent publications by others. Hooman Tehrani. Kai Chang Lung-Hwa Hsieh College Station. The additional materials are mainly based on the recent publications by Lung-Hwa Hsieh.xii PREFACE Texas A&M University. have also contributed to this research. and Cheng-Cheh Yu. Tae-Yeooul Yun. Finally. we would like to express thanks to our family for their encouragement and support.

Second Edition. and so on. The integration with various solid-state devices was also realized to perform tuning. switching. 1 . however. These circuits give various applications. The structure would only support waves that have an integral multiple of the guided wavelength equal to the mean circumference. adding a notch. Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. and frequency-selective surfaces emerged. and optoelectronic functions. Sophisticated ﬁeld analyses were developed to give accurate modeling and prediction of a ring resonator. applications using ring circuits as antennas. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. oscillation. integrating with multiple input and output lines. implementing some solidstate devices. It is believed that the variations and applications of ring circuits have not yet been exhausted and many new circuits will certainly come out in the future. ampliﬁcation. baluns. For such a simple circuit. In the 1980s. In the ﬁrst 10 years most applications were concentrated on the measurements of characteristics of discontinuities of microstrip lines. Inc. Troughton in 1969 for the measurements of the phase velocity and dispersive characteristics of a microstrip line. cascading two or more rings. oscillators. The circuit is simple and easy to build. Some unique properties and excellent performances have been demonstrated using ring circuits built in coplanar waveguides and slotlines.CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1. mixers. Microwave circuits using rings for ﬁlters. many more complicated circuits can be created by cutting a slit. and couplers were also reported. The ring resonator is a simple circuit.1 BACKGROUND AND APPLICATIONS The microstrip ring resonator was ﬁrst proposed by P.

.1 Various transmission lines and waveguides.2 INTRODUCTION FIGURE 1.

TABLE 1.1 Comparison of Guiding Media and Waveguides Item High Moderate Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Low High High Low Low Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Low High Easy Fair Fair Easy Easy Easy Fair Fair Poor Poor Useful Frequency (GHz) Q Factor Power Rating Impedance Level (W) CrossSectional Dimensions Active Device Mounting Potential for Low-Cost Production Poor Poor Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Fair <300 Moderate to large Moderate Moderate Small Small Moderate Small Small Moderate Moderate 100–500 <50 <10 £100 10–100 10–100 10–100 £150 20–150 £150 £60 £60 20–400 60–200 40–150 Rectangular waveguide Coaxial line Strip line Microstrip line Suspended strip line Fin line Slot line Coplanar waveguide Image guide Dielectric guide BACKGROUND AND APPLICATIONS <300 <300 30–30 20–50 3 .

coplanar waveguide and slotline can be the alternatives to microstrip line for some applications due to their uniplanar nature. and magic-Ts. ease of active device integration. Coaxial line has no cutoff frequency. no critical machining. Chapters 2 and 3 give some general descriptions of a simple model. coplanar waveguide. small size. the stripline and ground plane are located on opposite sides of the substrate. optoelectronics. rectangular waveguide. can be made ﬂexible.1 shows some of these lines and Table 1. no cutoff frequency.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK This book is organized into 12 chapters. but it is bulky and requires precision machining. Among them. The selection of transmission lines and waveguides depends on applications and operating frequency ranges. Chapter 11 gives a brief discussion of ring antennas. use of pbotolithographic method for circuit production. good repeatability and reproducibility. It has many advantages. couplers. ﬁeld analyses. and active antennas. In the uniplanar circuits such as coplanar waveguide and slotline.4 INTRODUCTION 1. coaxial line. . A hole is needed to be drilled for grounding or mounting solid-state devices in shunt. Ring circuits can be built on all these transmission lines and waveguides. 7. Chapters 6. In microstrip. and stotline.2 TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES Many transmission lines and waveguides have been used for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. and microstrip line are the most commonly used.1 summarizes their properties. and can operate from dc to microwave or millimeter-wave frequencies. oscillators. and coupling methods of ring resonators. and metamaterials. The last chapter (Chapter 12) summarizes applications for ring circuits in mixers. perturbation methods. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss how electronically tunable and switchable ring resonators are made by incorporating varactor and PIN diodes into the ring circuits. 8. Most ring circuits realized so far are in microstrip line. In addition. Microstrip line is the most commonly used in microwave integrated circuits (MIC) and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC). Figure 1. Rectangular waveguide has a cutoff frequency and low insertion loss. avoiding any circuit drilling or via holes. frequency selective surfaces. the rectangular waveguide. a transmission-line model. the ground plane and circuit are located on the same side of the substrate. ﬁlters. modes. and 10 present the applications of ring resonators to microwave measurements. 9. which include low cost. 1. and ease of mass production.

A rigorous solution was presented by Pintzos and Pregla in 1978 based on the stationary principle [3]. The ﬁeld analyses based on electromagnetic ﬁeld theory are complicated and difﬁcult to implement in a computer-aided-design (CAD) environment. Field analyses generally give accurate and rigorous results. So far. Chang et al. Owens improved the magnetic-wall model [2]. The major goal of these analyses is to determine the resonant frequencies of various modes.and closed-ring microstrip resonators [6. Wu and Rosenbaum obtained the mode chart for the ﬁelds in the magnetic-wall model [4]. especially for ring resonators with complex boundary conditions. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. only the annular ring resonator has the ﬁeld theory derivation for its frequency modes. In 1976. but they are complicated and difﬁcult to use. [8] ﬁrst proposed a straightforward but reasonably accurate transmissionMicrowave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. 7]. the magnetic-wall model does not explain the dual-mode behavior very well. Wolff and Tripathi used perturbation analysis to design the open. The ﬁeld analysis “magnetic-wall model” for microstrip ring resonators was ﬁrst introduced in 1971 by Wolff and Knoppik [1]. it is difﬁcult to use the magnetic-wall model to obtain the frequency modes of these ring resonators because of their complex boundary conditions. Inc. Sharma and Bhat [5] carried out a numerical solution using the spectral domain method. For the square or meander ring resonators. Also.CHAPTER TWO Analysis and Modeling of Ring Resonators 2. Second Edition. 5 .1 INTRODUCTION This chapter gives a brief review of the methods used to analyze and model a ring resonator. Circuit analyses are simple and can model the ring circuits with variations and discontinuities.

square. especially for a ring resonator with complicated boundary conditions. In addition. Recently. or meander. it can be used to describe the dual-mode behavior of the ring resonator that the magnetic-wall model cannot address well. then the coupling gaps do not affect the resonant frequencies of the ring. a means of predicting their unloaded Q. and C. it corrects an error in literature concerning the frequency modes of the one-port ring resonator [11]. .1 The microstrip ring resonator. and the resonator.and open-loop ring resonators [12]. This type of coupling is referred to in the literature as “loose coupling. Also. Figure 2.” Loose coupling is a manifestation of the FIGURE 2.6 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS line method that can include gap discontinuities and devices mounted along the ring. 2. they used the transmission-line model to extract the equivalent lumped element circuits for the closed.2 SIMPLE MODEL The ring resonator is merely a transmission line formed in a closed loop. for the ﬁrst time. The unloaded Qs of the ring resonators can be calculated from the equivalent lumped elements G. Power is coupled into and out of the resonator through feed lines and coupling gaps. Moreover. notches. and various perturbations. L. The basic circuit consists of the feed lines. Gopalakrishnan and Chang [9] further improved the method with a distributed transmission-line method that included factors affecting resonances such as the microstrip dispersion. gaps and various discontinuities along the circumference of the ring structure. the curvature of the resonator. The distributed transmission-line method can easily accommodate many solid-state devices. Hsieh and Chang [10] used a simple transmission-line model unaffected by boundary conditions to calculate the frequency modes of ring resonators of any general shape such as annular. These simple expressions introduce an easy method for analyzing ring resonators in ﬁlters and provide.1 shows one possible circuit arrangement. coupling gaps. If the distance between the feed lines and the resonator is large.

the capacitances of the coupling gaps should be considered. 2. resonance is established.1) where r is the mean radius of the ring that equals the average of the outer and inner radii. If the feed lines are moved closer to the resonator. This causes the resonant frequencies of the circuit to deviate from the intrinsic resonant frequencies of the ring. This relation is valid for the loose coupling case. When the mean circumference of the ring resonator is equal to an integral multiple of a guided wavelength. and n is the mode number. lg is the guided wavelength.3 FIELD ANALYSES Field analyses based on electromagnetic ﬁeld theory have been reported in the literature [1–7]. (2. The effect of curvature cannot be explained by the straight-line approximation 2pr = nlg (2. the resonant frequencies for different modes can be calculated since lg is frequency dependent. For the ﬁrst mode. If small rings are used.FIELD ANALYSES 7 negligibly small capacitance of the coupling gap. . Hence.2) To quantify the effects of curvature on the resonant frequency.1 Magnetic-Wall Model One of the drawbacks of using the ring resonator is the effect of curvature. as it does not take into account the coupling gap effects. the maxima of ﬁeld occur at the coupling gap locations. Wolff and Knoppik [1] made some preliminary tests. From this equation. then the effects become even more dramatic because of the increased curvature. .3. to accurately model the ring resonator. 2. Under these conditions the widths of the lines become large and a mean radius is not well-deﬁned. The effects of the coupling gaps are discussed in Chapter 3. 2. the coupling becomes tight and the gap capacitances become appreciable. 3. however. and nulls occur 90° from the coupling gap locations. . for n = 1. This section brieﬂy summarizes some of these methods described in [13]. They found that the inﬂuence of curvature becomes large if substrate materials with small relative permittivities and lines with small impedances are used. This may be expressed as 2pr = nlg. .

8 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 2. Jn is a Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n.3) (2.5) where A and B are constants.2 Magnetic-wall model of the ring resonator. They concluded that a new theory that takes the curvature of the ring into account was needed. k is the wave number.2. They therefore assumed a magnetic-wall model for the resonator and used a frequency-dependent eeff to calculate the resonant frequencies. w is the angular frequency. It is assumed that there is no z-dependency (∂/∂z = 0) and that the ﬁelds are transverse magnetic (TM) to z direction.4) Hf = (2. The magnetic-wall model considered the ring as a cavity resonator with electric walls on the top and bottom and magnetic walls on the sides as shown in Figure 2. and Nn is a Bessel function . At the time there was no exact theory for the resonator for the dispersive effects on a microstrip line. A solution of Maxwell’s equations in cylindrical coordinates is Ez = {AJ n (kr ) + BN n (kr )} cos( nf ) Hr = n {AJn (kr ) + BN n (kr )} sin(nf ) jwm 0 r k {AJn (kr ) + BN n (kr )} cos( nf ) ¢ ¢ jwm 0 (2. The electromagnetic ﬁelds are considered to be conﬁned to the dielectric volume between the perfectly conducting ground plane and the ring conductor.

8) (2.6) Given r0 and ri.6) can be solved for k. In mathematical terms this means that the modes are orthogonal to each other. The other set of solutions also satisﬁes the boundary conditions Ez = {AJ n (kr ) + BN n (kr )} sin( nf ) Hr = n { AJn ( kr ) + BN n ( kr )} cos( nf ) jwm0 r (2.7) the resonant frequency can be found.3. The use of the magnetic-wall model eigenequation eliminates the error due to the mean radius approximation and includes the effect of curvature of the microstrip line. One example of degeneracy is a circularly standing wave. They achieved increased accuracy over Equation (2. By using this analysis Wolff and Knoppik compared experimental and theoretical results in calculating the resonant frequency of the ring resonator.3)–(2.5). Recall that the solution to the ﬁelds of the magnetic-wall model must satisfy the Maxwell’s equations and boundary conditions. Any errors that still remained were attributed to the fringing edge effects of the microstrip line. 2.7) (2.J n (kri )N n (kr0 ) = 0 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ where k = w e 0e r m 0 (2. J¢ and N¢ are the derivatives of the Bessel n n functions with respect to the argument (kr). By using (2.2 Degenerate Modes of the Resonator Using the magnetic-wall model it can be shown that the microstrip ring resonator actually supports two degenerate modes [14].9) . This is the sum of two linearly polarized waves that are orthogonal and exist independently of each other. respectively. The boundary conditions to be applied are Hf = 0 Hf = 0 at at r = r0 r = ri were r0 and ri are the outer and inner radii of the ring. Application of the boundary condition leads to the eigenvalue equation J n (kr0 )N n (kri ) . One proposed solution was given in Equations (2. then Equation (2.2). Degenerate modes in microwave cavity resonators are modes that coexist independently of each other.FIELD ANALYSES 9 of the second kind and order n.

Because sine and cosine functions are orthogonal functions. traveling clockwise and counterclockwise on the ring. To eliminate this source of error. Wolff also demonstrated this by using a notch in the ring. Wolff showed that if the coupling lines are arranged asymmetrically. Hf = k {AJn (kr ) + BN n (kr )} sin(nf ) ¢ ¢ jwm 0 (2. there is no coupling between them.8)–(2.10 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 2. f. If both modes are excited due to an asymmetric circuit. . Frequency splitting due to degenerate modes is undesirable in dispersion measurements. the solutions.3b [14].3 (a) Ring with asymmetrical feed lines. Both sets of solutions also have the same eigenvalue equation.6).2)–(2. then only one of the modes will be excited. The slight splitting of the resonance frequency can be easily detected. as in Figure 2.5) and (2. are also orthogonal.10) and (2.5) is that cosine as well as sine functions are solutions to the ﬁeld dependence in the azimuthal direction. If circular symmetrical ring resonators are used with colinear feed lines.3a. This means that two degenerate modes can exist at the resonance frequency. The two modes can be interpreted as two waves. and (b) ring with a notch. the resonant frequency may be less distinct. Because the modes are orthogonal.10) The only difference between the ﬁeld components of Equations (2.10). as in Figure 2. (2. care should be taken to ensure that the feed lines are perfectly colinear and the ring line width is constant. then both modes should be excited [14]. Another way of exciting the two degenerate modes is to disturb the symmetry of the ring resonator. (2.

Wide rings do not suffer the effects of dispersion as much as narrow rings. Close examination of Equation (2. They also pointed out that Equation (2.4 Improvement of the Magnetic-Wall Model The magnetic-wall model is a nonrigorous but reasonable solution to the curvature problem in the microstrip ring resonator. then dispersion becomes important for the modes of n > 4.J n (kri )N n (kro ) = 0 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ (2. where n is the azimuthal mode number. as rl approaches ro.FIELD ANALYSES 11 2.N n -1 (kro ) Jn (kro )} = 0 The second term of Equation (2.12) (2.n2 = 0 Substituting k = 2p/lg and rearranging yields the well-known equation nlg = 2pro (2. From the mode chart of Wu and Rosenbaum. To avoid the excitation of higher-order modes.2 are used.n 2 ]{Jn -1 (kro )N n (kro ) .11) reveals that for narrow microstrip widths. If rings for which w/R < 0. The resonant modes are a solution to the eigenequation J n (kro )N n (kri ) .2 should be observed. two important observations can be made [4]. The main criticism of the model is that it does not take into account the fringing ﬁelds of the microstrip . The other observation is the increase of dispersion on narrow rings.11) and may be denoted as TMnml. As the normalized ring width.3 Mode Chart for the Resonator It has been established that the ﬁeld components on the microstrip ring resonator are Ez.3. m is the root number for each n. The ﬁelds on the microstrip ring resonator are actually the duals of the TE modes in the coaxial waveguide. a design criteria of w/R < 0.13) which gives the resonances of the TMn10 modes.12) is nonzero. and therefore (kro)2 . 2. (w/R) is increased. higher-order modes are excited. and is similar to transverse resonance on a microstrip line. the equation reduces to [(kro )2 . Hr. and l = 0 because ∂/∂z = 0. This occurs when the ring width reaches half the guided wavelength. ring width/ring radius.11) is the same equation that must be satisﬁed for the transverse electric (TE) modes in coaxial waveguides.3. and Hf. Wu and Rosenbaum presented a mode chart for the resonant frequencies of the various TMnm0 modes as a function of the ring line width [4].

weff(f ). h0 is the free space impedance. and (b) the planar waveguide model of a microstrip line. He proposed to correct this inconsistency by using the planar waveguide model for the microstrip line. while retaining the same line width. 2. and c is the speed of light in a vacuum [15.15) weff ( 0 ) . eeff(f ). The planar waveguide model is similar to the magnetic-wall model of the ring resonator. respectively. are compensated to give Ro = 1 [(ro + ri ) + weff ( f )] 2 (2. The following equations are used to calculate the effective line width: weff ( ff ) = w + where weff ( 0 ) = and fp = c weff ( 0 ) e eff ( 0 ) (2. is a function of frequency (see Fig. In an attempt to take this into account. the substrate relative permittivity is made equal to the frequency-dependent effective relative permittivity. He further argued that dispersion characteristics obtained in this way were still curvature-dependent.w 1 + ( f f p )2 (2. The separation between the plates is equal to the distance between the microstrip line and its ground plane.4). line. Magnetic walls enclose the substrate with a permittivity of eeff.17) . Owens argued that this increases the discrepancy between the quasi-static properties of the model and the microstrip ring that it represents [2].12 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 2. To apply the planar waveguide model to the ring resonator. w. ri and ro. the inner and outer radii of the ring. In this model the width of the parallel conducting plates.14) where h is the substrate thickness.16) hh0 Z0 e eff ( 0 ) (2.4 (a) Microstrip line and its electric ﬁelds. Z0 is the characteristic impedance. 16].

and B4n are given in Table 2.19) For the TM010 mode and 0.20) p (1 .4 4. The results obtained for eeff were not curvature dependent as in the other models.6221 9. (2.14).1 n 1 2 3 A1n 0.1. The numerical solution is a tedious and time-consuming process that would make implementation into CAD inefﬁcient. A2n.4%.8995 B1n -0. respectively.18).5 < X £ 1 kRe = 1.0773 5.0847 (1 . The accuracy is reported within ±0. and (2.tan a )0.6240 B2n -1.9931 -1.FIELD ANALYSES 13 Ri = 1 [(ro + ri ) . TABLE 2.X ) 2 (Ri + Ro ) 2 and weff.weff ( f )] 2 (2.4729 0. Experimental results for this model compare quite accurately with known theoretical results.8957 . solve for the eigenvalues of Equation (2.0794 0. The constants A1n.5weff Re (2.3029 B4n 4. A3n. To ﬁnd the resonant frequencies of the structure.17). and Ri are calculated from Equations (2.1005 Constants for the Simpliﬁed Eigenequation A2n 0.42E .X ) X B2 n (1 .0493 1.11).9159X 0. B1n.42E .5168 3. Ro.3852 10.5 Simpliﬁed Eigenequation The eigenequation for the magnetic-wall model can be solved numerically to determine the resonant frequency of a given circuit. B3n.4129 6. Therefore closed-form expressions for the technically interesting modes have been derived by Khilla [17].X )B 4 n 1.18) where Ro and Ri are the radii using the new model.3. B2n.6195 B3n 5.5271 2.9139 -8.3312 + (tan a ) where X= a= Re = 0.9206 1. 2. The solution is as follows: For the TMn10 modes kRe = ( A1n + A2 n ) (sin pX )B1 n (cos p X 2 ) B3 n + A3 n (1 .8091 1.75 (2.6 A3n 0.

is zero because the true ﬁeld at resonance is sourcefree [19].22) is the emphasis of the approach.27) H 2 i H (2. beyond this is may have limited applicability. a stationary formula for the resonant frequency can be obtained [19]. on a source Jb.3.26) .23) (2. a = Ú E tr ◊ J tr dV = 0 n (2. A rigorous solution based on the variational or stationary principle was developed by Pintzos and Pregla in 1978 [3]. The self-reaction can now be deﬁned as a. 0 (2.H a ◊ M b )dV n (2.6 A Rigorous Solution The magnetic-wall model is a nonrigorous method of analysis for the ring resonator. By equating this to the correct reaction. This method adequately predicts the resonant frequency of not only the dominant modes but also higher-order modes. Mb in a volume V is deﬁned as a.14 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS 2. aÒ. The ﬁelds existing in the structure can be expressed in terms of the vector potentials A = uzYE and F = uzYH by means of the following relations: E = -— ¥ F + H = -— ¥ A + 1 — ¥— ¥ A jwe 1 — ¥— ¥ F jwm (2.21) In the case of a resonant structure.22) Solving Equation (2. Ha. b = Ú (E a ◊ Jb .24) The scalar potentials YE. the reaction of a ﬁeld on its own source. YH satisfy the Helmholtz equation —Y E + ki2 Y E = 0 —Y + k Y = 0 and ki2 = k2eri . The ﬁeld associated with such a current can be considered a trial ﬁeld as well. An approximate expression for the self-reaction can be derived using a trial ﬁeld and source. This method requires that either a frequency-dependent eeff or a frequency-dependent line width be used to describe the edge effects. The reaction of a ﬁeld Ea. the self-reaction ·a. A stationary expression was established for the resonant frequency of the dominant mode by means of the “reaction concept” of electromagnetic theory [18]. The only source is the trial current Js on the microstrip line.25) (2.

f) are the components of the sheet current density Jtr in the r and f directions. 2 and designates the subregions 1 (substrate) and 2 (air). z = t )I f ( r )r dr = 0 0 • (2.32) By applying the boundary conditions at the interface z = t.33) for the stationary expression. The solution of Equations (2.1 = Ef. a = Ú Ef . Cn.31) Y E = cos(nf )Ú Dn ( kr )e -g 2 ( z -t )kr J n ( kr r )dkr 0 • where 2 2 ri2 + k0 eri = kr (2. Bn. This results in a. it can be neglected. respectively. the general idea of the method is presented. Bn.23). and Dn are expressed in terms of the trial current distribution on the surface. Cn. This can be solved to determine the resonant frequency of the structure.f) where Ir(r. Although many steps were omitted in the procedure explanation.FIELD ANALYSES 15 where i = 1.i ( r.1 = Er.29) Y H = cos(nf )Ú Bn ( kr ) sinh(g 1 z)kr J n ( kr r )dkr 0 • In the air Y E = sin(nf )Ú C n ( kr )e -g 2 ( z -t )kr J n ( kr r )dkr 0 • (2.1 .2 Hr.24) can be represented in the form of the Fourier–Bessel integrals for each region: In the dielectric Y E = sin(nf )Ú An ( kr ) cosh(g 1 z)kr J n ( kr r )dkr 0 • (2. the expression for Etr can be formed from Equation (2.Hr. Because this is a variational method.22) can then be solved for the solution.Hf.2 Ef. a crude approximation to the current distribution can be made. the coefﬁcients An.30) (2.2 = -If(r. f) and If(r.28) (2. After the coefﬁcients An. Because the r component of the current is usually small when compared to the f current component. and Dn can be determined.23) and (2.2 = -If(r. Equation (2. The continuity boundary conditions are as follows: Er.f) Hf. The trial ﬁelds due to this trial current distribution .1 .

the current density may be easily determine.4 TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL It has been established that. The different methods used to ﬁnd the charge distribution are the matrix inversion method [20]. An equivalent circuit for the ring resonator is proposed [8. This analysis technique allows various microwave circuits that use the ring resonator to be studied. and the equivalent circuit is veriﬁed with experimental results. 13]. The stationary formula also requires quite a bit more computational effort. The magnetic-wall model is limited in that only the effects of varying the circuit parameters and dimensions can be studied. This would eliminate the analysis of higher-order modes. 2. and Silvester and Benedek [22]. From the input impedance the resonant frequency can be determined. This method is a rigorous solution of the microstrip ring resonator.16 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS can be determined. but in some ways is less desirable than the magnetic-wall model. The evaluation of the capacitance due to a microstrip gap has been treated by Farrar and Adams [20].6. which may not be justiﬁed by the marginal increase in accuracy. The effect of the coupling gap on the resonant frequency can also be studied (see Chap. as can the resonance. 2.5. The stationary formula is dependent on the trial current distribution. The validity for this approximation has to be determined by experimental results.1 Coupling Gap Equivalent Circuit The coupling gap is probably best modeled by an end-to-side gap. the resonator is represented by its equivalent circuit. This discontinuity is a difﬁcult problem to solve because it cannot be reduced to a two-dimensional problem. In the transmission-line approach. the current density may be difﬁcult to estimate. Maeda [21]. The coupling gap of the resonator must thus be approximated by an end-to-end coupling gap.4. Basic circuit analysis techniques can be used to determine the input impedance. The capacitance associated with the discontinuities can be evaluated by ﬁnding the excess charge distribution near the discontinuity. 3). The feed lines. but for the higher-order modes. coupling gap. although the ring has been studied extensively. 13] in this section. and resonant structure are modeled and pieced together to form an overall equivalent circuit. Application of the transmission-line method hinges on the ability to accurately model the ring resonator with an equivalent circuit. The end-toside coupling is shown in Figure 2. To extend the study of the microstrip ring resonator. variational . there is a need for a new analysis technique. For the lower-older modes. The end-to-end coupling gap is shown in Figure 2. The rigorous solution using the stationary method is also limited due to its extensive computational time and difﬁculty in application. the transmission-line analysis has been proposed [8.

8. and (b) the equivalent circuit for the end-toend coupling. FIGURE 2. method [21].7. The chargereversal method overcomes the round-off error difﬁculty and leads to increased accuracy. even and odd.TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 17 FIGURE 2.5 End-to-side coupling.The matrix inversion and variational methods both involve the subtraction of two nearly equal numbers. Round-off error can become signiﬁcant when two nearly equal large numbers are subtracted [23].6. The proposed equivalent circuit for the microstrip gap is a symmetric twoport p-network shown in Figure 2. The antisymmetric excitation results in the capacitance Codd. and use of line sources with charge reversal [22]. The capacitance C2 is due to the charge buildup between the two microstrip lines. The equivalent circuit for the antisymmetric excitation is shown in Figure 2.6 (a) End-to-end coupling. This subtraction could cause the matrix inversion and variational methods to suffer from computational errors. The equivalent circuit for the symmetric excitation is shown in Figure 2. There are two possible excitation conditions at the gap. The method of charge reversal is used to calculate Codd and Ceven. We now describe the method of charge reversal. The capacitance C1 is due to the fringing ﬁelds at the open circuits. The symmetric excitation results in the capacitance Ceven. C1 and C2 can be computed from the following equation: .

If we let f •(P) be the potential due to an inﬁnitely extending microstrip line with a corresponding chargedensity distribution s•(P¢).8 (a) Antisymmetric excitation of the coupling gap. Now if we let fx(P) be the potential associated with a charge distribution s•(P¢) for z ≥ x and -s•(P¢) for z < x. then . and (b) the equivalent circuit.35) 1Ê 1 ˆ Codd . C1 = C2 = 1 Ceven 2 (2. and (b) the equivalent circuit. FIGURE 2.34) (2. then f • ( P ) = Ú s • ( P ¢ )G• ( P. P ¢ )dP ¢ (2. P¢) is the Green’s function for the inﬁnite microstrip.7 (a) Symmetric excitation of the coupling gap.18 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 2.Ceven ¯ 2Ë 2 The problem remains to obtain Ceven and Codd.36) where G•(P.

(b) G•. charge reversal at -s/2. inﬁnitely extending line charge. (e) Geven = G• + 1/2(Gs/2 . and charge reversal at -s/2. Using Equations (2. three cases of line charges can be formed: inﬁnite extending line charge. P¢) is the Green’s function for the charge distribution with polarity reversal at z = x.TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 19 fx ( P ) = Ú s • ( P ¢ )Gx ( P.36) and (2.G-s/2).9 Formulation of the microstrip gap in terms of line charges.37). charge reversal at s/2. The inﬁnite extending line charge is represented by Equation (2. (d) G-s/2. charge reversal at s/2.36) and shown in Figure 2. ( f ) Godd = 1/2(Gs/2 + G-s/2) .37) where Gx(P. (a) Microstrip with a gap. P ¢ )dP ¢ (2.37). (c) Gs/2. According to Equation (2.9b. line charges with charge reversals at s/2 and -s/2 are governed by FIGURE 2.

38) (2.f -s 2 ( P )} = Ú s • ( P ¢){G• ( P. The extra charge is odd odd s e and -s e . P ¢)dP ¢ 2 (2. P ¢ ) .9d. The potential corresponding to the extra charge is 1 even {f s 2 ( P ) . A certain amount of extra charge feven must be added e 2 to the two strips to raise the potential to f•. Note that on the strips the potential is not f• but rather f • + 1 [f s 2 .f . P ¢) 2 (2. If we superposition these lines by adding Equations (2.39).9e.41) for s even(P¢) results in e even 2Ú s e ( P ¢ )dP ¢ Ceven = f• (2.37) results in f • (P ) 1 {f s 2 ( P ) + f -s 2 ( P )} 2 1 = Ú s • ( P ¢ ){G• ( P.9f.38) and subtracting Equation (2.41) Noting that the excess charge s even(P¢) is responsible for the discontinuity e capacitance Ceven and solving Equation (2.9c and 2. P ¢) .s 2 ].G-s 2 ( P.38) and (2.39) from Equation (2. P ¢ )dP ¢ 2 2 (2. P ¢ )]}dP ¢ 2 (2.42) To evaluate Codd. the result is f • (P ) + + 1 {f s 2 ( P ) .f -s 2 ( P )} = Ú s e ( P ¢)Geven ( P.[Gs 2 ( P.39) and shown in Figures 2. we use a similar process.s 2 ( P. P ¢ ) + G-s 2 ( P. P ¢)]} dP ¢ 2 Equation (2.43) which represents the charge distribution of the asymmetrical excitation shown in Figure 2.20 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS 1 1 f s 2 ( P ) = Ú s • ( P ¢ )Gs 2 ( P. Subtracting Equations (2. The corresponding integral equation is .40) 1 [Gs 2 ( P.40) represent the charge distribution of the symmetric excitation represented by Figure 2. A certain amount of charge is needed to raise the potential to f• for z > s/2 and lower the potential to -f• for z < -s/2.37) and (2. P ¢ )dP ¢ 2 2 1 1 f -s 2 ( P ) = Ú s • ( P ¢ )G.

46) [ pF m ] [ pF m ] (2. To solve this problem. and interpolation methods between these discrete values are not given. and for inﬁnite spacing. Equations (2.45) Using the concepts outlined earlier. C2 should approach zero.6 and 0. Silvester and Benedek calculated the capacitance for a gap in a microstrip line [22]. The shunt capacitance C1 should equal the end capacitance of an open-ended line for an inﬁnite spacing.Ceven ¯ 2Ë 2 C1 = where Codd Ê s ˆ = e ko Ë w¯ w Ceven Ê s ˆ ke = 12 e Ë w¯ w me mo (2. Garg and Bahl [25] have taken the numerical results of Silvester and Benedek [22] and obtained closed-form expressions for Codd and Ceven. The number of available graphs is limited. The numerical results for C1 and C2 are as follows [25.42) and (2.47) (2. The Green’s functions for the microstrip line are obtained by considering the multiple images of a line charge when placed parallel to a dielectric slab [24]. Subtraction of two nearly equal large quantities is avoided. where .TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 21 f• - 1 odd {f s 2 ( P ) + f -s 2 ( P )} = Ú s e ( P ¢)Godd ( P.0. P ¢)dP ¢ 2 (2. 26]: 1 Ceven 2 1Ê 1 ˆ C2 = Codd .48) applicable for er = 9.44) and Codd is evaluated from Codd = odd 2Ú s e ( P ¢ )dP ¢ f• (2. The closed-form expressions were obtained by using polynomial approximations of the available numerical results.43) permit the solutions for excess charge density and excess capacitance directly. The coupling capacitance C2 decreases with an increase in gap spacing.5 £ w/h £ 2. Numerical results for Codd and Ceven are avilable in the form of graphs the have been plotted for some discrete values of parameters [22]. Difﬁculty arises when capacitance values are needed for parameters that have not been graphed.

In ﬁlter analysis it is a common practice to employ a lumped-parameterequivalent.97 .6 ¯ 0.48).1.50) ( 0.26 . are expressed as follows: Z a = Z0 tanh Zb = gl 2 (2.2 Transmission-Line Equivalent Circuit The ring resonator can be modeled by its transmission-line equivalent circuit.6) Ë 9. The values of Ceven and Codd for other values of er in the range 2.6 ¯ Ê er ˆ Codd (e r ) = Codd (9. An example of the capacitance values that can be expected is shown in Figure 2. 26].0 (2. The expressions for the capacitances are quoted to an accuracy of 7% for the mentioned ranges.1¸ ˝ ke = 1.49) 0.619 log(w h) .5 £ er £ 15 can be calculated by using the following scaling factors: Ê er ˆ Ceven (e r ) = Ceven (9.3 £ s w £ 1.453 log(w h) ˛ me = 0.565 (w h) .22 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS mo = (w h)(0.(0. two-port network for a particular length of transmission line. h is the substrate height.8675 ¸ 0.6) Ë 9.54) (2.55) Z0 sinhg l where g is the propagation constant.0.1 £ s w £ 0. It is assumed that the length and impedance of the line represented is known. The lumped parameters.03 (w h)) ˛ 0. 2.0 (2.9 (2. and s is the gap width.16 ) 0.53) In the expressions for Codd and Ceven. .4.10. and Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the line. The general T-network is chosen for the analysis and shown in Figure 2.51) Note that there is an error in the calculation of Ceven from the equation given in [25.52) 0.1 £ s w £ 1. l is the length of line represented.043(w h) ˛ me = 1. The correct expression is shown here in Equation (2.12 ˝ ke = 2.11. Za and Zb. w is the strip width.3 (2.3853¸ ˝ ko = 4.8 (2.

A transmission line can be characterized by four quantities: a resistance R along the line.3495 mm. a conductance G shunting the line. From these primary constants the propagation of the wave along a line can be characterized by the complex propagation constant g as .2. and a capacitance C shunting the line.762 mm.10 Coupling capacitance (a) C1 and (b) C2 for w = 2. h = 0. an inductance L along the line.TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 23 FIGURE 2. and er = 2.

55) yields the T-network parameters for loss-free lines: Za = jZ0 tan bl 2 (2.60) (2.56) (2.58) Substituting for g in Equations (2.jZ0 csc bl . If loss-free lines are assumed.24 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 2.59) (2. g = (R + jwL)(G + jwC ) or g = a + jb (2.61) Zb = . then R and G in Equation (2.56) become negligible. and the equation becomes g ª jw LC or g ª jb (2. In most RF transmission lines the effects due to L and C tend to dominate.57) where a = the attenuation constant and b = the phase constant (wavenumber).54) and (2. These lines are generally referred to as “loss-free” lines. because of the relatively high inductive reactance and capacitive susceptibility.11 (a) Transmission line of length l and (b) the T-network equivalent.

The total equivalent circuit can now be pieced together to form a two-port network like that shown in Figure 2. (Permission from IEEE.61) are used for equivalent-circuit analysis.3 Ring Equivalent Circuit and Input Impedance The coupling gap and transmission line of the ring resonator have been modeled by their lumped-parameter equivalent circuit.TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 25 FIGURE 2. The input impedance is expressed as [8.wD(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] + [wC (C12 + 2C1C 2 )] [ D(C1 + C 2 ) .12.w -1 ][wC (C12 + 2C1C 2 )] + 2 2 [(C1 + C 2 ) . The standard for microwave measurements is 50 W.62) X in = (2.wD(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] 2 2 [(C1 + C 2 ) . The circuit can be reduced to a one-port circuit by terminating one of the two ports with an arbitrary impedance.wD(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] + [wC (C12 + 2C1C 2 )] [ D(C1 + C 2 ) .wD(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] + [wC (C12 + 2C1C 2 )] 2 2 [ D(C1 + C 2 ) . 2. The terminating impedance should correspond to the impedance of the feed lines.wD(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] [(C1 + C 2 ) . Because of the symmetry of the circuit.60) and (2.12 Equivalent circuit for the ring resonator [8].wC (C1 + C 2 )(C1 + 2C1C 2 )] + 2 2 [(C1 + C 2 ) .w -1 ][(C1 + C 2 ) .wD(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] + [wC (C12 + 2C1C 2 )] 2 2 (2. the input impedance can be found by simplifying parallel and series combinations.63) .4. 13]: Rin = C (C1 + C 2 )[(C1 + C 2 ) . The feed lines will normally have an impedance equal to the impedance of the test equipment that they connect to.) Equations (2.

The resonance fp is a parallel resonance point. We will see later in the experimental results that as the coupling gap is increased.Zb ) ˚ 2 RC 2 A= (C1 + C 2 ) + [wR(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] 2 2 2 B= (C1 + C 2 ) + w 2 R 2 (C12 + 2C1C 2 )(C1 + C 2 ) w (C1 + C 2 ) + w [wR(C12 + 2C1C 2 )] 2 where R is the terminated load. fs and fp. At the frequency fs.63). At fp the real impedance has a maximum value. The crystal also has parallel and series resonance points.Zb ) 2 2 ˙ 2Î (2 A) + (Z a .62) and (2. The normalized imaginary (Xin/Z0) and real impedance (Rin/Z0) are shown for an arbitrary circuit in Figure 2. The circuit Q of the ring resonator can be shown to be directly related to the size of the coupling gap. The high Q in the crystal is a result of the low impedance at fs followed by the high impedance at fp. and the real impedance has a normalized value of 1 (see Fig.14.Zb ) 2 2 D= 2 1È Zb (Z a . the circuit resonates when Xin = 0. 2.13b). fp is an asymptote that is approached from positive inﬁnity and negative inﬁnity. The resonance fp is a parallel resonance point. The resonance fs is a series resonance. The difference between fs and fp as a function of gap size is shown in Figure 2. the imaginary impedance is equal to zero. In the imaginary impedance.26 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS where C= 2 AZb (2 A) + (Z a . The resonant frequency for the circuit is deﬁned as the frequency that makes the impedance seen by the source purely resistive. there are two resonance points (Xin = 0).64) The equivalent circuit of the ring can also be modeled using commercially available software such as Touchstone or Supercompact.13a). As can be seen from the imaginary impedance (see Fig.2 B . In other words.13.2 B . . The input impedance is Zin = Rin + jXin (2.Zb ) ˘ Í(Z a . The impedance function of a microstrip ring is similar to the piezoelectric quartz crystal [27]. Using Equations (2.2 B . As the size of the gap is increased. the series and parallel resonance points become closer together and the Q is increased. The close resonance points result in a steeper attenuation slope before and after the resonant frequency than with conventional resonator ﬁlters. the circuit Q is increased. the impedance can be plotted as a function of frequency. 2. The same is true for the ring resonator.

h = 0.13 Normalized input (a) resistance and (b) reactance for a ring with er = 2. w = 2.762 mm.4.63) for the resonance condition Xin = 0 is merely a root-ﬁnding problem [8. gap = 0.520 mm.4 Frequency Solution The solution of Equation (2. Other methods may offer greater . There are several methods available to solve this problem. 2.34954 mm. The bisection method was chosen for the analysis. each of which has its advantages and disadvantages.2.2959 mm. 13].TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 27 FIGURE 2. and r = 10.

The interval that contains opposite signs is again halved. Because this equation has two solutions that are close together. To ﬁnd the series resonance the initial guess f0 is made smaller than fs.a). is given. b] to be halved into two subintervals. This procedure is repeated until the interval being checked is smaller than a given tolerance or the solution is determined exactly.14 Difference of the series and parallel resonance frequencies for an increasing gap size. The method calls for the interval [a. p] and [p. The interval is gradually moved until the solution lies within it. b]. When the solution is known to lie within the interval. with f(a) and f(b) of opposite sign (f(a)f(b) < 0). it is moved such that a = f0 + (b . deﬁned on the interval [a.a)).63). . If no solution is found in that interval (f(a)f(b) > 0). is then started at f0(a = f0 and b = f0 + (b . The interval [a.a) and b = f0 + 2(b . where p = 1 (a + b). Suppose a continuous function f(x). [a.28 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 2. b]. The interval to be checked. b]. rates of convergence. The bisection method will converge for all continuous functions. but they cannot converge unless the function is wellbehaved and a good approximation is used for the initial guess. b] is made smaller than the difference fp . special care has to be taken so that only the desired root is obtained.fs. To avoid this inconsistency the root can be found by a moving interval that always approaches from the same side. The 2 function is evaluated at point p and each subinterval is again checked for opposite signs ( f(a)f(p) < 0 or f(p)f(b) < 0). It would be inconsistent to allow the algorithm to solve for fs one time and fp another time. [a. The bisection algorithm can be used for the solution of the resonant frequency from Equation (2. the bisection algorithm is used to determine the solution.

56 7. This proposed equivalent circuit should be veriﬁed by experimental results [13]. square. and the magnetic-wall model [2] (lower half).15 shows the conﬁgurations of the one-port square and annular ring resonators.19 7. The most obvious assumption is the use of the end-to-end model for the coupling gap. These experimental resonant frequencies are recorded in Table 2. In the case of the square ring.254 0. each section .984 2.838 Mean Radius (mm) 6.279 0.5 2.28 14. It can be seen that the transmission-line method accurately predicts the resonant frequency to within 1%.635 0.5 Model Veriﬁcation The transmission-line approach allows analysis of the ring resonators loaded with discontinuities or solid-state devices. Rings were designed on RT/Duroid 6010 and 5880.TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 29 TABLE 2.451 4.5 10.254 Width (mm) 0.3. or meander. Experimental data on the resonant frequencies was measured for the ﬁrst two resonant modes (n = 1 and n = 2). The experimental data is then compared with the theoretical resonant frequencies obtained using the transmission-line method (upper half of Table 2.069 TABLE 2. This is comparable to the results obtained from the magnetic-wall model calculations in [2]. For a ring of any general shape.602 0. a simple transmission-line model unaffected by boundary conditions is used to calculate the frequency modes of ring resonators of any general shape such as annular.10 n=2 5.077 0.6 Frequency Modes for Ring Resonators [10] Unlike the conventional magnetic-wall model. 2.4. The data for the circuits are in Table 2.900 Gap (mm) 0.4).2.2 Height (mm) 0.2 Circuit 1 2 3 Data for the Circuits Used to Verify the Circuit Model Substrate 6010 6010 5880 Relative Permittivity 10.2 Resonant Frequencies for the Circuits of Resonant Frequency (GHz) Circuit 1 2 3 n=1 2.00 14.066 0. the total length l may be divided into l1 and l2 sections. Figure 2.3 Table 2. This analysis will not be valid if the circuit model does not accurately represent the ring.4.13 2.

37 0.4 A Comparison of Table 2.15 The conﬁgurations of one-port (a) square and (b) annular ring resonators [10].3 and the Theoretical Results from (upper) the Transmission Line Method and (lower) the Magnetic-Wall Model Frequency Error (%) Circuit 1 2 3 n=1 0.2=0 G2 (a) -z1 V1 I1 V I r V2 I2 l2 -z2 l1 l=l1+l2 G1 z1.60 0.28 0.56 n=2 0.38 l1 -z1 V1 I1 I V V2 I2 l=l1+l2 -z2 l2 G1 z1.78 0.2=0 G2 (b) FIGURE 2.79 0.63 n=2 0.07 0. .49 0.28 Frequency Error (%) Circuit 1 2 2 n=1 0.30 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS TABLE 2.89 0.

When a resonance occurs. the absolute values of voltage and current standing waves on each section l1 and l2 are shown in Figure 2.65a) (2.2(0) is o the reﬂection coefﬁcient at z1. For higher order modes.2 (z1.2 (z1. (2.16.2(0) = 1 into Equation (2. .2 ) jbz . For a lossless transmission line.2 ) = Vo+ (e I1. The shortest length of the ring resonator that supports these standing waves can be obtained from the positions of the maximum values of these standing waves.2 (0)e jbz 1 .2(0) = 1 (2. Inspecting Figure 2. which can be treated as the fundamental mode of the ring.jbVo+ (e 1.65b) V (e .66) ( ) Letting ∂ V1. The ring is fed by the source voltage V at somewhere with z1.2 and the voltage V are arbitrarily chosen on the ring.jbz = .2 < 0.65). z1 and z2 are the coordinates corresponding to sections l1 and l2.2 ) ∂ z1.jbz 1 . the shortest length of each section on the ring has to be lg/2. the voltages and currents for the two sections are given as follows: V1.2 ) = 1.G1.G1. o V + G1. 2 + G1.2(0)ejbz is the reﬂected wave propagating in the -z1.67) Substituting G1.2 .2 ) = j 2Vo+ sin(bz1.68a) (2. 2.68b) Based on Equation (2.2 ) = 2Vo+ cos(bz1.2 (0)e jbz1. Thus. standing waves set up on the ring.16. and Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the ring.2 ) Zo (2 .2 ) I 1.jbz1.2 = 0. These positions can be calculated from the derivatives of the voltages and currents in Equation (2. The positions of the zero point of z1.2 = n lg 2 for n = 1.TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 31 is considered to be a transmission line.2 (z1.2 .69) . The derivatives of the voltages are 1. the standing waves repeat for multiples of lg/2 on the each section of the ring.2 z 1. 2 ) (2.2 .2 ) Zo + o where V + e-jbz is the incident wave propagating in the +z1. 3. respectively. the reﬂection coefﬁcients can be found as ∂ z1. .2 direction.2 (2.2 (z1. the voltages and currents can be obtained as V1.2 (z1.2 ∂V1.2 (0)e 1.2 z1. .68).2 = 0 .65). to support standing waves.2 =0 G1. G1. l1.2 direction.

2.71) Equation (2. including those shown in [28.32 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS I1 ( z1 ) V1 ( z1 ) V 1 I1 V I V 2 I2 l1 -z1 -z1 -lg z1. For a one-port ring resonator.15b.16 Standing waves on each section of the square ring resonator [10]. (2. . Therefore.70) shows a general expression for frequency modes and may be applied to any conﬁguration of microstrip ring resonators. 29].2=0 I 2 ( z2 ) -lg 2 -z1=0 V2 ( z2 ) l=l1+l2 l2 -z2 -z2 -lg -lg 2 -z2=0 FIGURE 2.72b) . as shown in Figure 2. 2. . the frequency modes are given as 2pr = n lg 2 n = 1.7 An Error in Literature for One-Port Ring Circuit In [11]. where n is the mode number.17a.4.72a) fo = nc 4pr e eff (2. one. l = nlg = 2pr (2. . 3.70) or in terms of the annular ring resonator with a mean radius r as shown in Figure 2. the total length of the square ring resonator is l = l1 + l2 = nlg (2.and two-port ring resonators show different frequency modes.

17b.73a). the one-port ring resonator has the same frequency modes given in Equation (2.73a) (2.6. 3. in Section 2.and (b) twoport ring resonators at n = 1 mode [10]. The ring resonators in Figure 2.73b) However. 2. .17 Simulated electrical current standing waves for (a) one.17 are designed at fundamental . For the two-port ring resonator. as shown in Figure 2.TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 33 Y F X : V max : I =0 : V =0 : I max (a) Y F X : V max : I =0 : V =0 : I max (b) FIGURE 2. nc 2pr e eff (2. where fo is the resonant frequencies.4. . The results can also be investigated by EM simulation performed by the IE3D electromagnetic simulator based on the method of moment [30]. the frequency modes are 2pr = nl g fo = n = 1.71) as those of the two-port ring resonator given in Equation (2. .

two identical resonators are excited and produce the same frequency response.71) or (2. both one. The perturbed square ring designed at fundamental mode of 2 GHz is fabricated on a RT/Duroid 6010. This dual-mode phenomenon may be explained more simply and more generally using the transmission-line model of Section 2. However.8)–(2.2 and thickness h = 50 mil.19 illustrates the measured S21 conﬁrming the splitting frequencies for the n = 1 mode around 2 GHz. For the n = 1 mode. a perturbed square ring resonator is simulated in Figure 2. Inspecting Equations (2. Thus.5) and (2.8)–(2.17. which are current standing waves. 2. Figures 2. two splitting different resonant frequencies are generated.34 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS mode at 2 GHz with dielectric constant er = 10.18a and 2. which is a short circuit. 135°. or asymmetrical feed lines. for the n = 2 mode. 135°. the magnetic-wall model cannot explain the dual mode of the ring resonator with complicate boundary conditions.2 er = 10. if one of the lg/2 resonators is perturbed out of balance with the other. Also. notches.5) and (2. two different frequency modes are excited and couple to each other. 225°. which describes the ring resonator as two identical lg/2 resonators connected in parallel.4. the ring resonator with a perturbing stub or notch at F = 45°. Measured results in Figure 2. two identical current standing waves are established on the ring resonator in parallel.3)–(2.10). which overlap each other. Therefore.10).73a).3)–(2. As seen from the simulation results in Figure 2. However. 225°.2 substrate with a thickness h = 25 mil. or 315°. .17. If the ring does not have any perturbation and is excited by symmetrical feed lines.18 shows the simulated electric currents on the square ring resonator with a perturbing stub at F = 45° for the n = 1 and the n = 2 modes. Furthermore. one of lg/2 resonators is perturbed so that the two lg/2 resonators do not balance each other.4. The dual mode follows from the solution of Maxwell’s equations for the magnetic-wall model of the ring resonator in Equations (2.18.and two-port ring resonators have the same frequency modes as given in Equations (2.19 has conﬁrmed that the resonant frequency at the n = 2 mode of 4 GHz is not affected by the perturbation.18c shows the perturbing stub located at the position of zero voltage. As seen in Figure 2. Figure 2. both exhibit the same electrical current ﬂows. or 315° generates the dual mode only for odd modes.18b show the simulated electrical currents for the splitting resonant frequencies. Therefore. they cannot explain why the dual mode only happens for odd modes instead of even modes when the ring resonator has a perturbing stub or notch at F = 45°. Figure 2. the perturbed stub does not disturb the resonator and both lg/2 resonators balance each other without frequency splitting. To investigate the dual-mode behavior.6.8 Dual Mode The dual mode is composed of two degenerate modes or splitting resonant frequencies that may be excited by perturbing stubs. Figure 2.

Although the mode . L. a simple mode chart of the ring was developed to describe the relation between the physical ring radius and resonant mode and frequency [4]. L.5 RING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT IN TERMS OF G.RING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT IN TERMS OF G. In addition. C The basic operation of the ring resonator based on the magnetic-wall model was originally introduced by Wolff and Knoppik [1]. and (c) mode n = 2 [10].18 The simulated electrical currents of the square ring resonator with a perturbed stub at F = 45° for (a) the low splitting resonant frequency of n = 1 mode and (b) high splitting resonant frequency of mode n = 1. C 35 Input Output : V max : I =0 : V =0 : I max (a) Input Output : V max : I =0 : V =0 : I max (b) Input Output : V max : I =0 : V =0 : I max (c) FIGURE 2. 2.

19 The measured results for modes n = 1 and 2 of the square ring resonator with a perturbed stub at F = 45° [10]. The ring resonator is divided by input and output ports on arbitrary positions of the ring with two sections l1 and l2 to form a parallel circuit. the two-port network with an open circuit at port 2 (i2 = 0) models a one-port network to ﬁnd the equivalent input impedance through ABCD matrix and Y parameters operations [31]. and C for the ring circuit. Although this model could predict the behavior of a ring resonator well.5.4.20. For this parallel circuit.36 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS S21 n=2 -20 n =1 Magnitude (dB) -40 -60 -80 1 2 3 4 Frequency (GHz) 5 FIGURE 2.74) By setting i2 to zero. The transmission-line model used a T-network in terms of equivalent impedances to analyze a ring circuit. L. the overall Y parameters are given by ÈY11 Y12 ˘ = È Yo [ coth (g l1 ) + coth (g l 2 )] -Yo [ csch (g l1 ) + csch (g l 2 )]˘ ÍY12 Y22 ˙ Í -Yo [ csch (g l1 ) + csch (g l 2 )] Yo [ cot h (g l1 ) + cot h (g l 2 )] ˙ Î ˚ Î ˚ (2. it provides only a limited description of the effects of the circuit parameters and dimensions. such as equivalent lumped elements G. it could not provide a straightforward circuit view. the input impedance Zic of the ring can be found as follows: . chart of the magnetic-wall model has been studied extensively. A further study on a ring resonator using the transmission-line model was introduced in Section 2. 2.1 Equivalent Lumped Elements for Closed.and Open-Loop Microstrip Ring Resonators [12] As seen in Figure 2.

(Permission from IEEE.78b) (2. the input impedance Zic can be approximated as Zic @ Za 2al g 1 + jpDw al gw o (2.75) where lg = l/2 = lg/2. C 37 Port 1 l2 i1 l=l1+l2 l1 i2=0 v1 w i2 Port 2 v Zic= i1 1 v2 i1 v1 Zic Port 1 l2 l=l1+l2 l1 v1 i1 w i2 Zic= v2 Port 2 v1 i1 i2=0 FIGURE 2. L.76) with Equation (2. L.Y12Y21 2 tanh(al g ) + j tan(bl g ) (2.77).) Zic = Y22 Zo 1 + j tanh(al g ) tan(bl g ) = Y11Y22 . C circuit.76) For a general parallel G.77) Comparing Equation (2.RING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT IN TERMS OF G. the conductance of the equivalent circuit of the ring is Gc = 2al g Zo = al g Zo and the capacitance of the equivalent circuit of the ring is Gc = p Zow o (2. Using some assumptions and derivations for alg and blg [12].20 The input impedance of two-port network of the closed-loop ring resonator [12].78a) . the input impedance is [32] Zi = 1 G + 2 jDwC (2.

21 Equivalent elements Gc. Lo. Lc.22a.78) and the unloaded Q is Quc = w oCc Gc = p al g (2. the unloaded Q of the ring resonator can be found from Equation (2. Moreover.22a shows the conﬁguration of open-circuited lg/2 microstrip ring resonators with annular and U shapes. (Permission from IEEE. and capacitance of the closed-loop ring resonator.78c) where Gc. and Cc. Lc. inductance. l3 is the phys- Gc = alg Zo Lc = 1 2 w o Cc Cc = p Zowo Z ic FIGURE 2. (Permission from IEEE. Figure 2. Lc.) .38 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS The inductance of the equivalent circuit of the ring can be derived from w 0 = 1 Lc Cc and is given by 2 Lc = 1 w o Cc (2.21 shows the equivalent lumped element circuit of the ring in terms Gc. and Cc stand for the equivalent conductance. and Co of the closed-loop ring [12].22 Transmission-line model of (a) the open-loop ring resonator and (b) its equivalent elements Go. As seen in Figure 2.79) Figure 2.) v1 i1 Cf Cg Cf i2 v2 v 1 i1 Cf Cg l3 Cf i2 w v2 l3 w (a) Go = a lg 2Z o Lo = 1 2 w o Co Co = p 2 Z ow o Z io (b) FIGURE 2. and Co [12].

and inductance of the equivalent circuit of the ring are Go = al g 2Zo . Thus.and the open-loop ring resonator.79) and (2. In addition to the dielectric and conductor losses.81) The equivalent circuit in terms of Go. Moreover.and the open-loop ring resonator are not the same.84) Equations (2. L.1.77).83a) (2.and open-loop ring resonators are equal.84) sustain for the same losses condition of the closed. the total losses for the closed. capacitances.RING EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT IN TERMS OF G. L.82) Inspecting the equivalent conductances. the equivalent length of the ring is l3 + 2Dl = lg/2 = lg for the fundamental mode. the input impedance Zio of the open-loop ring can be approximated as Z o al g 1 + jpDw al gw g Z io = (2. Under this condition.83a) and (2. Considering the open-end effect.85) . and Cf is the fringe capacitance caused by fringe ﬁeld at the both ends of the ring.83b) In addition. Co = p 2Zow .78) and (2. namely Quc = Quo for the same attenuation constant (2.82). the conductance.84) should be rewritten as follows: Quc > Quo and Gc < 2Go (2.81). observing the Equations (2.and open-loop ring resonators in Equations (2. the relations of the equivalent lumped elements G. and Co is shown in Figure 2. the unloaded Q of the closed.5. the unloaded Q of the ring is given by Quo = w oCo Go = p al g (2. Equations (2. C 39 ical length of the ring. and inductances of the closed.83a) and (2. the open-loop ring resonator has a radiation loss caused by the open ends [34]. C between these two rings can be found as follows: Gc = 2Go for the same attenuation constant C c = 2C o and Lc = Lc 2 (2. and 2 Lo = 1 w o Co (2.22b.80) Comparing Equation (2. In practice. Cg is the gap capacitance.80) with Equation (2. total losses of the open-loop ring are larger than that of the closed-loop ring. Lo. The fringe capacitance can be replaced by an equivalent length Dl [33]. Through the same derivations in Section 2. capacitance.

and openloop ring resonators as shown in Figure 2.8.2 with er = 10.40 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 2.and open-loop ring resonators [12]. and t = 0.) 2.7%. This section summarizes this method based on [35]. the measured unloaded Qs and equivalent lumped elements of the closed.4 is straightforward and provides reasonably accurate results for simple circuits at low frequencies. A more accurate distributed transmission-line model has been proposed to overcome these problems [9.2. . h = 10 mil. and t = 0. The ring resonators were fabricated for two different dielectric constants: RT/Duriod 5870 with er = 2. The largest difference between the measured and calculated unloaded Q shown in Table 2. However. and circuits loaded with solidstate devices and discontinuities along the rings can be analyzed. As seen in Tables 2.and open-loop rings show good agreement with each other.7 for the closed-loop square ring resonator is 5.23 were designed at the fundamental mode of 2 GHz.5. C of the closed. and feeds located at any place along the ring. The model includes the losses and can deal with multiple devices. t is the foil thickness. and D is the surface roughness.2 Calculated and Experimental Results To verify the calculations of the unloaded Q and G. 35]. L. (c) open-loop with the curvature effect. h = 10 mil.33.7 mil. The method lends itself to CAD implementation. discontinuities. the model is not accurate because the effects of the dispersive nature of the microstrip line and curvature of the ring resonator are neglected.23 Layouts of the (a) annular. h is the substrate thickness. (Permission from IEEE. (b) square. four conﬁgurations of the closed. 2.7 mil and RT/Duriod 6010. and (d) U-shaped open-loop ring resonators [12]. where er is the relative dielectric constant.6 DISTRIBUTED TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL The transmission-line model described in Section 2.5 through 2.

both longitudinal and transverse currents are excited.12 19.253 2.05 106.08 3.43 ¥ 10-3 0.1 3.55 2.means(MHz) Measured Loaded Q Measured Unloaded Q Calculated Unloaded Q Annular Ring 2 1.17 1.567 mm for a 60-ohms Line.04 2.963 32.5 101. t = 0.983 33. These currents cause the normally independent longitudinal section electric (LSE) and longitudinal section magnetic (LSM) modes to couple.25 1. D = 1.04 2.98 102.72 103.45 ¥ 10-3 0. and lg = 108.66 19 103.252 2.41 U-Shape Open-loop Ring 2 1. D = 1.1 Square Ring U-Shape Open-loop Ring 2.43 ¥ 10-3 0.35 Square Ring 2 1.07 Calculated a (dB/mm) Calculated Conductance G (mS) Calculated Capacitor C (pF) Calculated Inductor L (nH) Measured ameas (dB/mm) Measured Conductance G (mS) Measured Capacitor C (pF) Measured Inductor L (nH) 2.7 mil.5 100.5 Unloaded Qs for the Parameters: er = 2.398 mm Open-loop Ring with the Curvature Effect 2 1.53 102.45 ¥ 10-3 0.508 4.508 4.567 mm for a 60-ohms Line.52 2.12 3.36 ¥ 10-3 0.977 32. w = 0.69 103.6 Equivalent Elements for the Parameters: er = 2.38 ¥ 10-3 0.1 Microstrip Dispersion When a radio frequency (RF) wave propagates down a microstrip line. and lg = 108. h = 10 mil.6.3 19 104.495 4. h = 10 mil.33.42 ¥ 10-3 0.08 3.17 1.54 2.64 103.35 TABLE 2.33. t = 0.398 mm Resonators Annular Ring Open-loop Ring with the Curvature Effect 2.33 19. thereby producing a hybrid mode .49 4.DISTRIBUTED TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 41 TABLE 2.7 mil.256 2.22 1.397 mm.78 103.256 2.41 Resonators Designed Resonant Frequency (GHz) Measured Resonant Frequency (GHz) Measured Insertion Loss Lmeas (dB) Measured 3-dB Bandwidth BW3dB.32 105.964 31.397 mm. w = 0.52 2.43 ¥ 10-3 0.

48 21 95.2. D = 1. This can be mathematically represented by introducing a frequency-dependent expression for the effective dielectric constant (eeff(f )). w = 0. D = 1.27 ¥ 10-3 0.33 0.23 1.97 ¥ 10-3 1. A nonlinear relation between the .7 mil.03 35.71 99.65 2 2.52 5.21 Square Ring U-Shape Open-loop Ring 2 2.397 mm. w = 0. h = 10 mil.589 mm for a 30-ohms Line.36 96.06 ¥ 10-3 0.295 mm Resonators Annular Ring Open-loop Ring with the Curvature Effect 2 1.397 mm.54 4.05 8.46 93.77 5.42 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS TABLE 2.76 5.589 mm for a 30-ohms Line.17 1.7 mil.04 ¥ 10-3 1.48 20.4 21 95.09 ¥ 10-3 0.87 93.8 Equivalent Elements for the Parameters: er = 10. and lg = 55. and lg = 55.99 93.968 35.52 5.83 20.03 33.54 Square Ring U-Shape Open-loop Ring 5.76 4.29 97.29 ¥ 10-3 1.65 TABLE 2.2.5 96.5 Calculated a (dB/mm) Calculated Conductance G (mS) Calculated Capacitor C (pF) Calculated Inductor L (nH) Measured ameas (dB/mm) Measured Conductance G (mS) Measured Capacitor C (pF) Measured Inductor L (nH) 5.21 0.56 4.974 35.mens (MHz) Measured Loaded Q Measured Unloaded Q Calculated Unloaded Q 2 1.75 conﬁguration [36]. The coupling increases with frequency.12 8.5 97.295 mm Resonators Annular Ring Open-loop Ring with the Curvature Effect 5.11 1.7 Unloaded Qs for the Parameters: er = 10. t = 0.29 ¥ 10-3 1. h = 10 mil.27 ¥ 10-3 0.12 8.38 97.21 Designed Resonant Frequency (GHz) Measured Resonant Frequency (GHz) Measured Insertion Loss Lmeas (dB) Measured 3-dB Bandwidth BW3dB.44 0.06 8.38 93.33 0. owing to the betten conﬁnement of the ﬁelds to the dielectric at higher frequencies. t = 0.56 4.54 4.17 1.

causing different frequencies to propagate at different velocities. er is the relative dielectric constant of the substrate.1844 + P3 P4 )10 fh] with È ˘w 0. which is dependent on the geometry of the microstrip.065683e -8.89) 4.86) is better than 0.7513w / h 20 ˙ (1 + 0.6w / h 1 . and is valid up to about 60 GHz.93) In the preceding equation. Here ee is given by ee = where Ê wˆ F Ë h¯ -0. hence eeff(f ) can be evaluated very accurately.1 t h + F Ë h¯ 2 2 4.87) P4 = 1 + 2.91) [ 8 ] where f is the frequency in GHz.5 2 ÏÊ 12 h ˆ wˆ Ê + 0. and 1 £ er £ 20.03442er ] P3 = 0.0.92) if w £1 h w if ≥1 h (2.5763 (2.6% in the range 0.5 12 h ˆ ÔÊ ÔË 1 + w ¯ Ó er + 1 er .87) [ ] (2.157 fh) ˚ h Î P2 = 0. This phenomenon is termed microstrip dispersion.e ( . In the limit f Æ 0.ee (2.e -0. .33622[1 .90) (2. t denotes the thickness of the metal that constitutes the microstrip line.916) (2.e ( .97 1. and ee is the static value of the effective dielectric constant.0363e -4. This is given by e r .1 £ w/h £ 100.DISTRIBUTED TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 43 wave number and frequency is thus introduced.04 1 ÔË 1 + Ë Ô w ¯ h¯ =Ì -0. The accuracy of Equation (2.fh /3.1 Ê wˆ er .6315 + .525 P1 = 0.86) e eff ( f ) = e r 1 + P( f ) where P ( f ) = P1P2 [(0. This equation spans a fairly wide variety of frequencies and dielectric substrates. eeff(f ) Æ ee. w and h are the microstrip width and height in cm.6 w h (2.88) (2.751 1 .27488 + Í0. Kirschning and Jansen [37] proposed an accurate closed-form empirical relation for eeff(f ) that can readily be implemented into any CAD program.er /15. respectively.

5 [38].24 (a) Microstrip bend. For optimum chamfer.6e r + 3.393e r + 0. . Illustrated in Figure 2.24b.44 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS 2. (b) equivalent circuit.1. When 0. This reduces to the straight-line case. C. also shown in the same ﬁgure are the reference planes that deﬁne the edges of the bend.94) (2.6.q ˆ L = 0. the ratio of the width of the chamfered region b to the width of the microstrip line w is approximately 0.95) [ ] where h and er are the thickness in mm and the dielectric constant. These equations are in general valid for w/h and er in the ranges 0. In the equivalent-circuit representation of the bend.8)Ê ˆ ˙ C = 0.177(w h ) Ë 90 ¯ 2 (2.44 h 1 . the accuracy of the FIGURE 2. in the region restricted to the conﬁnes of the reference planes. is shown in Figure 2.q ˆ È (3.062e -0. hence there are no discontinuities. and 2 £ er £ 13.2 £ w/h £ 1. respectively. respectively. Kirschning et al. The equivalent circuit of the bend. the capacitance C (pf) and inductance L (nH) are given by w w ˘ Ê 180 . [39] derived an empirical closed-form expression to represent the equivalent circuit of the bend.2 £ w/h £ 6.2 Effect of Curvature A curved microstrip line can be modeled as a cascade of sections of microstrip lines with chamfered bends. the inductance L and capacitance C represent the inductance associated with the discontinuity and the capacitance to ground.24a is a typical bend in a microstrip line for an arbitrary bend angle q. L Æ 0. of the substrate. and in the limit q Æ 180.001h Ë 90 ¯ Í Ë h¯ Ë h¯˚ Î 0.947 Ê 180 . and q is the angle of the chamfer in degrees. For optimum chamfer.62)Ê ˆ + (7.

(2. This causes the circuit’s resonant frequency to deviate from the intrinsic resonant frequency of the ring.25 Layout of the microstrip ring resonator. The resonator in this case is said to be “loosely coupled. the coupling becomes tight and the gap capacitance becomes appreciable. then the coupling gap does not affect the resonant frequencies of the ring. This may be expressed as 2pr = nlg for n = 1. The basic microstrip ring resonator is illustrated in Figure 2. however. this model can be applied to accurately model the curvature of conventional microstrip ring resonators. r = (ri + ro)/2). If the feed lines are moved closer to the resonator.25. to accurately model the ring resonator.3%. 2. This relation is valid for the loose coupling case. as it does not take into consideration the effect of the coupling gap. lg is the guided wavelength.3 Distributed-Circuit Model The distributed ring circuit model is described in [9.e. When the mean circumference of the ring resonator is equal to an integral multiple of a guided wavelength. Hence.. Power is coupled into and out of the resonator via two feed lines located at diametrically opposite points. If the distance between the feed lines and the resonator is large.” Loose coupling is a manifestation of the negligibly small capacitance of the coupling gap. .DISTRIBUTED TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 45 model is within 0. and since w/h £ 1 for standard 50-W lines on high dielectric-constant substrates. 2. . Since ring resonators are usually built on substrates with dielectric constants greater than 2.6. . . 35]. Coupling Gap r1 r0 Feed Line FIGURE 2.96) where r is the mean radius of the ring (i. and n is the mode number. resonance is established. A more detailed account of the application of this model to the microstrip ring resonator is presented in the following. the capacitance of the coupling gap should be considered in conjunction with microstrip dispersion and curvature.

for a 36sided polygon. when the ring is symmetrically excited. This may be estimated from Equation (2. (Permission from Electronics Letters. the small curvature of the ring over the region corresponding to the width of the feed lines makes the gaps appear symmetric. the bend angle q is 170°. In actuality. it is conventional to use lines whose characteristic impedance corresponds to 50 W. and it was found that any further increase in the number of sides did not improve the accuracy of the model. it was successfully applied to the asymmetric gaps between the feed lines and the resonator. the effective dielectric constant and guided wavelength are estimated from Equations (2. Although the resonant frequencies of an ideal ring resonator are independent of the characteristic impedance of the line that forms the closed loop.) . however. The approach underlying the distributed transmission-line model is that the ring is analyzed as a polygon of n sides.This is illustrated in Figure 2.96) as follows: For a given frequency and a dielectric material of known thickness.26 Distributed transmission-line model [9]. The gap between the feed lines and the resonator is modeled in accordance with Hammerstad’s model [41] for the microstrip gap.96) to evaluate the mean radius of the ring. a 36-sided polygon was used. The sides of the polygon and the feed lines were modeled as sections of lossy microstrip transmission lines.46 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS In order to apply the distributed transmission-line model. The discontinuities at the vertices of the polygon were modeled as optimally chamfered microstrip bends. The value of the guided wavelength thus determined is substituted into Equation (2. Although this gap model is valid only for symmetric gaps. In actuality. the dimensions of a 50-W line are estimated from a commercially available program called Linecalc [40]. Further.26 wherein the ring resonator is represented by a 16-sided polygon. the length of each side of the polygon was ﬁxed to be on thirtysixth of the ring’s mean circumference.93). the maximum ﬁeld points in FIGURE 2. the mean radius of the ring resonator must be known.86) through (2.

3 (2.99c) dB unit length (2.68Rs1 M Ê h hU ˆ 1+ + Ë 2pZ o h w eff pw eff ¯ 1 2p £ w h £ 2 ac = 8.1 e reff ( f ) l 0 attenuation constants.97) where a and b are the attenuation and phase constants. each section is modeled by its equivalent ABCD-matrix. The conductor attenuation constant ac can be approximately expressed as [42] w h £ 1 2p ac = 8. and hence application of the symmetric-gap model is further justiﬁed.1 tan d and ac are dielectric and conductor e r .94˜ ˙˝ dB unit length Ë 2h ¯ ˚˛ p Î Ó h dB unit length (2.99b) (2.98) jZ0 sinh g l ˘ ˙ cosh g l ˙ ˚ (2. This bears resemblance to a microstrip gap. The attenuation constant of a microstrip line is given as follows [42]: a = ad +ac where a d = 27.68Rs1 M Ê h hV ˆ + Á1 + ˜ 2pZo h Ë weff pweff ¯ w h≥ 2 È ˘ weff ph ˙Ê 8.94 ˙ Î ˚ 2h -2 weff 2 È weff Ï Ê ˆ ˘¸ ¥Ì + In Í2peÁ + 0.68Rs1 Í weff h hV ˆ ac = + + ˜ Í ˙Á 1 + Ë 2pZo h Í h weff weff pweff ¯ + 0.99d) . respectively. and ereff(f) is the relative dielectric including the effects of dispersion [43].99a) e r e reff ( f ) .DISTRIBUTED TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 47 both the feed lines and the resonator are collinear. Having represented the ring resonator as a cascade of sections of transmission lines with discontinuities. The ABCD-matrix for a transmission line (TRL) of length l is È cosh g l ÈA B˘ = Í sinh g l Í ˙ ÎC D˚ TRL Í Î Z0 where the propagation constant g is given by g = a + jb (2.

respectively. t is the microstrip thickness.27.48 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS 2 4pw t 2h t Ê weff ˆ + .101) The ﬂowchart for the modeling procedure is shown in Figure 2. ds = 1/Rss is the skin depth. U = In with M = 1 . f is the frequency. The ABCDmatrices for an admittance (Y) and impedance (Z) are È A B ˘ = È1 Í ˙ Í ÎC D˚Y ÎY and È A B ˘ = È1 Z ˘ ÍC D˙ Z Í 0 1 ˙ Î ˚ Î ˚ (2. The phase constant b is deﬁned as b= 2p lg (2. D is the surface roughness. This is transformed into a Y-matrix according to the following transformation: ÈD ÈY11 Y12 ˘ = 1 Í B ÍY21 Y22 ˙ Z0 Í -1 Î ˚ Í ÎB BC . Computation of the ABCD-matrix for the 36-sided polygon is done in two steps. V = In + . w is the width of the microstrip line. ˜ . or solid-state devices.100) where lg is the guided wavelength of the line. and weff is the effective width of the microstrip line.AD ˘ ˙ B ˙ A ˙ ˚ B (2. Rs is the surface resistance of the conductor.102) 0˘ ˙ 1˚ (2.103) The Y-matrices for each half-section are then added.4 and R s = [44] Ë d s ¯ ˙˝ p s Ó Î ˚˛ where Rs1 is the surface-roughness resistance of the conductor. as an admittance Y or an impedance Z. s is the conductivity of the microstrip line. the ABCD-matrix for each half of the polygon is computed by cascading the ABCD-matrices corresponding to the transmission lines and bends. First.Á Ë 4h ¯ t w t w Ï 2 È Ê D ˆ 2 ˘¸ pfm 0 Rs1 = Rs Ì1 + tan -1 Í1. the capacitances and inductances involved are modeled. and the resultant matrix is transformed into an ABCD-matrix in accordance with the following transformation: . notches. For discontinuities such as gaps.

104) The overall ABCD-matrix of the circuit is then computed by cascading the equivalent ABCD-matrices for the feed lines. and the resonator. 50 W terminations are assumed at the input and output.Y11Y22 ) -Y11 ˚ (2. The ABCD-matrix thus obtained is converted to an S-matrix based on the following transformation: .27 Flowchart for estimation of S-parameters. gap. -Y22 -1 ˘ ÈA B˘ = 1 È Í ˙ Í ˙ ÎC D˚ Y21 Î(Y12Y21 .DISTRIBUTED TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 49 FIGURE 2.

The results obtained are shown in Figure 2.A+ .28 for the ﬁrst. the smaller the mean radius. .BC ) Í A + Z0 . The agreement between theory and the experiments of Pintzos and Pregla is good even for rings whose mean radii are small.28 Mean radius of ring vs.CZ0 . and ﬁfth modes. by virtue of FIGURE 2. third.D ˙ S12 ˘ 1 ˙ ˙ = Ds Í S 22 ˚ B Í 2 . the wider the ring. resonant frequency. and hence curvature effects are more pronounced.106) The S-parameters are evaluated at several frequency points over a swept range of frequencies. and resonance is said to occur at points where the insertion loss (|S21|) is minimum. Thus.CZ0 + D˙ Í ˙ Î ˚ Z0 (2.50 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS È S11 Í S 21 Î B È ˘ 2( AD . The model was implemented into Touchstone [45] and was applied to the ring resonators reported by Pintzos and Pregla [3]. Resonant frequencies are then determined from plots of |S21| versus f.105) where Ds = A + B + CZ0 + D Z0 (2.

25 mm Mean radius of the resonator = 7.635 mm Line width = 0. Although the validity of the model was established by comparison with the results of Pintzos and Pregla [3]. this is attributed to the error margins associated with the discontinuity and dispersion models. Toward this. and hence circuits have to be simulated and tested in a tightly coupled environment. . it is desirable to have tight coupling to obtain a lower insertion loss.29.DISTRIBUTED TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL 51 FIGURE 2.573 mm Coupling gap = 0. In this case. the coupling gap affects the intrinsic resonances of the ring. the accuracy of the model is borne out even further.29 Mode number vs. In a circuit environment. the results compared quite well. to validate the accuracy of the model. however. the size of the coupling gap was 4 mm. The measured resonant frequencies were compared with the distributed transmission-line model in Figure 2. being valid for resonators of small mean radii. resonant frequency. and hence the coupling was loose. It should be mentioned that the discrepancy between theory and experiment is of the order of 1% for modes greater than 5.213 mm These ring circuits were tested using an HP 8510B automatic network analyzer. As can be seen.5) substrates as per the following dimensions: Substrate thickness = 0. ring resonators were fabricated on RT Duroid 6010 (er = 10.

” Electron. Wolff. 779–781. Edwards. February 2002. pp. P.” Electron. 453–460.. Chang. pp. Wolff and V. 459–460. [12] L.52 ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF RING RESONATORS REFERENCES [1] I.” IEEE Trans. Vol.. College Station. Chang. 774–775. 11. [7] V. Lett. September 18. Vol.. Vol.-H. “Microwave bandpass ﬁlter using degenerate mode of a microstrip ring resonator. Rosenbaum. [8] K. [11] T. L.. Tripathi. January 1984. 38. “Ring and disk resonator CAD model. and unloaded Q’s of closed. 27. pp. [10] L. Lett. 26. Owens. 338–341. Klein. Kompa and R. pp. “Predicted frequency dependence of microstrip characteristic impedance using the planar-waveguide model. 1982. [9] G. pp. “Mode chart for microstrip ring resonators. July 1973. Microwave Theory Tech. 1976. Lett. pp. Vol. Khilla. Microwave Symp.. K. “Microstrip measurements. No. Wang. 8.. Microwave Theory Tech. Wolff.S. S. July 8. K. June 15. [3] S. 487–489. pp. 1971. 1976. T. Vol.” MTT-S Int. Hsieh and K. Owens.. K. June 7. 1990. MTT35. C. April 1984.” IEEE Trans. “On the study of microstrip ring and varactor-tuned ring circuits. Vol. pp. Chang. December 30. March 1979. MTT-26. Martin. [6] I. No. Vol.. MTT-21. Vol. Wolff and N. Texas A&M University.” Electron. Lett. 356–357. Elek. Pregla.” IEEE Trans. pp. [17] A. M.. S. MTT-32. “Curvature effect in microstrip ring resonators. Bhat. thesis.” IEEE Trans. 209–213.. “Equivalent lumped elements G. November 1984. No.” IEEE Trans. J. [13] T. Technol. Vol. 50. pp. pp. .” Electron. pp. P. Vol. May 27. 809–813. Knoppik. Mehran. Microwave Theory Tech. Microwave Theory Tech. and J. “Spectral domain analysis of microstrip ring resonators”. 12. 1975. No.-H. Lett. “A simple method for computing the resonant frequencies of microstrip ring resonators. Vol. S. Microwave Theory Tech. 91–105. Lett. 11. Übertragung. Lett. 269–270. “A Study of the Microstrip Ring Resonator and Its Applications”. F. December 1987. August 2003. “Microstrip ring resonator and dispersion measurements on microstrip lines. Hsieh and K. Dig. [15] G.and open-loop ring resonators. K.” Microwave J. 7. 19. pp. Vol. pp.” Microwave Opt.. No.. 102–106. pp. December 1987. M. 12. Microwave Theory Tech. 1288–1295. October 1978. Pintzos and R. 33.” IEEE Trans. 14. C. Chang. L. [14] I. Gopalakrishnan and K. Wu and F. 26. pp. Vol. “The microstrip open-ring resonator. “Simple analysis of the frequency modes for microstrip ring resonators of any general shape and the correction of an error in literature. G. Tripathi and I. MTT-32. [16] R.. 405–409. 130–132. [4] Y. No. Sharma and B. [5] A. Vol. Vol.. Martin. 12. “Perturbation analysis and design equations for openand close-ring microstrip resonators. Arch. 12. “Bandpass characteristics of split-modes in asymmetric ring resonators”. 302–303.” Electron. 1972. “Planar-waveguide model for calculating microstrip components. Electron. [2] R.

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The discussion is concentrated on microstrip rings. Perturbations. The operating principle and design rule of each mode are discussed in the following sections. and Coupling Methods of Ring Resonators 3.1) and repeated here: Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures.2 REGULAR RESONANT MODES A regular mode is obtained by applying symmetric input and output feedlines on the annular ring element [1. excitation techniques. 3. All these modes satisfy the boundary conditions and can be excited if desired. This chapter discusses the various mode phenomena.CHAPTER THREE Modes. The resonant wavelengths of the regular mode are determined by Equation (2. 2]. Inc. and (3) split mode.1 INTRODUCTION According to the simple model and ﬁeld analysis in Chapter 2. many modes can be supported by the ring resonators. 55 . and coupling methods based on references 1 and 2. Second Edition. (2) forced mode (or excited mode). The mode phenomenon of the annular ring element is caused by different types of excitation and perturbation. The resonant modes of the coupled annular ring circuit are divided into three groups according to the different types of excitation and perturbation: (1) regular mode. the theory applies to waveguide ring cavities and uniplanar rings. However. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. perturbations. The excitation of these modes depends on the perturbation and coupling methods.

a maximum ﬁeld point occurs where the feed line excites the resonator. To understand the basic phenomena underlying the operation of the ring. this happens when its circumference is an integral multiple of the guided wavelength. the ﬁeld is minimum midway between these points. Basically. the ring comprises two half-wavelength linear resonators connected in parallel. The absolute values of maximum ﬁeld points for the ﬁrst four modes are shown in Figure 3. The ring akin to any microwave resonator has both resonant and antiresonant frequencies.56 MODES. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS 2pr = nl g (3.1 Maximum ﬁeld points for the ﬁrst four modes. Since the parallel connection alleviates problems related to radiation from open ends.1) where r is the mean radius of the annular ring element. This point is independent of the azimuthal position of the feed line that extracts microwave FIGURE 3. lg is the guided wavelength.1. it is imperative to ﬁrst understand its ﬁeld conﬁguration for the different modes. Some modiﬁcations of the curvature effect for this equation may result in a more accurate prediction of the resonant frequency [3]. In the absence of slits or other discontinuities. and n is the mode number. . PERTURBATIONS. Resonance occurs when standing waves are set up in the ring. the ring has a higher Q-factor compared to the linear resonator.

A Smith chart is shown in Figure 3. The frequencies corresponding to markers 1 through 5 in Figures 3. In the presence of discontinuities such as slits.6 are shown in Figure 3. The loops in the Smith chart indicate resonance. the phase of the signal goes through zero). if there are slits. frequency for the ﬁrst seven resonances.3 are the ﬁrst ﬁve resonant frequencies of the ring. These modes and other higher-order odd modes can be suppressed if the feed line that extracts power is located at f = 90°.2 |S21| vs. The fact that the loops are skewed from the X = 0 line in the chart is attributed to the ﬁnite reactances associated with the connectors and the feed lines.e.3. The S21 characteristics of the ﬁrst seven modes of the ring resonator whose dimensions were speciﬁed in Section 2..1 that when the azimuthal angle f = 90°. They are associated with the fact that at resonance.REGULAR RESONANT MODES 57 power. it can be seen from Figure 3. In other words. . there is a ﬁeld minimum for the ﬁrst and third modes. the reactance X goes from either being inductive to capacitive or vice versa (i.2. the ﬁelds in the resonator readjust themselves. This is important from the standpoint of mode suppression. so as to ﬁrst satisfy the boundary conditions caused by the slits in the resonator. For example.2 and 3. then the maximum ﬁeld point is not necessarily collinear with the feed line that excites the resonator. By using FIGURE 3.

As can be seen from Figure 3. there are only two resonances observed in Figure 3.4 shows a plot of |S21| versus frequency for the second and third modes of the ring. PERTURBATIONS. The frequency that is approximately midway between these two resonances is the antiresonant frequency.4. passage of this frequency is effectively blocked by the ring resonator. The boundary condition can be either open or short. Figure 3. Antiresonance in the ring resonator can be illustrated with the aid of two ﬁgures. these reactances can be calibrated.6 is obtained by inserting a thin conductor sheet inside the substrate. Figure 3. However.3 FORCED RESONANT MODES Forced modes are excited by forced boundary conditions on a microstrip annular ring element [1. The shorted boundary condition show in Figure 3. 4]. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3. The open boundary condition is realized by cutting open slits on the annular ring element [5].58 MODES.5 shows the corresponding phase plot. 3.3 Smith’s chart for the ﬁrst seven resonances.5. the phase change is abrupt at three frequencies. thereby indicating the possibility of three resonances. . the through-reﬂect-line (TRL) calibration technique.

5 substrate with the following dimensions: Substrate thickness = 0. Figure 3.7. the standing-wave patterns with the even mode numbers result in minimum magnitudes at the input and output feed lines.7. This boundary condition forces minima of the electric ﬁeld to occur on both sides of the short plane.The standing-wave patterns for the ﬁrst four resonant modes are illustrated in Figure 3.1mm Ring radius = 6 mm .6 mm Coupling gap = 0.FORCED RESONANT MODES 59 FIGURE 3.635 mm Line width = 0.4 |S21| vs. The theoretical analysis was based on the distributed transmission-line model [6].The results agree with the prediction of standing-wave pattern analysis. This means that no energy is transferred between the input port and the output port.Therefore the resonant modes with even mode numbers cannot exist in this shorted forced mode.The theoretical and experimental results illustrated in Figure 3. The short plane in Figure 3.8 shows that the even modes are nonexistent.As shown in Figure 3. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.9 agree with the standing-wave pattern analysis [4].8 and 3.6 is located at the annular angle of 90°. frequency for the second and third resonances.

frequency for the second and third resonances. 6. will not exist in .180°|. for -90° £ qss £ 90°. PERTURBATIONS. According to the preceding analysis. for 90° £ qss £ 270°. a general design rule for the single shorted boundary condition is summarized in the following: Given an annular angle f = qss of the shorted conductor sheet. or n = m · 90°/|qss .60 MODES.5 Phase of S21 vs.6 Coupled annular circuit with short plane at qss = 90°. and so on. FIGURE 3. the resonant modes that have integer mode number n = m · 90°/|qss|. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3. where m = 2. 4.

3. If the open slit is at 0° or 180° of the annular angle. On the other hand. 5.7 Standing wave patterns of the shorted forced mode. then there is no energy transferred between the input port and the output port. will be excited due to the shorted boundary condition. 3. then the resonant modes are regular modes. 3. can also be summarized in the following: Given an annular angle f = qos of the open slit. the resonant modes that have integer mode number n = m · 90°/|qoy|. for 90° £ qos £ 270°. the half-wavelength resonant modes with mode number v = m/2. where m = 1. A similar design rule for the single open slit.SPLIT RESONANT MODES 61 FIGURE 3. 5. and so on. will not exist in the opened forced mode. as mentioned before. and so on. On the other hand. or n = m · 90°/|qos 180°|. the shorted forced mode. Besides these methods.4 SPLIT RESONANT MODES The split resonant mode was ﬁrst reported by Wolff [7]. He used asymmetric feedlines or notch perturbation to obtain the split resonant modes. two other new techniques can also be used to generate the split . and soon. where m = 1. 5. 3. where m = 1. for -90° £ qos £ 90°. If the shorted conductor sheet is at 0° or 180° of the annular angle. will be excited due to the open boundary condition. the half-wavelength resonant modes with mode number v = m/2.

8 |S21| vs. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3. frequency for the shorted forced mode: (a) theoretical result. (b) experimental result. . PERTURBATIONS.62 MODES.

resonant mode. The annular angle q between the asymmetric feed lines determines the splitting frequency of the split mode [8]. . The power transmission can be calculated as [8]: S21 = 4 cos 2 q 2 2 2 g11 + b11 [(1 + g 11 2 2 ) .cos 2 q + 4b11 (1 + g11 ) 2 ] 2 2 (3.1 Coupled Split Modes The coupled split mode.11.10a–d illustrate the basic circuit structures for these four types of split resonant modes [4]. According to the different types of perturbation.11 [8].4. (3) notch perturbation split mode [7].10a. 3. The following sections discuss the operating principle and design rule for each type of split resonant modes [1.2) where g11 and b11 denote the normalized input conductance and susceptance.b11 . as shown in Figure 3. except when q = p or q = p/2 [8]. the split mode can be classiﬁed into the following four types: (1) coupled split mode [7]. As shown in Figure 3. and (4) patch perturbation split mode. Figure 3. the double-tuned characteristics are always found.SPLIT RESONANT MODES 63 FIGURE 3. (2) local resonant split mode. 4]. mode number for the shorted forced mode.9 Resonant frequency vs. respectively. The power transmission versus frequency is illustrated in Figure 3. of a one-port annular ring resonator of the same size. is generated by asymmetric feedlines [7].

AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS q (a) qLR (b) qno (c) qpa (d) FIGURE 3. According to the standing-wave pattern analysis. Figure 3.64 MODES. (b) local resonant split mode.2 Local Resonant Split Modes The local resonant split mode.The highor low-impedance sector will build up a local resonant boundary condition to store or split the energy of the different resonant modes.10 Four types of split modes: (a) coupled split mode. as shown in Figure 3. 3.10b.12 illustrates a coupled annular ring element with a 45° high-impedance local resonant sector (LRS).4. is excited by changing the impedance of one annular sector on the annular ring element. (c) notch perturbation split mode. PERTURBATIONS. (d) patch perturbation split mode. only the .

11 Power transmission of an asymmetric coupled annular ring resonator. FIGURE 3. The theoretical and experimental results illustrated in Figure 3. 2.5 substrate with the following dimensions: . This means that these resonant modes can build up a local resonance and maintain the continuity of the standing-wave pattern inside the perturbed region. 3. resonant modes with mode number n = 4 m.SPLIT RESONANT MODES 65 FIGURE 3. it is expected that only the fourth mode will maintain the resonant condition and the other modes will split. where m = 1.13 agree very well. and so on. The other resonant modes that cannot meet the local resonant condition will suffer energy loss due to scattering inside the perturbed sector. According to the analysis of the standing-wave pattern. have integer multiple of half guided-wavelength inside the perturbed sector.12 Layout of the symmetric coupled annular circuit with 45° LRS. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.

1mm Ring radius = 6 mm Following the standing-wave pattern analysis. will not split. the resonant modes that have integer mode number n = m · 180°/|qLR|. They agree with the prediction of the standing-wave pattern analysis. and so on.13 Resonant frequency vs. If the . From the preceding discussion a general design rule for the use of local resonant split modes is concluded in the following: Given an annular degree f = qLR of the LRS. uses a small perturbation area with a high impedance line width on the coupled annular circuit [7]. mode number for 45° LRS.4. PERTURBATIONS. 3.6 mm LRS line width = 0.635 mm Line width = 0. where m = 1. 2. Substrate thickness = 0. or n = m · 180°/|qLR . as shown in Figure 3. 3. the mode phenomenon for the 45° LRS is found to be the same as that of the 135° LRS. The same results occur between the 60° and 120° LRS.4 mm Coupling gap = 0. Therefore the period of the annular degree for the LRS is 180°. The theoretical and experimental results for the 135° LRS is shown in Figure 3. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3. for -90° £ qLR £ 90°.10c.14.66 MODES.3 Notch Perturbation Split Modes Notch perturbation.180°|. 90° £ qLR £ 270°.

As mentioned in the previous notch perturbation design rule. for 90° £ qno £ 270°. 2. on the other hand. will not split.FURTHER STUDY OF NOTCH PERTURBATIONS 67 FIGURE 3.10d. the resonant modes with integer mode number n = m · 90°/|qno|. 3. if the patch perturbation area is at 0° or 180° of the annular angle. for -90° £ qno £ 90°. or n = m · 90°/ |qno . The design rule and analysis method is the same as for the notch perturbation. mode number for 135° LRS. then these resonant modes will not split [2. then all the resonant modes will not split. as shown in Figure 3. and so on. The splitting range of the notch perturbation. A larger splitting range can be obtained by increasing the line width. 3. 6]. The advantage of using patch perturbation is the ﬂexibility of the line width. Asymmetries are usually introduced either by . then all the resonant modes will not split. if when bisected one-half is not a mirror image of the other. is limited by a maximum line width [7].180°|. If the notch perturbation area is at 0° or 180° of the annular angle.4 Patch Perturbation Split Modes Patch perturbation utilizes a small perturbation area with low-impedance line width. A general design rule for the notch perturbation split mode is concluded in the following: Given an annular degree f = qno of the notch perturbation. where m = 1. 3.5 FURTHER STUDY OF NOTCH PERTURBATIONS A ring-resonator circuit is said to be asymmetric.4.14 Resonant frequency vs. disturbed area is located at the position of the maximum or the minimum electric ﬁeld for some resonant modes.

These ﬁelds are given by Ez = {AJ n (kr ) + BN n (kr )} sin(nf ) Hr = Hf = -n {AJn (kr ) + BN n (kr )} cos(nf ) jwm 0 r k {AJn (kr ) + BN n (kr )} sin(nf ) ¢ ¢ jwm 0 (3. Jn(kr) is the Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n.15 Layout of a notched ring resonator. or by introduction of a notch [2. skewing one of the feed lines with respect to the other.15. and k is the wave number.A close scrutiny of the solution would indicate that another set of degenerate ﬁelds. is also valid. the other symbols have their usual meaning.4c) . Nn(kr) is the Bessel function of the second kind of order n. The magnetic-wall model solution [9] to the ﬁelds of a symmetric ring resonator are Ez = {AJ n (kr ) + BN n (kr )} cos(nf ) Hr = Hf = n {AJn (kr ) + BN n (kr )} sin(nf ) jwm 0 r k {AJn (kr ) + BN n (kr )} cos(nf ) ¢ ¢ jwm 0 (3. it is worthwhile to ﬁrst consider the ﬁelds of a symmetric microstrip ring resonator. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3.4a) (3. To study the effect of such asymmetries. one that also satisfy the same boundary conditions. Asymmetries perturb the resonant ﬁelds of the ring and split its usually degenerate resonant modes.4b) (3.3c) where A and B are constants. PERTURBATIONS. A ring resonator with a notch is shown in Figure 3.3b) (3.3a) (3.68 MODES. Wolff [7] ﬁrst reported resonance splitting in ring resonators by both introduction of a notch and by skewing one of the feed lines. 6].

16 and 3. resonance splitting has a strong functional dependence on the position of the notch. The notch was modeled as a distributed transmission line with step discontinuities at the edges. The good agreement demonstrates that not only can the modes that split be predicted. These designs were delineated on a RT/Duroid 6010 (er = 10. This can be done by placement of a notch along the ring.17 show the experimental results for notches located at f = 0° and 135°.25 mm Mean radius of the ring = 7. However. if the notch is located at azimuthal angles of f = 0°. and on the mode numbers of the resonant peaks.0 mm Figures 3. or 270°. then for odd n both solutions exist and the resonances split because the symmetry of the ring is disturbed. it is very difﬁcult to estimate the degree of splitting.635 mm Line width = 0. Although the preceding equations can be used to predict resonance splitting. To compare with experiments. respectively. Using the distributed transmission-line model reported in the previous chapter. circuits were designed to operate at a fundamental frequency of approximately 2. then the normally degenerate modes split.18 shows a comparison of theory and experiment for the degree of resonance splitting of odd modes. and no resonance splitting occurs. 225°. For other angles. as it is dependent on the mode number. but so can the degree of splitting. The modes that split.5) substrate with the following dimensions: Substrate thickness = 0. . Figure 3. and the insertion loss were all estimated using this model. When f = 135°. one traveling clockwise. and the depth of the notch. However. there is no resonance splitting.213 mm Notch depth = 0. since the ﬁelds are at their maximum at these locations. then the waves are orthogonal. This is based on the assumption that a narrow notch does not perturb the ﬁelds of the symmetric ring appreciably. the splitting is dependent on whether or not solutions exist. 180°. the width of the notch. 90°. 135°. if f = 45°. the degree of splitting. and the other anticlockwise. Path-length differences and hence resonance splitting can be caused by disturbing the symmetry of the ring resonator. if the path lengths are different.573 mm Coupling gap = 0.3 mm Notch width = 2. the odd modes split. and hence the resonances do not split. then one of the two degenerate solutions goes to zero and only one solution exists. When f = 0°. the degree of resonance splitting can be accurately predicted. one of the solutions goes to zero as discussed earlier.5 GHz. For very narrow notches. However. or 315°.FURTHER STUDY OF NOTCH PERTURBATIONS 69 These two solutions could be interpreted as two waves. for even n. If the paths traversed by these waves before extraction are of equal lengths.

However. resonance splitting occurs because the loading effect of the skewed feed line is different for the counterclockwise ﬁelds as compared to the clockwise ﬁelds. frequency for notch at f = 0° [6]. PERTURBATIONS.70 MODES. the degree of resonance splitting is very small because the asymmetry is not directly located in the path of the ﬁelds. 3.16 |S21| vs. to facilitate device integration. . slits have to be made in the ring resonator. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3.6 SLIT (GAP) PERTURBATIONS The attractive characteristics exhibited by the microstrip ring resonator have elevated it from the state of being a mere characterization tool to one with other practical applications. there exists the problem of ﬁeld perturbation to be contended with [2. this problem can be alleviated by strategically locating these slits. practical circuits require integration of devices such as varactor and PIN diodes. Fortunately. Toward this end. Concomitantly. (Permission from Electronics Letters. The introduction of slits will excite the forced resonant modes. In this case. 10].) Resonance splitting can also be obtained by skewing one feed line with respect to the other. or vice versa.

18 Comparison of theory and experiment for resonance splitting [6]. (Permission from Electronics Letters.17 |S21| vs. frequency for notch at f = 135° [6].SLIT (GAP) PERTURBATIONS 71 FIGURE 3.) .) FIGURE 3. (Permission from Electronics Letters.

AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3.25 mm . Due to this. The maximum ﬁeld points for the ﬁrst two modes of a ring with a slit at f = 90° are shown in Figure 3. the maximum ﬁeld points of some modes are not collinear. 2.To efﬁciently extract microwave power from a given mode. and so on.573 mm Coupling gap = 0. . modes of the basic ring resonator.72 MODES. the extracting feeding line has to be in line with the maximum ﬁeld point of that mode.19.5) substrate with the following dimensions: Substrate thickness = 0. 2.5. .635 mm Line width = 0. . slits were etched into a plain ring resonator that was designed to operate at a fundamental frequency of approximately 2. 4.5 GHz.19 Maximum ﬁeld points for slit at f = 90° [10].19. but appear skewed about the feed lines. As can be seen from Figure 3. This nonsupport stems from the contradictory boundary condition requirements of an odd mode in a closed ring (ﬁeld minimum at f = ±90°). Also worth mentioning is the fact that odd modes are not supported in this slit conﬁguration. If this condition is not satisﬁed. the ﬁelds in the resonator are altered so that the corresponding boundary conditions are satisﬁed.213 mm Slit width = 0. . however. In the presence of slits. PERTURBATIONS. and the slit (ﬁeld maximum at slit). The modes that this structure supports are the n = 1. In order to verify this proposition experimentally. the modes whose maximum ﬁeld points are not in line with the extracting feed line will not be coupled efﬁciently to the feed line as compared to those whose maximum ﬁeld points do line up with the feed line. half-modes are supported.25 mm Mean radius of the ring = 7.5. 3. These designs were delineated on a RT/Duroid 6010 (er = 10.5.

and the aforementioned observations were veriﬁed.SLIT (GAP) PERTURBATIONS 73 FIGURE 3. . . The measured results are shown in Figure 3. . and there are no half-modes.20. The half-modes are partially supressed as compared to the even modes. As can be seen. the even modes centered between the half-modes can also be seen. The n = 1.21.5 half-mode. which corresponds to the n = 1. frequency for a slit at f = 90° [10]. The measurement corresponding to this device is shown in Figure 3. As can be seen. and so on. The modes that this structure supports are the n = 2. . Resonance splitting in this ﬁgure is attributed to the differences in path lengths of the normally orthogonal modes of the ring resonator. all odd modes are suppressed.20 |S21| vs. the ﬁrst resonance occurs at approximately 5 GHz (n = 2). the second at 10 (n = 4). 6. The maximum ﬁeld points for the ﬁrst two modes supported by this structure are shown in Figure 3. 4. To further the preceding study. and so on.75 GHz. a ring resonator with two slits located at f = ±90° was considered. The distributed transmission-line model was applied to the circuit just given. the ﬁrst resonant peak occurs at approximately 3. modes of the basic ring resonator.22. because their maximum ﬁeld points are not in line with the extraction feed line. This difference stems from the few degrees of error in slit placement that occurred during mask design.5 mode is approximately 10 dB down as compared to the n = 2 mode. .

FIGURE 3. frequency for slits at f = ±90°.21 Maximum ﬁeld points for slits at f = ±90°. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS FIGURE 3.74 MODES.22 |S21| vs. . PERTURBATIONS.

23. Figure 3.24a results in the least disturbed type of coupling. the circuit dimensions were the same as those mentioned previously. and (5) side coupling [13].COUPLING METHODS FOR MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS 75 FIGURE 3. a circuit with two slits. These modes are identical to those shown in Figure 3.24a–f. and hence are not shown separately. one at f = 0° and the other at f = 180° was fabricated. (3) annular coupling. On measurement. To experimentally verify this. The mode conﬁguration of the structure least susceptible to slit-related ﬁeld perturbation is shown in Figure 3. 12]. According to the different coupling peripheries.24b shows this type of matched loose coupling [11]. (4) direct connection.2 (corresponding to the basic ring). Choosing the right coupling for the proper application circuit is important [2. a variety of modes can be obtained. (2) enhanced coupling [2. This type of coupling is used . 12]. There is one variety of loose coupling that was developed to increase the coupling energy by using a matched coupling stub. The high-Q resonator application uses the loose coupling.24c is designed by punching the feed lines into the annular ring element.1 for the basic ring resonator. These ﬁve types of coupling schemes are shown in Figure 3. The loose-coupling scheme shown in Figure 3. the coupling schemes can be classiﬁed into the following [4]: (1) loose coupling [9] or matched loose coupling [11]. it has been clearly demonstrated that by strategically locating discontinuities such as notches and slits.23 Maximum ﬁeld points for slits at f = 0° and 180° [10]. The enhanced-coupling scheme shown in Figure 3. 4]. the results obtained were identical to that of Figure 3. Thus. 3. Unfortunately the loose coupling suffers from the highest insertion loss because of its small effective coupling area [2.7 COUPLING METHODS FOR MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS Coupling efﬁciency between the microstrip feedlines and the annular microstrip ring element will affect the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the circuit.

(e) direct connection.76 MODES. (d) annular coupling. By breaking the unity of the annular element. The third type of coupling as illustrated in Figure 3. This type of coupling is used for a circuit design that . that is. higher coupling energy will be achieved.24d is called annular coupling. ( f ) side coupling. This type of coupling scheme is developed to achieve the highest energy coupling.24 Coupling methods of annular ring element: (a) loose coupling. By increasing the coupling length. 12]. PERTURBATIONS. but it slightly degrades the Q-factor of the resonator [2. (b) matched loose coupling. qin and qout. to increase the coupling periphery. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS Coupling Gaps (a) Matched Stubs Coupling Gaps (b) Upper Path Lower Path (c) FIGURE 3. The coupling length is designed in terms of two annular angles. (c) enhanced coupling. This type of coupling is also called quasi-linear coupling. two parallel linear resonators that have a certain amount of curvature are formed.

Introducing proper breaks in the ring will maintain the resonance characteristics of one mode while shifting the other peak away from the region of interest [13]. The side-coupling method shown in Figure 3. 3.24f was reported in [13]. This direct-connection coupling method shown in Figure 3.24 (Continued. An example is the active ﬁlter design that requires a large coupled negative resistance [14].) needs large energy coupling. It is the separation of the feed lines from the ring that allows the structure to only support .and even-mode coupling.24e is used in the hybrid ring or rat-race ring. It was found that two distinctive but very close resonant peaks exist due to odd.8 EFFECTS OF COUPLING GAPS The coupling gap is an important part of the ring resonator. The operating theory is discussed in Chapter 8.EFFECTS OF COUPLING GAPS 77 qin qout (d) (e) Coupling Gap (f) FIGURE 3.

comparing Cg and Cf. A larger gap results in less ﬁeld perturbation but greater losses. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS Port1 g (a) Port1 Cf Zin Cg Port1 Lr Cr Cg ≈ Zin (b) Lr Cr Figure 3. If a very small gap is used. It is intuitive that the larger the percentage of the ring circumference the coupling region occupies. In addition.w 2 Lr C r ) (3.78 MODES. PERTURBATIONS.25 One-port ring circuit (a) conﬁguration and (b) equivalent circuit. the greater the effect on the ring’s performance. selective frequencies.25 shows a one-port ring circuit conﬁguration and its equivalent circuit. To simplify the calculation of the input impedance. Figure 3. First. the coupling gap is signiﬁcantly dominated by Cg.25b. considering the coupling gap size effects on resonant frequencies. The size of the coupling gap also affects the performance of the resonator. The total input impedance obtained from the simple equivalent circuit is given by Zin = j[w 2 Lr (C r + C g ) . the fringe capacitance Cf is neglected as shown on the right of Figure 3. The coupling gap between the feed line and the ring is represented by a Lnetwork capacitance Cg and Cf [15]. the losses will be lower but the ﬁelds in the resonant structure will also be more greatly affected.1] wC g (1 . The lossless ring resonator is expressed by a shunt circuit of Lr and Cr.5) .

the resonant frequencies move to lower locations.EFFECTS OF COUPLING GAPS 79 Port1 g Port2 (a) Cg Cg Port2 Cf Cg Cg Port1 Cf ª Port1 Port2 Lr Cr Lr Cr (b) Figure 3. it can be found that a smaller (larger) gap size g has a lower (higher) insertion loss and more (less) signiﬁcant effect on resonant frequency.27.26b is given by S21 w =w o = 2 2(1 + ZgY ) + Zg (2 + ZgY ) Zo + YZo (3. S21 of the simpliﬁed equivalent circuit on the right of Figure 3. jw oC g w o Lr Inspecting Equation (3. and therefore. At resonance.26 Two-port ring circuit (a) conﬁguration and (b) equivalent circuit. if the coupling gap size g is decreased (Cg increases).26.7) where Zg = 2 1 j(w o Lr C r . In Figure 3. To verify above observations in Equations (3. when the coupling gap size g is decreased (increased).7).Y = .1) . The coupling gap size effect on the insertion loss can be observed from the two-port ring circuit in Figure 3. where w is the angular frequency.6) and (3.6) Inspecting Equation (3. a two-port ring circuit designed at a fundamental frequency of 2 GHz is simulated using IE3D [16]. and Zo is the characteristic impedance.7). This equation shows the smaller size of coupling gap the lower resonant frequency. Cg and S21 increases (decreases). . Zin = 0 and the resonant angular frequency can be found as wo = 1 Lr (C r + C g ) (3.6).

It would be very useful if a method could be developed that would enable the effects of the coupling gap on the resonant frequency to be determined.05 g = 0. Through repeated etching and frequency measurements the point was determined at which the feed lines were not seriously disturbing the ﬁelds of the resonator.80 MODES.03 2. In many of the ring’s applications. Troughton realized this and took steps to minimize any error that was introduced [17]. He would initially use a small gap. the loaded Q-factor decreases (increases) as expected. To verify the ability of the model to predict the gap dependence of the resonant frequency. 19] has the ability to predict the effects of the gap on the resonant frequency.97 1. It is important in this measurement that the coupling gap not affect the resonant frequency of the ring and introduce errors in the calculation of eeff.01 Frequency (GHz) 2. as the gap size g is increased (decreased). AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS S21 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 1. PERTURBATIONS.99 2. but it should be pointed out that if the circuit does have a weakness it is the model used to represent the coupling gap. the resonant frequency is used to determine the effective permittivity (eeff) of a substrate and its dispersion characteristics.95 1. experimental data were compiled and compared to the theoretical predictions. It has been veriﬁed that the proposed equivalent circuit does give acceptable accuracy. Another method to predict the coupling gaps was proposed by Zhu and Wu [20]. They presented a joint ﬁeld/circuit mode for coupling gaps of a ring Magnitude (dB) . This is a very tedious and time-consuming process. For example. The transmission-line method [18. The resonant frequency was measured and then the gap was etched back.2 mm g = 1 mm Figure 3.2 mm and 1 mm.27 Simulated results for two different coupling gap size g = 0. Also. the resonant frequency is measured in order to determine another quantity.

The enhanced coupling ring circuit with minimum perturbation shown in Figure 3. This has been discussed in Section 3. To improve high insertion loss caused by loose couplings. The philosophy underlying the design of these schemes is to increase the coupling strength (Cg) between feed lines and ring resonators.24a is the most commonly used of the six types discussed earlier. 12].e. 3. (Permission from Electronics Letters. As was mentioned in Section 3.8.) .ENHANCED COUPLING 81 circuit. The equivalent circuit model was derived from ﬁeld theory and expressed in terms of a circuit network. at f = 0° and Figure 3. and c [12].9 ENHANCED COUPLING Although the loose-coupling method shown in Figure 3. many new conﬁgurations were introduced [21–25].. it suffers from high insertion loss.28 Three novel excitation schemes with much lower insertion losses: a. b.5.28 is designed to improve the insertion loss [2. the ﬁelds of the ring are least perturbed if discontinuities are present at points of ﬁeld maximum (i.

88 7.39 9. for modes 2 and above the insertion loss of this scheme is about 5 dB.08 14. all of the proposed excitation schemes have a much lower insertion loss as compared with the basic plain ring. the insertion loss of the ring can be reduced with minimal ﬁeld perturbation.88 7. by increasing the coupling periphery at these points.62 Scheme C 2.5. if the gap size is made smaller (but not small enough to cause an RF short).25 mm mean radius of the ring = 7.28a were given in Figure 3.56 f = 180°). the frequency differences are attributed to minor differences in the lengths of the resonating section and the coupling effects.5 GHz and fabricated on a RT/Duroid 6010.82 MODES.44 16.4 16.30.96 7. Hence. This conﬁguration is usually designed for a ﬁlter application.1 Comparison of Resonant Frequencies of Different Modes Resonant Frequency (GHz) Mode Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plain Ring 2. To obtain a better low insertion loss. However.1. then even smaller insertion losses can be obtained.573 mm coupling gap = 0. superiority of scheme C can be clearly seen. The dimensions of the circuits are as follows: line width = 0.92 12.68 16.76 12. PERTURBATIONS. These ring circuits were designed at a fundamental frequency of 2. The measured results of the ring resonator shown in Figure 3. .1 for the ﬁrst seven resonant frequencies. In Table 3.48 4.36 9. making it considerably better than the other circuits.635 mm and a relative dielectric constant er = 10.3 14. a ring resonator with more coupling periphery is shown in Figure 3.91 7.48 4. Also. The measured data for resonators shown in Figure 3.76 12 14.1 the resonant frequencies of the circuits discussed earlier are compared. The inconsistent trends in the insertion losses for the basic ring and the ring corresponding to scheme B.48 9.46 4.34 9.36 16. is attributed to variations associated with the process of circuit etching.5 4. if conventional solid-state photolithographic techniques are used. then much better pattern deﬁnition can be obtained.96 Scheme B 2.5 substrate with a thickness h = 0.29b and Table 3.213 mm Inspecting the results.28b and c are also given in Figure 3.64 Scheme A 2.7 12 14.29 and Table 3. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS TABLE 3. Also.

ENHANCED COUPLING 83 (a) (b) Figure 3.29 (a) |S21| vs. . frequency for scheme A and (b) insertion loss vs. mode number for different ring resonators.

27] or dielectric overlay on top of the gaps [28]. Input Output Figure 3. Observing this circuit.84 MODES. the ring resonator has less effect on resonant frequencies and a low insertion loss can be reduced because one of two coupling gaps has been eliminated.31 A dual-mode ring circuit with one single coupling gap. to reduce the coupling gap effect on insertion loss and resonant frequencies. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS Enhanced Coupling Periphery Figure 3.30 Conﬁguration of an enhanced coupling ring resonator. . Figure 3. with one coupling gap. PERTURBATIONS. Insertion loss of less than 1 dB can be achieved in these ways by using an insulated copper tape placed over the gap [28]. Furthermore. Another method to increase the coupling and lower the insertion loss is to use the dielectrically shielded ring resonator [18.31 shows a ring circuit with one coupling gap [26]. The coupling capacitance is formed by the insulation material between the tape and the microstrip line. This coupling capacitance corresponds to a much smaller gap.

less coupling may effect the coupling efﬁciency and cause higher insertion loss. 299]. Figure 3. The lengths of input and output microstrip coupling stubs can be adjusted to optimize the loaded-Q values.33 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for the microstrip-coupled slotline ring resonator.03 GHz to 3. and coplanar strips (CPS).5 substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 0.57 mm. The technique reported in [33] used the dual-mode feature of the slotline ring antenna.21 mm. the varactor-tuned slotline ring resonator in [37] has a tuning bandwidth of over 23% from 3. characteristic impedance of the slotline ring ZS = 70. The slotline ring resonator has been analyzed with equivalent transmissionline model [33]. the ring array has a reﬂection bandwidth of about 26% and a transmission/reﬂection-band ratio of 3 : 1. slotline ring line width WS = 0. The trade-off between the loaded-Q and coupling loss depends on the application. However. p. spectral domain analysis [38]. characteristic impedance of the input/output microstrip feed lines Zm0 = 50 W.10 UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS AND COUPLING METHODS Although the microstrip is the most mature and widely used planar transmission line.32. Use of CPW also circumvents the need for via holes to connect the center conductor to ground and helps to reduce processing complexity in monolithic implementations. (2) CPW coupling. and (3) slotline coupling. 37]. [33] developed a quasi-optical polarization-duplexed balanced mixer using a slotline ring antenna. Slotline rings have also been implemented in a frequency-selective surface [34–36] and a tunable resonator [30.32 shows these three possible coupling schemes. slotline. the microstrip coupling that utilizes the microstripslotline transition [31. Coupling between the external feed lines and slotline ring can be classiﬁed into the following three types: (1) microstrip coupling. 29. 40].5% in their measurement. 37]. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS AND COUPLING METHODS 85 3. and Babinet’s equivalent circular loop [39. 30]. other forms of transmission lines are available for ﬂexibility in ring circuit design [1.635 mm.7 W. Figure 3. distributed transmission-line model [30. input/output microstrip feed lines with line width Wm0 = 0. The distributed transmission-line method provides a simple and straight-forward solution.83 GHz. As shown in Figure 3. 41] is a capacitive coupling. The slotline ring resonator was ﬁrst proposed by Kawano and Tomimuro [32] for measuring the dispersion characteristics of slotline. The theorectical and experimental results agree well within 0. In 1983 Stephan et al. As a frequency-selective surface.2 mm. The center conductor and ground planes are on the same side of the substrate to allow easy series and shunt connections of passive and active solid-state devices. The coplanar waveguide can be an alternative to the microstrip in hybird microwave integrated circuits (MIC) and monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC). and slotline ring mean radius r = 18. The characteristics of these transmission lines are listed in [31. The S-parameters were measured using . These uniplanar transmission lines include coplanar waveguide (CPW).

32 Three possible feed conﬁgurations for the slotline ring resonators [29]. The CPW coupling is formed by a . The CPW-coupled slotline ring resonator using CPW-slotline transition is also a capacitively coupled ring resonator. The calculated results were obtained from the distributed transmission-line model. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS Figure 3. (Permission from IEEE.33 Measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for a microstrip-coupled slotline ring resonator from 2 GHz to 8 GHz [29]. (Permission from IEEE. PERTURBATIONS.) Figure 3.86 MODES.) standard SMA connectors with an HP-8510 network analyzer.

characteristic impedance of the slotline ring ZS = 70.2 mm.35 shows the measured and calculated results of insertion loss for the slotline ring resonator with slotline feeds.34 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for the CPW-coupled slotline ring resonator.5 mm.UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS AND COUPLING METHODS 87 Figure 3.635 mm. characteristic impedance of the slotline ring ZS = 70. input/output CPW feed lines center conductor width SC0 = 1. The slotline ring coupled to slotline feeds is an inductively coupled ring resonator. characteristic impedance of the input/output slotline feed lines ZS0 = 56. The metal gaps between the slotline ring and external slotline feeds are for the coupling of magnetic ﬁeld energy. Figure 3.56 mm.1 mm.34 Measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for a CPW-coupled slotline ring resonator from 2 GHz to 8 GHz.5 substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 0. slotline line width WS = 0.37 W. characteristic impedance of the input/output CPW feed lines ZC0 = 50 W. Therefore. slotline ring .21 mm. the maximum electric ﬁeld points of this resonator are opposite to those of the capacitively coupled slotline ring resonators. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.5 substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 0. The smaller gap size will cause a lower loaded-Q and smaller insertion loss. Figure 3.7 W. small coupling gap between the external CPW feed lines and the slotline ring. input/output CPW feed lines gap size GC0 = 0. The loaded-Q value and insertion loss are dependent on the gap size.7 W. The test circuit was built on a Duroid/RT 6010. slotline ring mean radius r = 18.2 mm. and coupling gap size g = 0. This type of slotline ring resonator is truly planar and also allows easy series and shunt device mounting.635 mm. slotline feeds line width WS0 = 0.

37 shows that the performance of the CPW ring is corrupted by the propagation of even-coupled slotline modes along the ring.5-mm slotlines spaced 1. However.635-mm Duroid/RT Duroid 6010. Wire bonding can be used at the input and output of the ring and along the ring itself to maintain the center disk ground potential but may prove to be labor intensive. The reason for this phenomenon is the difference between the capacitive coupling and inductive coupling. and coupling gap g = 0. becomes more efﬁcient at higher frequencies. the inductively slotline ring is the dual of the capacitively coupled slotline ring. As mentioned previously.33 and 3. line width WS = 0. A cover maintains the center disk at ground .36 shows such a circuit.035 mm apart on 0.2 mm.2 mm.34. Figure 3. the center disk of the ring must be maintained at ground potential.35. The circuit can be analyzed using a distributed transmission-line model similar to that described for the microstrip ring resonator in Chapter 2.5. slotline ring mean radius r = 18. To demonstrate the performance of a CPW ring resonator. To suppress these unwanted modes.35 Measured frequency responses of insertion loss for a slotline ring resonator with slotline feeds. A uniplanar CPW ring resonator can also be constructed [30].21 mm.88 MODES. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS Figure 3. as shown in Figure 3. a ring was built with a mean diameter of 21 mm using 0. Figure 3. PERTURBATIONS. the coupling of the inductively coupled slotline ring with slotline feeds is less efﬁcient at higher frequencies as shown in Figure 3. The coupling of the capacitively coupled slotline ring resonators.

) .36 CPW ring resonator fed by CPW transmission lines. Figure 3.37 Insertion loss of a CPW ring with even and odd modes propagating [30].UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS AND COUPLING METHODS 89 Figure 3. (Permission from IEEE.

38 avoids wire bonding and soldering but requires alignment and good pressure contact with the ring. The transmission-line parameters were determined based on formulas in [31. 3. The agreement is within 2.90 MODES.) potential all along the circumference of the ring.38 The enclosure for the CPW ring assembly [30]. it also as seals and protects the circuit. However. By using a microstrip perturbation on the backside of the slotline ring. The theoretical results were obtained based on the distributed transmission-line equivalent circuit. The gap capacitances were determined empirically. 275]. For feed lines located at 0° and 180°. The enclosure suppresses all even-mode propagation and reduces its inductive effect on the CPW odd mode. the maximum E-ﬁeld points are at 0° and 180°. and only the cosine mode satisﬁes the boundary conditions. Figure 3.11 PERTURBATIONS IN UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS As the microstrip ring resonator. perturbations will excite the other mode and cause mode split [1. (Permission from IEEE.91%. the uniplanar ring structure could support both cosine and sine solutions. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS Figure 3. p. PERTURBATIONS.39 shows the theoretical and measured results for the enclosed CPW ring. The enclosure and assembly shown in Figure 3. 29]. The height and width of the enclosure do not require high-tolerance machining. the regular resonances will become split resonant .

As shown in the ﬁgure. . . Other measured results for the perturbed slotline ring resonators with microstrip perturbation at 60° and 36° on the rear also agree with the general design rule of Equation 3.39 Theorectical vs. .8) where q = 45° and m = 1. The slotline type of varactor-tuned resonator deals the forced resonant modes of ring structure. 3.38. the resonant modes with mode numbers n=m 180∞ q (3. The forced resonant modes of ring structure are excited by either short or open boundary conditions with respect to the electric or magnetic ﬁeld. will not split.) modes. .PERTURBATIONS IN UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS 91 Figure 3. According to the E-ﬁeld mode chart. 2. Figure 3. the 45° location of the microstrip perturbation is just at the maximum E-ﬁeld point of the fourth resonant mode. Figure 3. (Permission from IEEE. measured insertion loss and resonant frequencies of a CPW ring resonator [30].40 shows the measured frequency response of insertion loss for a slotline ring resonator with a microstrip perturbation at 45°. The maximum E-ﬁeld point corresponds to a magnetic-wall point that will not be disturbed by the microstrip perturbation.41 shows the measured frequency response of .

1 for full-wavelength resonant modes were m = 1. . This means that the even resonant modes cannot exist in this perturbed ring structure. . . whereas the halfwavelength resonant modes will be excited due to the short boundary condition at 90°. where m = 1.9b) (3.41 are given by n=m 2 for half-wavelength resonant modes.92 MODES. . . insertion loss for the slotline ring resonator with a short plane at 90°. (3. . PERTURBATIONS.9a) . 3. 5. AND COUPLING METHODS OF RING RESONATORS Figure 3. 3. According to the E-ﬁeld mode chart. .40 Measured frequency response of insertion loss for a slotline ring resonator with backside microstrip perturbation at 45°. or n = 2m . the maximum E-ﬁeld points of the even resonant modes are located at the short boundary point. 2. . The mode numbers of forced resonant modes shown in Figure 3.

D. Wolff and V. May 1994.. Tripathi.41 Measured frequency response of insertion loss for the forced resonant modes of a slotline ring resonator with an E-ﬁeld short plane at 90°. Ho and K. “The microstrip open-ring resonator. “Mode phenomenons of the perturbed annular ring elements. September 1991. 102–106.” Electron. Chang. Microwave Theory Tech.D. Texas A&M University. [5] I. 356–357. CPW ring circuits and waveguide ring cavities for coupler and ﬁlter applications. July 8. pp.. 1976. P.REFERENCES 93 Figure 3. K. 12. REFERENCES [1] C. [4] C. dissertation.” IEEE Trans. College Station. “Curvature effect in microstrip ring resonator. Lett. Gopalakrishnan. [3] R. Owens. May 1991. pp. dissertation. Vol. “Slotline.” Ph. K. MTT-32. College Station. January 1984. .” Texas A&M University Report. No. 14. College Station.” Ph. “Microwave and optoelectronic performance of hybrid and monolithic microstrip ring resonator circuits. Texas A&M University. [2] G. Ho. Vol.

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1. the variable capacitance is used to change the resonant frequency of the structure. Because the capacitance in the PN structure of the varactor diode is voltage dependent. the resonant frequencies of the varactortuned resonator can be tuned electronically. it is important that the effects of the introduced capacitance on the resonant frequency be predictable by analysis. The arrangement of the varactor-tuned ring is given in Figure 4. 97 . Second Edition. As the capacitance is decreased. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. the resonant frequency will increase. The addition of the capacitance in the ring is equivalent to the addition of a given length of transmission line to the ring’s circumference. then the design of the varactor—ring circuits will be the result of a trial-and-error process.CHAPTER FOUR Electronically Tunable Ring Resonators 4. Before the varactor-tuned resonator can become useful in microwave circuits. and thus lower the resonant frequency. When a varactor is mounted in series in the transmission line of the ring.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the varactor tuned resonator is studied [1]. The varactor is a two-terminal solid-state device that utilizes the voltage variable capacitance of the PN junction. A larger capacitance will result in a larger circumference. The resonant frequency of the ring is normally determined by its physical dimensions. Inc. Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. If the resonant frequency cannot be accurately determined by a theoretical method. Trialand-error design methods are time-consuming and would make the varactor-tuned ring less likely to be used.

The steps taken to obtain . This is the primary reason that the transmission-line method has been developed.2w CT (1 .jYo Yo sin qT . For the resonator circuit shown in Fig. also given in Chapter 2. What is gained in accuracy is in turn lost in ﬂexibility. 4. the input admittance of the circuit could be given as Yi .cos qT ) Yo cos qT . The disadvantages of linear resonators are discussed in Chapter 2.or halfwavelength linear resonators. In this chapter an equivalent circuit for the varactor is proposed and the varactor-tuned ring is analyzed by the transmission-line method outlined in Chapter 2.2. and CT is the tuning capacitance. 4. This analysis can easily be altered to include the varactor.98 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4.2 SIMPLE ANALYSIS The varactor-tuned ring was ﬁrst introduced in 1986 in a paper by Makimoto and Sagawa [2]. It is shown in Chapter 2 that the transmission-line method can accurately determine the resonant frequency of a simple microstrip ring. the distributed transmission-line method. can be used.1 A varactor-tuned ring resonator.w CT sin qT (4. although for better accuracy. The magnetic-wall model cannot easily be altered to include the effect of a varactor. The magnetic-wall model is the most accurate ring analysis technique. To include the varactor in the analysis would require that an equivalent circuit for the varactor diode be incorporated into the already proposed equivalent circuit for the ring. qT is the total electrical length of the line. The authors realized the disadvantage of conventional ﬁlters and proposed the varactor-tuned ring because of its increased stability and steeper attenuation slope in the stopband. Conventional varactor-tuned ﬁlters have been quarter.1) where Yo is the characteristic admittance of the line.

capacitance.3 VARACTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT The varactor is a solid-state diode whose capacitance is a result of the PN junction. Basically. Usually. 4. the tuning range of the varactor-tuned circuit was predicted. however. Every semiconductor diode has some internal junction capacitance. It is both novel .2 Structure of ring resonator for analysis [2].jYL cos q Yo cos q .) Equation (4. Experimental results showed that the varactor could be used to tune the resonant frequency of the ring. 3]. Thus. More accuracy might have been obtained if the parasitics of the varactor had been included in the admittance equation. is deliberately cultivated in the varactor. But it differs from other diodes in one important respect: it is designed and fabricated speciﬁcally to make its junction capacitance useful [1.jYL sin q (4.1). Errors were attributed to stray inductance that was not included in the analysis.1) are not explained in the reference. (Permission from IEEE. but it does take a form similar to the transmission-line equation Y (q ) = jYo Yo sin q . and low series resistance.1) could not accurately predict the response. which is an unavoidable nuisance in conventional diodes. The resonant frequencies were lower than expected and the tuning range was smaller. Using Equation (4. high parallel resistance. This design is such that the varactor has a usable internal capacitance.VARACTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 99 FIGURE 4. but the authors note that (4. the varactor is a special-purpose junction diode. This method is also unable to include the effect of the coupling gap in the circuit.2) where YL is the load admittance. this internal capacitance is insigniﬁcant because it is intentionally kept as small as possible so that it will not degrade normal diode operation.

This arrangement describes any two-plate capacitor. A is the area of the N and P regions that face each other across the junction.3b the reverse-biased varactor capacitor is shown. In Figure 4.4) .100 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS and useful that this capacitance can be varied at will by varying the voltage applied to the diode. Figure 4. This structure is identical to two ﬂat plates separated by a dielectric. When the two materials are brought together in contact. but d can be varied depending on the applied voltage. In the formation of a PN junction two regions that possess opposite types of conductivity are brought together. The junction capacitance can then be expressed as eA d Cj = (4. the depletion region increases and the internal capacitance decreases. and the N material possesses electrons as its majority carrier. The P material possesses holes as its majority carrier.3a the forward-biased varactor is shown. the Fermi levels work to align themselves. The Fermi levels of these two materials differ as a result of the different conductivity. and d is the plate separation. In this type of capacitor the capacitance is directly proportional to the effective area of the plates and the dielectric constant of the dielectric. The junction capacitance can be expressed as [4] V ˆ Ê C j (V ) = C j 0 1 Ë Vbi ¯ -g (4. and is inversely proportional to the separation of the plates. the depletion region is decreased and the internal capacitance increases. and e is the dielectric constant of the depletion layer semiconductor. This is accomplished by the ﬂow of electrons to the P region and the ﬂow of holes to the N region. in the semiconductor junction. so it is effectively called an insulator. If the diode is forward biased. For a given diode both A and e will be constant. and in Figure 4. The varactor is usually operated as reverse biased since forward-biased voltage results in a large leakage current and low Q. The Fermi level alignment results in a layer of charge storage that is termed the depletion region.3 shows the actual plot of a varactor capacitance as a function of voltage obtained with a C-V meter and x-y plotter for an M/A COM varactor diode (Model MA-46600). If the diode is reverse biased. The diode then has the appearance of a positive region (P) separated from a negative region (N) by an intrinsic or insulating region. Reverse biasing results in a small reverse current. This phenomenon enables a tiny varactor to do the work of a conventional variable capacitor that is many times larger.3) where e is the dielectric constant. In the depletion region no free carriers exist. A is the plate area. d is the thickness of the depletion region. By analogy.

Within the package the semiconductor is usually mounted on a post or pedestal with a suitable strap making contact to the opposite end of the diode. Vbi is the built-in potential of 1. Both the metallic ends and insulating ceramic parts contribute inductance and capacitance between the contacts of the actual semiconductor element and the connections to the external diode housing or package. Any varactor used in a circuit will also introduce parasitic components from the packaging in addition to the resistance and capacitance of the semiconductor. 4.3 volts for GaAs.4. From the consideration of the package an equivalent circuit can be .VARACTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 101 FIGURE 4.and (b) reverse-biased varactor diode. where Cj0 is the capacitance at zero bias voltage. and g is a parameter depending on the PN junction doping proﬁle. It is seen that the package consists of an insulating casing separating two metallic end pieces sealed in such a manner as to provide a hermitic encapsulation for the semiconductor within.3 C-V traces for the (a) forward. A typical cross-sectional view of a packaged diode is shown in Fig.

and Ls are the parasitics introduced by the package.5 Equivalent circuit of a packaged varactor. Minimizing Rs increases the Q of the varactor (here. particularly for small elements that . Lp.4 Diagram of a varactor package cross section. is a combination of the capacitance that exists between the upper contact and the metallic mount of the semiconductor and the insulating housing. Q = 1/wRsCj). FIGURE 4. proposed. It is this value in which we are most interested. The value Rs is the series resistance due primarily to the bulk resistance of the semiconductor.5 can also be used for diodes other than varactors. In Figure 4.102 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4. The parameters Cp. Because of the close spacing required in microwave frequency circuits. which appears in shunt. Typically higher Q-values are obtainable with hyperabrupt junction varactors because of the lower bulk resistance. all the others are undesirable but unavoidable. reducing power losses in the circuit and increasing the overall circuit Q. The capacitance Cp. The equivalent circuit given in Figure 4.5 Cj is obviously the capacitance that arises from the semiconductor junction. The only difference will be the value of the parameters.

is omitted because its effects are considered to be negligible. bias lines connect to the ring. while at the same time allowing the applied dc bias voltage to appear across the terminals of the device. The equivalent circuit does to some extent actually represent the physical contributions of the typical packaged diode structure and can be useful over a wide range of frequencies. In addition to the capacitances. This is the same gap capacitance discussed in Chapter 2. This can become very large if long leads are required for bonding to the circuit. C1. while a dc block capacitor is mounted across the other cut.INPUT IMPEDANCE AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE 103 possess small junction capacitances. The contributions are signiﬁcant because of the very small cross-sectional dimensions of the parts with lengths that are comparable to the dimensions of the package. The bias lines are high impedance lines.12 should then adequately represent the ring and coupling gaps. The inductance is divided into two components Ls and Lp. 4. . The capacitance C2 is also included in Figure 4. the capacitance appears as an open circuit and allows the varactor to be biased.4 INPUT IMPEDANCE AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF THE VARACTOR-TUNED MICROSTRIP RING CIRCUIT Now that the equivalent circuit for the varactor has been proposed. The varactor-tuned ring will differ only slightly from the plain ring resonator. however.5. At microwave frequencies the capacitance will appear as a short and have very little effect. The inductance Ls represents the series inductance of the outer end parts to the external contacting points. Here C2 is the capacitance that arises from the gap in the transmission line across which the diode will be mounted. the ring will be cut at two points and the varactor placed across one of the cuts. 3]. The layout for the varactor-tuned ring is given in Figure 4.The inductance Lp appears in series with the junction capacitance.6. The dc block capacitor is chosen to have a large value. The gap shunt capacitance. In Chapter 2 it was veriﬁed that the transmission-line method could be used to accurately determine the resonant frequency of the microstrip ring resonator.The most signiﬁcant contributions of the inductance come from the metallic contacting strap and the post upon which the semiconductor element is mounted. For low frequency. preventing the leakage of RF power. To mount the varactor in the circuit. the input impedance of the circuit can be determined [1. The equivalent circuit of Figure 2. The capacitor is required so that a dc bias voltage can be applied across the cathode and anode of the varactor. the capacitance contribution can become quite signiﬁcant. Because the packaged-diode equivalent circuit is widely recognized. The bias lines act as RF chokes. manufacturers usually supply typical parameter values for each package style and diode type. Values for the equivalent circuit will vary for each diode type and package style. all metallic portions of the package will introduce inductance. To apply the voltage to the device.

7. but it can be .) Because Figure 2. The only changes made to the ring are the introduction of the varactor.12 has proved to be accurate.7 Equivalent circuit of a varactor-tuned ring [3]. The impedance Zbot represents the bypass capacitor. for this application the dc block capacitor could be neglected. and gaps cut in the ring. dc block capacitor. we will modify it to represent the varactor-tuned ring.6 Diagram of varactor-tuned ring resonator [3]. it acts as a very low impedance (short circuit) at microwave frequencies. Thus. The parameters Za and Zb are from the T-model for the transmission line of the ring. In fact. because the bypass capacitor is large. (Permission from IEEE.) FIGURE 4.104 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4. If the bias lines are designed with a high enough impedance. The parameters C1 and C2 are discussed in Chapter 2 and are used to model the input and output coupling gaps. the capacitance of the gap across which the dc block is mounted can be neglected. bias lines. (Permistion from IEEE. Because the bypass capacitor wilt be large (usually 10 pF or larger). The proposed equivalent circuit for the varactor-tuned ring is given in Figure 4. they should have little effect on the circuit and will be neglected in the analysis. also discussed in Chapter 2.

5) and A and B are deﬁned in Chapter 2. From the six loop currents. The system to be solved is V = IZ where Ê Vunit ˆ Á 0 ˜ Á ˜ 0 ˜ V=Á Á 0 ˜ Á ˜ Á 0 ˜ Á ˜ Ë Vunit ¯ Ê i1 ˆ Á i2 ˜ Á ˜ i3 I=Á ˜ Á i4 ˜ Á ˜ Á i5 ˜ Á ˜ Ë i6 ¯ and Ê Z a + Zb Á .Zb ˜ ˜ Z a + Zb ¯ (4. The load seen by the ring at the output coupling gap is given as Z¢ where L ZL = A + jB ¢ (4. The impedance Ztop represents the varactor mounted in the ring.Zb 0 0 0 0 .Zb Z a + Zb + Z L ¢ ZL ¢ 0 0 0 0 ZL ¢ Z a + Zb + Z L ¢ .Zb 2Z a + 2Zb + Z bot .6) Once the currents are known. a system of six equations and six unknowns is formed.Zb 0 ˆ 0 ˜ ˜ 0 ˜ 0 ˜ ˜ .Zb Á 0 Z=Á Á 0 Á Á 0 Á Ë 0 .INPUT IMPEDANCE AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE 105 included to make the input impedance equations more ﬂexible for other applications. The input impedance looking into the gap. Z¢.5. then . A unit voltage is applied to the circuit and six loop currents are visualized.Zb 2Z a + 2Zb + Z top . can be calculated by solving the sixth-order system of equations for the currents due to a unit source. The equivalent circuit for the varactor was given in Figure 4. The ring structure is not symmetrical and therefore cannot be reduced through combinations of series and parallel impedances.Zb 0 0 0 0 .

for a lossless circuit.106 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS Z ¢ + C ¢ + jD¢ = Vunit i1 + i6 (4. This ﬁgure displays the positive maximum and negative maximum electric ﬁeld distribution on a ring with a gap in it. A few interesting things can be seen in the comparison of Figure 4.9) The resonant frequency is the point at which S12 reaches a maximum.8) and (4. The ﬁrst method was discussed in Chapter 2. The Sparameter method will become more important later when the attenuation at some frequency is desired. the bisectional method.S11 (4. can be determined from 2 S21 = 1 . Using (4. The boundary condition at the gap requires that there be either a positive maximum or negative maximum at that point. The IMSL library is a collection of mathematical and statistical subroutines written in Fortran. The subroutine LEQ2C is used to solve a system of complex equations.8a shows the frequency response of a typical ring resonator.7) the IMSL subroutine LEQ2C was used [6]. can be found by replacing C and D of Chapter 2 by C¢ and D¢.8) where Zin is the input impedance of the circuit and Zo is the characteristic impedance. The second method uses the S-parameters of the circuit. Using the bisection algorithm the frequency can be determined at which Xin = 0.Zo Zin + Zo (4. Figure 4. the half-modes will lie exactly between the even and missing odd modes. The resonant frequency of Figure 4. The odd modes in the varactor-tuned ring disappear while the even modes remain unaffected and coincide exactly with the even modes of the plain ring. respectively.8b shows the frequency response of a typical varactor-tuned ring. but the ring is still cut. the boundary conditions cannot be satisﬁed and therefore the modes cannot exist.7 can be determined in two ways.8a and Figure 4. The condition S12 = max and Xin = 0 occur at the same frequency. resulting in maximum power transfer. Because the . The ratio of the reﬂected power over the incident power can be determined from S11 = Zin .8b. Figure 4. Figure 4.7) The input impedance of the circuit. In the odd modes (n = 1 and n = 3). the ratio of transmitted power over the incident power. this condition is satisﬁed with or without the gap and the ﬁelds are not disturbed. Zin. and it is equally correct to apply either condition. From S11. Introduced in the varactor-tuned ring are what can be called “half-modes.9 is used to explain the mode phenomena. In the even modes (n = 2 and n = 4).9) the frequency response of a typical varactor-tuned ring can be compared to a plain ring resonator of similar dimensions. To facilitate the solution of (4.” If the varactor is removed from the circuit.

INPUT IMPEDANCE AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE 107 FIGURE 4. From these arguments it can be expected that for the varactor-tuned . When the varactor is mounted across the gap in the ring. the new half-modes. are formed. it is similar to an open circuit when the diode is operated as reverse biased. potential across the gap does not have to be continuous (of the same sign). It would be safe to assume that the even modes would not be affected and the odd modes would disappear.10 shows the excitation at the varactor for the even modes.8 Typical frequency response of (a) a ring and (b) a varactor-tuned ring. The half-modes should also appear. We now have only the even and half-modes present. For any amount of impedance change of the varactor the overall circuit impedance remains unchanged. Figure 4. which satisfy the boundary conditions.11 shows the excitation of the varactor for the half-modes. Figure 4. An impedance change on the varactor will result in a change of the overall impedance and therefore change the resonant frequency.

108 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4.11 Excitation of the varactor for the half-modes. FIGURE 4.9 Mode chart for a varactor-tuned ring [3]. (Permission from IEEE.10 Excitation of the varactor for the even modes. .) FIGURE 4.

Lp.12 Effect of Cp on the resonant frequency as it is varied from 0. Typical values for Rs. the effective varactor FIGURE 4. The ranges for the parameters are typical values that can be expected for a packaged varactor. The bulk resistance of the semiconductor. Because capacitances in parallel are added. The parameter Ls is the inherent inductance introduced in the circuit due to the package leads and bonding. Rs. 4. This value may become quite large if long lead lines are used. The resonant frequency as a function of varactor capacitance has been plotted for various parameters in Figures 4. The package parameters could greatly affect this tuning range. and the odd modes will disappear.01 to 0.25 pF. In Figure 4.15. The package capacitance Cp is in parallel with the tuning capacitance. Likewise it would be useful to known if any of the parameters enhance the tuning range so that they can be maximized in the varactor being used. It would be useful to know which parasitics degrade the tuning performance so that devices that minimize the parasitics can be used. A ﬁgure of merit for the varactor-tuned ring will be its tuning range. Cj. The size of Ls depends on the application. and Cp are given by manufacturers in their databooks for a given device and package style. Ls.12 through 4. Lp. the even modes will remain unchanged.5 EFFECTS OF THE PACKAGE PARASITICS ON THE RESONANT FREQUENCY It is important that the effects of the package parasitics on the resonant frequency are understood [1].5.12 the effect of the package capacitance on the resonant frequency is displayed. and Lp and Cp are due to the varactor packaging. The parasitics that we are concerned with are those in Figure 4. and Rs. . Cp.EFFECTS OF THE PACKAGE PARASITICS ON THE RESONANT FREQUENCY 109 ring the newly introduced half-modes will be tuned.

while for a large junction capacitance. From Figure 4.75 nH. As the package capacitance .75 nH.110 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4.12 we can see that for a small varactor junction capacitance the package capacitance can result in a large change in the resonant frequency.13 Effect of Lp on the resonant frequency as it is varied from 0. capacitance (neglecting C2) can be written as Cp + Cj.14 Effect of Ls on the resonant frequency as it is varied from 0.10 to 0. the effect is small. The small device capacitances will have less of an effect on the resonant frequency. the result being a smaller tuning range. then the device capacitance will be dominated by the package capacitance and the effective capacitance will be a larger number. This is shown in Figure 4. If a package with a large capacitance is used.10 to 0. FIGURE 4.12.

the tuning range is also slightly increased. In this varactor application the package inductance does not degrade the performance of the circuit and thus if given a choice.0 nH). The inductance Lp is also introduced in the device package. As can be seen in Figure 4. The range of Ls is arbitrarily chosen. the whole tuning curve is lowered. but this is not the case for this application. Figure 4. a package with a large inductance should be chosen. The effect of Ls on the resonant frequency is given in Figure 4. As the inductance is increased. The bonding inductance is not actually a package parasitic in the strictest sense because it does not lie within the package itself. Longer bonding wires give rise to a larger inductance .14. This is both novel and convenient. the inductance Ls does not degrade the frequency tuning range and may actually improve it slightly. is increased while all other parameters remain constant.14.EFFECTS OF THE PACKAGE PARASITICS ON THE RESONANT FREQUENCY 111 FIGURE 4. The inductance Ls arises from the embedding of the varactor into the circuit. Information on this inductance cannot be supplied by the vendor because it varies for each application. The inductance does not degrade the performance of the circuit but seems to enhance it.15 Effect of Rs on the resonant frequency as it is varied from 0. As the inductance is increased. Many package styles offer relatively high inductances (as high as 2.0 W. It is generally conceived that all package parasitics should be minimized in order to maximize the performance of any circuit. This gives the same effect as increasing the mean circumference of the ring.13 shows the effects of the package inductances on the resonant frequency. it is important that a package with a small capacitance be chosen. but one would expect Ls to be at least comparable to Lp because of the physical dimensions involved. the frequency tuning range for a given capacitance range is smaller. To ensure the maximum tuning range possible. The leads from the device to the circuit and the bonding of the leads gives rise to Ls.0 to 1.

Cp. Case style 137 is also acceptable from the guidelines outlined in the previous section. The following is a guideline for choosing a varactor: 1. which is speciﬁcally made for stripline implementation. Cp.15. The tuning capacitance.5 pF to 3. and as would be expected. A package should be chosen such that the package capacitance. is as small as possible. lowers the resonant frequency. 4. but should be kept as short as possible so that Ls will be more predictable. 5. 4. The ﬁrst step to verify the theoretical results is to choose a varactor. The varactors chosen for the circuit were from the MA-46600 series from M/ACOM. is . which run from 0.0 pF. the resistance does not affect the resonant frequency of the circuit. From this information a device and package can be chosen so that the frequency tuning range is maximized. 3]. It was shown that the odd modes should disappear. It should be noted that it is important to minimize Rs so that the circuit Q will be as high as possible and the insertion loss kept as low as possible. A variety of capacitance ranges are available. An equivalent circuit for the varactor was formed from considerations of the actual packaged device and incorporated into the total equivalent circuit for the ring resonator that was veriﬁed in Chapter 2. A package should be chosen such that the package inductance. 3. is as large as possible. The typical capacitance. the even modes remain unaffected.As can be seen. and the newly introduced half-modes should be tuned by varying the varactor capacitance. From this expanded equivalent circuit the frequency response of the varactortuned circuit was observed using the S-parameters. should span a large range of junction capacitance values. It is important that the theoretical results be veriﬁed with experimental data [1.6 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR VARACTOR-TUNED MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS The operation of the varactor-tuned ring resonator has been explained using transmission-line analysis. was chosen as a package for the varactor.112 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS and a longer single path. 2. The effect of the bulk resistance on the resonant frequency is shown in Figure 4. Cj. This allowed the development of guidelines to be followed when choosing a varactor so the maximum tuning range can be obtained. Case style 137. It has leads that may be attached to the circuit using silver epoxy or solder. and feature Q-factors in excess of 4000. The MA-46600 series comprises gallium arsenide microwave tuning varactors with an abrupt junction. The effects of the package parasitics on the frequency tuning range were also examined. The bulk resistance should be as small as possible. The bonding wires will not degrade the tuning range. The effect of the package parasitics on the turning range is now known. Lp. The longer signal path increases the mean circumference of the ring.

and thus only one will be presented here.079 mm (3.538 mm (21. but similar packages have typical values of 1. and leads that are easily attached to the microstrip ring.1 mil) Device gap = 0.16.05 pF. Thus we can summarize the advantages of package style 137 as low package capacitance. high package inductance. Note the “bow-tie” conﬁguration on the dc bias lines.645 mm (25 mil) Width = 0. . This gave the effect of a simple ring resonator. Lp. Again as would be expected. As was expected all modes were present and spaced approximately an equal distance apart.2 mil) dc block capacitor = 10 pF Mean radius = 1. The parameters for one of circuits tested are as follows: Substrate = Rogers RT Duroid 6010.0 nH.5 Thickness = 0. is not quoted. The bow tie acts as a bandstop ﬁlter to minimize RF leakage at the designed frequency.132 mm (5. the odd modes disappeared.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR VARACTOR-TUNED MICROSTRIP RING 113 quoted as 0.5 e r = 10.837 cm The actual mask used to manufacture this circuit is given in Figure 4. Various circuits were designed and tested to verify the results using the varactors discussed. The results for each circuit tested were consistent. The coupling and device gaps may not be distinguishable because they are very small. A value for the package inductance. the FIGURE 4.16 Mask of the experimental varactor-tuned ring.2 mil) Coupling gap = 0. The silver epoxy was then removed from the dc block capacitance gap and a 10-pF chip capacitor was soldered across the gap. The circuit was manufactured and the device gap and dc block capacitance gap were both ﬁlled with a conductive silver epoxy.

3a and b and the experimental applied voltage. This can be done by using the x-y plot of capacitance versus voltage in Figure 4.94 GHz at +0.114 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4. the applied voltage was converted to its corresponding varactor capacitance. The measured varactor capacitance also includes the parallel package capacitance.17 Frequency response of the varactor-tuned ring for a bias voltage ranging.3a and b. the package capacitance is subtracted from the measured values. from +0.85 to -30. and the half-modes appeared exactly between the even and missing odd modes. The circuit was then ready for an applied voltage across the varactor. the resonant frequency of the half-modes could be controlled.0 volts.0.85 volts to 3. This is a tuning bandwidth of approximately 9%. To obtain only the varactor capacitance. The silver epoxy was then removed from the device gap and the varactor was put into place. and the half-modes shifted slightly lower. To compare the theoretical predictions and experimental results. The even modes remained in place.0 volts.20 GHz at -30. Table 4. The voltage on the varactor was varied from +0.85 to -30. Each voltage value corresponds to a measured varactor capacitance.17. The resonant frequency varies from 2. When the voltage was varied and thus the capacitance in the circuit changed.1 is formed using Figure 4. An example of the frequency response for various applied voltages is given in Figure 4. even modes were unaffected. .

DOUBLE VARACTOR-TUNED MICROSTRIP RING RESONATOR 115 TABLE 4.40 1.0 Resonant Frequency (GHz) 2. Any parallel capacitance.85 0.7 DOUBLE VARACTOR-TUNED MICROSTRIP RING RESONATOR The single varactor-tuned ring resonator offers a 9% tuning bandwidth.58 0. This error was possibly introduced in the capacitance measurement.20 pF larger than the actual values of the varactor. From Figure 4.940 3.18.1 Varactor Capacitance Values for the Applied Voltages for the Single Varactor-Tuned Circuit Applied Voltage (V) +0.35 0. Also plotted in Figure 4.000 3.5 -9.0 -30.18 is the theoretical prediction of the tuning range for Ls = 0.85 0.18 it would seem that the measured capacitance values are approximately 0.44 FIGURE 4.0 -2.145 3. will increase the overall measured capacitance. Fairly good agreement is shown between the theoretical and experimental results.2 nH. To increase the tuning bandwidth the two-varactor ring resonator is proposed .18 Resonant frequency as a function of varactor capacitance for the single varactor-tuned ring. the resonant frequency can be plotted as a function of capacitance as in Figure 4.075 3.208 Capacitance (pF) 2. 4. such as the capacitance from the leads of the C-V meter. Once the capacitance at each voltage is known.

330 Capacitance (pF) 2.2 Varactor Capacitance Values for the Applied Voltages for the Double Varactor-Tuned Circuit Applied Voltage (V) +0.17) does indeed show an increased tuning range.0.0 -15.19 Frequency response of the double varactor-tuned ring for a bias voltage ranging from +0. The tuning bandwidth is increased to approximately 15%.19. The dc block capacitor is replaced by another varactor.0 -5.2.116 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4. Close comparison with the single-varactor response (Figure 4. 3].115 3.225 3. .885 3.49 0. The experimental results are summarized in Table 4.35 0. To compare the theoretical and experimental results it was assumed that the two varactors are identical and then the same procedure can be followed as in the single varactor case. The frequency response of a two-varactor circuit is presented in Figure 4. TABLE 4.9 0.0 Resonant Frequency (GHz) 2.69 0. The same circuit that is used for the single varactor can be used for two varactors. Correct biasing can still be achieved and an increase in the tuning bandwidth is offered.000 3.0 -30.44 [1.45 1.90 to -30.

The resonant frequency as a function of tuning capacitance is presented in Figure 4. Figure 4.63-mm-thick RT/Duroid 6010 substrate.22 for two gap sizes of approximately 0. especially when one considers that the two varactors were considered to be identical.50 and 0.23a shows the theoretical and experimental insertion loss for a 0.26 mm and uses a 0.50-mm slotline on a 0.05 mm. 4. The ring has a mean radius of 11. The 0.8 VARACTOR-TUNED UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS Varactor diodes can be incorporated into the uniplanar ring resonators to make the resonant frequencies electronically tunable [7]. A distributed transmission-line model was used to analyze the slotline ring. The gap can be represented by a capacitor that controls the coupling efﬁciency into the slotline ring and is inversely proportional to the gap spacing. The theo- .21 shows the CPW-fed slotline ring conﬁguration. Figure 4.VARACTOR-TUNED UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS 117 FIGURE 4.095-mm gap.20 Resonant frequency as a function of a varactor capacitance for the double varactor-tuned ring. The relative dielectric constant is 10.05-mm gap reduces the insertion loss by increasing the coupling into and out of the resonator. A 50-W CPW line feeds an 85-W slotline ring through a series gap. The circuit was ﬁrst tested without the varactor diodes. Examples are given here for both slotline and coplanar waveguide ring resonators. The effect of the size of the coupling gap is shown in Figure 4. The agreement of the experimental results and theoretical predictions is quite good.20.5.

The transmission-line parameters were determined .21 The varactor-tunable slotline ring conﬁguration [7].118 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4. (Permission from IEEE.50 mm [7]. Gap 1 is 0. and gap 2 is 0.) FIGURE 4.05 mm. (Permission from IEEE. The slotline ring is formed by cascading many small sections of slotlines together.) retical results were obtained based on the distributed transmission-line model discussed in Chapter 2. The input coupling gap is approximated using a small series capacitor.22 Effect of gap spacing on input/output coupling to slotline ring.

23 Theoretical vs. measured insertion loss and resonant frequencies of a slotline ring resonator: (a) insertion loss.) .VARACTOR-TUNED UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS 119 FIGURE 4. (b) return loss [7]. (Permission from IEEE.

5 dB for varactor voltages of 1. Figure 4.07 GHz for varactor voltages of 1.5-mm slotlines spaced 1. The 23% tuning range from 3. 215]. 7. The increase in loss as the frequency is lowered is due. The 3-dB points on the passband vary from 4.25.83 GHz has an insertion loss of 4. The ﬁrst peak is for the ﬁrst mode.23b shows the return loss that indicates the typical input matching condition.25.5 dB ± 1.4 GHz is shown in Figure 4.4. Figure 4. In order to reduce the insertion loss. The ring has a mean diameter of 21 mm and uses 0. and 30 volts. which is stationary during the electronic tuning. The increase in insertion roll-off for the lower frequency end of the tuning range is due to the stationary third mode. Figure 4. As shown.120 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS based on formulas in [8. a 3 ¥ 3 ¥ 0.17% at 3.3-mm capacitive overlay [9] placed over the input and output of the slotline ring was used to increase the coupling and reduce the discontinuity radiation.35 to 30 volts.26. The varactors located at 90 and 270 degrees along the ring tune the even modes of the resonator and allow a second resonant mode electronic tuning .The errors for resonant frequencies are within 1. The theoretical results agree fairly well with measurement over a wide bandwidth. p. The CPW ring is divided into many sections and the distributed transmission-line model is used for analysis. respectively. The 800-MHz tuning range centered at 3.07 GHz to 11 dB at 3.03 GHz to 5.7.24a shows the experimental results.5. in part. the second mode continues to approach the stationary ﬁrst mode. the overlay helps to improve the insertion loss of the tunable resonator.35 to 30 volts. This overlay reduced the loss and slightly lowered the frequencies of operation due to greater capacitive loading. The insertion loss at ±10% away from the second mode resonant frequency is about ≥15 dB.13 GHz.03 to 3.035 mm apart on a 0. A varactor and PIN diode can be placed at a single node to obtain switching and tuning with the same ring resonator. The tuning bandwidth becomes 3. Improved return loss could be achieved using matching elements at the coupling points. the varactors have little effect on the ﬁrst mode of the slotline ring resonator while capacitively tuning the second mode. As shown in Figure 4. and 8. The varactors located at 90 and 270 degrees along the ring tune the even modes of the resonator and allow a second mode electronic tuning bandwidth of 940 MHz from 3.5 dB was achieved for varactor voltages of 5. Two 50-W CPW lines feed the CPW ring via a series gap. The gap capacitances were determined empirically from measurements. Advantages of the CPW ring over the slotline ring are that both series and shunt devices can be mounted easily along the ring and two shunt varactors can be placed at each circuit point to increase the tuning range and reduce the diode real resistance. 10.85% at 3.03 to 3.83 GHz.24b shows a comparison between the theoretical and the actual tuning range with reasonable agreement. to a reduction in input/output coupling. The CPW-fed varactor-tuned CPW ring conﬁguration is shown in Figure 4.2%. The loss increases linearly from 6 dB at 4.13 to 4. As the varactor bias level is lowered further.635-mm RT/Duroid 6010 substrate with a relative dielectric constant of 10.83 GHz. A return loss of 6.

and Figure 4. (Permission from IEEE.24 Varactor tuning of the second resonant mode of a slotline ring resonator: (a) measured insertion loss for different varactor voltages. The increase in loss as the frequency is lowered is due.88 to 3. in .59 GHz for varactor voltages of 0 to 30 volts.27a shows the experimental results. (b) theoretical vs. Figure 4. measured second resonant mode frequency as a function of varactor voltage [7].27b shows a comparison of theoretical and measured resonant frequency at different varactor bias levels.) bandwidths of 710 MHz from 2.VARACTOR-TUNED UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS 121 FIGURE 4.

(Permission from IEEE. (Permission from IEEE.) .122 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 4.26 The varactor-tunable CPW ring conﬁguration [7].25 Measured varactor tuning range of a slotline ring with dielectric overlays over the coupling gaps [7].) FIGURE 4.

5 dB at 2. The insertion loss of the CPW ring could be reduced by using a similar dielectric overlay at the input and output as was used in the slotline ring. (b) theoretical vs. Although two varactors can be used at either point on the ring. only one was used for this investigation.) part.59 GHz to 10. measured second resonant mode frequency as a function of varactor voltage [7].27 Varactor tuning of the second resonant mode of a CPW ring resonator: (a) measured insertion loss for different varactor voltages. The loss increases linearly from 4 dB at 3. to a reduction in input/output coupling. (Permission from IEEE.88 GHz.VARACTOR-TUNED UNIPLANAR RING RESONATORS 123 FIGURE 4. .

. 14]. zirconate. A dielectric perturber is attached to the PET. and titanate [15]. the shim is connected to one polarity of a DC voltage to deﬂect the PET and move it up or down vertically. The PET shown in Figure 4.9 PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER TUNED MICROSTRIP RING RESONATOR The piezoelectric transducer (PET) is an electromechanical operation using electric signals to mechanically control or tune microwave circuits [10–12].124 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS 4.28 consists of two piezoelectric layers and one shim layer. Also. This motion makes it possible to change the effective dielectric constant of the ring Vdc PET Dielectric perturber Port1 Port2 (a) Perturber Ring Resonator Test fixture PET Vdc (b) FIGURE 4. Similar operations using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) can be found in [13. The center shim laminated between the two same polarization piezoelectric layers adds mechanical strength and stiffness.28 Conﬁguration of the tunable ring resonator using a PET: (a) top view and (b) 3-dimensional view. The PET is a composition of lead.

F.29 are for the second mode near 10 GHz. 1288–1295. thus varying resonant frequency of the ring resonator.” M. December 1987. Makimoto and M. The dielectric constant of the perturber is er = 10. T. December 1987. Klein. [3] K.5% about 10 GHz. S.” in 1986 IEEE MTT-S Int. S. “Varactor tuned bandpass ﬁlters using microstripline resonators. The ring resonator shown in Figure 4.. Chang.” IEEE Trans. [2] M. Martin. Inspecting the results.90 V with an applied current of 1 mA. MTT35. pp. pp. Microwave Symp. REFERENCES [1] T. (Permission from IEEE. June 1986.. “A study of the microstrip ring resonator and its applications. thesis.325 mm at +/. Vol. Sagawa.29 Measured results for the PET tuned ring resonator [10]. The measured results shown in Figure 4. and J.REFERENCES 0 10 125 –15 Return Loss (S11) [dB] –30 –10 –45 –20 –60 –30 –75 –40 –90 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency [GHz] –50 FIGURE 4. Wang.28 is designed at fundamental of 5 GHz and fabricated at RT/Duroid 5870 with substrate 20 mil and dielectric constant er = 2. the radiation and mismatch loss are gradually reduced by overlaying the dielectric perturber [16]. 411–414. The PET can be deﬂected over +/.1. and the tuning range is 2. “On the study of microstrip ring and varactor-tuned ring circuits. Martin. College Station.) resonator. Texas A&M University.33. Microwave Theory Tech. L. Insertion Loss (S21) [dB] 90 V 40 V No perturb (~ 0 V) 0 . Dig.8.S.5 GHz with a 28.

” Electron. pp. “Distributed MEMS true-time delay phase shifters and wideband switches. A. Yun and K. Chang. 10. Ceramic Material for Electronics. August 2002. 1974. Klein. Gupta.. 2. New York. 3 1986. Williams and S. Artech House. J.” Electron.” IEEE Trans. Chang. Chang. Borgioli. No. . Texas. February 2003. Mass. Dedham. 5. Variable Capacitance Diodes. C. Marcel Dekker. Vol. Vol. pp. Schwarz. Chang. Chap. “Tunable microstrip bandpass ﬁlters with two transmission zeros.. No. A. York. No. New York.. C. –H. Microwave Solid-State Circuits and Applications. No. 1303–1310. “Varactor-tunable uniplanar ring resonators. 558– 566. Chang. 7–9. Dedham. 17. 5. 5. [15] R. [9] D. Hsieh and K. Wiley. Y. Microwave Theory Tech.” IEEE Trans. 1881–1890. and I. 50. Mortenson.. May 1987. Navarro and K. pp. Houston.. and R. “Piezoelectric-transducer-controlled tunable microwave circuits. No. Buchanan. “Low-low distributed MEMS phase shifter. Chap.” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. May 2002. No. Hsieh and K. pp. 10. 23. [13] S. E. pp. 51. May 1993.. A. Barker and G. Nagra. pp.. Microwave Theory Tech. 520–525.. pp. [7] J. [5] K. [11] L.. Liu. 7. Rebeiz. Mass. [14] A. Vol. Lett.. Vol. Garg.” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. January 2000. 1979. July 1983. “Dielectrically shielded microstrip (DSM) lines. M. Vol. 46. 1994. E. [8] K. Lett. R. –Y. Vol.” IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans. 970–971. 11. Bahl. –H. [16] K. F. Microwave Theory Tech. 535–537. Artech House.126 ELECTRONICALLY TUNABLE RING RESONATORS [4] K. [12] L. November 1998. 41.. pp. Microwave Theory Tech. No. Editor. Vol. “Piezoelectric transducer tuned bandstop ﬁlter. Microstrip Lines and Slotlines. “Design and performance of coplanar waveguide bandpass ﬁlters. S. 760–766. MTT. [10] T. 38. [6] IMSL Library Reference Manual. Vol. Chang and K.

Inc. The modes (or frequencies) that pass through the circuit are only those whose guided wavelength is an integral multiple of the mean circumference. When the diode is forward biased it is as if there are no gaps in the ring and all integer-numbered (even and odd) modes are passed. 127 . the half-modes would disappear and the odd modes would reappear again. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. The rind resonator alone acts naturally as a bandpass ﬁlter. The number of wavelengths present on the ring at resonance deﬁnes the mode numbers. When the diode is reverse biased. This idea can be used to develop a switch/ﬁlter [1]. An example of this would be when the ring was cut at 90° radially from the feed point. If the diodes are mounted in the ring resonator across the gaps at f = 90° and 270°. Like other diodes the PIN diode acts as an open circuit when reverse biased and a short circuit when forward biased. it is seen that these modes are not all equally affected when the ring circuit is changed. PIN diodes can be mounted in the ring to facilitate the mode switching. There are inﬁnitely many resonant frequencies and therefore inﬁnitely many mode numbers. Second Edition.CHAPTER FIVE Electronically Switchable Ring Resonators 5. To satisfy the new boundary conditions the odd-numbered modes disappeared and the new half-modes appeared. The result is an electronic switch/ﬁlter. the boundary conditions will not allow the odd-numbered Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. If it was possible to repair the cut so that the ring was complete again. the odd modes can be switched off and on at will by varying the bias on the diode.1 INTRODUCTION It has already been explained that the ring resonator exhibits a bandpass frequency response. From Chapter 3.

the result is a short circuit as in the PN diode. A similar circuit can also be used to switch the half-modes on and off. It is important that the resonant frequency of the circuit for the forward.2 PIN DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT To analyze the switchable ring resonators. it is quite important. and they will have a high attenuation. 2]. The most obvious analysis is the transmission-line method. only the even-numbered modes are present (no half-modes). the depletion region will increase and the junction capacitance decreases. So by changing the diodes from forward to reverse bias the odd modes will disappear. If the PIN diode is reverse biased.128 ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE RING RESONATORS modes to propagate. It may be helpful to refer to the mode chart of Figure 4. It was also explained how the structure actually represented a two-plate capacitor whose capacitance was expressed in Equation 4. but as will be seen in a later application. As before with the varactor diode. For this purpose only one PIN diode is placed at f = 90° and a dc block capacitor placed at f = 270°.9. When a forward bias is applied to the PIN. The depletion region is a result of the Fermi-level alignment of the P and N regions. the odd modes will again appear. The PIN-diode structure is a PN junction separated by an (almost) intrinsic region. The PIN diode is merely an extension of the PN diode. P-type Intrinsic N-type. This shift is due to the impedance introduced by the diode in the circuit. Because the PIN structure . Even when the diode is forward biased (short circuit) the resonant frequency will be affected by the impedance of the device package. When the diode is forward biased.and reverse-bias conditions be predictable by some type of analysis. the capacitance per unit area of the junction decreases. Of particular interest will be the resonant frequency of the circuit and the isolation between the on and off states. And by forward biasing the diodes.3. when a PIN diode is mounted in the ring the resonant frequencies will shift. The transmissionline method has accurately predicted the response of a similar circuit. Thus comes the name PIN. the half-modes appear due to the boundary conditions (and the odd-numbered modes disappear). When the diode is reverse biased. except that the varactor and dc block capacitor are replaced by the PIN diodes. The difference occurs when reverse biased. Because the procedure is the opposite of the odd-mode switching. 5. As the width of the depletion region is increased. The varactor-tuned ring and the switch/ﬁlter ring circuit are identical. this could become very confusing. All that is necessary to analyze the switch/ﬁlter is to replace the varactor equivalent circuit by the PIN equivalent and follow the same procedure described earlier in Chapter 4. one will need an equivalent circuit for the PIN diode [1. In Chapter 4 it was explained how the depletion region arises in a PN structure. With no bias applied the width of the depletion region (so called because it is depleted of carriers or is intrinsic in nature) depends on the doping of the P and N regions that it separates. the varactor-tuned ring.

The package style for the PIN may differ from that used for the varactor. Figure 4.1) where w is the angular frequency and C is the capacitance. Thus. This allows the PIN to more effectively represent two distinct states. which is present when large currents may be present.All diodes can be represented by the same equivalent circuit.1 [1. The various parameters for the diodes are cultivated to improve the performance for a given application. Because very little current passes when the diode is reverse biased. Because the PIN also operates in the forwardbiased condition. is designed to work as either forward or reverse biased. These values will vary. the junction capacitance should be as small as possible and nearly constant over a wide range of reverse-biased voltages. The proposed equivalent circuit for the PIN is given in Figure 5. Because all diodes typically have the same equivalent circuit. When forward biased. Figure 4.1 pF and Rr can be expected to be approximately 1 W. a smaller capacitance will result in a larger impedance and a better approximation of an open circuit.5 should be altered to include this state. depending on the PIN application and amount of bias current applied. When reverse biased.1. The parameters of the varactor are cultivated to give a workable junction capacitance and a low series resistance. A typical value for Cj is 0. The increased depletion width results in a smaller than normal junction capacitance when reverse biased. To develop an equivalent circuit for the PIN to be used in our analysis we can draw on the knowledge gained from the varactor in Chapter 4. So the purpose of the PIN diode is to better achieve an open circuit when reverse biased while still representing a short circuit when forward biased. Only the parameters change for a new package style. This allows the capacitance of the varactor to be more effectively used in frequency tuning applications. . A typical value for Rf is 1 W. the series resistance should be low so that the diode will better represent a short circuit. When reverse-biased. The complex impedance of a capacitor is represented as 1 jwC Zcap = (5. Both the varactor and PIN are merely diodes. Rf is the series resistance of the forward-biased diode. Figure 4. but the equivalent circuit remains the same. More important is Rf. the value of Rr is not particularly important. open circuit (forward bias) and short circuit (reverse bias). The PIN. Note that the circuit can be switched to its two distinct states.1 are the package parasitics explained in Chapter 4. 2].PIN DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 129 has an added intrinsic region. unlike the varactor. In Figure 5.5. its depletion region will be larger than the PN structure.5 represents a reverse-biased diode. Cj represents the junction capacitance and Rr represents the series resistance. The other parameters in Figure 5. the equivalent circuit for the varactor can be used for the PIN.

If the reverse-biased condition is considered.16 can be used for the PIN switch/ﬁlter circuit. The dif- . and Rr. The impedance Ztop and Zbot represent the varactor diodes for the double varactor-tuned ring.3 ANALYSIS FOR ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS The varactor analysis in Chapter 4 can be used to determine the resonant frequency of the PIN-diode ring resonator [1.7. If we let Ztop and Zbot represent the impedance of the PIN diodes. The resonant frequency can be determined using the same methods outlined in Chapter 4. then S12 will reach a maximum at the resonant frequency.7) is still valid. The total equivalent circuit for the varactor-tuned ring is given in Figure 4.1.1 Equivalent circuit for the packaged PIN diode [3]. and solving for the frequency at which S12 is a maximum. Cp. (Permission from IEEE.) 5. The resonant frequency could then be determined from the input impedance by two methods: solving for the frequency at which the imaginary part of the input impedance equals zero. A circuit arrangement similar to the varactor-tuned ring shown in Figure 4. If the forward-biased condition is considered and an odd-numbered mode is observed. Cj. Typical values for the parameters Lp. Then an expression for the input impedance was obtained from the model. can be obtained from product databooks. Of particular importance for this circuit will be the parameter S12. the ﬁrst step was to propose a model for the circuit. Rf. An expression for Ztop and Zbot can be derived from the equivalent circuit for the PIN diodes given in Figure 5. then the expression for the overall input impedance given in Equation (4. This method of analysis yielded reasonably good results for the varactor and can be altered slightly to apply to the PIN-diode circuit. 3].130 ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 5. Both methods are equally correct. In the varactor analysis. then the odd-numbered modes will have a much higher attenuation and there will be no resonance.

250 mm Radius = 3.2.1 pF and 2. The theoretical analysis is shown in Figure 5.EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL RESULTS 131 ference in S12 at the resonant frequency for the forward-biased condition and S12 at the same frequency for the reverse-biased condition is called isolation. The circuit was designed for a RT/Duroid 5880 substrate. The resonant frequency calculated by simply using the approximation 2pr = nlg is 3. The circuit dimensions were as follows: Height = 0. The value used in Chapter 4 for the varactor circuit is 0. The isolation is predicted to be greater than 20 dB.3 W at 100 mA.0 GHz. A value of 0. The tested circuit is shown in Figure 5. It should be noted that the theoretical isolation was very dependent on the forward-bias resistance value. When the diode is reverse biased.74 GHz when the diode is forward biased. respectively [5].2.4 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL RESULTS FOR ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS To verify that the varactor analysis can indeed be applied to the PIN switch/ ﬁlter. but other similar diodes have a resistance of 2 W. theoretical and experimental results were gathered [1. It is desirable to have the “on” signal level and the “off” signal level as isolated as possible.310 mm Coupling gap = 0. it becomes very obvious that the parasitics signiﬁcantly affect the resonant frequency. Isolation is a ﬁgure of merit for switches. As an example. The value used for the bonding inductance Ls is an approximated parameter. 5. Rf. A typical value for Rf is 1.3 pF at -50 V [4].484 cm The PIN diodes used were the MA-47047 diodes discussed in the previous section. which is acceptable for switch applications. which has a relative permittivity of 2. There diodes are medium-power diodes packaged in glass with case style 54.762 mm Line width = 2. Because the forward-biased PIN can be represented primarily by its package parasitics.100 mm Device gap = 0. The values for the package parameters can be determined from case style considerations. For the parameters given the circuit has a resonance at approximately 2.2 nH.3 for the forward.0 nH is quoted for Cp and Lp. A value for Rr is not quoted. A value for Cj is quoted as 0. the PIN diodes used are the MA-47047 from M/A COM Silicon Products. there is no resonance present. An Rf larger than the 1 W used would . 3]. This is approximately a 10% error. This should also be a reasonable value for the PIN circuit.and reversebiased diode.

.2 The PIN switch/ﬁlter circuit that was tested.3 Theoretical results for the PIN switch/ﬁlter ring.132 ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 5. FIGURE 5. give less isolation because the resonant peak would not be as sharp. Cj. Thus it can be concluded that not only should a diode be chosen with a small reverse-bias junction capacitance. but a small forward resistance is also desirable.

the circuit has a resonance at 2.EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL RESULTS 133 FIGURE 5. The experimental isolation is quite a bit better than the theoretical predictions.69 GHz when the circuit is reversed biased is better than 40 dB. Using a value of 0. the mode is turned off and there is no resonance.4. the capacitance and resistance will actually decrease [4]. As the frequency increases. From the experimental results in Fig. When the diodes are forward biased with a total current of 400 mA. 5. The experimental results are presented in Fig. (Permission from IEEE.4 it can be observed that the circuit has an insertion loss of 20 dB at resonance. The properties of the semiconductor are frequency dependent. When the diodes are reversed biased to -50 V. This is not at all unlikely because the predicted values are typical measurements taken at 100 MHz. which is probably due to the smaller than expected forward-bias resistance and smaller than expected reverse-bias capacitance. The signal isolation at 2.) Testing procedures were carried out on a Hewlett-Packard 8510 network analyzer.4 Experimental results for the PIN switch/ﬁlter ring [3]. The 40-dB isolation is excellent for a switch.4 nH for Ls would be completely justiﬁed because of the long wire leads extending from the glass package that are needed to bond the diode in the circuit. Errors in the resonant frequency estimation are more than likely due to the estimated value of Ls. If Ls were chosen to be 0.4 nH. The resonant frequency was accurately predicted to within a respectable 2%. 5. the results would nearly agree exactly.69 GHz. The insertion loss in the circuit can .

These half-modes arise because the varactor. As the coupling gap is decreased. which represents a high impedance when reverse biased. it represents an open circuit and the frequency response of the circuit . In Chapter 3 it was shown how the resonant frequency of a microstrip ring resonator was dependent on the size of the coupling gap. As can be seen.134 ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE RING RESONATORS be mainly attributed to radiation loss from the coupling regions of the resonator. forward and reverse biased. The results for the test are given in Figure 5. A forward-biased PIN diode represents a short circuit. When an overlay is used to cover the coupling gap.74 GHz to 2. Expressions are not available for the capacitance resulting from the overlay. The result of the overlay is a larger coupling capacitance that is equivalent to a smaller gap size. is almost equivalent to an open circuit at the mounting position. the effect is a much smaller gap size and thus a much larger coupling capacitance. Even for a very small coupling gap the loss associated with radiation from the coupling region is very substantial. The two states of the PIN diode. 6]. The overlay also results in a lower loaded Q for the circuit. To demonstrate the effect of an overlay.5 VARACTOR-TUNED SWITCHABLE MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS A varactor when mounted in a ring resonator circuit was shown to tune the resonant frequency of what has come to be known as the half-modes [1. The circuit tested was the same circuit given in Figure 5. When the PIN diode is reverse biased.5. which is not physically realizable. the insertion loss resulting from the coupling region can be decreased dramatically [3. 3]. This effect could be predicted because expressions were available to calculate the coupling capacitance. It was also demonstrated in the previous sections that the half-modes could be turned off and on by correctly mounting a PIN diode in the circuit. thus making this undesirable for frequency measurement applications. present different boundary conditions on the ring to be satisﬁed. By covering the coupling region with a dielectric of permittivity greater than that of the circuit substrate. This almost open circuit forces boundary conditions on the ring that allow the half-modes to appear and odd-numbered modes to disappear. and the circuit behaves as a normal ring resonator with all integer-numbered modes being present. It can then be shown that for a frequency shift of this amount the coupling gap would have to be approximately 3 mm.6 GHz as a result of the increased coupling capacitance. 5. a switch/ﬁlter circuit was tested with the coupling gap covered by insulated copper tape. so the effect of the overlay on the resonant frequency cannot be theoretically determined. The lower Q results in a frequency response with a resonance peak that is not as sharp. the coupling capacitance increases and the resonant frequency is lowered. It has been demonstrated that the coupling loss can be decreased by using an overlay to cover the radiating open circuits. The resonant frequency is also shifted from 2.2. the insertion loss is decreased from 20 dB to less than 5 dB at resonance.

) is similar to the varactor ring.5 Theoretical results for the PIN switch/ﬁlter ring with a covered coupling region [3]. and PIN diode described in Chapters 2 and 4. The transmission-line method of analysis has already been used to adequately predict the response of both the varactor-tuned ring and the PIN switch/ﬁlter circuit.VARACTOR-TUNED SWITCHABLE MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS 135 FIGURE 5. The same procedure could be used for the theoretical analysis of this combination circuit. The novel properties of the varactor-tuned ring and the PIN switch/ﬁlter can be combined in one circuit.1. varactor diode.6. respectively. a circuit was built with the actual mask for the tunable switch/ﬁlter circuit as given in Figure 5. (Permission from IEEE. Using the equivalent circuit for the ring resonator. These capacitors are necessary because the bias on the PIN and varactor will be different. the odd modes disappear and the half-modes appear. large dc block capacitors are to be mounted. As an example. A theoretical analysis was developed based on the same methods and equivalent circuits from the previous chapters. This circuit would not only have an electronically tunable resonant frequency but a resonant frequency that can be switched on and off. The varactor and PIN are to be mounted across the gaps cut at 90° radially from the feed lines. The theoretical frequency . the frequency response of such a circuit could be determined using the transmission-line method. Across the remaining two cuts. and Section 5.

7 both the forward. In Figure 5.7 Theoretical results for the tunable switch/ﬁlter.) FIGURE 5.5. the half-mode is present.136 ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 5.and reverse-biased PIN conditions are considered. the resonant frequency increases. The voltage across the varactor can then be varied to adjust the resonant frequency.7. response fro the circuit shown in Figure 5. . When the PIN is reverse biased.6 is given in Figure 5. (Permission from IEEE. When the PIN is forward biased. The particular mode of interest is the mode n = 3.6 Mask used for the tunable switch/ﬁlter [3]. As the capacitance of the varactor is decreased.

the theoretical and experimental results are quite similar. The results are not in particularly good agreement (error of approximately 3%). the mode is turned off and gives approximately a 20-dB isolation.90 to 3.VARACTOR-TUNED SWITCHABLE MICROSTRIP RING RESONATORS 137 FIGURE 5. This error could have come from choosing too large a value for the approximation of Ls in the theoretical analysis. Testing procedures were again carried out on a Hewlett-Packard 8510 network analyzer. The theoretical and experimental tuning ranges are given in Figure 5.When the PIN is forward biased. Experimental results were gathered to verify the theoretical analysis. This is approximately a 9% tuning bandwidth. the varactor presents a tuning range from 2. When the PIN is reverse biased. The predicted isolation for the circuit is approximately 20 dB. but they do have the same trend with the theoretical results shifted slightly lower.9. A MA 46600 varactor and a MA 47047 PIN were mounted in the circuit. A circuit was manufactured using the mask given in Figure 5. .8. which is what was predicted. The experimental frequency response is given in Figure 5. the half-mode is turned off.6.16 GHz. As can be seen.8 Experimental results for the tunable switch/ﬁlter.

[2] K.9 Resonant frequency as a function of varactor capacitance for the tunable switch/ﬁlter. “A study of microstrip ring resonator and its applications. 1994. December 1988. Microwave Solid-State Circuits and Applications. Chang. thesis. College Station. Mass. New York. [4] M/A COM Semiconductor Products Master Catalog. 1733–1739. 23. [5] J. pp.” M. Chap. Vol. S. “Dielectric shielded microstrip (DSM) lines. REFERENCES [1] T. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1982. Vol.. 10.” Electron.138 ELECTRONICALLY SWITCHABLE RING RESONATORS FIGURE 5. Microwave Semiconductor Engineering. Chang and J. White.. Martin. 5. F. Chang. December 1987. . Texas A&M University. “Theoretical and experimental investigation of novel varactor-tuned switchable microstrip ring resonator circuits. Klein. May 7. [6] K. [3] T. Lett. No. F. Microwave Theory Tech. 1987. MTT-36.” IEEE Trans. 535–537. New York. Wang. and K. Martin. Burlington. Wiley.S. pp. S.

Since its introduction in 1969. effective dielectric constant and dispersion [4–8]. Compared to the microstrip linear resonator. and Q-factor measurements [12]. 139 . he described techniques used to measure the phase velocity and dispersive characteristics of a microstrip line by observing the resonant frequency of the ring resonator. Second Edition. the microstrip ring resonator has found applications in determining optimum substrate thickness [2]. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. When Troughton ﬁrst introduced the idea of a microstrip ring resonator. This chapter discusses the measurement applications of using ring resonators [12].1 INTRODUCTION The microstrip ring resonator was ﬁrst proposed by Troughton [1] for the measurements of phase velocity and dispersion of microstrip lines. The ring resonator. 6. discontinuity parameters [3]. Although regular modes are generally used for the measurements. AND Q-FACTOR MEASUREMENTS The ring circuit is an ideal tool for dispersion. the microstrip ring resonator does not suffer from open-ended effects and can be used to give more accurate measurements. dielectric constant. and loss and Q-measurements [9–11].CHAPTER SIX Measurement Applications Using Ring Resonators 6.1 is Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. forced modes and split modes can also be used. shown in Figure 6. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT.2 DISPERSION. Inc.

3. . eeff. The dispersion in a microstrip line can be explained by examining the effective permittivity. The size of the gap should be large enough such that the ﬁelds in the resonator are not appreciably perturbed. 2.” When Troughton used the resonator for his microstrip measurements. This type of coupling is described in the literature as “loose coupling. In microstrip the effective permittivity is a measure of the ﬁelds conﬁned in the region beneath the strip. and the resonator. This may be expressed as nl g = 2pr for n = 1. (6. . e eff ª 1 (e r + 1) as f Æ 0 2 . lg is the guided wavelength. The basic circuit consists of the feed lines. at this extreme. The feed lines are separated from the resonator by a distance called the coupling gap. and r is the mean radius.140 MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS USING RING RESONATORS FIGURE 6. b. In a dispersive medium this is not true. . In the case of very narrow lines or a very low frequency the ﬁeld is almost equally shared by the air (er = 1) and the substrate so that. then likewise the wavenumber doubles.1) where n is the mode number or number of wavelengths on the ring. he assumed that the structure would only support waves that have an integral multiple of the guided wavelength equal to the mean circumference. yet small enough to allow adequate coupling of power.1 The microstrip ring resonator. coupling gap. merely a transmission line formed in a closed loop. The microstrip line is a dispersive medium. The feed lines couple power into and out of the resonator. There exists in a nondispersive medium a linear relationship between the frequency and the phase constant or wavenumber.2) If the frequency doubles. where b = 2p l g (6.

4) yields the equation Ê nc ˆ e eff ( f ) = Ë flt ¯ 2 (6. in microstrip.3) results in the equation Ê e eff ( f ) = Á c ˆ ˜ Ë fl g ¯ 2 (6. This radiated power is either lost to the outside in open structures.5) where lt is the total length of the resonator. The open circuit causes radio frequency (RF) power to be radiated.1). then l l = nl g (6. Substituting for up in Equation (6. increasing as the frequency increases. In the microstrip line. uses open. frequency measurements were made using linear resonators [13].or short-circuit terminations to force the bandpass frequency response. up.6). AND Q-FACTOR MEASUREMENTS 141 where er is the relative dielectric of the substrate. the velocity is up = flg. as in Equation (6. then eeff can be calculated from Equation (6. The linear resonator. . the velocity is given by the appropriate frequency– wavelength product.3) For any propagating wave. Until 1969. or Ê c ˆ e eff ( f ) = Á ˜ Ëup ¯ 2 (6. shown in Figure 6. Perfect short circuits are hard to achieve in microstrip circuits. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT. and thus most linear resonators utilize open circuits.2. any microstrip resonator will only support wavelengths that are an integral multiple of the total length. The accuracy of the dispersion calculation depends on the accuracy of the measurement of the frequency and the total length of the resonator. The effective permittivity is deﬁned as the square of the ratio of the velocity in free space. n. Substituting for lg in Equation (6.DISPERSION. For very wide lines or a very high frequency nearly all of the ﬁeld is conﬁned to the substrate dielectric. or may lead to unwanted cross-coupling between various circuit elements in a closed housing. e eff ª e r as f Æ • It is therefore obvious that the effective permittivity is frequency dependent. c. the resonance order.6) If the total length of a resonator. and therefore at this extreme. and the resonant frequency are known. to the phase velocity.4) If we assume that.

respectively [4].258 ¯ Ë w h + 0. The length of the fringing ﬁeld can be calculated from Ê e eff + 0.412 h Ë e eff .262 ˆ leo = 0. The effect of the fringing ﬁelds at the open circuit is best accounted for by considering the line to be somewhat longer electrically.2 The microstrip linear resonator. The total length of the linear resonator can be expressed as lt = l + 2leo 2 lg =n 2 (6.8) where w and h are the width of the line and the height of the substrate.142 MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS USING RING RESONATORS FIGURE 6.7) is substituted into Equation (6.813 ¯ (6.9).7) where l is the physical length and leo is the additional length representing the open circuit. then eeff will appear on both sides of the equation and it is necessary to iterate for the solution.9) If Equation (6. This in itself makes ring resonators more desirable than linear resonators for dispersion measurements. If Equation (6. Q= w 0U W (6.10) . A ﬁgure of merit for resonators is the circuit Q-factor as deﬁned by expression.4).8) is substituted into Equation (6.0. the result is nc Ê ˆ e eff ( f ) = Ë 2 f (1 + 2leo ) ¯ 2 (6.3 ˆ Ê w h + 0.

where w0 is the angular resonant frequency. that the ring resonator has a higher Q0. and thus a sharper peak in the frequency response.11) where Qc. and W is the average power lost per cycle. Normally a high QL is desired for microstrip measurements. The three main losses associated with microstrip circuits are conductor losses. and radiation losses. The unloaded Q. QL. AND Q-FACTOR MEASUREMENTS 143 FIGURE 6.w 2 (6. and Qr are the individual Q-values associated with the conductor. The total Q-factor. U is the stored energy per cycle. and the insertion loss of the ring at resonance. dielectric.3 Resonator frequency response. The power radiated.w2 is the 3-dB bandwidth. the dielectric and conductor losses are equal and therefore Qc and Qd are equal.12) where w0 is the angular resonant frequency and w1 . A high QL requires a narrow 3-dB bandwidth. We can conclude that because Qc and Qd are equal for the two resonators. can also be determined by measuring the loaded Qfactor. Q0. can be expressed as 1 1 1 1 = + + Q0 Qc Qd Qr (6.3 shows a typical resonator frequency response. The unloaded Q-factor can be calculated from . The loaded Q of the resonator is QL = w0 w1 . Figure 6. and that Qr is higher for the ring. This results in a lower Qr for the linear resonator relative to the ring. is higher for the linear resonator. For ring and linear resonators of the same length. Wr. This makes the resonant frequency more easily determined.DISPERSION. and radiation losses. Q0. Qd. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT. dielectric losses. respectively [14].

Troughton recognized the disadvantages associated with using the linear resonators for measurements and introduced the ring resonator in 1969 [1].or short-circuit cavity terminations could be avoided by using the ring in dispersion measurements.13) where L is the insertion loss in dB of the ring at resonance [2]. Field interactions across the ring could cause mutual inductance. The assumption that the total effective length of the ring can be calculated from the mean radius. it will also have a higher loaded Q. The gap was etched back until it was obvious that the coupling gap was not affecting the frequency. . QL.1) and (6. He proposed that the unknown effects of either open. Troughton used rings that were ﬁve wavelengths long at the frequency of interest. Using swept frequency techniques. Qfactor measurements were made. There are ﬁve sources of error that must be considered: a. c. Nonuniformities of the ring width could cause resonance splitting. (c). An initial gap of 1 mil was designed. An increased ring diameter will also increase the chance of variations in the line width. e. The equation to be used to calculate dispersion can be found by combining Equations (6. Therefore the ring resonator has a smaller 3-dB bandwidth and sharper resonance than the linear resonator.L 20 ) (6. d. The large ring will reduce (b) and the effect of (d) will be minimized because the coupling gap occupies a smaller percentage of the total ring. The coupling gap may cause ﬁeld perturbations on the ring. The only way to avoid resonance splitting is to use precision circuit processing techniques. b. Troughton used another method to diminish the effect of the coupling gap. Because the ring resonator has a higher Q0 and lower insertion loss than the linear resonator. The effect of the mean radius.10 . the dispersion on the ring may not be equal to the straight-line dispersion. To minimize problems (a) through (d) only rings with large diameters should be used. and the possibility of resonance splitting is increased. can be reduced by using large rings and narrow line widths.144 MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS USING RING RESONATORS Q0 = QL (1 .14) Any ill effect introduced by the ring that might falsify the measured value of wavelength or dispersion can be reduced by correctly designing the circuit. A larger ring will result in a larger radius of curvature and thus approach the straight-line approximation and diminish the effect of (a). Because the transmission line has a curvature.4) to yield e eff ( f ) = Ê nc ˆ Ë 2pfr ¯ 2 (6. This also makes the ring more desirable for microstrip measurements.

When a discontinuity is introduced into the ring. 12]. The main difﬁculty in measuring the circuit parameters of microstrip discontinuities resides in the elimination of systematic errors introduced by the coaxial-to-microstrip transitions. This splitting can be expressed in terms of an even and an odd incidence on the discontinuity. waves of equal magnitude but opposite phase are incident from both sides. This technique was very important when it was introduced because of the very early stage that the microstrip transmission line was in. 5. Plot eeff versus frequency. the degenerate modes will split into two distinct modes. In the odd case. When a discontinuity is introduced into the ring. Design the ring at least ﬁve wavelengths long at the lower frequency of interest.DISCONTINUITY MEASUREMENTS 145 The steps Troughton used to measure dispersion can be summarized as follows: 1.4) to calculate eeff. It has also been explained that the TMn10 modes of the microstrip ring are degenerate modes. The resonant frequency for narrow rings can be approximated fairly accurately by assuming that the structure resonates if its electrical length is an integral multiple of the guided wavelength. 2. The even case corresponds to the incidence of two waves of equal magnitude and phase. can be excited or suppressed by an appropriate choice of the point of excitation around the ring. there had been little research that resulted in closed-form expressions for designing microstrip circuits. 4. Either mode. extreme accuracy is needed and can be obtained with the ring resonator. This technique allowed the frequency dependency of eeff to be quickly measured and the use of microstrip could be extended to higher frequencies more accurately. Because it was in its early stage. the electric length may not be equal to the physical length. Apply Equation (6. Minimize the effect of the coupling gap by observing the Q-factor and etching back the gap when necessary. This difference in the electric and physical length will cause a shift in the resonant frequency. By relating the Z-parameters of the introduced discontinuity to the shift in the resonance frequency the equivalent circuit parameters of the discontinuity can be evaluated. odd or even. 6. . Because discontinuity parameters are usually very small. Measure the resonant frequency of each mode. 3.3 DISCONTINUITY MEASUREMENTS One of the most interesting applications of the ring is its use to characterize equivalent circuit parameters of microstrip discontinuities [3. This problem can be avoided by testing discontinuities in a resonant microstrip ring that may be loosely coupled to test equipment.

5b).16) .4. If the discontinuity is lossless. FIGURE 6.5 (a) Impedance of a discontinuity with an even-mode incidence. The normalized even input impedance at either port is thus Zie = Z11 + Z12 (see Figure 6. If this circuit is excited in the even mode.146 MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS USING RING RESONATORS FIGURE 6.Z12 (see Figure 6. and (b) the impedance of a discontinuity with an odd-mode incidence. it is as if there is a short circuit at the plane z = 0. it is as if there is an open circuit at the plane of reference z = 0. The artiﬁcial increase or decrease of the electrical length of the ring.5a). resulting in the decrease of its resonance frequencies. A symmetrical discontinuity can be represented by its T equivalent circuit expressed in terms of its Z-parameters.4 T equivalent circuit of a discontinuity expressed in terms of its Z-parameters. is related to the even and odd impedances by the following expressions: Zie = Z11 + Z12 = .j cot kle Zio = Z11 .15) (6. only the resonance frequencies of the perturbed ring are affected since the even and odd impedances are purely reactive. The T equivalent circuit is presented in Figure 6. If this circuit is excited in the odd mode.Z12 = j tan klo (6. The normalized odd input impedance is thus Zio = Z11 . For convenience the circuit is divided into two identical halfsections of zero electrical length.

The termination resistance can be determined by measuring the circuit Q-factor. le and lo can be determined from Equations (6. l ring + 2lo = nl go (6.18) into Equations (6. l ring + 2le = nl ge and in the odd case. Because of this advantage. Since lring is known and lg can be obtained from measurements. however.MEASUREMENTS USING FORCED MODES OR SPLIT MODES 147 where k = 2p/lg is the propagation constant. Since at resonance the total electrical length of the resonator is nlg. respectively. can also be applied for such measurements [15]. the guided wavelength of the regular mode can be easily obtained from physical dimensions.16) to yield [3] Z11 + Z12 = j cot Z11 . there is introduced a termination resistance. and le and lo are the artiﬁcial electrical lengths introduced by the even and odd discontinuity impedances. and lge and lgo are the guided wavelengths to the even and odd resonance frequency.17) where lring is the physical length of the ring.j tan where lg was replaced by lg = c f e eff ( f ) pl ring e eff ( fre ) fre c pl ring e eff ( fro ) fro c (6. The forced modes and split modes.17) and (6. z = 0. the resonance conditions are. .19) (6. in the even case.15) and (6.4 MEASUREMENTS USING FORCED MODES OR SPLIT MODES As shown earlier. the regular mode has been widely used to measure the characteristics of microstrip line.Z12 = . 6. The parameters Z11 and Z12 can be determined by substituting Equations (6.17) and (6.18) (6. Instead of the even an odd modes having open or short circuits at the plane of reference. The procedure described can be altered slightly and used to evaluate lossy discontinuities.18).20) and fre and fro are the measured odd and even resonant frequencies of the perturbed ring.

the shorted forced modes contains full-wavelength resonant modes with odd integer mode numbers and excited half-wavelength modes with mode number n = (2m ± 1)/2. . The resonant frequencies of each res- FIGURE 6.6 with shorted boundary condition at 90°.148 MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS USING RING RESONATORS 6. The guided wavelength of each resonant mode can be calculated by applying Equation (6.1).4. . The shorted forced mode.1 Measurements Using Forced Modes The forced mode phenomenon was studied previously in Chapter 3. 3. . FIGURE 6. 5. is now used to measure the effective dielectric constant of microstrip line. where m = 1.6 Coupled annular circuit with short plane at qss = 90°. The standing-wave patterns of this circuit is shown in Figure 6.7 Standing wave patterns of the shorted forced mode. as illustrated in Figure 6. According to the design rule mentioned in Chapter 3.7. . .

Instead of using the notch FIGURE 6. He used notch perturbation for the measurement and found that the frequency splitting depended on the depth of the notch.MEASUREMENTS USING FORCED MODES OR SPLIT MODES 149 onant mode can be measured with an HP8510 network analyzer.4. The effective dielectric constants for the different resonant frequencies are determined by the following equation: e eff = (l 0 l g ) 2 (6. Figure 6. A comparison of these two results shows that the excited half-wavelength resonant modes have higher dielectric constants than the full-wavelength modes. .21) where l0 is the wavelength in free space and lg is the guided wavelength. 6.8 Effective dielectric constants vs. resonant frequency for the forced mode and regular mode.8 displays the effective dielectric constants versus frequency that were calculated by the forced mode and regular mode. This phenomenon reveals that the excited half-wavelength modes travel more slowly than the fullwavelength modes inside the annular element. The experimental maximum splitting frequency was 53 MHz.2 Measurements Using Split Modes The idea of using the split mode for dispersion measurement was introduced by Wolff [16].

9. perturbation.10 |S21| vs. As illustrated in Figure 6.9 Layout of annular circuit with 60° LRS resonant sector. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010. FIGURE 6.150 MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS USING RING RESONATORS FIGURE 6. frequency for the ﬁrst six resonant modes of Figure 6.9. a 60° local resonant sector (LRS) was designed on the symmetric coupled annular ring circuit.5 substrate with the following dimensions: . the local resonant split mode is developed to do the dispersion measurement.

Figure 6.635mm Line width = 0. where m = 1.10 illustrates the nondisturbed third and sixth resonant modes and the other four split resonant modes that agree with the prediction of standing-wave pattern analysis. . .11 Splitting frequency vs. .MEASUREMENTS USING FORCED MODES OR SPLIT MODES 151 FIGURE 6. Figure 6. will not split.1mm Coupling gap = 0. . By increasing the perturbation width the frequency-splitting effect will become larger.5 mm width. The largest splitting frequency shown in Figure 6. 2. Substrate thickness = 0. the resonant modes with mode number n = 3 m.6mm LRS line width = 1. The use of the local resonant split mode is more ﬂexible than the notch perturbation.11 displays the experimental results of the dependence of splitting frequency on the width of the LRS. width of the 60° LRS. . The local resonant split mode can also be applied to the measurements of step discontinuities of microstrip lines [17].11 is 765 MHz for the LRS with 3. 3.1mm Ring radius = 6mm According to the analysis in Chapter 3.

123–128. 1067–1071. MTT-39. Goldfarb and A. [17] K. Artech House. June 1975. “Find optimum substrate thickness for millimeter-wave GaAs MMICs. 1979. 522–526. 2d ed. Jansen. [6] I. Chang. D.. pp. Wolff and N. Chichester. [8] P. Hsu. Supercond. “A study of the microstrip ring resonator and its applications.” IEEE Trans. R. pp. Garg. Wiley. Edwards. Microwave Symp. Vol. pp. Chang. S. [11] S. December 1987.. Li.. Bahl. 779–781.. 54–56. [10] M. Vol. J. Denlinger. “Loss considerations for microstrip resonators. pp. September 1991.” Electron. “Evaluation of the equivalent circuit parameters of microstrip discontinuities through perturbation of a resonant ring. No. Berenz.” IEEE Trans. 5. 4. C. 1968. J. 1971.. . 302–303. J. pp. [14] E. C. College Station. Mass. Troughton. Platzker. March 1991. 27. 20. Microstrip Lines and Slotlines. No. “Microstrip bandpass ﬁlter using degenerate modes of a microstrip ring resonator. “Mode phenomenons of the perturbed annular ring elements.” Microwaves & RF. [7] H. “Measurement technique in microstrip. No. J. and I. England. Polakos. G. M. Lett. Chang. [12] T. Dig. 2. Microwave Theory Tech. “Measurement of relative dielectric constant using a microstrip ring resonator. pp..” Electron. [13] P. Vol.” IEEE Trans. Vol. and R. Ho and K. J. A. G. F. Dedham. pp. pp. November 20. R. Martin. Bernard and J. Z. 1970. 1972. “High Q-factor resonator in microstrip. Vol. [4] T. thesis. 12.” Texas A&M University Report. M. V. [2] K. [16] I. M. Microwave Theory Tech. 1981. Lett. 267–270. Vol. A. H. Jung. 8. Vol. 26. No. 620–624. Kanamaluru.. 7. June 1986. “Slotline ring resonator test method for high-Tc superconducting ﬁlms. MTT-23. December 1975. pp. Trambarulo. J. Deutsch and J. M. Carroll. Troughton. MTT-38. No.” Electron.. 1. Chattopadhyay. “Losses in GaAs Microstrip.. MTT-23. E. 183–187. New York. Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design. and K. App. 12. Naugle. Hoefer and A. 520–522.” Nachrichtentech. Schneider. “Microstrip ring resonator and dispersion measurements on microstrip lines. “Microstrip ring resonator and dispersion measurement on microstrip lines from 2 to 12 GHz. Vol. E. Belohoubek and E. January 23. September 1984. pp. March 1991. Nakano. pp. 189–192. Jenkins.. pp. Eddison. September 1994. December 30. Texas A&M University. 1957–1963.. “Accurate characterization and modeling of transmission lines for GaAs MMICs.. No. Gautray. Microwave Theory Tech. Lett. Microwave Theory Tech. J. 3. 1969.” IEEE Trans.. Phillips. 592–595. Wolff. Vol. Vol. Lett.” M. [9] P. Vol. December 1990. [5] J. Rice. pp. [15] C.” in 1986 IEEE MTTS Int. and I. M. College Station. pp. ASC-4. 3. C. [3] W. Finlay.S. and K. No.. A. Knoppik. June 15.152 MEASUREMENT APPLICATIONS USING RING RESONATORS REFERENCES [1] P. 24.” Electron. Vol. 25–26.” IEEE Trans. “Electrical characteristics of thin-ﬁlm Ba2YCu3O7 superconducting ring resonators” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. Gupta. 1992.

The dual-mode bandpass ﬁlter was ﬁrst proposed by Wolff using asymmetric coupling feed lines [1]. the ring resonator has bandpass characteristics.1 INTRODUCTION As shown in the previous chapters. The ring resonators could be designed in microstrip line. 7. This forms the base for a compact dual-mode ﬁlter. the signal will pass through with certain losses at the resonant frequencies of the ring and will be rejected at frequencies outside the resonant frequencies. slotline. By cascading several ring resonators in series. The square ring resonator is fed by a Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures.2 DUAL-MODE RING BANDPASS FILTERS As described in Chapters 2 and 3. the ring resonator can support two degenerate modes if both modes are excited. Second Edition. The ring cavities can be built in waveguides. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. various bandpass ﬁltering characteristics can be designed. etc. This property can be used to reject adjacent channel interferences. Later on. patch. Inc. Figure 7. or coplanar waveguide. 153 .1 shows a dual-mode ﬁlter. slit. The new conﬁguration with orthogonal feed lines and patch perturbation provides a quasi-elliptic function that has two transmission zeros close to the passband. If a ring resonator is coupled to input and output transmission lines.As discussed in Chapters 2 and 3.CHAPTER SEVEN Filter Applications 7. the dual-mode effects are introduced either by skewing one of the feed lines with respect to the other or by introduction of a discontinuity (notch.). many new conﬁgurations using orthogonal feed lines with patch perturbation on a ring resonator were introduced [2–5].

The tuning stub attached to the end of the coupling stub extends the coupling stub to increase the coupling periphery.154 FILTER APPLICATIONS lc lf w l g lt (a) Feed line s Tuning stub Coupling stub (b) FIGURE 7.1 Dual-mode bandpass ﬁlter with enhanced coupling (a) layout and (b) L-shape coupling arm [6]. Figure 7. Comparing the ﬁlter in Figure 7. Without the tuning stubs. the asymmetrical structure perturbs the ﬁeld of the ring resonator and excites two degenerate modes [1]. there is no perturbation on the ring resonator and only a single mode is excited [7]. the conventional ﬁlters only provide a dual-mode characteristic without the beneﬁts of enhanced coupling strength and performance optimization.) pair of orthogonal feed lines.1b displays the scheme of the coupling arm that consists of a coupling stub and a tuning stub. (Permission from IEEE.1 with conventional dual-mode ﬁlters [1].75 GHz and fabricated . and each feed line is connected to an L-shape coupling arm [6]. The ﬁlter was designed at the center frequency of 1. In addition.

the length of one side of the square ring resonator is l = 17.QL Qe = (7.3 show the measured results for ﬁve cases from changing the length lt of tuning stubs with a ﬁxed gap size (s = 0. Observing the measured results in Figure 7.2) The performance for these two single-mode ring resonators is shown in Table 7.191 mm for a 50-ohm line. From Equation (7.f p21 f p22 + f p21 K= (7.1. the gap size between the ring resonator and coupling stubs is g = 0. two cases for lt = 4.1b) where QL is the loaded Q.25 mm. and the gap size between the tuning stubs and the ring resonator is s.8 mm) and varying the gap size s with a ﬁxed length (lt = 13. Qo is the unloaded Q of the ring resonator.5 and 9 mm with a ﬁxed gap size only excite a single mode.2 substrate with a relative dielectric constant of 10. The coupling gap g was selected in consideration of strong coupling and etching tolerance. Qe is given by 2QoQL Qo .3) .839 + s mm. the width of the microstrip line is w = 1. the length of the coupling stubs is lc = 18.L 20 ) QL = (7.648 mm. The length of the tuning stubs is lt. the coupling strength and the frequency response can be optimized. The coupling between the L arms and the ring can be expressed by external Q (Qe) as follows [9]: 1 fo = (Df )3dB 2 1 + Qe Qo QL (1 . The loaded Q is obtained from measurement of fo and (Df)3dB and unloaded Q (Qo = 137) is calculated from the Equation (7. By adjusting the length lt and gap size s of the tuning stubs adequately.2) or dual-mode excitation (Figure 7.1a) Qo = (7. The length of the feed lines is lf = 8 mm.1b). The coupling coefﬁcient between two degenerate modes is given by [10] f p22 .2. Single-mode excitation (Figure 7.5 mm).2 and 7.10 . Figures 7. fo is the resonant frequency.2.DUAL-MODE RING BANDPASS FILTERS 155 on a 50-mil thickness RT/Duroid 6010.3) can be resulted by varying s and lt. and L is the insertion loss in decibel. (Df)3dB is the 3-dB bandwidth.1a). The simulation was completed using an IE3D electromagnetic simulator [8].

Qe = 61.5 2.156 FILTER APPLICATIONS S21 0 Magnitude (dB) -20 -40 lt = 4.58 1.5 mm.0 2. (Permission from IEEE.58 -60 -80 1. the midband insertion loss L corresponding to Qo.) where fp1 and fp2 are the resonant frequencies.0 lt = 4.8 mm) [6].5 Frequency (GHz) 3. Qe = 61.5 mm. Qe.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.2 Measured (a) S21 and (b) S11 by adjusting the length of the tuning stub lt with a ﬁxed gap size (s = 0.5 2. and K can be expressed as [9] È (1 + Qe Qo ) 2 KQe ˘ L = 20 log Í + ˙dB 2 ˚ Î 2 KQe (7.0 (a) S11 0 -5 Magnitude (dB) -10 -15 -20 -25 1.4) . Qe = 25. In addition.16 lt = 9 mm. Qe = 25.16 lt = 9 mm.0 2.0 1.0 (b) FIGURE 7.

K = 0. Qe = 6.9. (Permission from IEEE.69 dB 70 MHz 25 61.66.5 mm.DUAL-MODE RING BANDPASS FILTERS 157 S21 0 Magnitude (dB) -20 -40 s = 0.1 Single-Mode Ring Resonator [6].3 mm.0 (b) FIGURE 7. K = 0.7 25.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.8 mm Resonant Frequency fo Insertion Loss IL 3-dB Bandwidth Loaded Q External Q 1.08 -30 1.5 mm) [6]. Qe = 7.075 s = 0.0 2.075 s = 0.16 Case 2: ll = 9 mm s = 0. K = 0.75 GHz 2.) TABLE 7.755 GHz 0. Qe = 9. K = 0.0 1.24.5 mm s = 0. (Permission from IEEE.97 dB 150 MHz 11.58 .078 s = 0.) Case l: ll = 4. Qe = 6.0 (a) S11 0 Magnitude (dB) -10 -20 s = 0.5 mm.8 mm. Qe = 9.078 s = 0.66.5 2.5 2.3 Measured (a) S21 and (b) S11 by varying the gap size s with a ﬁxed length of the tuning stubs (lt = 13. Qe = 7.0 1.0 2.9.24.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.8 mm.3 mm.08 -60 -80 1. K = 0.8 mm 1. K = 0.

67. Observing the single-mode ring in Table 7. Finally.2. 1.5 MHz.04 dB in the passpband with a 3-dB bandwidth of 192. then the coupling between two degenerate modes is overcoupled.7.4 shows the simulated and measured results for the optimized quasi-elliptic bandpass ﬁlter.8 mm (1.075 6.5 MHz undercoupled Resonant Frequencies (fp1. Also.1. it shows that a higher external Q produces higher insertion loss and narrower bandwidth.66 1. For an undercoupled condition. fp2) Coupling Coefﬁcient K External Q Midband Insertion Loss IL 3-dB Bandwidth Coupling Condition (1.4) through measured L.5 mm (1. coupling coefﬁcient K.9 1. To obtain a low insertion-loss and wide-band pass band characteristic. there is no hump response. the coupling is undercoupled. the single-mode ring resonator should have a low external Q. For both critically coupled and undercoupled coupling conditions. and Qo. K.04 dB 192. the coupling coefﬁcient between two degenerate modes shows three different coupling conditions. In this overcoupled condition.81) GHz 0. the insertion loss in the passband increases [9].3 mm Case 2: ll = 13.72. its insertion loss and bandwidth depend on the external Q. which implies more coupling periphery between the feeders and the ring resonator. The ﬁlter has an insertion loss of 1.2 Dual-Mode Ring Resonator [6]. (Permission from IEEE. In addition. the ring resonator has a hump response with a high insertion loss in the middle of the passband [5].078 7.5 mm s = 0.) Case l: ll = 13. (7.08 9. Let Ko = 1 Qe + 1 Qo . Moreover. TABLE 7.84) GHz 0. If K = Ko. when the coupling becomes more undercoupled.63 dB 175 MHz undercoupled Case 3: ll = 13. if K < Ko. Figure 7.158 FILTER APPLICATIONS The external Q can be obtained from Equation (7.9 dB 160 MHz undercoupled .5 mm s = 0. The performance for the dual-mode ring resonators is displayed in Table 7.24 2.5 mm s = 0.855) GHz 0. the more undercoupled. 1.5) If the coupling coefﬁcient satisﬁes K > Ko. 1.2. and coupling conditions. Two transmission zeros locate on either side of the passband to suppress unwanted adjacent channel interferences. the more the insertion loss and the narrower the bandwidth. for the dual-mode ring resonator in Table 7. the coupling is critically coupled.

5 2.0 1.5 illustrates the ﬁlter using three cascaded ring resonators.8 mm [6].) w le w1 le w1 w FIGURE 7. (Permission from IEEE.4 Simulate and measured results for the case of lt = 13.691 mm.5 mm and s = 0.) Cascaded multiple ring resonators have advantages in acquiring a much narrower and shaper rejection.2 mm with a width w1 = 1.5 Layout of the ﬁlter using three resonators with L-shape coupling arms [6]. .DUAL-MODE RING BANDPASS FILTERS 159 0 S11 Magnitude (dB) -20 S21 -40 Measurement Simulation -60 -80 1. Figure 7.0 FIGURE 7.0 2.5 Frequency (GHz) 3. (Permission from IEEE. Any two of three resonators are linked by an L-shape arm with a short transmission line le of 6.

160

FILTER APPLICATIONS

le

lb

Yin w1 w

Open End Effect

la

(a)

le Yin1 Z1 Yin1

Yin

(b)

FIGURE 7.6 Back-to-back L-shape resonator (a) layout and (b) equivalent circuit. The lengths la and lb include the open end effects.

This bandpass ﬁlter was built based on the lt = 13.5 mm and s = 0.8 mm case of the single ring resonator of Figure 7.1. Each ﬁlter section has identical dimensions as that in Figure 7.1. The energy transfers from one ring resonator through the coupling and tuning stubs (or an L-shape arm) and the short transmission line to another ring resonator. Observing the conﬁguration for the Lshape and the short transmission line le in Figure 7.6, it not only perturbs the ring resonator, but also it can be treated as a resonator. A short transmission line lc of 6.2 mm with a width w1 = 1.691 mm connects to the coupling stubs to link the two ring resonators. Considering this type resonator in Figure 7.6a, it is consisted of a transmission line le and two parallel-connected open stubs. Its equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 7.6b. The input admittance Yin is given by È Yin 1 + jY1 tan(ble ) ˘ Yin = Yin 1 + Y1 Í Î Y1 + jYin 1 tan(ble ) ˙ ˚ Yin1 = jYo[tan(bla) + tan(bla)], Yl = 1/Zl, Yo = 1/Zo. b: phase constant (7.6)

Y1 is the characteristic admittance of the transmission line le, and Yo is the characteristic admittances of the transmission lines la, and lb. Letting Yin = 0, the resonant frequencies of the resonator can be predicted. The resonant fre-

RING BANDSTOP FILTERS

161

S21 -30 Magnitude (dB) -50 -70 -90 -110 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.0

FIGURE 7.7 Measured S21 for the back-to-back L-shape resonator [6]. (Permission from IEEE.)

quencies of the resonator are calculated as fo1 = 1.067, fo2 = 1.654, and fo3 = 2.424 GHz within 1–3 GHz. To verify the resonant frequencies, an end-to-side coupling circuit is built as shown in Figure 7.7. Also, the measured resonant frequencies can be found as fmo1 = 1.08, fmo2 = 1.655, and fmo3 = 2.43 GHz, which show a good agreement with calculated results. Inspecting the frequency responses in Figures 7.6 and 7.7, the spike at fmo3 = 2.43 GHz is suppressed by the ring resonators and only one spike appears at low frequency ( fmo1 = 1.08 GHz) with a high insertion loss, which dose not inﬂuence the ﬁlter performance. Furthermore, the resonant frequency ( fmo2 = 1.655 GHz) of the resonator in Figure 7.6 couples with the ring resonators. By changing the length le, the resonant frequencies will move to different locations. For a shorter length le, the resonant frequencies move to higher frequency and for a longer length le, the resonant frequencies shift to lower frequency. Considering the ﬁlter performance, a proper length le should be carefully chosen. The simulated and measured results of the three cascaded ring ﬁlter are shown in Figure 7.8. The ﬁlter has a measured insertion loss of 2.39 dB in the passpband with a 3-dB bandwidth of 145 MHz.

7.3

RING BANDSTOP FILTERS

The bandstop characteristic of the ring circuit can be realized by using two orthogonal feed lines with coupling gaps between the feed lines and the ring resonator [11]. For odd-mode excitation, the output feed line is coupled to a position of the zero electric ﬁeld along the ring resonator and shows a short

162

FILTER APPLICATIONS

0 S11 -20 Magnitude(dB) Measurement Simulation

-40

-60

S12

-80 1.0 1.5 2.0 Frequency (GHz) 2.5 3.0

FIGURE 7.8 Simulated and measured results for the ﬁlter using three resonators with L-shape coupling arms [6]. (Permission from IEEE.)

l

Input

lr = n l g lf w1

Output

FIGURE 7.9 A ring resonator using direct-connected orthogonal feeders [12]. (Permission from IEEE.)

circuit [12]. Therefore, no energy is extracted from the ring resonator, and the ring circuit provides a stopband. A ring resonator directly connected to a pair of orthogonal feed lines is shown in Figure 7.9 [13]. In this case, no coupling gaps are used between the resonator and the feed lines for low insertion loss. The circumference lr of the ring resonator is expressed as l r = nl g (7.7)

where n is the mode number and lg is the guided wavelength. In order to investigate the behavior of this ring circuit, an EM simulator [8] and a transmission line model are used.

RING BANDSTOP FILTERS

163

Input

A

Output

Input

B

Output

FIGURE 7.10 Simulated electric current at the fundamental resonant frequency for the ring and open-stub bandstop circuits [12]. (Permission from IEEE.)

S21 0 Magnitude (dB)

-20

-40

Ring circuit Open stub circuit

-60

-80

0

2

4 6 8 Frequency (GHz)

10

FIGURE 7.11 Simulated results for the bandstop ﬁlters [12]. (Permission from IEEE.)

Figure 7.10 shows the EM simulated electric current distribution of the ring circuit and a conventional lg/4 open-stub bandstop ﬁlter at the same fundamental resonant frequency. The arrows represent the electric current. The simulated electric current shows minimum electric ﬁelds at positions A and B, which correspond to the maximum magnetic ﬁelds. Thus, both circuits provide bandstop characteristics by presenting zero voltages to the outputs at the fundamental resonant frequency that can be observed by their simulated frequency response of S21 as shown in Figure 7.11. The ring resonator and the conventional lg/4 open-stub bandstop ﬁlter are designed at a fundamental resonant frequency of fo = 5.6 GHz and fabricated on a RT/Duriod 6010.2 substrate with a thickness h = 25 mil and a relative dielectric constant er = 10.2. The dimensions of the ring are lf = 5 mm, lr = 20.34 mm, and w1 = 0.6 mm.

164

FILTER APPLICATIONS

Upper part L L

l

l

L

L

Input

lf

jBT

l l

L

c

L L

c

L

l l

l

jBT

l lf

Output

c

Lower part

c

FIGURE 7.12 Equivalent circuit of the ring using direct-connected orthogonal feed lines [12]. (Permission from IEEE.)

The equivalent ring circuit shown in Figure 7.12 is divided by the input and output ports to form a shunt circuit denoted by the upper and lower parts, respectively. The equivalent circuits of the 45-degree-mitered bend are represented by two inductors L and a capacitor C [14] those are expressed by

2 È Ê w1 ˆ Ê w1 ˆ ˘ C = 0.001hÍ(3.39e r + 0.62) + 7.6e r + 3.8 Ë h¯ Ë h ¯˙ ˚ Î 1.39 È Ï Ê w1 ˆ ˘ ¸ L = 0.22 hÌ1 - 1.35 expÍ -0.18 Ë h ¯ ˙˝ Î ˚˛ Ó

pF

(7.8a) (7.8b)

nH

where h and w1 are in millimeters. The capacitance jBT is the T-junction effect between the feed line and the ring resonator [15]. The frequency response of the ring circuit can be calculated from the equivalent ring circuit using ABCD, Y, and S parameters. Figure 7.13 shows the calculated and measured results with good agreement.

7.4 COMPACT, LOW INSERTION LOSS, SHARP REJECTION, AND WIDEBAND BANDPASS FILTERS Figure 7.14 shows a compact, low insertion loss, sharp rejection, wideband microstrip bandpass ﬁlter. This bandpass ﬁlter is developed from the bandstop ﬁlter introduced in Section 7.3 [13]. Two tuning stubs are added to the bandstop ﬁlter to create a wide passband. Without coupling gaps between feed lines and rings, there are no mismatch and radiation losses between them [16]. Thus, the ﬁlter can obtain a low insertion loss, and the major losses of the ﬁlter are contributed by conductor and dielectric losses. In Figure 7.14, the ring resonator is loaded with two tuning stubs of length lt = lg/4 at F = 90° and

COMPACT, LOW INSERTION LOSS, SHARP REJECTION, AND BANDPASS FILTERS

165

**0 S11 Magnitude (dB) -20 -40 -60 -80 0 2 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) 10 S21
**

Measurement Calculation

FIGURE 7.13 Calculated and measured results of the ring using direct-connected orthogonal feed lines [12]. (Permission from IEEE.)

lt

y w2 Input F x F = 0o

Output

(a)

L L

C

l

Yt

l

L

L

C

Input

lf

jBT

l

L

l l lf

Output L L

C

l

L

C

l

jBT

l

Yt

(b)

FIGURE 7.14 Ring with two tuning stubs at F = 90° and 0° (a) layout and (b) equivalent circuit.

166

FILTER APPLICATIONS

S21 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 1 3 5

lt = 1.25 mm lt = 2.50 mm lt = 3.75 mm lt = 5.03 mm

Magnitude (dB)

7 9 11 Frequency (GHz)

13

15

FIGURE 7.15 Calculated results of the ring with various lengths of the tuning stub at F = 90° and 0° [12]. (Permission from IEEE.)

F = 0°. Yt is the admittance looking into the tuning stub and can be expressed by Yt = Yo tanh[b (lt + lopen )] + jBT 1 (7.9)

where Yo is the characteristic admittance of the tuning stub, b is the propagation constant, and lopen is the equivalent open-effect length [17]. The frequency response of the ring circuit can be obtained from the equivalent circuit by using ABCD, Y, and S parameter calculations. By changing the lengths of two tuning stubs, the frequency response of the ring circuit will be varied. Observing the calculated results in Figure 7.15, two attenuation poles starting from the center frequencies of the fundamental and the third modes move to the lower frequencies and form a wide passband. The measured and calculated results of the ﬁlter with the tuning stubs of length lg/4 are shown in Figure 7.16. In addition, due to the symmetric structure, the ring circuit in Figure 7.14 only excites a single mode. Observing the results in Figure 7.16, the effects of adding two tuning stubs with a length of lt = lg/4 at F = 90° and F = 0° provide a sharper cutoff frequency response, increase attenuations, and obtain a wide passband. Two attenuation poles are at f1 = 3.81 GHz with -46-dB rejection and f2 = 7.75 GHz with -51-dB rejection. The differences between the measurement and the calculation on f1 and f2 are due to fabrication tolerances that cause a slightly asymmetric layout and excite small degenerate modes. The key point behind this new ﬁlter topology is that two tuning stubs loaded on the ring resonator at F = 90° and F = 0° are used to achieve a wide passband with a sharp cutoff characteristic. In some cases, an undesired passband

16 Calculated and measured results of the ring with two tuning stubs of lt = lg/4 = 5.C and Lp = LLr/ (L . LOW INSERTION LOSS.10b) nH The asymmetric step capacitance Cs is [18] C s = w p (0. To increase the narrow stopbands. Cr and Lr.001hÍ(10.5) + 2. In Figure 7.012 + 0.64 ˙ pF Ë ¯ Ë h h ¯˚ Î 1.11) .17b and c. The equivalent circuits of the square stub and the ﬁlter are displayed in Figure 7.1.17b. As seen in Figure 7.18 ˙˝ Ë h ¯ ˚˛ Î Ó (7. Also.COMPACT.026 mm at F = 90° and 0° [12].) below the main passband may require a high passband section to be used in conjunction with this approach.22 hÌ1 . A square perturbation stub at F = 45° is incorporated on the ring resonator in Figure 7.35 expÍ -0. The square stub perturbs the ﬁelds of the ring resonator so that the resonator can excite a dual mode around the stopbands in order to improve the narrow stopbands. respectively.39 È Ï Ê w1 + w p ˆ ˘ ¸ L = 0.Lr). (Permission from IEEE. AND BANDPASS FILTERS 167 0 S11 -15 Magnitude (dB) -30 -45 -60 0 2 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) Measurement Calculation S21 10 FIGURE 7. the geometry at the corner of F = 45° is approximately equal to the square section of width w1 + wp. are given by [14] 2 È Ê w1 + w p ˆ Ê w1 + w p ˆ ˘ C r = 0.0039e r )pF (7.17a. subtracting an isometric triangle of height w1.6e r + 5. the two stopbands of the ﬁlter show a narrow bandwidth. SHARP REJECTION.10a) (7. where Cpf = Cr . the equivalent L-C circuit of this approximation is shown in Figure 7. the distance (stopband bandwidth) between two modes is increased (decreased).16.35e r + 2.17c. By increasing (decreasing) the size of the square stub. a dual-mode design can be used [4]. The equivalent capacitance and inductance of the right angle bend.

17 The dual-mode ﬁlter (a) layout.83 mm and wp ¥ wr = 0.66.168 FILTER APPLICATIONS lt1 y w2 Input Square stub F x F = 0o wp wp Output (a) w1 wp+w1 wp wp+w1 l l ª w1 (b) ª L L C l Yt l' Cs Lp Lp Cpf Cs L L C l' l l l wp wp Input lf jBT l L l w1 l L C l jBT l lf Output Yt (c) FIGURE 7. The square stub generates two transmission zeros (which are marked as x in Figure 7. The calculated and measured results of the ﬁlter are shown in Figure 7.5 ¥ 0. 7. and (c) overall equivalent circuit [12].18) or dual modes located on either side of the passband at 3. The length of the tuning stubs and the size of the square stub are lt1 = 4.62 .5 mm2. (Permission from IEEE.18.) In the above equations. all lengths are in millimeters. (b) equivalence of the perturbed stub.

The attenuation rate of the ﬁlter for the sharp cutoff frequency responses is 99.85 mm.83 mm for the tuning stubs are optimized for a good return loss.98 dB) and 101.3 dB in the passband from 4.5 dB). comparing this ﬁlter with some compact and low insertion loss ﬁlters [19.COMPACT. two rejections of greater than 18 dB within 3. AND BANDPASS FILTERS 169 0 Magnitude (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0 2 Measurement Calculation S11 S21 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) 10 FIGURE 7.88 mm.75–4. The crosses (x) show the two transmission zero locations [12]. a ﬁlter using three cascaded ring resonators is shown in Figure 7.) and 7.42 GHz with -2. In addition.57–8. and S parameter operations. LOW INSERTION LOSS.75 dB/GHz (calculated from 4. However. The different length lt2 = 4.3 GHz.85 dB) and 131.8 dB/GHz (calculated from 7.58 to 7. To obtain a sharp cutoff frequency response. an insertion loss of better than 0.08 GHz with rejection greater than 40 dB. Two stopbands are located at 2. Comparing S21 with that in Figure 7. SHARP REJECTION.7 dB. 20]. Figure 7.173 GHz with -36.17 GHz with -34. The 3-dB fractional bandwidth of the ﬁlter is 49. The ﬁlter has an insertion loss better than 1.3 GHz and 7.43–4. The calculation also uses the transmission-line model with ABCD. those ﬁlters only show gradual rejections. the dual-mode effects or transmission zeros increase the stopband bandwidth and improve the return loss in the edges of the passband.44 GHz with 3. The ﬁlter has 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 51. and lt4 = 4.62.16.47 GHz.62 GHz with -27. (Permission from IEEE.49 GHz with -2. respectively. the ﬁlters need to increase the number of resonators. the three ring resonators are connected by a short transmission line of length lc = lg/4 = 4. 8.77 dB to 7.6%.73–9. increasing the number of resonators will increase the insertion loss and the size of the ﬁlter and result in narrow passband bandwidth [21. lt3 = 4. Y.19.3%.6 dB and return loss greater than 13.07 GHz.9 dB to 4.02 GHz and 7.9 dB to 4. and an attenuation rate for the sharp cutoff frequency responses of 137.89 mm. 22].58 dB/GHz (calculated from 4. To obtain even higher rejection. In this conﬁguration.18 Calculated and measured results of the dual-mode ring ﬁlter.20 shows the calculated and measured results.56 dB/GHz .

) 0 S11 Magnitude (dB) -20 -40 S21 Measurement Calculation -60 0 2 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) 10 FIGURE 7.20 Calculated and measured results of the cascaded dual-mode ring resonator ﬁlter [12].170 FILTER APPLICATIONS lt2 lf Input lc lt3 lc lt4 Output FIGURE 7.) (calculated from 7.64 GHz with -35.19 Conﬁguration of the cascaded dual-mode ring resonator [12]. the group delay is below 2 nS. (Permission from IEEE.9 dB).12) where S21 is the insertion loss phase and w is the frequency in radians per second.4 dB to 7.32 GHz with -3. (Permission from IEEE. . Within the passband. Figure 7. The group delay of this wideband bandpass ﬁlter can be calculated by t =∂ –S21 ∂w (7.21 shows the group delay of the ﬁlter.

If ZL = • or 0 with a very small value of tan(bl).23 shows lossless parallel and series resonant circuits.13) where Zo and b are the characteristic impedance and phase constant of the open stub. where Zin1 is the input impedance looking into the open stub. by constructing two consecutive stopbands close to the passband [25]. the conventional capacitance-load Kuroda-identity periodic structure is the case of ZL = • with l = lg/8 [26]. As shown in Figure 7.RING SLOW-WAVE BANDPASS FILTERS 171 12 Time (ns) 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 Frequency (GHz) 10 FIGURE 7. (Permission from IEEE. Each unit element includes a length of d transmission line with a length of l open stub.5 RING SLOW-WAVE BANDPASS FILTERS The conventional slow-wave bandpass ﬁlter using a microstrip line periodically loaded by capacitive or inductive loads.22b provides passband (Zin2 Æ •) and stopband (Zin2 Æ 0) characteristics. a transmission line is periodically loaded with identical open stub elements. respectively. Considering the slow-wave periodic structure in Figure 7. At resonance. 24]. the input impedance Zin2 Æ • or 0. the slow-wave periodic structure loaded by Zin2 in Figure 7. Figure 7. the input impedance ZLC of the parallel and series resonant circuits is . The conventional slow-wave periodic structure usually works as a lowpass or stopband ﬁlter [23. a loading impedance ZL is connected at the end of the open stub.22b. For example.21 Group delay of the cascaded dual-mode ring resonator ﬁlter [12]. using higher order modes. The input impedance Zin2 is given by Zin 2 = Zo ZL + jZo tan(bl ) Zo + jZL tan(bl ) for lossless line (7.22a [16]. Also. respectively. Under these cases.) 7. the conventional slow-wave periodic structure can act as a wide band bandpass ﬁlter.

• and 0. a slow-wave periodic structure loaded by ring or hairpin resonators with . respectively. Thus. for the high Q ring and hairpin resonators.22 Slow-wave periodic structure (a) conventional type and (b) with loading ZL at open end [16].23 Lossless (a) parallel and (b) series resonant circuits. In practice. the input impedance of the resonators shows very large and small values at parallel and series resonant frequencies. respectively.172 FILTER APPLICATIONS d l Zin1 unit element (a) d l ZL Zin2 ZL ZL unit element (b) FIGURE 7. (Permission from IEEE. The input impedance ZLC of the resonant circuits can act as the loading impedance ZL in Figure 22b for the passband and stopband characteristics of a slow-wave periodic structure.) L L ZLC (a) C ZLC (b) C FIGURE 7.

be interpreted as using the stop bands of two series resonances in conjunction with the pass band of a parallel resonance to achieve a bandpass frequency response. undesired pass bands below and above the main pass band may require a high pass or bandpass section to be used in conjunction with this approach. The key point behind this new slow-wave ﬁlter topology is that both the series and the parallel resonances of the loading circuit are used to achieve bandpass characteristics. in fact.24 Slow-wave bandpass ﬁlter using one ring resonator with one coupling gap (a) layout and (b) simpliﬁed equivalent circuit [16].24 shows a transmission line loaded by a square ring resonator with a line-to-ring coupling structure and its simple equivalent circuit. The approach can.) . (Permission from IEEE. It is noted. Figure 7.RING SLOW-WAVE BANDPASS FILTERS 173 two series resonant frequencies close to a parallel resonant frequency [27] can be designed for a bandpass ﬁlter at fundamental mode. that in some cases. however. where Zin3 is ls w1 lb Input la lc s Zin3 wo Output (a) Input Zo la Zin3 Zo Output la (b) FIGURE 7.

As seen in Figure 7. and Cp is the capacitance per unit length between the strip and ground plane. (Permission from IEEE. and (c) equivalent circuit [16].25b [29]. one side of the square ring resonator and a coupling gap.25a. (b) side view. Cg is the gap capacitance per unit length. The coupling gap between the symmetrical coupled lines is modeled as a capacitive L-network as shown in Figure 7.174 FILTER APPLICATIONS Resonator Cg Cg Dl Input Coupling Line Parallel Symmetrical Coupled Line (a) Top view Coupling Line Input Ground Plane Resonator Cp Cg Zr (b) Side view Cg l Input Cp l Zr1 (c) Equivalent circuit Zr FIGURE 7. the coupling structure includes the coupling line. . This coupling structure can be treated as symmetrical coupled lines [28].25 Line-to-ring coupling structure (a) top view.) the input impedance looking into the transmission line lb toward the ring resonator with the line-to-ring coupling.

5 substrate with a thickness h = 50 mil and a relative dielectric constant er = 10. la = 12. where the input impedance of the ring resonator Zr can be obtained from [29]. respectively. s = 0. Figure 7.25c shows the equivalent circuit of the capacitive network. lower ( fsL).07 mm. the parallel resonance can be centered between two series resonances.15) The frequency response of the ring circuit can be calculated using the equivalent circuit in Figure 24b. Also.2 mm.5 mm.26a shows the calculated input impedance Zin3 with parallel and two series resonances of the ring resonator at different lengths of lb. lb = 6.24 are denoted by D. and w is the angular jwC g Dl jwC p Dl frequency. the passband and stopband of the ring circuit can be obtained by calculating S11 and S21 from the ABCD matrix in Equation (7. (7.16) where Yo = 1/Zo. The dimensions of the ﬁlter are ls = 12.Zo Yin 3 sin 2 (bla ) + j 2Zo sin(bla ) cos(bla )˘ ˙ 1 . . Cg and Cp.2 sin 2 (bla ) + jZoYin 3 sin(bla ) cos(bla ) ˚ (7. The measured and calculated .5. Figure 7. Figure 7. and higher ( fsH) series resonances corresponding to the passband and stopband of the ring circuit in Figure 7. Zg = 1 1 .3 mm. The ABCD matrix of the ring circuit is È A B ˘ È cos(bla ) ÍC D˙ = Í jY sin(bl ) Î ˚ Î o a jZo sin(bla )˘ È 1 cos(bla ) ˙ ÍYin 3 ˚Î 0˘ È cos(bla ) 1˙ Í jYo sin(bla ) ˚Î jZo sin(bla )˘ cos(bla ) ˙ ˚ È1 . By adjusting the length of lb properly. These parameter values are synthesized from the design equations using numerical optimization to construct a bandpass ﬁlter with attenuation poles centered at ±330 MHz about the parallel resonant frequency.2 sin 2 (bla ) + jZoYin 3 sin(bla ) cos(bla ) =Í ÎYin 3 cos 2 (bla ) + j 2Yo sin(bla ) cos(bla ) 2 . The ring circuit was designed at the center frequency of 2. The parallel ( fp).4 GHz and fabricated on a RT/Duroid 6010. wo = 1. can be found from the even. The input impedance Zr1 looks into the line-to-ring coupling structure toward the ring resonator. The input impedance Zin3 is Z in3 = Z r1 + jZ o tan(blb ) Z o + jZ r1 tan(blb ) (7.158 mm.14) where Zr1 = (Zr + Zg) 2 Zp.16). and w1 = 0.26b is an expanded view showing the series resonances.RING SLOW-WAVE BANDPASS FILTERS 175 These capacitances.and odd-mode capacitances of symmetrical coupled lines [30]. and . The parallel ( fp) and series ( fs) resonances of the ring resonator can be obtained by setting Yin 3 = 1 Zin 3 @ 0 and Zin 3 @ 0. Using Yin3( fp) and Zin3( fs) at resonances. Zp = .376 mm.

1 2.5 mm fp fsL fsH Z in 3 (W) 800 400 0 1.5%.3 GHz.7 3. respectively.3 dB.5 1.5 1. The ﬁlter has a fractional 3-dB bandwidth of 15.5 mm lb= 6.4 Frequency (GHz) 2.59 GHz with attenuation level of 35.8 2.53 dB and 25.0 (a) lb= 4.2 and 31. the . To improve the passband and rejection.) frequency response of the ring circuit is illustrated in Figure 7.5 mm fp fsL fsH 50 40 Z in 3 (W) 30 20 10 0 1.83 and 2. The insertion and return losses are 0.4 2.5 mm lb= 6.176 FILTER APPLICATIONS 1200 lb= 4. As seen in Figure 7.8 2. a slow-wave bandpass ﬁlter using three ring resonators has also been built. (Permission from IEEE.7 Frequency (GHz) 3.28.1 2.7 dB at 2.27.5 mm lb= 8.5 mm lb= 8.26 Variation in input impedance |Zin3| for different lengths of lb showing (a) parallel and series resonances and (b) an expanded view for the series resonances [16]. Two attenuation poles are at 1.0 (b) FIGURE 7. respectively. The measured unloaded Q of the closed-loop ring resonator is 122.

) .RING SLOW-WAVE BANDPASS FILTERS 177 0 S11 -10 Magnitude (dB) -20 -30 Measurement Calculation S21 -40 1.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.0 2.5 2. (Permission from IEEE.28 Slow-wave bandpass ﬁlter using three ring resonators (a) layout and (b) simpliﬁed equivalent circuit [16].) lb Input la ld Zin4 le ld lb Output la (a) Input Zo la Zin3 ld Zin4 ld Zin3 Zo Output la FIGURE 7.0 FIGURE 7.27 Measured and calculated frequency response for the slow-wave bandpass ﬁlter using one square ring resonator [16]. (Permission from IEEE.

24]. these new slow-wave bandpass ﬁlters show lower insertion loss at similar resonant frequencies [31–33]. The ﬁlter with an elliptic-function characteristic has a 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 8. Observing the frequency response of the ﬁlters in Figures 27 and 29. which are optimized by the calculation equations to obtain wider stop bands than the ﬁlter in Figure 7.) transmission line is loaded periodically by three ring resonators.52–2.7 GHz.5 mm. In addition. Figure 7.45 dB with a ripple of ±0.09 dB. the two stop bands exhibit a rejection level larger than 50 dB within 1.and cross-coupled bandpass structures by eliminating coupling gaps between resonators. The frequency response of the ﬁlter can be obtained from ABCD matrix of the equivalent circuit in Figure 7. In comparison with bandpass ﬁlters that use parallel.0 2. the differences between the calculated and measured results are partly due to the use of a lossless calculation model.178 FILTER APPLICATIONS 0 -20 Magnitude (dB) -40 -60 -80 Measurement Calculation S11 S21 -100 -120 1. . This is an important ﬁnding because the new ﬁlter structure uses more conductor than the parallel.and cross-coupled structures.5% and a pass band from 2. (Permission from IEEE.34 GHz with return loss better than 10 dB.29 Measured and calculated frequency response for slow-wave bandpass ﬁlter using three square ring resonators [16].24. The new slow-wave bandpass ﬁlters use higher order modes to build up a bandpass ﬁlter with a wide passband [25] or to provide lowpass or bandstop features [23.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.24. The ﬁlter uses the same dimensions as the ﬁlter with a single ring resonator in Figure 7.and cross-coupled resonators with coupling gaps between the resonators. but with the transmission lengths ld = 15.0 FIGURE 7.16 to 2.686 mm and le = 5. where Zin4 is the input impedance looking into le toward the ring.28b.5 2.29 illustrates the measured and calculated results. This implies that the new ﬁlter topology signiﬁcantly reduces the insertion loss caused in parallel.76–2 GHz and 2. The maximum insertion loss in the pass band is 1.

zc = 1/jwCs1 cos bl 2 ˙ Î jYo sin bl 2 ˚ is the impedance of the gap capacitance Cs1. where b is the propagation constant. l2. and cos bl1 ˚ Î ˚ (7. Inspecting Figure 7. which consists of upper and lower sections.17a) (7. The cross coupling between nonadjacent resonators creates transmission zeros that improve the skirt rejection of the microstrip ﬁlters [35–37]. The total length of the resonator is l = l1 + l2 = lg/2. The coupling between the two open ends of the resonators is simply expressed by the gap capacitance Cs1 [36. w is the angular frequency.30 shows the conﬁguration of the ﬁlter using two hairpin resonators with asymmetric feed lines tapping the resonators [38]. the whole circuit represents a shunt circuit.30.30 Conﬁguration of the ﬁlter using two hairpin resonators with asymmetric tapping feed lines [38].6 RING BANDPASS FILTERS WITH TWO TRANSMISSION ZEROS To achieve the high selectivity characteristic.) . The ABCD matrixes for the upper and lower sections of the lossless shunt circuit are ÈA B˘ = M1 M 2 M3 ÍC D˙ Î ˚ upper È A B˘ = M3 M 2 M1 ÍC D˙ Î ˚ lower È cos bl1 with M1 = Í Î jYo sin bl1 jZ o sin bl1 ˘ È 1 zc ˘ ˙. The input and output feed lines divide the resonators into two sections of l1 and l2.17b) jZ o sin bl 2 ˘ È cos bl 2 M3 = Í . (Permission from IEEE. and Zo s1 Input l1 Cs1 l2 l2 l = l1 + l2 = lg / 2 Cs1 l1 Output FIGURE 7. M 2 = Í 0 1 ˙. 39]. and Cs1.RING BANDPASS FILTERS WITH TWO TRANSMISSION ZEROS 179 7. where lg is the guided-wavelength at fundamental resonance. Levy introduced ﬁlters using cross-coupled structure [34]. Figure 7. Each section is composed of l1.

19) The insertion loss S21 of the circuit can then be calculated from the total Yparameters and is expressed as S21 = -2Y21Yo (Y11 + Yo )(Y22 + Yo ) .20) For a small Cs1. In addition. (13). (12). and (16) in [38].17b) and given by ÈY11 Y12 ˘ ÈDj Bj = ÍY Î 21 Y22 ˙ j Í -1 Bj ˚ Î (B j C j . The transmission zeros can be found by letting S21 = 0. it shows the relation between the transmission 2pf e eff zeros and the tapping positions.180 FILTER APPLICATIONS = 1/Yo is the characteristic impedance of the resonator. and (16) in [38] only present a special case of the two hairpin resonators with two asymmetric feed lines tapped at the center.17)–(7. The Y parameters of the upper and lower sections are obtained from (7.20) with (12). Substituting b = into Equation c (7. Equations (7.21) 2 = (7.17) to (7.20) given here are more general for the asymmetric feed lines tapped at arbitrary positions on the resonators. (13).22). namely zo sin bl cos bl1 cos bl 2 =0 wC s1 (7.22).Aj Dj ) B j ˘ Aj Bj ˙ ˚ (7. the transmission zeros corresponding to the tapping positions are .22) Inspecting Equation (7.17a) and (7. Equation (7.Y12Y21 cos bl1 cos bl 2 ˆ Ê j 4 Zo sin bl Y Ë ¯ o wC s1 Yo sin bl Ê cos bl1 cos bl 2 ˆ ˘ È Y -4 Í2 cos bl + wC s1 + jË Zo sin bl ¯ o˙ wC s1 Î ˚ Comparing Equations (7.21) can be approximated as cos bl1 cos bl 2 @ 0 (7. the total Y parameter of the whole circuit is expressed as ÈY11 Y12 ˘ ÈY11 Y12 ˘ ÈY11 Y12 ˘ = + ÍY Î 21 Y22 ˙ ÍY21 Y22 ˙ upper ÍY21 Y22 ˙ lower ˚ Î ˚ Î ˚ (7.18) where j = upper or lower is for upper or lower sections.

f2 = 2.) TABLE 7. l2 = 16.31 shows the measured results for different tapping positions on the hairpin resonators in Figure 7.69 mm. S21 = 0 and there is maximum rejection.43 mm Magnitude S21 (dB) l1 = 12.69 mm.27 GHz f1 = 1.5 Frequency (GHz) 3. and f1 and f2 are the frequencies of the two transmission zeros corresponding to the tapping positions of the lengths of l1 and l2 on the resonators. (Permission from IEEE.3 shows the measured and the calculated results for the transmission zeros 0 l1 = l2 = l / 2 = 14. f2 = 2.2.48 GHz Calculations f1 = f2 = 2 GHz f1 = 1.68 GHz. 3.16 mm l1 = 11.0 2. Table 7. .24 mm. The ﬁlter was designed at the fundamental frequency of 2 GHz and fabricated on a RT/Duroid 6010. (7.30. f2 = 2. At the transmission zeros. c is the speed of light in free space. eeff is the effective dielectric constant. l2 = 17. .61 mm No passband at 2 GHz f1 = 1.57 GHz .16 mm -20 l1 = 11.24 mm.0 1. Figure 7.43 mm l1 = 12. l2 = 16.8 GHz. f2 = 2.RING BANDPASS FILTERS WITH TWO TRANSMISSION ZEROS 181 f1 = nc 4l1 e eff and f2 = nc 4l 2 e eff n = 1.35 mm [38].) Measurements l1 = l2 = l/2 = 14. (Permission from IEEE.31 Measured results for different tapping positions with coupling gap s1 = 0.2 substrate with a thickness h = 25 mil and a relative dielectric constant er = 10.64 GHz.25 GHz f1 = 1.23) where f is the frequency.5 2. 5 .79 GHz.0 FIGURE 7. l2 = 17.61 mm -40 -60 -80 1. n is the mode number.3 Measured and calculated results of the hairpin resonators for different tapping positions [38].

182 FILTER APPLICATIONS corresponding to the different tapping positions. Figure 7.33 Measured results for different tapping positions with coupling gap s1 = 0. Inspecting the results. (Permission from IEEE. except for the two additional 45-degree chamfered bends and the coupling gap g = 0. (Permission from IEEE. the measurements agree well with the calculations.) .32 Layout of the ﬁlter using two open-loop ring resonators with asymmetric tapping feed lines [38].4. Comparing with Table 7. Figure 7.30. the locations of the transmission zeros of s1 l1 Input Center l2 Cg g d Cg d Center Output l2 l = l1 + l2 = lgo / 2 l1 FIGURE 7.35 mm [38].5 mm between the two open ends of the ring.3.30. The measured locations of the transmission zeros are listed in Table 7. This type resonator with two folded arms is more compact than the ﬁlter in Figure 7.) FIGURE 7.32 shows the ﬁlter using two open-loop ring resonators [38]. This ﬁlter has the same dimensions as the ﬁlter in Figure 7.33 shows the measured results for the different tapping positions on the rings.

Thus. and Qe.RING BANDPASS FILTERS WITH TWO TRANSMISSION ZEROS 183 TABLE 7. Figure 7.24). The case of l1 = 12. The overcoupled condition is given by K> 1 1 + Qo Qe (7.61 mm No passband at 2 GHz f1 = 1.33 shows an overcoupled condition [6.4 Measured Results of the Open-loop Ring Resonators for Different Tapping Positions [38]. f2 = 2. The measured external Q is given by [40] Qe = fo Df±90∞ (7.32 shows the tapping positions at a distance d from the center of the resonators to the input and output ports. The larger external Q allows the ﬁlter to approach the overcoupled condition in Equation (7.24 mm.16 mm l1 = 11. 9].83 GHz.16 mm in Figure 7.) Measurements l1 = l2 = l/2 = 14.24).43 mm l1 = 12. This implies that the coupling effects between the two rings and the effects of two additional 45-degree chamfered bends only slightly affect the locations of the two transmission zeros. But this may easily induce an overcoupled condition.31 and 7.69 mm.5 GHz the ﬁlters using open-loop rings are very close to those of the ﬁlters using hairpin resonators. and Qe is the external Q. observing Equations (7. Beyond the coupling effects caused by the tapping positions. the tapping positions also affect the couplings between two resonators. which has a hump within the passband. (Permission from IEEE. . the coupling gap s1 also inﬂuences the couplings between two resonators [31]. Therefore. the external Q becomes larger [41].3).23) and (7. for a shorter d.24 GHz f1 = 1.69 GHz.23) can also be used to predict the locations of the transmission zeros of the ﬁlters using open-loop rings. Observing the measured results in Figures 7. The coupling condition of the ﬁlter can be found using the measured K.25) where Df±90° is the bandwidth about the resonant frequency. the two transmission zeros appear close to the passband.33. When d becomes shorter or the tapping position moves toward the center. f2 = 2. the proper tapping positions and gap size should be carefully chosen. over which the phase varies from -90° to +90°.24) where K is the coupling coefﬁcient.69 mm and l2 = 16. Qo. to avoid overcoupling. In addition. Qo is the unloaded Q of either of the two resonators. providing a high selectivity nearby the passband. l2 = 16. The measured K can be calculated from Equation (7. Equation (7. causing a hump within the passband. l2 = 17.

5 GHz with -45.34 Measured results of the open-loop ring resonators for the case of tapping positions of l1 = 11. and two transmission zeros at 1.184 FILTER APPLICATIONS Figure 7.61 mm [38]. The 3-dB fractional bandwidth of the ﬁlter is 10.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.5-dB rejection.35 Conﬁguration of the ﬁlter using four cascaded open-loop ring resonators [38].06 GHz.4%.98 to 2. (Permission from IEEE.0 2.2 dB in [31] and 2.0 S21 S11 FIGURE 7. which does not have a hump in the passband.5 2. respectively.24 mm and l2 = 17. (Permission from IEEE. The ﬁlter uses 0 -10 Magnitude (dB) -20 -30 -40 -50 1.34 has a lower insertion loss of 0. This ﬁlter with K = 0. The ﬁlter using cascaded resonators is shown in Figure 7.) .0 1.35.61 mm. The ﬁlter has an insertion loss of 0.95 dB. 9].) s2 Input l1 1 g 2 s2 d1 3 s2 l2 g 4 l2 l1 Output FIGURE 7. a return loss of greater than 20 dB from 1. the ﬁlter in Figure 7.24 mm and l2 = 17.4 shows an undercoupled condition [6.02 < 1/Qo + 1/Qe = 1/130 + 1/15.34 shows the measured results of the ﬁlter for the case of l1 = 11.8 dB in [36]). Comparing with the insertion losses of the cross-coupling ﬁlters at similar fundamental resonant frequencies (2.7-dB rejection and 2.69 GHz with -50.95 dB at 2.02 GHz.

and the negative sign in coupling matrix is for electrical coupling [32]. respectively.035 0 ˙ ˙ = K34 ˙ Í 0 0. 4 to maintain the sharp cutoff frequency response.0 S21 Measurement Simulation FIGURE 7.61 mm at the ﬁrst and last resonators. the positions of the two transmission zeros of the ﬁlter can be predicted at around 1.f p21 ˆ is the mutual coupling between ith ring and jth ring. j ( fp2)i. Therefore. The insertion loss is 2.25%.j are the resonant frequencies of ith ring and jth ring. j Ê f p22 . and the return loss 0 S11 Magnitude (dB) -20 -40 -60 -80 1. The coupling gap size between rings is s2.24 mm and l2 = 17.4 and K = Í Í K31 Í Î K 41 K12 K 22 K32 K 42 K13 K 23 K33 K 43 K14 ˘ È 0 -0. the offset distance d1 between the rings 2 and 3 is designed for asymmetric feeding between rings 1.5 Frequency (GHz) 3.3). The coupling gap s2 = 0.037˙ ˙ Í ˙ K 44 ˚ Î 0 0 -0.0 1.j and ( fp1)i. The measured external Q and the mutual coupling K can be calculated from Equations (7.88 mm are optimized by EM simulation [8] to avoid the overcoupled condition. =Á 2 2 ˜ Ë f p2 + f p1 ¯ i . The ﬁlter has a fractional 3-dB bandwidth of 6. Figure 7.36 shows the simulated and measured results.037 0 ˚ where Ki .5 GHz.32 with the tapping positions of l1 = 11.RING BANDPASS FILTERS WITH TWO TRANSMISSION ZEROS 185 the same dimensions as the open-loop ring in Figure 7.035 0 -0.) . Also.36 Measured and simulated results of the ﬁlter using four cascaded openloop ring resonators [38]. (Permission from IEEE.5 mm and the offset distance d1 = 2. and they are È K11 ÍK 21 Qe = 15.5 2.69 and 2.75 dB at 2 GHz.037 K 24 ˙ Í 0 0. 2 and rings 3.0 2.037 0 0 ˘ ˙ Í -0.

7. As shown in Figure 7.38 shows the measured results for the tuning range of the passband.9.05 GHz. a piezoelectric transducer (PET).7 PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER–TUNED BANDPASS FILTERS Electronically tunable ﬁlters have many applications in transmitters and receivers.95–2. With the maximum applied voltage of 90 V and a perturber of dielectric constant er = 10.37 Conﬁguration of the tunable bandpass ﬁlter (a) top view and (b) 3D view [38].8 and thickness h = 50 mil. (Permission from IEEE.5 dB within 1. allowing the passband of the ﬁlter to shift toward the higher or lower frequencies.37. the tuning range of the Dielectric perturber Input Output PET Vdc (a) Perturber Filter PET Test fixture Vdc (b) FIGURE 7. and an attached dielectric perturber above the ﬁlter [42]. The out-of-band rejection is better than 50 dB extended to 1 and 3 GHz and beyond.186 FILTER APPLICATIONS is greater than 13. As described in Chapter 4. the PET moves the perturber and varies the effective dielectric constant of the ﬁlter. the tunable ﬁlter circuit consists of the ﬁlter using cascaded resonators. Section 4.) . Figure 7.

) Cross line l3 s2 w Input l1 l2 s1 s3 l4 Output FIGURE 7.2 Frequency (GHz) 2. The small tuning range can be increased by using a higher dielectric constant perturber.635 mm.6 1.NARROW BAND ELLIPTIC-FUNCTION BANDPASS FILTERS 187 0 Magnitude S21 (dB) -20 -40 -60 Without perturber With perturber e r = 10.38 Measured results of the tunable bandpass ﬁlter with a perturber of er = 10.8 -80 1. (Permission from IEEE.4 2. The 3-dB bandwidths of the ﬁlters with and without PET tuning are 130 MHz and 125 MHz.) ﬁlter is 6.6 FIGURE 7. This shows that the PET tuning has little effect on bandwidth.5%. 7.0 2.4 1.85 mm.8 NARROW BAND ELLIPTIC-FUNCTION BANDPASS FILTERS The narrow band elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlter is shown in Figure 7. respectively. (Permission from IEEE. The overall size of the ﬁlter including the perturber and PET is 90 mm ¥ 50 mm ¥ 3. The size of the PET is 70 mm ¥ 32 mm ¥ 0. The ﬁlter is constructed by two identical open-loop ring resonators.39 Narrow band elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlter [43]. coupled .8 2.39 [43].8 and h = 50 mil [38].

s2 = 3. (Permission from IEEE. The ﬁlter was designed at 2 GHz and fabricated on a RT/Duriod 6010.8 1. In Figure 13.96% to 2. The dimensions of the ﬁlter are w = 1. and l4 = 27. l2 = 2. Although the insertion loss of 3.9 2.40.145 mm.1 2.3 2.9 SLOTLINE RING FILTERS As mentioned earlier. However. Also.5 cm ¥ 1. l1 = 3.) lines. s1 = 0.435 mm.29 mm.58 mm. and a crossing line at the middle position of the two resonators. The size of the ﬁlter is 2.61 mm.5 substrate with a thickness h = 50 mil and a relative dielectric constant er = 10.5. The coupled lines can enhance the coupling strength to reduce the insertion loss of the ﬁlter.40 Simulated and measured results of the ﬁlter [43].039 GHz. The ﬁlter has a 3-dB bandwidth of 1.188 FILTER APPLICATIONS 0 -5 -10 -15 Measurement Simulation S21 (dB) -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 1. 7. the 3-dB bandwidth is increased slightly from 1. Figure 7.5 cm. l3 = 3.2 Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 7. the crossing line provides a perturbation at the current maximum of the resonator to introduce two transmission zeros next to the passband. The simulated and measured results of the ﬁlter are shown in Figure 7. the resonant modes with odd mode numbers cannot exist in the asymmetrically coupled microstrip ring structure. by .21% by overlays.7 dB is measured. the insertion loss has been improved.0 2. it can be easily reduced to 2. Two deep transmission zeros located in the stopband can suppress adjacent channel interferences.41 shows the measured results for with and without dielectric overlays.15 mm.6 dB by just placing two 2-mm ¥ 2-mm dielectric overlays of the same substrate over interstage coupling gaps. s3 = 4. Also.9 mm.96% at the frequency of 2.435 mm.

The same dual-mode characteristic can also be found in the slotline ring structure with the perturbation of backside microstrip tuning stubs [44.8 1. By using microstrip tuning stubs on the backside of the slotline ring at 45° and 135°.) applying a perturbation at 45° or 135°.4%. 3.0 2. The S-parameters were measured using standard SMA connectors with an HP-8510 network analyzer.2 mm.86 GHz around the center frequency.21 mm.2 2.7 W.9 2. The slotline ring dual-mode ﬁlter was obtained with a bandwidth of 7.SLOTLINE RING FILTERS 0 -5 -10 -15 With Overlays Without Overlays 189 S21 (dB) -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 1. the slotline ring dual-mode ﬁlter has the advantages of ﬂexible tuning and ease of adding series and shunt components. and a sharp gain slope transition. . Figure 7. Compared with the microstrip ring dual-mode ﬁlter. characteristic impedance of the input/output microstrip feed lines Zm0 = 50 W. a mode purity of 1. the slotline ring dual-mode ﬁlter has better in-band and out-band performance. input/output microstrip feed lines line width Wm0 = 0. the dual resonant mode can be excited. slotline ring line width WS = 0.43 shows the measured frequency responses of insertion loss and return loss for the slotline ring dual-mode ﬁlter with mode number n = 3.1 2. the dual resonant mode can be excited. a stopband attenuation of more than 40 dB.3 Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 7. which was published in [11].635 mm.657 GHz. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.57 mm. 45]. Also.42 shows the physical conﬁguration of the slotline ring dual-mode ﬁlter. characteristic impedance of the slotline ring Zs = 70. (Permission from IEEE.5 substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 0. Figure 7. and slotline ring mean radius r = 18.41 Measured results for the ﬁlter with and without dielectric overlays [43].

42 Physical conﬁguration of the slotline ring dual-mode bandpass ﬁlter.) .43 Measured frequency responses of insertion loss and return loss for the slotline ring dual-mode ﬁlter with backside microstrip tuning stubs at 45° and 135° [45]. (Permission from IEEE. (Permission from IEEE. [45].) FIGURE 7.190 FILTER APPLICATIONS FIGURE 7.

(Permission from Electronics Letters. which is determined by the occurrence of multiple modes. However. One method for mode suppression is the incorporation of a stepped impedance low-pass ﬁlter directly into the ring resonator [46]. A 50-W microstrip ring resonator was designed to have a fundamental resonance at 1. Stepped impedance microstrip ﬁlters mimic capacitive and inductive ﬁlter elements with wide. The ﬁlters must be carefully placed at an unwanted mode’s maximums so as to affect it.25 GHz on 0.MODE SUPPRESSION 191 FIGURE 7. without increasing the circuit size. the ﬁlters can be easily incorporated into the transmission lines of the ring resonator to attenuate certain frequencies traveling through the ring. and (b) transmission-line model [46]. Figure 7. Figure 7.44 shows a normal ring resonator and its transmission-line equivalent circuit. high-impedance microstrip lines.45 shows the computer-aided design (CAD) package’s simulation of the lightly coupled ring using the transmission-line model shown in Figure 7.44 Normal microstrip ring resonator topology: (a) circuit layout. Figure 7.45 shows the three-pole ﬁlter’s theoretical response across the modes of the ring resonator. Other modes are undisturbed if the ﬁlters are at their minima points.635-mm Duroid substrate (er = 10.5 GHz. We wish to suppress. the undesirable second mode that appears at about 2. For this purpose.) 7.44. low-impedance and thin. The desirable mode was the ring resonator’s fundamental. The ﬁlter cutoff was placed far enough above the ﬁrst resonance so as not to affect its traveling waves while still attenuating the second mode by 7 dB. while the second mode was designed to be suppressed. Suppression of the neighboring modes could improve the rejection bandwidth [46–48].6). An example of incorporating a ﬁlter into a ring resonator is shown below. Certain frequencies of the traveling waves can be attenuated with the use of ﬁlters placed before or after the ring resonator.10 MODE SUPPRESSION The utility of ring resonators as ﬁlters or tunable resonators can be limited by their rejection bandwidth. A threepole ﬁlter was used because it needed to be compact enough not to disturb the fundamental mode’s maximums that occur at the ring’s gaps. The . a three-pole steppedimpedance low-pass ﬁlter (LPF) with a cutoff frequency of 2 GHz was designed using microstrip transmission lines.

(Permission from Electronics Letters.44a to assure proper suppression of the second mode.46 Microstrip mode-suppression ring resonator topology: (a) circuit layout.45 Normal ring resonator and stepped-impedance ﬁlter responses [46].46b predict the measured results very well.47 shows the CAD simulations and measured results of the ring resonator with the incorporation of the LPF. The LPF was placed at both maxima indicated in Figure 7. The second mode was completely .) impedances for the microstrip lines were 30 W and 100 W for the capacitive and inductive elements. The LPF ﬁlter schematic and microstrip implementations can be seen in Figure 7.192 FILTER APPLICATIONS FIGURE 7.) FIGURE 7. inductive microstrip lines. Figure 7. Two out of the three ﬁlter elements were selected to be wide. capacitive lines because they have less conductive loss than thin. and (b) transmission-line model [46]. (Permission from Electronics Letters.46. It can be seen that the CAD simulations of the topology in Figure 7. respectively.

[2] U. 8. Vol. [3] L.REFERENCES 193 FIGURE 7.” Electron. 302–303. The fundamental losses are thought to be due to mismatching and conduction losses associated with the inductive LPF element. “Microstrip bandpass ﬁlter using degenerate modes of a microstrip ring resonator. Dig. 1993. Robertson. Zhu and K. I. pp. the LPF attenuated the split third mode by more than 12 dB. This occurred because of the placement of the LPF at the affected mode’s maxima. REFERENCES [1] I. with additional losses in the fundamental frequency. both of which were modeled accurately by the transmission-line model. D. the third-mode resonance was signiﬁcantly attenuated by the LPF. Karacaoglu.. June 1972. However. 12. Wu. Wolff. Notice that the second mode was not just attenuated by the LPF but completely suppressed.. pp. (Permission from Electronics Letters.The third mode was not completely suppressed because the LPF was not placed at the third mode’s maxima. The third mode was affected in two ways. A similar split was observed for a notch discontinuity [49]. “A joint ﬁeld/circuit model of line-to-ring coupling structures and its application to the design of microstrip dual-mode ﬁlters and ring resonator . First. and M. Guglielmi. the third mode was split due to the LPF discontinuities.47 Theoretical and measured mode-suppression ring resonator responses [46]. which disrupted the resonance.” in 1993 IEEE Int.) suppressed by the LPF. 189–192. No. Lett. Secondly. “A dual-mode microstrip ring resonator ﬁlter with active devices for loss compensation. Microwave Symp.

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by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons.To analyze the hybrid- Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. Some other optimized methods that included compensation for the junction discontinuities were also reported [14–17]. This chapter presents the ring circuits for coupler applications [25]. Inc. Some other hybrid-ring couplers with improved bandwidth have also been reported [5.2 8. A computer-aided design technique that is suitable for the optimum design of multisection branch-line couplers was described in [13]. frequency discriminators. de Ronde’s coupler. balanced ampliﬁers.1 shows the physical conﬁguration of the microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. using a combination of microstrip lines and slotlines was proposed in reference [18] and optimized in references [19–24]. Second Edition. phase shifters. Another class of MIC 90° branch-line coupler.CHAPTER EIGHT Ring Couplers 8. 197 . 90° branchline couplers have been analyzed in references [7–12]. and feeding networks in antenna arrays.2. Some of the more commonly used are 180° hybrid-ring and 90° branchline couplers.1 INTRODUCTION Hybrid couplers are indispensable components in various microwave integrated circuit (MIC) applications such as balanced mixers. 6]. Rat-race hybrid rings [1] and reverse-phase hybrid rings [2–4] are well-known examples of 180° hybrid-ring couplers. 8. Figure 8. that is.1 180° RAT-RACE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS Microstrip Hybrid-Ring Couplers The microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler [25] has been widely used in microwave power dividers and combiners.

Go 2 2 1 1 Te + To 2 2 1 1 Ge + Go 2 2 (8. and B4 are the amplitudes of the scattered waves at ports 1.To 2 2 1 1 Ge .and odd-mode two-port circuits shown in Figures 8. 3. The amplitudes of the scattered waves from the hybrid-ring are given by [26] B1 = B2 = B3 = B4 = 1 1 Te . an even–odd-mode method is used. When a unit amplitude wave is incident at port 4 of the hybrid-ring coupler.3.o and Te. and B1.and odd-mode reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients. B3. respectively.1c) (8.1 Physical layout of the microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler.1) are [26] .1a) (8.1d) where Ge. ring coupler. By using the even–odd-mode analysis technique.2 and 8. B2.o are the even.2 and 8. 2.198 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8. The two component waves arrive in phase at ports 2 and 3. this case can be decomposed into a superposition of two simpler circuits. and 4. and 180° out of phase at port 1. as shown in Figures 8.1b) (8. Using the ABCD matrix for the even.3. the required reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients in Equation (8. this wave is divided into two components at the ring junction.

2 Even-mode decomposition of the rat-race hybrid-ring coupler when port 4 is excited with a unit amplitude incident wave.2c) .2a) (8.180° RAT-RACE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 199 FIGURE 8.2b) (8. Ge = Te = Go = -j 2 -j 2 j 2 (8.

1) gives B1 = 0 (8. To = -j 2 (8.3a) .2d) Using these results in Equation (8.200 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8.3 Odd-mode decomposition of the rat-race hybrid-ring coupler when port 4 is excited with a unit amplitude incident wave.

3c) (8.5c) (8.Go 2 2 1 1 Te .5d) .4) are [26] j 2 -j 2 -j 2 -j 2 Ge = Te = Go = To = (8. the required reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients in Equation (8. This case can be decomposed into a superposition of two simpler circuits and excitations. For impedance matching. The amplitudes of the scattered waves will be [26] 1 1 Ge + Go 2 2 1 1 Te + To 2 2 1 1 Ge .4a) (8. port 1 is isolated from port 4.and odd-mode two-port circuits shown in Figure 8. and the input power is evenly divided in phase between ports 2 and 3.5a) (8. as shown in Figures 8.3b) (8.4c) (8. The wave divides into two components.180° RAT-RACE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 201 B2 = B3 = -j 2 -j 2 (8.5. the square of the characteristic impedance of the ring is two times the square of the termination impedance. both of which arrive at ports 2 and 3 with a net phase difference of 180°.3d) B4 = 0 which shows that the input port (port 4) is matched.4b) (8.3. The two component waves are 180° out of phase at port 4.4 and 8.1. Consider a unit amplitude wave incident at port 1 of the hybrid-ring coupler in Figure 8.To 2 2 B1 = B2 = B3 = B4 = (8.4d) Using the ABCD matrix for the even.5b) (8.

202 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8.4) gives B1 = 0 B2 = B3 = -j 2 +j 2 (8.6d) B4 = 0 .4 Even-mode decomposition of the rat-race hybrid-ring coupler when port 1 is excited with a unit amplitude incident wave.6b) (8.6c) (8. Using these results in Equation (8.6a) (8.

which shows that the input port (port 1) is matched.6 shows the circuit diagram of the uniplanar slotline hybrid-ring coupler with coplanar waveguide (CPW) feeds.2 Coplanar Waveguide-Slotline Hybrid-Ring Couplers The uniplanar rat-race hybrid-ring coupler was developed based on the same operating principle as the microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler.180° RAT-RACE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 203 FIGURE 8.2. The uniplanar slotline ring coupler consists . 8. and the input power is evenly divided between ports 2 and 3 with a 180° phase difference. port 4 is isolated from port 1. Figure 8.5 Odd-mode decomposition of the rat-race hybrid-ring coupler when port 1 is excited with a unit amplitude incident wave.

of three quarter-wavelength slotline sections.7 shows the equivalent circuit of the slotline hybrid-ring coupler. As shown in Figure 8.6 Circuit layout of the uniplanar rat-race slotline hybrid-ring coupler with CPW feeds. one phase-delay section. the uniplanar slotline hybrid-ring coupler has a bandwidth of 18.8 and 8.6% with a maximum ampli- .8. The measured and calculated results of the uniplanar slotline rat-race hybrid-ring coupler are shown in Figures 8.204 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8. The mean radius r of the slotline is also determined by 2pr = 3 l gs 2 (8.9. and four CPW to slotline T-junctions. The characteristic impedance of the slotline ring ZS is determined by ZS = 2 ZC 0 (8.8) where lgs is the guide wavelength of the slotline. respectively. The calculated results were based on the transmission-line model of Figure 8.7.7) where ZC0 is the characteristic impedance of the CPW feed lines. Figure 8.

The 1.7 Equivalent circuit of the uniplanar rat-race slotline hybrid-ring coupler with CPW feeds.10 shows the circuit layout of a double-sided slotline rat-race . Figure 8.8 Measured results of power dividing and isolation for the uniplanar ratrace slotline hybrid-ring coupler with CPW feeds.180° RAT-RACE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 205 FIGURE 8. the insertion loss should be 3 dB. tude imbalance of 1 dB and an isolation of over 20 dB.2 dB extra loss is mainly due to the CPW-slotline T-junctions. For an ideal 3-dB coupler. FIGURE 8.

FIGURE 8.) .10 Physical conﬁguration of the double-sided rat-race slot-line hybrid-ring coupler with microstrip feeds [27]. (Permission from IEEE.206 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8.9 Calculated results of power dividing and isolation for the uniplanar ratrace slotline hybrid-ring coupler with CPW feeds.

respectively.Ú b 2 V (h) V0 (8.11) h is the thickness of the substrate. Ey (h) = V0 b È Ê 2pU ˆ Ê 2pU ˆ ˘ ÍcosË l 0 h¯ . From Cohn’s analysis [29]. V0 is the voltage across the slot.180° RAT-RACE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 207 FIGURE 8.11 shows the equivalent transmission-line model.cot(q0 ) sinË l 0 h¯ ˙ Î ˚ (8. hybrid-ring coupler with microstrip feeds [27].The impedance of the slotline ring and microstrip feed lines is obtained from the following equation: 2 ZS = 2N 2 2 Zm 0 (8. Figure 8.12) . b/2 is the length of the microstrip feed to the slotline.9) where ZS and Zm0 are the characteristic impedance of the slotline ring and microstrip feed lines. and N is the turn ratio of the equivalent transformer.11 Equivalent circuit of the double-sided rat-race slotline hybrid-ring coupler with microstrip feeds.10) -b 2 Ey (h)dy (8. The turn ratio was reported by [28] to be N= where V (h) = . and Ey(h) is the electric ﬁeld of the slotline on the dielectric surface of the opposite side.

208 RING COUPLERS where q0 = 2pU ÊU ˆ h + arctan ËV¯ l0 2 (8.12 and 8. Figures 8.11. The mean radius of the double-sided slotline rat-race hybrid-ring is determined by Equation (8. FIGURE 8.15) where lgs is the guide wavelength of the slotline.8 substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 1. (Permission from IEEE.8).13) Ê l0 ˆ U = er .Á ˜ Ë l gs ¯ 2 (8. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.13 show the measured and calculated results of the double-sided slotline rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. The theoretical results were calculated from the equivalent transmission-line model of Figure 8.14) Ê l0 ˆ V= Á ˜ -1 Ë l gs ¯ (8.) .27 mm.12 Measured results of power dividing and isolation for the double-sided rat-race slotline hybrid-ring coupler with microstrip feeds [27].

the insertion loss should be 3 dB. the measured and calculated results shown in Figures 8.6 dB. simple realization of short-circuited ends.7 W. For an ideal 3-dB coupler.13 Calculated results of power dividing and isolation for the double-sided rat-race slotline hybrid-ring coupler with microstrip feeds [27]. Besides the insertion loss.85 mm. These attractive characteristics make ACPS important in MIC and MMIC designs [30–33].) microstrip impedance Zm0 = 50 W. when used in conjunction with hybrid rings.3 Asymmetrical Coplanar Strip Hybrid-Ring Couplers The asymmetrical coplanar strip (ACPS) like CPW has the advantages of small dispersion. As shown in Figure 8.180° RAT-RACE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 209 FIGURE 8. 8. and no need for via holes. slotline impedance ZS = 70. The 0. Compared with the microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. which can be implemented with a typical bandwidth of 20%.09 mm. CPW presents .13 agree very well.6 dB extra loss is partly due to the microstrip—slotline transitions. a double-sided slotline rat-race hybrid-ring coupler with a maximum amplitude imbalance of 1 dB and isolation of over 20 dB has been achieved with a bandwidth of more than 26%. However. the double-sided slotline ratrace hybrid-ring coupler has a bandwidth of more than 26%.2. easy integration with lumped elements and active devices.78 mm. and slotline ring mean radius r = 12. slotline line width Ws = 0. (Permission from IEEE.12.12 and 8. microstrip line width Wm0 = 1. The insertion loss at the center frequency of 3 GHz is 3.

14 shows the physical conﬁguration and equivalent circuit of the 1.14 ACPS 180° hybrid-ring coupler (a) circuit conﬁguration and (b) equivalent circuit [34].ACPS circumference uniplanar hybrid-ring coupler that is realized on one side of substrate using CPW to ACPS transmission lines [34].ACPS/4 sections and one 3lg. The characteristic impedance of the circular ACPS ring is ZR = 2Zo.5 lg.) .ACPS/4 section. The circuit consists of four CPW to ACSP T-junctions and a circular ACSP ring that is divided into three lg.210 RING COUPLERS a problem of having to plate the inner circular conducting ground plane. a characteristic impedance of Zo = Zcpw = 50 ohms 2 3 1 4 (a) 2 Zo lg 4 Zo 3 lg 4 1 lg 4 ZR Zo ZR 3 lg 4 4 Zo ZR (b) FIGURE 8.635 mm. This incorporates extra time and cost in the fabrication process. where Zo is the characteristic impedance of the CPW feed lines.8) substrate with thickness h = 0. The circuit was designed at a center frequency of 3 GHz and fabricated on RT/Duriod 6010 (er = 10. (Permission from IEEE. as well as bond to it at T-junction. Figure 8.

The signal excited from the microstrip line of tapered-balun 1 and the signal excited from the microstrip line of tapered-balun 2 have a 180° phase difference in the middle of the parallel-plate line. the parallel-plate is a balanced line. the coupling (|S21| or |S41|) is 3. The simulated and measured results with good agreement are shown in Figure 8. and ZR = 71 ohms for the circular ring. In contrast to the microstrip transmission line. The circuit consists of two microstrip tapered-baluns that are connected in twisted form. Figure 8. and the isolation (|S31|) is greater than 21 dB. The concept of the microstrip taperedbalun was ﬁrst proposed by Duncan and Minerva [36] in 1960. The mixer diodes are inserted in the balanced parallel-plate line. the insertion loss is less than 0. To overcome this . 35]. In the measured results. In the middle of the circuit. 8. a space of s = 0. the ground plane of tapered-balun 2 is on the top side of the substrate. the input return loss (|S11|) is greater than 23 dB.4 mm. This symmetric transmission line is called a parallel-plate line.5 ± 0. The ground plane of tapered-balun 1 is on the bottom side of the substrate.73 mm. the ACPS coupler has a bandwidth of 25%. The 180° phase reversal is essential for balanced mixer circuits. the use of double-sided ground planes results in very complicated fabrication and packaging processes.29 mm and a center conductor width of wcpw = 0. The four CPW feed lines have a gap of G = 0.4 dB (3 dB for ideal coupling.15. They used the tapered-baluns to drive wide-band balanced aerials.6 mm. The twisted parallel-plate line connects two ground planes on the opposite sides of the substrate and results in the 180° phase reversal. and a line width of wACPS = 0.9 dB. The quarter-wavelength sections are 10. Figure 8. Although the 180° reverse-phase microstrip back-to-back tapered-balun has a very wide bandwidth.180° REVERSE-PHASE BACK-TO-BACK BALUNS 211 for four CPW feed lines. The 71-ohms ACPS consists of the ground plane.16a shows the well-known 180° reverse-phase microstrip back-to-back tapered-balun that is commonly used in balanced mixers. because the ground planes of tapered-baluns 1 and 2 are on opposite sides of the substrate.17a shows the equivalent circuit of the microstrip back-to-back balun. Compared with the typical microstrip hybrid-ring coupler with a typical bandwidth of 20%. the metal strips on both sides of the substrate have equal widths and are symmetric.27 mm.3 180° REVERSE-PHASE BACK-TO-BACK BALUNS The 180° reverse-phase back-to-back baluns are the alternatives to microstrip baluns [25. It is frequently incorporated in microwave mixers to connect the coaxial input ports to a balanced bridge of mixer diodes. Microstrip/parallel-plate-line tapered transition is the wellknown microstrip balun used in many microwave balanced circuits. which includes two coaxial-to-CPW transitions and 40-mm-long input/output CPW lines). which has a ground plane and is unsymmetric and unbalanced.

16b Return Loss. Isolation (dB) Coupling(dB) . a new uniplanar 180° reverse-phase back-to-back balun was developed using the broad-band CPW-slotline transition [25. 37].15 ACPS 180° hybrid-ring coupler (a) simulation and (b) measurement [34].212 RING COUPLERS 0 S41 3 6 S21 -30 -20 -10 0 9 12 15 S31 18 21 24 2 2.5 4 24 (b) FIGURE 8.5 3 Frequency (GHz) 3. The two CPW-slotline transitions in Figure 8.16b shows the circuit conﬁguration of the 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back balun [35. Figure 8. Isolation (dB) -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 2 2. (Permission from IEEE. 35].) problem.5 4 S11 10 20 30 40 50 Frequency (GHz) (a) 0 3 6 Coupling (dB) 9 12 15 18 21 S31 S11 S41 S21 -30 -20 Return Loss.5 3 3.

and (b) the 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back balun. The slotline radial stubs are placed on the opposite sides of the internal slotline. Referring to Figure 8. Each side of the internal slotline in Figure 8. The slotline is a symmetric two-wire transmission line.16 Circuit layout of (a) the 180° reverse-phase microstrip back-to-back balun. a 180° phase shift of the E-ﬁeld is introduced into the output signal at balun 2 when the input signal is excited from balun 1.16b connects the center conductor (or ground plane) of the CPW in balun 1 and the ground plane (or center conductor) of the CPW in balun 2. Figure 8.17b shows .16b. use CPW shorts and slotline radial stubs [37].180° REVERSE-PHASE BACK-TO-BACK BALUNS 213 FIGURE 8. The change of the E-ﬁeld direction is caused by the inserted slotline section that connects the opposite sides of the CPW gaps at balun 1 and balun 2.

To test the 180° phase reversal of the twisted CPW back-to-back balun.17 Equivalent circuit of (a) the 180° reverse-phase microstrip back-to-back balun. The E-ﬁeld directions of the CPW are in phase at balun 1 and balun 2.1 mm. CPW center conductor width SC = 0.39.8) substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 1. The phase change of the twisted slotline is frequency independent and can thus be applied to wiseband circuits.25 mm. slotline line width WS = 0. the in-phase CPW backto-back balun has two slotline radial stubs that are placed on the same side of the internal slotline section. The measurements were made using . the equivalent circuit of the 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back balun. The test circuits were built on a RT/Duroid 6010. As shown in Figure 8. and angle of the slotline radial stubs q = 90°.18a.27 mm.51 mm.18a and b show the physical conﬁgurations and schematic diagram of E-ﬁeld distribution for the in-phase and reverse-phase CPW back-to-back baluns. a 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back balun and an in-phase CPW back-toback balun were built. characteristic impedance of the slotline ZS = 54. The twisted transmission line represents the internal slotline that connects the opposite sides of the CPW gaps at balun 1 and balun 2. CPW gap size GC = 0. radius of the slotline radial stub r = 6 mm.214 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8. characteristic impedance of the CPW Zc = 50 W.8 (er = 10. Figure 8. and (b) the 180° reversed-phase CPW back-to-back balun.

maximum phase difference is maintained within 5° as shown in Figure 8.18 Physical layout and schematic diagram of the E-ﬁeld distribution for the (a) in-phase and (b) 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back baluns [35]. connectors. (Permission from IEEE.19 and 8.3 dB from 2 GHz to 4 GHz. misalignments. The measured insertion loss includes two coaxial–CPW transitions and two CPW–slotline transitions. . Figures 8.21 shows the amplitude and phase differences between the in-phase and 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back baluns. and discontinuities. The amplitude difference is within 0. Over the same range.) standard SMA connectors and an HP-8510 network analyzer.20 show the measured frequency responses of insertion loss and phase angle for the 180° reverse-phase and in-phase CPW back-toback baluns.21.180° REVERSE-PHASE BACK-TO-BACK BALUNS 215 FIGURE 8. Figure 8. The 5° phase error is due to the mechanical tolerances.

) . (Permission from IEEE.) FIGURE 8.216 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8.20 Measured frequency responses of phase angles for the in-phase and 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back baluns [35].19 Measured frequency responses of insertion loss for the in-phase and 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back baluns [35]. (Permission from IEEE.

4.and odd-mode admittances of the coupled-line section vary more slowly with frequency than those of the conventional three quarter-wavelength phase-delay sections [3].180° REVERSE-PHASE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 217 FIGURE 8. Several design techniques have been developed to extend the bandwidth. the uniplanar structure does not use the backside of the substrate and circumvents the need of via holes for short circuits. Although the bandwidth of the reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler has been improved up to more than one octave. Figures 8. as shown in Figure 8.23.21 Amplitude and phase differences between the in-phase and 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back baluns.1 180° REVERSE-PHASE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS CPW-Slotline 180° Reverse-Phase Hybrid-Ring Couplers The 20 to 26% bandwidth of the rat-race coupler limits its applications to narrow-band circuits. 8. As mentioned before.4 8. Consequently the coupling and other parameters of the reverse-phase coupler are less frequency dependent. . The even.23 show the physical conﬁguration and equivalent circuit of the microstrip reverse-phase hybridring coupler with a shorted parallel coupled-line section. The shorted parallel coupled-line section provides a 180° phase delay.22 and 8. the difﬁculty of constructing the shorted coupled-line section limits its use at low frequencies. One technique proposed by March [3] in 1968 used a lg/4 coupled-line section to replace the 3lg/4 section of the conventional 3lg/2 microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler.

22 Circuit layout of the microstrip reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler. . FIGURE 8.23 Equivalent circuit of the microstrip reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler.218 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8.

24 and 8. (Permission from IEEE. Another modiﬁed microstrip reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler was proposed by Chua [4] in 1971. In 1970 Rehnmark [2] proposed a modiﬁed reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler using a balanced twin-wire line.24 Circuit layout of the slotline reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler [37]. However. The microstrip-slotline transition provides a 180° phase delay.24 and the coupled-CPW section in Figure 8. 37]. The 3lg/4 phase delay section is replaced by a lg/4 section plus a phase reversal obtained by twisting the pair of lines. The coupled-slotline section in Figure 8. Although the modiﬁed version has a symmetric geometry. the resulting microstrip reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler has a wider bandwidth than the conventional rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. this circuit is only possible in a twin-wire conﬁguration that seriously restricts its applications. an excellent coupling bandwidth and fairly good isolation.) Figures 8.25 show uniplanar implementations of the reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler using slotline and CPW rings.180° REVERSE-PHASE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 219 FIGURE 8. the double-sided implementation of a curved 3lg/4 microstrip . He substituted a lg/4 slotline for the 3lg/4 phasedelay section of the conventional microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. respectively [25. Since the phase change of the microstrip-slotline transition is frequency independent.25 require no via holes for the short terminations. Although the uniplanar reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers are easier to fabricate than the microstrip couplers. they still demand a very small gap within the coupled-slotline or coupled-CPW section when 3-dB coupling is required.

25 Circuit layout of the CPW reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler. To overcome these problems. The resulting uniplanar reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler has a broad bandwidth. The circuit consists of four CPWslotline T-junctions. the unity of the ring structure is destroyed. a truly uniplanar reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler was built on a RT/Duroid 6010. The 180° phase shift is frequency independent.220 RING COUPLERS FIGURE 8.8 (er = 10. 35].8) substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 1. Figure 8. and the inserted slotline section may cause some discontinuity problems. three quarter-wavelength CPW sections. Also.26. line with an inserted lg/4 slotline is very difﬁcult to realize in a photolithographic process.26 shows the circuit layout of the uniplanar reverse-phase CPW hybrid-ring coupler. To test the circuit. the new hybrid-ring coupler substitutes a 180° CPW-slotline phase shifter for the phase delay section used in the conventional rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. because the phase change of the 180° reverse-phase CPW-slotline back-toback balun is frequency independent. this section presents a new uniplanar reversephase CPW hybrid-ring coupler using a 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back balun [25. As mentioned in Section 8. The twisted transmission line represents the 180° phase reversal of the CPW-slotline back-to-back balun.524 mm. As shown in Figure 8.3. characteristic impedance of the CPW . the 180° reverse-phase CPW-slotline back-to-back transition produces a phase shift that is 180° longer than that of the in-phase CPW-slotline back-to-back transition.27 shows the equivalent transmission-line model. Figure 8. and one 180° reverse-phase CPW back-to-back balun.

26 Circuit layout of the CPW/slotline reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler [35]. (Permission from IEEE. (Permission from IEEE.) .180° REVERSE-PHASE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 221 FIGURE 8.27 Equivalent circuit of the CPW/slotline reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler [35].) FIGURE 8.

characteristic impedance of the CPW ring ZC = 70.28 Measured results of power dividing and isolation for the CPW/slotline reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler [35].222 RING COUPLERS feed lines ZC0 = 50 W. At 3 GHz. characteristic impedance of the reverse-phase slotline section ZS = 70.29 show the measured and calculated frequency responses of power dividing and isolation. the power dividing characteristics of the reverse-phase coupler are less frequency dependent. CPW feed lines gap size GC0 = 0.28 and 8. The isolation between ports 1 and 4 is more than 17 dB over the same octave bandwidth. angle of the slotline radial stubs q = 30°. The isolation is 25 dB at 3 GHz. CPW ring gap size GC = 0.) .53 mm. and CPW ring mean radius r = 6.7 dB. Figures 8. The insertion loss is mainly from the CPW-slotline transition.34 mm. (Permission from IEEE.47 mm.7 W. FIGURE 8. The calculated results agree very well with the experimental results.47 mm.88 mm. slotline line width WS = 0. respectively.27 was developed and used to analyze the circuit. CPW feed lines center conductor width SC0 = 0. A computer program based on the equivalent transmission-line mode of Figure 8. radius of the slotline radial stub r = 5 mm.4 dB and 3. CPW ring center conductor width SC = 0. The measured results show that a maximum amplitude imbalance of 2 dB has been achieved over a 2–4-GHz bandwidth.205 mm. The measurements were made using standard SMA connectors and an HP-8510 network analyzer. As expected.7 W. the coupling of the power from port 1 to the balanced arms 2 and 3 is 3.

9 ohms (slotlline width ws = 0. The hybrid-ring coupler in Figure 8. The twisted transmission line presents the 180° reverse-phase CPW-slotline backto-back balun.524 mm.) 8.5) with a thickness of 1. (Permission from IEEE.29 Calculated results of power dividing and isolation for the CPW/slotline reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler [35].30 shows the circuit layout of the wideband reduced-size uniplanar hybrid-ring coupler.8 lg (mean radius R = 4. The circuit consists of four CPW-slotline tee junctions and one 180° reverse-phase CPWslotline back-to-back balun that is formed using a pair of CPW-to-slotline transitions as shown in Figure 8.31 mm) .30 was fabricated on RT/Duroid 6010. The 180° reverse-phase CPW-slotline back-to-back balun with the advantage of frequency independence makes the coupler achieve a small size of lg/5 for each section and a wide band operation [41]. The dimensions of the circuit are as follows: Coupler’s circumference: C = 0.5 (er = 10. and the bandwidths are limited due to the electrical line lengths. Figure 8. 39] and the difﬁculty of inserting the ground pins for the microstrip shorts [40].30b shows the equivalent circuit.30a.180° REVERSE-PHASE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 223 FIGURE 8.52 mm) slotline ring: Zs = 66. Although several designs have been developed to extend the bandwidth [38–40]. Figure 8. some disadvantages of using microstrip include the precision fabrication for constructing the shorted coupled-line section [38.2 Reduced-Size Uniplanar 180° Reverse-Phase Hybrid-Ring Couplers The conventional hybrid-ring couplers constructed with quarter-wavelength lines occupy large areas in MMICs.4.

(Permission from IEEE.31 mm) Slotline radial stub radius: rs = 5 mm Slotline radial stub angle: js = 45° .224 RING COUPLERS (a) Z co 2 l gs 5 Zs Zs l gs 5 1 Z co Zs l gs 5 Zc l gs l gc 15 Zs Zc l gs 15 Zs Z co 4 15 +180 o 3 Z co (b) FIGURE 8.) CPW section: Zc = 66.30 Reduced-size reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler (a) layout and (b) equivalent circuit [41].2 mm and gap size Gc = 0.31 mm) CPW feed lines: Zco = 50 ohms (center strip Sco = 0.9 ohms (center strip Sc = 0.6 mm and gap size Gco = 0.

The amplitude and phase imbalance . and isolation and (b) amplitude imbalance and phase imbalance [41]. return loss. The isolation between ports 1 and 4 is greater than 19 dB. The measured results show that the couplings of power from port 1 to ports 2 and 3 are 3. isolation. and phase imbalance.6 and 3.31 Measured results for (a) coupling. and return loss is more than 15 dB both over a frequency range from 2. bonding wires have been used at the coupler’s CPW-slotline discontinuities.31 shows the hybrid-ring coupler’s measured frequency responses of coupling. Figure 8. respectively. (Permission from IEEE.180° REVERSE-PHASE HYBRID-RING COUPLERS 225 0 S31 -5 Coupling (dB) S21 10 0 -10 -20 -30 Return Loss and Isolation (dB) -10 -15 S41 S11 -40 -50 -20 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency (GHz) (a) 5 Amplitude Difference (dB) 10 Phase Difference (dB) 0 S 21 .7 dB at 4 GHz. return loss.) To eliminate the coupled slotline mode propagating on the CPW lines.S31 5 S21 S31 0 -5 -10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency (GHz) -5 (b) FIGURE 8. amplitude.7 to 6 GHz. respectively.

32 ACPS 180° reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler (a) conﬁguration and (b) equivalent circuit [34]. the radial stub in the center of the ring can cause a problem for the smaller circumference.3 Asymmetrical Coplanar Strip 180° Reverse-Phase Hybrid-Ring Couplers Figure 8.) . 8.32a shows the circuit conﬁguration of the new hybrid-ring coupler consisting of four CPW to ACPS T-junctions and four ACPS arms (one of them with a 180° phase reversal) [34].226 RING COUPLERS between ports 2 and 3 are excellent over a broad bandwidth.4. However. (Permission from IEEE. The reduction of the line length to 72° has no deleterious effect on performance of the circuit.32b shows the equivalent 2 1 3 4 (a) Zo 2 lg 4 lg 4 ZR ZR 1 Zo ZR +180o lg 4 lg 4 Zo 3 ZR 4 ZR Zo (b) FIGURE 8. Figure 8.

635mm-thick RT/Duroid 6010.4 mm. Adding air bridges at the circuit’s discontinuities is important to prevent the coupled slotline mode from propagating on the CPW and ACPS lines. frequency discriminators. spacing size s = 0. The amplitudes of the scattered waves are [26] B1 = 1 1 Ge + Go 2 2 (8.29 mm). This is an advantage with respect to the microstrip implementations of the 180° hybridring coupler. gap size G = 0.34 shows the commonly used microstrip branch-line coupler.6 mm.To analyze the branch-line coupler. 37] is a basic component in applications such as power dividers. as shown in Figures 8.36. and phase shifters.5 dB from 2 to 4 GHz. The output amplitude imbalance (±0. and it is greater than 13. The four ACPS arms each have a length of lg.1 90° BRANCH-LINE COUPLERS Microstrip Branch-Line Couplers The microstrip branch-line coupler [25. The measured data of the reverse-phase hybrid coupler are shown in Figure 8.8) substrate. When a unit amplitude wave is incident at port 1 of the branch-line coupler.ACPS/4 = 10. This case can be decomposed into a superposition of two simpler circuits and excitations. The two component waves arrive at ports 2 and 3 with a net phase difference of 90°.35 and 8. this wave divides into two components at the junction of the coupler. an even-odd mode method is used. The twisted transmission line represents the phase reversal of the ACPS crossover. it splits into two equal components that arrive at ports 2 and 4 in phase.90° BRANCH-LINE COUPLERS 227 transmission-line model of the coupler. When the signal is fed to port 1.45 dB (3 dB for ideal coupling) and the isolation (|S31|) is greater than 23 dB.33a shows that the coupling (|S21| or |S41|) is 3. Figure 8. Over an octave bandwidth from 2 to 4 GHz. 8.5.33b illustrates an important feature of the coupler. The circuit’s CPW feed lines have a characteristic impedance of Zo = Zcpw = 50 ohms (strip width wcpw = 0. The coupler was designed at the center frequency of 3 GHz.73 mm.95 ± 0. where the lg/2 delay line gives a 180° phase shift only at the center frequency. The component waves are 180° out of phase at port 4 and cancel each other. Figure 8.8 (er = 10. The input return loss (|S11|) is greater than 15 dB from 2.2 to 4 GHz. but are canceled out at port three. The 180° reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler was fabricated on an h = 0. The slotline radial stub’s radius is r = 6 mm with an angle of 90°.4 dB) and phase difference (±4°) are excellent over a bandwidth from 2 to 4 GHz because the ACPS crossover provides an almost perfect 180° phase shift over the entire frequency range.33a. and the ACPS lines have a characteristic impedance of ZR = 2 Zo = 71 ohms (strip width wACPS = 0. Figure 8. balanced mixers.27 mm).16a) .5 8.

228

RING COUPLERS

0 3 6 Coupling (dB) 9 12 15 18 21 24 1 2 3 Frequency (GHz) 4 5 S 11 S 31 S 41 S 21

-30 Return Loss and Isolation (dB) Amplitude Imbalance (dB) -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50

(a)

195 Phase Difference (Degrees) 190 185 180 175 170 165 1 23 Frequency (GHz) 4 5 Phase 1.5 1 Amplitude 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5

(b)

FIGURE 8.33 Measured results for ACPS 180° reverse-phase hybrid-ring coupler (a) coupling, return loss and isolation and (b) amplitude and phase difference [34]. (Permission from IEEE.)

B2 = B3 =

1 1 Te + To 2 2 1 1 Te - To 2 2

(8.16b) (8.16c)

90° BRANCH-LINE COUPLERS

229

FIGURE 8.34 Physical conﬁguration of the microstrip 2-branch coupler.

FIGURE 8.35 Even-mode decomposition of the 2-branch coupler.

230

RING COUPLERS

FIGURE 8.36 Odd-mode decomposition of the 2-branch coupler.

B4 =

1 1 Ge - Go 2 2

(8.16d)

where Ge,o and Te,o are the even- and odd-mode reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients, and B1, B2, B3, and B4 are the amplitudes of the scattered waves at ports 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Using the ABCD matrix for the even- and odd-mode two-port circuits shown in Figures 8.35 and 8.36, the required reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients in Equation (8.16) are [26] Ge = 0 Te = To = -1 - j 2 1- j 2 (8.17a) (8.17b) (8.17c) (8.17d)

Go = 0 Using these results in Equation (8.16) gives

90° BRANCH-LINE COUPLERS

231

B1 = 0 B2 = B3 = -j 2 -1 2

(8.18a) (8.18b) (8.18c) (8.18d)

B4 = 0

which shows that the input port is matched, port 4 is isolated from port 1, and the input power is evenly divided at ports 2 and 3 with a 90° phase difference. For impedance matching, the square of the characteristic impedance of the series arms is half of the square of the termination impedance.

8.5.2

CPW-Slotline Branch-Line Couplers

This section presents two uniplanar branch-line couplers using CPW and slotline structures [25, 37]. The design technique for the CPW branch-line couplers uses a shunt connection, while the design technique for the slotline branch-line couplers uses a series connection. Figure 8.37 shows the physical conﬁguration of the CPW branch-line coupler. When a signal is applied to port 1, outputs appear at ports 2 and 3

FIGURE 8.37 Physical conﬁguration of the CPW 2-branch coupler.

232

RING COUPLERS

FIGURE 8.38 Equivalent circuit of the CPW 2-branch coupler.

that are equal in amplitude and differ in phase by 90°. Port 4 represents the isolation port. Figure 8.38 shows the equivalent circuit of the uniplanar CPW branch-line coupler. The series arms and branch arms are connected in parallel. The corresponding line characteristic impedances of the CPW series and branch arms for 3-dB coupling, in terms of the termination impedance Z0, can be expressed as ZC 1 = Z0 2 (8.19) (8.20)

ZC 2 = Z0

where ZC1 is the characteristic impedance of the CPW series arms, and ZC2 is the characteristic impedance of the CPW branch arms. The measurements were made using standard SMA connectors and an HP8510 network analyzer. A computer program based on the equivalent transmission model of Figure 8.38 was developed and used to analyze the circuit. Figures 8.39 and 8.40 show the measured and calculated performances of the fabricated uniplanar CPW branch-line coupler. Figure 8.39 shows that the amplitude imbalance of 1 dB is within a bandwidth of less than 20% at the center frequency of 3 GHz. The measured isolation between ports 1 and 4 is greater than 50 dB at the 3-GHz center frequency. The calculated results agree very well with the measured results. Figure 8.41 shows the physical conﬁguration of the slotline branch-line coupler. Slotline branch-line couplers are duals of the CPW branch-line couplers.The series arms and branch arms are connected in series. Figure 8.42 shows the equivalent circuit of the slotline branch-line coupler. The corresponding line characteristic impedances of the slotline series and branch arms for 3-dB coupling, in terms of the termination impedance Z0, can be expressed as ZS1 = 2 Z0 Z S 2 = Z0 (8.21) (8.22)

90° BRANCH-LINE COUPLERS

233

FIGURE 8.39 Measured results of power dividing and isolation for the CPW 2-branch coupler.

where ZS1 is the characteristic impedance of the slotline series arms, and ZS2 is the characteristic impedance of the slotline branch arms. Figures 8.43 and 8.44 show the measured and calculated performances of the fabricated uniplanar slotline branch-line coupler. The calculated results were obtained from the equivalent transmission-line model shown in Figure 8.42. Figure 8.43 shows that the amplitude imbalance of 1 dB is within a bandwidth of less than 20% at the 3-GHz center frequency. The measured isolation between ports 1 and 4 is greater than 30 dB at the center frequency 3 GHz. 8.5.3 Asymmetrical Coplanar Strip Branch-Line Couplers

The 90° ACPS branch-line hybrid coupler is shown in Figure 8.45a. In a standard branch-line coupler [34], if the port characteristic impedance is Zo and two of the lg/4 branches have a characteristic impedance of Zo/ 2 . If Zo = 50 ohms, then the two Zo/ 2 lines would each have a characteristic impedance

234

RING COUPLERS 0

-10

INSERTION LOSS (dB)

-20

-30

-40 S21 S31 S41

-50

-60 2 2.5 3 FREQUENCY (GHz) 3.5 4

FIGURE 8.40 Calculated results of power dividing and isolation for the CPW 2branch coupler.

FIGURE 8.41 Physical conﬁguration of the slotline 2-branch coupler.

4 ohms. This impedance value is difﬁcult to attain using ACPS.43 Measured results of power dividing and isolation for the slotline 2branch coupler. o the coupler port impedances (Z¢pw = Z¢ = 100 ohms) were matched to the CPW c o (Zcpw = Zo = 50 ohms). 0 -10 INSERTION LOSS (dB) -20 -30 -40 S21 S31 S41 -50 -60 2 2. which can be connected to the standard 50-ohms test equipment. of 35. Based on the above consideration.42 Equivalent circuit of the slotline 2-branch coupler.5 4 FIGURE 8. two high-impedance branches .5 3 FREQUENCY (GHz) 3. the input and output port characteristic impedances were increased to Z¢ (100 ohms).90° BRANCH-LINE COUPLERS 235 FIGURE 8. To overcome this problem. By using a CPW quarter-wavelength transformer.

Bond wires were attached over the CPW feed lines at the T-junctions to keep the coupled slotline modes from propagating. The input return loss is greater than 17.42 mm.9° over the speciﬁed bandwidth.375 dB and a worst-case phase imbalance of 1.71/4 = 11. and the isolation is greater than 15.635-mm-thick RT/Duroid 6010 (er = 10.5 4 FIGURE 8.100/4 = 10.cpw = 71 ohms). the insertion loss includes two CPW quarter-wavelength transformers of length 21.81 mm.18 mm.4 mm and a linewidth of wACPS = 0. ZT. Figure 8. The branch-line coupler was fabricated on an h = 0.cpw = 0.96 mm) has a spacing of s = 0. (Z100 = Z¢ = 100 ohms) and two low-impedance branches (Z71 = Z¢/ 2 = 71 o o ohms) were designed.07 mm) has a spacing of s = 0.44 Calculated results of power dividing and isolation for the slotline 2-branch coupler.1 dB. The 100-ohms ACPS branch line (lg. a gap of G = 0. and two coaxial to CPW connectors that were not calibrated out).3 dB.46 shows that the branch-line coupler has attained a 10% bandwidth centered at 3 GHz. For the CPW quarter-wavelength transformer section (lT. The 71-ohms ACPS branch line (lg. The coupling is 3.236 RING COUPLERS 0 -10 INSERTION LOSS (dB) -20 -30 -40 S21 S31 S41 -50 -60 2 2.23 mm are used.cpw/4 = 10.8 mm. The coupler has a worst-case amplitude imbalance of 0.2 mm and a linewidth of wACPS = 0. two CPW input/output sections of length 10 mm. The equivalent circuit for this branch-line coupler is shown in Figure 8.5 dB at 3 GHz (3 dB for ideal coupling. .4 mm and a linewidth of wT.8) substrate.5 3 FREQUENCY (GHz) 3.45b.

90° BRANCH-LINE COUPLERS

237

1

2

3

4

(a)

1 Zo Zr,CPW

l g,100 4

**Z71 Z100 Z100 Z71
**

l g,71 4

Zr,CPW

l g,100 4

Zo

2

3

Zo

Zr,CPW

l r.CPW 4

Zr,CPW

l r.CPW 4

Zo

4

(b)

FIGURE 8.45 ACSP 90° branch-line coupler (a) conﬁguration and (b) equivalent circuit [34]. (Permission from IEEE.)

0 3 6 Coupling(dB) 9 12 15 18 21 24 2 2.5 3 Frequency (GHz) 3.5 4 S 31 S 11 S 21 S 41

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Return Loss and Isolation(dB)

FIGURE 8.46 Measured coupling, return loss, and isolation for the ACSP 90° branchline coupler [34]. (Permission from IEEE.)

238

RING COUPLERS

REFERENCES

[1] C. Y. Pon, “Hybrid-ring directional couplers for arbitrary power division,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-9, pp. 529–535, November 1961. [2] S. Rehnmark, “Wide-band balanced line microwave hybrids,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-25, pp. 825–830, October 1960. [3] S. March, “A wideband stripline hybrid ring,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-16, pp. 361–369, June 1968. [4] L. W. Chua, “New broad-band matched hybrids for microwave integrated circuits,” Proc. 2nd Eur. Microwave Conf., pp. C4/5:1-C4/5:4, September 1971. [5] D. Kim and Y. Naito, “Broad-band design of improved hybrid-ring 3 dB directional coupler,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-30, pp. 2040–2046, November 1982. [6] G. F. Mikucki and A. K. Agrawal, “A broad-band printed circuit hybrid-ring power divider,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-37, pp. 112–117, January 1989. [7] L. Young, “Branch guide directional couplers,” Proc. Natl. Electron. Conf., Vol. 12, pp. 723–732, July 1956. [8] J. Reed and G. Wheeler, “A method of analysis of symmetrical four-port networks,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-4, pp. 246–252, October 1956. [9] J. Reed, “The multiple branch waveguide coupler,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-6, pp. 398–403, October 1958. [10] L. Young, “Synchronous branch guide directional couplers for low and high power applications,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-10, pp. 459–475, November 1962. [11] R. Levy and L. Lind, “Synthesis of symmetrical branch-guide directional couplers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-16, pp. 80–89, February 1968. [12] R. Levy,“Zolotarev branch-guide couplers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-21, pp. 95–99, February 1973. [13] M. Muraguchi, T. Yukitake, and Y. Naito, “Optimum design of 3-dB branch-line couplers using microstrip lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT31, pp. 674–678, August 1983. [14] W. H. Leighton and A. G. Milnes, “Junction reactance and dimensional tolerance effects on X-band -3 dB directional couplers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-19, pp. 818–824, October 1971. [15] A. F. Celliers and J. A. G. Malherbe, “Design curves for -3-dB branch-line couplers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-33, pp. 1226–1228, November 1985. [16] T. Anada and J. P. Hsu, “Analysis and synthesis of triplate branch-line 3 dB coupler based on the planar circuit theory,” in 1987 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 207–210, June 1987. [17] A. Angelucci and R. Burocco, “Optimized synthesis of microstrip branch-line couplers taking dispersion, attenuation loss and T-junction into account,” in 1988 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 543–546, June 1988.

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[18] F. C. de Ronde, “A new class of microstrip directional couplers,” in 1970 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 184–186, June 1970. [19] J. A. Garcia, “A wide-band quadrature hybrid coupler,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-19, pp. 660–661, July 1971. [20] B. Shiek, “Hybrid branch-line couplers—A useful new class of directional couplers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-22, pp. 864–869, October 1974. [21] B. Shiek and J. Koehler, “Improving the isolation of 3-dB couplers in microstripslotline technique,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-26, pp. 5–7, January 1978. [22] F. C. de Ronde, “Octave-wide matched symmetrical, reciprocal, 4- and 5-ports,” in 1982 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 521–523, June 1982. [23] R. K. Hoffman and J. Siegl, “Microstrip-slot coupler design,” Parts I and II, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-30, pp. 1205–1216, August 1982. [24] M. Schoenberger, A. Biswas, A. Mortazawi, and V. K. Tripathi, “Coupled slot-strip coupler in ﬁnline,” IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 751–753, June 1991. [25] C. Ho, “Slotline, CPW ring circuits and waveguide ring cavities for coupler and ﬁlter applications,” Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, May 1994. [26] D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990. [27] C. Ho, L. Fan, and K. Chang, “Ultra wide band slotline ring couplers,” in 1992 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Conference Symp. Dig., pp. 1175–1178, 1992. [28] J. B. Knorr,“Slot-line transitions,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.,Vol. MTT22, pp. 548–554, June 1974. [29] S. B. Cohn, “Slotline ﬁeld components,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-20, pp. 172–174, January 1972. [30] I. Kneppo and J. Gotzman, “Basic parameters of nonsymmetrical coplanar lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 25, p. 718, August 1977. [31] D. Jaisson, “A single-balanced mixer with a coplanar balun,” Microwave J., Vol. 35, pp. 87–96, July 1992. [32] D. Jaisson, “A microwave-coplanar waveguide coupler for use with an attenuator,” Microwave J., Vol. 38, No. 9, pp. 120–130, September 1995. [33] L. Fan and K. Chang, “Uniplanar power dividers using coupled CPW and asymmetrical CPS for MICs and MMICs,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 44, No. 12, pp. 2411–2420, December 1996. [34] B. R. Heimer, L. Fan, and K. Chang, “Uniplanar hybrid couplers using asymmetrical coplanar striplines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 45, No. 12, pp. 2234–2240, December 1997. [35] C. Ho, L. Fan, and K. Chang, “New uniplanar coplanar waveguide hybrid-ring couplers and magic-Ts,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-42, No. 12, pp. 2440–2448, December 1994. [36] J. W. Duncan and V. P. Minerva, “100:1 bandwidth balun transformer,” Proc. IRE, Vol. 48, pp. 156–164, January 1960.

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[37] C. Ho, L. Fan, and K. Chang, “Broad-band uniplanar hybrid-ring and branch-line couplers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. MTT-41, No. 12, pp. 2116–2125, December 1993. [38] S. J. Robinson, “Broad-band hybrid junctions,” IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 8, pp. 671–672, November 1960. [39] S. March, “A wide band stripline hybrid ring,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 16, p. 361, June 1968. [40] L. W. Chua, “New broad-band matched hybrids for microwave integrated circuits,” in 1971 Proc. European Microwave Conf., pp. C4/5–C4/5:4, 1971. [41] L. Fan, C.-H. Ho, S. Karamaluru, and K. Chang, “Wide-band reduced-size uniplanar magic-T. hybrid-ring, and de Ronde’s CPW-slot couplers,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 43, No. 12, pp. 2749–2758, December 1995.

CHAPTER NINE

**Ring Magic-T Circuits
**

9.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents novel ring magic-T circuits in details [1]. Magic-Ts are fundamental components for many microwave circuits such as power combiners and dividers, balanced mixers, and frequency discriminators. The matched waveguide double-T is a well-known and commonly used wave-guide magic-T [2, 3]. Figures 9.1 and 9.2 show the physical conﬁguration and electric ﬁeld distribution of the waveguide magic-T, respectively. As shown in Figure 9.2a, when a TE10 mode is incident at port H, the resulting Ey ﬁeld lines have an even symmetry in port E.This means that there is no coupling between ports H and E. At the T-junction the incident wave will divide into two components, both of which arrive in phase at ports 1 and 2. As shown in Figure 9.2b, when a TE10 mode is incident at port E, the resulting Ey ﬁeld lines have an odd symmetry in port H. Again ports E and H are decoupled. At the Tjunction the incident wave will divide into two components, both of which arrive at ports 1 and 2 with a 180° phase difference. In practice, tuning posts and irises are used for matching the double-T junction. The tuning posts and irises must be placed symmetrically to maintain proper operation. In 1964, Kraker [4] ﬁrst proposed a planar magic-T. The circuit uses an asymmetric coupled transmission-line directional coupler and Shiffman’s phase-shift network. In 1965, DuHamel and Armstrong [5] proposed a tapered-line magic-T. The circuit is based on a tapered asymmetrical transformer consisting of two coupled tapered lines. A complete analysis of the tapered-line magic-T was discussed in [6]. Laughlin [7] proposed a planar magic-T using a microstrip balun in 1976. In 1980, Aikawa and Ogawa [8] proposed a double-sided magic-T that is constructed with microstrip–slotline

Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures, Second Edition, by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

241

242

RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS

FIGURE 9.1 Physical conﬁguration of the waveguide magic-T.

FIGURE 9.2 Schematic diagram of the E-ﬁeld distribution of the (a) H-arm’s excitation and (b) the E-arm’s excitation.

180° REVERSE-PHASE CPW-SLOTLINE T-JUNCTIONS

243

T-junctions and coupled slotlines. The double-sided magic-T uses a doublesided structure and has a 2–10-GHz bandwidth. The two balanced arms of the double-sided magic-T are on the same side and they do not need a crossover connection. In recent years, uniplanar transmission lines have emerged as alternatives to microstrip in planar microwave integrated circuits. As mentioned before, the uniplanar microwave integrated circuits do not use the backside of the substrate, and allow easy series and shunt connections of passive and active solid-state devices. The use of uniplanar structures circumvents the need for via holes and reduces processing complexity. In 1987, Hirota et al. [9] proposed a uniplanar magic-T that uses three coplanar waveguide–slotline (CPW) T-junctions and a slotline T-junction. The in-phase CPW excitation is via an air bridge and the slotline T-junction is used as a phase inverter. The uniplanar magic-T has a narrow bandwidth. This chapter ﬁrst explains the fundamental characteristics of the 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction. The proposed uniplanar T-junction uses a 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline back-to-back transition as output ports to achieve a 180° phase reversal. The phase shift of the T-junction is frequency independent. The third section presents a new uniplanar CPW magicT. The circuit consists of a 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction and three CPW T-junctions. The fourth section of this chapter discusses the doublesided slotline magic-T. The ﬁfth section discusses the uniplanar slotline magicT. The circuits discussed in the fourth and ﬁfth sections are based on the 180° phase-reversal of the slotline T-junction.

9.2

180° REVERSE-PHASE CPW–SLOTLINE T-JUNCTIONS

Figure 9.3 shows the circuit conﬁguration and schematic diagram of the E-ﬁeld distribution for a 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction [1, 10]. The arrows shown in this ﬁgure indicate the schematic expression of the electric ﬁeld in the CPWs and slotlines. The circuit consists of one CPW–slotline Tjunction and two CPW–slotline transitions. As mentioned in Chapter 8, the phase change of the 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline back-to-back transition is frequency independent and can be applied to wide-band circuits. As shown in Figure 9.3, the E ﬁeld in the input CPW (near the CPW–slotline T-junction) is directed toward the CPW center conductor. This produces two slotline waves with the E-ﬁeld in the +y direction. At the transition of port 1, the +ydirected slotline E-ﬁeld causes the E-ﬁeld in the output CPW to be directed toward the CPW center conductor. However, the E-ﬁeld of the output CPW at port 2 is directed toward the CPW ground plane due to the +y-directed slotline E-ﬁeld. According to the preceding principle, a truly uniplanar 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.8 (er = 10.8) substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 1.27 mm, characteristic impedance of the input/output CPW feed lines ZC0 = 50 W, input/output CPW

radius of the slotline radial stub r = 6 mm. (Permission from IEEE. Over the same frequency range. The measurements were made using standard SMA connectors and an HP-8510 network analyzer. input/output CPW feed lines gap size GC0 = 0. Figures 9. Ports 1 and 2 are the power-dividing balanced arms.5 shows the measured frequency responses of the phase angles at the output ports.6 dB from 2 GHz to 4 GHz.) feed lines center conductor width SC0 = 0. 9. Figure 9. In Figure 9. The maximum amplitude difference is 0.4 shows the measured frequency responses of insertion loss for the output power dividing.244 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9. and angle of the slotline radial stubs q = 90°. Figure 9. respectively. The 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline Tjunction is used as a phase inverter.6 shows the amplitude and phase differences.8 shows the . slotline line width WS = 0. Figure 9.5°.and H-arm of the conventional waveguide magic-T. the maximum phase difference is 3.6 show the measured performances of the fabricated uniplanar 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction.25 mm. ports E and H correspond to the E.3 CPW MAGIC-Ts Figure 9. 10].7. characteristic impedance of the slotline ZS = 60.4 through 9.7 shows the circuit conﬁguration of the uniplanar CPW magic-T [1.2 mm. Figure 9. The insertion loss includes two coaxial–CPW transitions and one CPW–slotline transition.51 mm.6 W.3 Physical layout and schematic diagram of the E-ﬁeld distribution for the 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction [10]. The uniplanar magic-T consists of a 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline Tjunction and three CPW T-junctions.

The 180° phase difference between the divided signals at ports 1 and 2 is due to the 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction. and then divides into two components.9 and 9. The twisted transmission line in Figure 9. while the symmetry plane at port E corresponds to a short circuit (electric wall). and then divides into two components. the symmetry plane at port H corresponds to an open circuit (magnetic wall). equivalent transmission-line model of the uniplanar CPW magic-T. The arrows shown in Figure 9. both of which arrive in-phase at ports 1 and 2. Figures 9.10.CPW MAGIC-Ts 245 FIGURE 9.10 indicate the schematic expression of the electric ﬁeld in the CPWs and slotlines.9 and 9. respectively. the signal is fed to port E. the signal is fed to port H. In Figure 9. The two component waves arrive at port H 180° out . which arrive at ports 1 and 2 with a 180° phase difference.9. In this case. The two component waves arrive at port E 180° out of phase and cancel each other.4 Measured frequency responses of power dividing for the uniplanar 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction.8 represents the phase reversal of the CPW–slotline T-junction. In Figure 9.10 show the schematic expressions of the E-ﬁeld distribution and equivalent circuit for the in-phase and 180° out-of-phase couplings.

10 is obtained when ports 1 and 2 are excited by two 180° out-of-phase input signals with the same amplitude. and the symmetry plane at port H corresponds to a short circuit. The isolation between ports E and H is perfect as long as the mode conversion in the reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction is ideal. and the symmetry plane at port H corresponds to an open circuit. In this case.246 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9.5 Measured frequency responses of phase angles for the uniplanar 180° phase-reversed CPW–slotline T-junction. A two-port circuit calculation is used to analyze the isolation and impedance matching instead of the symmetric four-port networks discussed in Chapter 8. the symmetry plane at port H corresponds to a short circuit (electric wall). The out-of-phase equivalent circuit in Figure 9. of phase and cancel each other. the symmetry plane at port H corresponds to a short circuit. The in-phase equivalent circuit in Figure 9. In this case.9 is obtained when ports 1 and 2 are excited by two in-phase input signals with the same amplitude. The symmetry plane at port E corresponds to an open circuit (magnetic wall). because the circuit is . the symmetry plane at port B corresponds to an open circuit.

FIGURE 9.CPW MAGIC-Ts 247 FIGURE 9. (Permission from IEEE.) .6 Amplitude and phase differences for the uniplanar 180° phase-reversed CPW–slotline T-junction.7 Physical conﬁguration of the uniplanar CPW magic-T using a 180° reverse-phase CPW–slotline T-junction [10].

respectively.8 Equivalent circuit of the uniplanar CPW magic-T in Figure 9.are the voltage reﬂection coefﬁcients at port 1 for the inphase mode coupling and 180° out-of-phase mode coupling.7 [10]. S22 = 1 G++ + G+2 (9.2) To achieve impedance matching at ports 1 and 2.248 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9.G+2 (9. that is.1) to (9.8 (er = 10. (Permission from IEEE. The return loss at ports 1 and 2 is given by S11 . a truly uniplanar magic-T was built on a RT/Duroid 6010. |S11| = |S22| = 0. The isolation between ports 1 and 2 is given by S12 = 1 G++ .1) where G+ + and G+ .3).3) According to Equations (9.8) substrate with the following dimensions: . the characteristic impedance of the CPW ZC and the slotline ZS in terms of the input/output CPW characteristic impedance ZC0 is given by ZS = ZC = 2 ZC 0 (9.) symmetric with respect to ports E and H [8].

and slotline radial stub radius r = 5 mm. characteristic impedance of the CPW in the magic-T ZC = 70.8 was developed and used to analyze the circuit.7 W.25 mm. magic-T CPW center conductor width SC = 0.25 mm.7 W. (Permission from IEEE. magic-T CPW gap size GC = 0.) substrate thickness h = 1. slotline radial stub angle q = 30°. The measurements were made using standard SMA connectors and an HP-8510 network analyzer. characteristic impedance of the input/output CPW feed lines ZC0 = 50 W. . characteristic impedance of the slotline in the magic-T ZS = 70.51 mm.CPW MAGIC-Ts 249 FIGURE 9.27 mm. magic-T slotline line width WS = 0.25 mm.51 mm. input/output CPW feed lines gap size GC0 = 0.9 Schematic expression of the E-ﬁeld distribution and equivalent transmission-line model for the in-phase coupling mode [10]. A computer program based on the equivalent transmission model of Figure 9. input/output CPW feed lines center conductor width S0C = 0.

11 and 9. the calculated results agree in general with the measured results except the insertion loss. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the H-arm is 0. . The extra insertion loss is less than 1.12.250 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9. The additional insertion loss of the CPW magic-T in the measurement is mainly due to the CPW–slotline transition in the reversephase T-junction.5 dB in the frequency range of 2–4 GHz. The extra insertion loss is less than 0.1 dB at the center frequency of 3 GHz. As shown in Figures 9. in-phase mode coupling.) Figure 9.10 Schematic expression of the E-ﬁeld distribution and equivalent transmission-line model for the 180° out-of-phase coupling mode [10]. that is.11 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for the H-arm’s power dividing.12 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for the E-arm’s power dividing. Figure 9.3 dB in the frequency range of 2–4 GHz. (Permission from IEEE. 180° out-ofphase mode coupling.7 dB at the center frequency of 3 GHz. that is. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the E-arm is 0.

CPW MAGIC-Ts 251 FIGURE 9.11 Measured and calculated frequency responses of the H-arm’s power dividing for the uniplanar CPW magic-T [10]. (Permission from IEEE. (Permission from IEEE.) FIGURE 9.12 Measured and calculated frequency responses of the E-arm’s power dividing for the uniplanar CPW magic-T [10].) .

13 Measured and calculated frequency responses of the mutual isolation for the uniplanar CPW magic-T [10].5° over the frequency range of 2–4 GHz.252 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9. The E-arm’s maximum phase imbalance is 3. With the advantages of broad-band operation. The phase error of the Earm is 0.7° at the center frequency of 3 GHz.3 dB in the same frequency range.8° at the center frequency of 3 GHz. (Permission from IEEE.and H-arms is greater than 30 dB from 2 GHz to 4 GHz. The isolation between the E. simple design procedure.) Figure 9. the mutual isolation between the two balanced arms is greater than 12 dB. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the H-arm is 0.14 shows the amplitude balance for the 180° out-of-phase and inphase mode coupling. The phase error of the H-arm is 0. . uniplanar structure. The experimental and theoretical results just presented show that the uniplanar magic-T has fairly good amplitude and phase balances. Figure 9. The H-arm’s maximum phase imbalance is 2° from 2–4 GHz. and ease of integrating with solid-state devices. the uniplanar CPW magic-T should have many applications in microwave and millimeter-wave hybrid and monolithic integrated circuits.5 dB from 2–4 GHz.and H-arms and the balanced arms 1 and 2. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the E-arm is 0.13 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of mutual isolation between the E.15 shows the phase balance for the 180° out-of-phase and in-phase mode coupling. Figure 9. Over the same frequency range.

) FIGURE 9.and E-arms’ amplitude balances for the uniplanar CPW magic-T [10].and E-arms’ phase balances for the uniplanar CPW magic-T [10].15 H.) . (Permission from IEEE.14 H. (Permission from IEEE.CPW MAGIC-Ts 253 FIGURE 9.

The 180° .16 Physical layout of the double-sided slotline ring magic-T with microstrip feeds.and H-arms of the conventional waveguide magic-T.19 the signal is fed to port E and then divides into two components.4 180° DOUBLE-SIDED SLOTLINE RING MAGIC-Ts Figure 9. The twisted transmission line in Figure 9. 11. respectively. In Figure 9.17 represents the phase reversal of the slotline T-junction.19 show the schematic expressions of the in-phase and 180° out-of-phase couplings. The slotline T-junction is a well-known 180° reverse-phase T-junction and is used as a phase inverter in the slotline magicT. Figure 9. 12]. In Figure 9. Figures 9. both of which arrive in phase at ports 1 and 2. In Figure 9. The two component waves arrive in-phase at the slotline T-junction and cannot be extracted from port E.16.18. respectively. the signal is fed to port H and then divides into two components.16 shows the circuit layout of the double-sided slotline ring magic-T [1. 9. which arrive at ports 1 and 2 with a 180° phase difference.18 and 9.17 shows the equivalent transmission-line model of the double-sided slotline magic-T. Ports 1 and 2 are the powerdividing balanced arms. ports E and H correspond to the E. The arrows shown in Figures 9.19 indicate the schematic expression of the electric ﬁeld in the slotlines.254 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9.18 and 9. The circuit simply consists of a slotline T-junction and a slotline ring with three microstrip feeds.

. FIGURE 9.18 Schematic expression of the E-ﬁeld distribution in the double-sided slotline ring magic-T for the in-phase coupling mode.17 Equivalent circuit of the double-sided slotline ring magic-T with microstrip feeds.180° DOUBLE-SIDED SLOTLINE RING MAGIC-Ts 255 FIGURE 9.

characteristic impedance of the slotline feed ZS0 = 54. input/output microstrip feed lines line width Wm0 = 1.39 W. The radius of the slotline ring is determined by 2pr = l gs (9.256 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9.4193 mm. characteristic impedance of the slotline ring ZS = 70. slotline ring mean radius r = 8.21. The isolation between ports B and H is perfect as long as the mode conversion in the slotline T-junction is ideal.8 substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 1.17.3).7 W.19 Schematic expression of the E-ﬁeld distribution in the double-sided slotline ring magic-T for the 180° out-of-phase coupling mode. phase difference between the divided signals at ports 1 and 2 is due to the slotline T-junction.09 mm. The two component waves arrive at port H 180° out of phase and cancel each other.4) where lgs is the guide wavelength of the slotline ring. The theoretical results were calculated from the equivalent transmission-line model in Figure 9.20 and 9.85 mm. The measured and calculated results of the double-sided slotline magic-T are shown in Figures 9. and . respectively. The test circuit was built on a RT/Duroid 6010.27 mm. The characteristic impedance of the double-sided slotline magic-T was also designed by Equation (9. slotline ring width WS = 0. characteristic impedance of the input/output microstrip feed lines Zm0 = 50 W.

180° DOUBLE-SIDED SLOTLINE RING MAGIC-Ts 257 FIGURE 9. (Permission from IEEE. (Permission from IEEE.) .) FIGURE 9.20 Measured results of power dividing and isolation for the double-sided slotline ring magic-T with microstrip feeds [12].21 Calculated results of power dividing and isolation for the double-sided slotline ring magic-T with microstrip feeds [12].

Except for the extra insertion loss.23 shows the equivalent transmission-line FIGURE 9. 14]. the measured and calculated results shown in Figures 9. The E-arm of the uniplanar slotline magic-T is fed through a CPW connected to a broad-band TYPE-AC CPW–slotline transition [13]. .and H-arms of the conventional waveguide magic-T.5 180° UNIPLANAR SLOTLINE RING MAGIC-Ts Figure 9. The 1. The measurements were made using standard SMA connectors and an HP-8510 network analyzer. 13.3-dB insertion loss at the center frequency of 3 GHz is due to the microstrip–slotline transition and the slotline T-junction. As shown in Figure 9. a broad-band double-side slotline magic-T with an excellent isolation of greater than 35 dB and a good power-dividing balance of 0. respectively. In Figure 9.20. ports E and H correspond to the E. Ports 1 and 2 are the powerdividing balanced arms. 10. The slotline T-junction is used as a phase inverter to achieve the 180° phase reversal. 9.2 dB was achieved over an 80% bandwidth.22 shows the physical conﬁguration of the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T [1.22 Physical conﬁguration of the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T using a 180° reversed-phase slotline T-junction.21 agree very well. Figure 9.1 mm.22. The H-arm and output balanced arms are all fed by CPW lines.20 and 9.258 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS slotline feed line width WS0 = 0.

input/output CPW feed lines center conductor width SC0 = 0. slot- . Figures 9.25. model of the CPW ring magic-T. both of which arrive in phase at ports 1 and 2.24 and 9.8 (er = 10.25 mm.27 mm. The isolation between ports E and H is perfect as long as the mode conversion in the slotline T-junction is ideal.25 indicate the schematic expression of the electric ﬁeld in the CPWs and slotlines.24. characteristic impedance of the input/output CPW feed lines ZC0 = 50 W. the signal is fed to port H and then divides into two components.39 W. respectively.3). input/output CPW feed lines gap size GC0 = 0. the signal is fed to port E and then divides into two components. characteristic impedance of the slotline feed ZS0 = 54.4). The two component waves arrive at the slotline T-junction in phase and cannot be extracted from port E. In Figure 9. The arrows shown in Figures 9.180° UNIPLANAR SLOTLINE RING MAGIC-Ts 259 FIGURE 9.23 Equivalent circuit of the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T. The 180° phase difference between the divided signals at ports 1 and 2 is due to the slotline T-junction.25 show the schematic expressions of the in-phase and 180° out-of-phase couplings. The two component waves arrive at port H 180° out of phase and cancel each other.51 mm. The mean radius of the slotline ring is given by Equation (9.3) and (9. The characteristic impedance of the slotline ring and CPW feed lines is determined by Equation (9.23 represents the phase reversal of the slotline T-junction. a truly uniplanar slotline ring magic-T was built on a RT/Duroid 6010. Using Equations (9.24 and 9.4).8) substrate with the following dimensions: substrate thickness h = 1. which arrive at ports 1 and 2 with a 180° phase difference. The twisted transmission line in Figure 9. In Figure 9.

77 mm. the calculated results are given together with the measured results. line feed line width WS1 = 0. . The measurements were made using standard SMA connectors and an HP-8510 network analyzer. that is.1 mm. Figure 9. in-phase mode coupling. that is. As shown in Figures 9.7 W.5 dB in the frequency range of 2–4 GHz.5 dB at the center frequency of 3 GHz.4 dB in the frequency range of 2–4 GHz. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the E-arm is 0.27 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for the H-arm’s power dividing. slotline ring line width WS2 = 0.26 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of insertion loss for the E-arm’s power dividing.23 was developed and used to analyzer the circuit.43 mm. A computer program based on the equivalent transmission mode of Figure 9. 180° out-of-phase mode coupling. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the H-arm is 0. and slotline ring radius r = 7. The extra insertion loss is less than 0.27. The extra insertion loss is less than 1 dB at the center frequency of 3 GHz. Figure 9. characteristic impedance of the slotline ring ZS = 70.24 Schematic expression of the E-ﬁeld distribution in the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T for the in-phase coupling mode. The additional insertion loss of the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T is mainly due to the CPW-slotline transition and the slotline T-junction.260 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9.26 and 9.

26 Measured and calculated frequency responses of the E-arm’s power dividing for the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T. FIGURE 9.25 Schematic expression of the E-ﬁeld distribution in the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T for the 180° out-of-phase coupling mode. .180° UNIPLANAR SLOTLINE RING MAGIC-Ts 261 FIGURE 9.

The H-arm’s maximum phase imbalance is 6° from 2 to 4 GHz. ports E and H correspond .and H-arms is greater than 30 dB from 2 GHz to 4 GHz. Figure 9. The phase error of the E-arm is 3° at the center frequency of 3 GHz. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the H-arm is 0. the mutual isolation between the two balanced arms is greater than 12 dB.28 shows the measured and calculated frequency responses of mutual isolation between the E. In Figure 9.6 REDUCED-SIZE UNIPLANAR MAGIC-Ts Figure 9.30 shows the phase balance for the 180° out-of-phase and in-phase mode coupling. The E-arm’s maximum phase imbalance is 5° over the frequency range of 2–4 GHz. Figure 9.27 Measured and calculated frequency responses of the H-arm’s power dividing for the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T.and H-arms and the balanced arms 1 and 2. 9.31a. The phase error of the H-arm is 3° at the center frequency of 3 GHz. The isolation between the E.4 dB over the same frequency range.31a shows the reduced-size magic T that consists of one out-of-phase and three in-phase CPW-slotline tee junctions [15]. Figure 9. The maximum amplitude imbalance of the E-arm is 0. Over the same frequency range.262 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9. The out-of-phase Tjunction serves as a phase inverter.5 dB in the frequency range of 2–4 GHz.29 shows the amplitude balance for the 180° out-of-phase and inphase mode coupling.

29 H. .and E-arms’ amplitude balances for the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T. FIGURE 9.28 Measured and calculated frequency responses of the mutual isolation for the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T.REDUCED-SIZE UNIPLANAR MAGIC-Ts 263 FIGURE 9.

Ports 1 and 2 are the balanced arms. In this case. The symmetry plane at port E corresponds to an open circuit (magnetic wall). which then divides into two components.30 H. respectively. Figures 9. to the E. The two components waves arrive at port H out-ofphase and cancel out each other. The twisted transmission line represents the reversal of the CPW-slotline T-junction.and H-arm of the conventional waveguide magic-T. the signal is fed to port H. the symmetry plane at port H corresponds to an open circuit (magnetic wall). respectively. that both arrive in-phase at ports 1 and 2.264 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS FIGURE 9.33a.33 show the schematic diagram of the E-ﬁeld distribution and the equivalent circuit for the in-phase and the out-of-phase coupling. whereas the symmetry plane at port E corresponds to a short circuit (electric wall). In Figure 9. . which arrive at ports 1 and 2 with a 180° phase difference. the signal is fed to port E.32a. The isolation between ports E and H is perfect as long as the phase reversal in the out-of-phase CPW-soltline Tjunction is ideal.32 and 9. out-of-phase and cancel out each other. and then divides into two components. In Figure 9.31b shows the equivalent transmission line model of the magic-T. whereas the symmetry plane at port H corresponds to a short circuit (electric wall).and E-arms’ phase balances for the uniplanar slotline ring magic-T. However. the two components arrive at port E. Figure 9. The 180° phase difference between the divided signals at ports 1 and 2 is due to the outof-phase tee junction.

33b.cot 2 q ) (9. The characteristic impedance of slotline Zs and CPW Zc in terms of CPW feed line impedance Zco (usually 50 ohms) and q (the electric length of a quarter of the slotline ring circumference) are given by [16] Z s = Zc = Zco 2(1 .5) . As shown in Figures 9.REDUCED-SIZE UNIPLANAR MAGIC-Ts H 265 lg 5 1 2 lg 5 E (a) Zco H l gs 5 Zs Zs l gs 5 1 Zco l gs 10 Zs l gc 10 Zc l gc 10 Zc l gs 10 Zs +180 o Zco 2 E Zco (b) FIGURE 9.31 Reduced-size uniplanar magic-T (a) layout and (b) equivalent circuit [15].32b and 9. an equivalent circuit was used to analyze the impedance matching.

It is important to use air bridges at the magic-T’s discontinuities to prevent the coupled slotline mode from propagating on the CPW lines.54 mm and metal thickness t = 10 mm.. Simulations indicate that wide band operation is obtained for values of q.9 ohms.) According to Equation (9.5). The radius of the radial stub at CPW-slotline transition is 5 mm.5 (er = 10.e. The magic-T in Figure 9. In this design. the minimum q is obviously equal to 45°. The radial stub angle is 45°. lg/5) was chosen. . resulting in the characteristic impedance Zs. Zc = 66. (Permission from IEEE.5) substrate with thickness h = 1.32 Out-of-phase coupling mode of the magic-T (a) E-ﬁeld distribution and (b) equivalent circuit [15].33 was designed at the center frequency of 4 GHz and fabricated on a RT/Duroid 6010.266 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS H Input q open q 1 2 q short q E (a) H q Zs 2Zco 1 Zco q Zs Zc E (b) FIGURE 9. which are smaller in the allowed range. q = 72° (i.

in-phase mode coupling). Figure 9.33 In-phase coupling mode of the magic-T (a) E-ﬁeld distribution and (b) equivalent circuit [15].34 shows the magic-T’s measured and calculated transmission. out-of-phase mode coupling) shown in Figure 9. and isolation.4 dB and 2. the insertion loss is less than 0.5 dB at 4 GHz for the H port’s power division (i. the return loss of for the H-port is greater than 15 dB from 2.REDUCED-SIZE UNIPLANAR MAGIC-Ts H 267 θ short θ 1 2 θ open θ E Input (a) θ Zs H 1 Zco Zs θ Zc E 2Zco (b) FIGURE 9.. Figure 9. return loss.7 dB at 4 GHz. The measured and calculated isolations between the E-port and H-port or ports 1 and 2 are shown in Figure 9.e.34c. For the E-port’s power division (i.6 octave from 2 to 6 GHz with maximum power dividing imbalance of 0.1.e. Also. The measured performances of the various parameters are summarized in Table 9. respectively.34a.) Figure 9..7 to 6.35 shows that the magic-T has a bandwidth of 1. (Permission from IEEE. Similarly. The return loss for the E-port is greater than 15 dB from 3. .5° maximum phase imbalance.1 to 6 GHz.34b shows the insertion loss of 0.2 GHz.

(b) in-phase coupling of H-1.34 Measured and calculated frequency responses of the magic-T (a) outof-phase coupling of E-1. and (c) isolations of E-H and 1–2 [15].2 Coupling (dB) -5 -10 -15 -20 -20 Calculated Measured H-1.2Coupling (dB) -5 E-1. and H-port’s return loss. and E-port’s return loss.268 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS 0 E-1. H-2 20 S HH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -40 Frequency (GHz) (b) 0 1-2 Isolation (dB) -20 E-H -40 Calculated Measured -60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) (c) FIGURE 9.) . E-2. (Permission from IEEE. E-2 20 Return loss (dB) Return loss (dB) 0 -10 -15 -20 -20 Calculated Measured SEE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -40 Frequency (GHz) (a) 0 H-1. H-2.

15–6.8–5.48 >0.0–7.0–6.9 ± 0.95 >2.5 >1.4 dB 181° ± 1.8 >2.5° Frequency Bandwidth Range (GHz) (octave) 2.5 >0.) (b) FIGURE 9.5 >1.15 1.3 dB >15 dB >18 dB >30 dB <0.5 E-1.075 >1.6 1.5° <2.9 >1.0 3.4 3.9 ± 0. TABLE 9.8–6.5 -5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency (GHz) (a) 20 H-port’s phase difference (Deg. S2E) (S11.8 >2.9 2.93 Coupling Return loss Isolation Imbalance Fed to port E (S1E.REDUCED-SIZE UNIPLANAR MAGIC-Ts 269 Amplitude difference (dB) 5 2. S2E) Fed to port H (S1E.0 1.1–6.1 Summary of Measured Performances of the Magic-T [15] Parameter Measured Result 3.4 dB <0.3 dB 3.1–5. E-2 0 H-1. H-2 -2.3 1. SEE.7 1.0–6.35 Measured frequency responses of the magic-T (a) amplitude imbalance and (b) phase imbalance [15].0–5.) E-port 10 0 H-port -10 -20 170 160 150 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency(GHz) 7 8 190 180 200 E-port’s phase.0–7. SHH) Port1 and port2 Port E and H Amplitude E-1/E-2 Amplitude H-1/H-2 Phase E-1/E-2 Phase H-1/H-2 Meeting all the above speciﬁcations . S22.5 >2.9 2. difference (Deg.

Symp. [7] G.67 lg circumference 180° hybrid ring couplers. December 1994.” IEEE Trans.. [13] C. Moisan. and K. [15] L. MTT-35. Penard. P. MTT-24. 54. L. I. [8] M. 15th Annu. 1. Microwave Theory Tech. Chang. Chang. Eng. G. and K. E. Vol. [11] C. pp. pp. College Station. 2749–2758. pp. Vol.. Tresselt. Vol.” IEEE Trans. MTT-41. Microwave Theory Tech. “Slotline annular ring elements and their applications to resonator. Ho. [6] C. Chang. 1. Microwave Theory Tech. Microwave Theory Tech.-H. Vol. Monticello. Vol. and K. pp. 2116– 2125. Vol.” Radio Electron. “The tapered-line magic-T. “Slotline. Ho. J. Microwave Theory Tech. Fan. 299–300. 29. [2] R. Aikawa and H.... Chang. No. Manton. DuHamel and M. 30. New York. and K. Ho. October 12–14. and H. Legaud. 43. Chang. 12. L. [14] C.” Electron. 145–150. Dig. CPW ring circuits and waveguide ring cavities for coupler and ﬁlter applications. “New uniplanar coplanar waveguide hybrid-ring couplers and magic-Ts. May 1994. dissertation. L. MTT-28. 9. No. December 1995.. Chang. Microwave Theory Tech. April 1972. March 1976.” IEEE Trans. “A symmetric coupled-transmission-line magic-T. pp. pp.. on USAF Antenna Research Program. 576–581. Hirota.” IEEE Trans. 1990. pp.. Ill. Murgulescu. “Hybrid networks and their uses in radio-frequency circuits. 1992. pp. Feburary 1994. MTT-42. June 1980. 387–388. Ogawa. Ho. Chang. Tarusawa. “A new impedance-matched wideband balun and magic-T.” IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans. C. Zaquine. pp.. Lett. [10] C. E. No.” Ph. [9] T. and K. and de Ronde’s CPW-slot couplers. E. Vol. 12.” IEEE Trans. Lett. “Broadband uniplanar hybrid ring coupler. “Broad-band uniplanar hybrid-ring and branch-line couplers. hybrid-ring. ﬁlter and coupler design. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-12. MTT-17. Ho. 1648–1650.D. Vol.. 44–45. 1175–1178. L. H. Fan. “A new MIC magic-T using coupled slot lines. Vol. 0. “Ultra wide band slotline ring couplers. Texas A&M University.. Ogawa. pp. December 1993.. “Uniplanar MMIC hybrids—A proposed new MMIC structure. pp. “Design and computed theoretical performance of three classes of equal-ripple non-uniform line couplers. Ho. 218–230. No. 135–141. 1965.. Microwave Theory Tech. 523–528. January 7. 473–489. Y. [16] M. [3] K. “Wide-band reduced-size uniplanar magic-T. pp. Fan. No. Vol. Vol. Armstrong. Handbook of Microwave and Optical Components. Dig.” IEEE Trans. [5] R. Fan. 2440–2448. Fan. . June 1987.270 RING MAGIC-T CIRCUITS REFERENCES [1] C. September 1993. pp. Ho. L. Microwave Theory Tech..” IEEE Trans. Vol.-H.” Electron. and I. November 1964. MTT-41. 12. P. “New wideband. 595–599. [12] C. 1993. Microwave Conf. Kraker.” in 1992 IEEE MTT-S Int. [4] D. pp.” Proc. and K. Vol. June 1984. Laughline. Wiley. Fan. pp.

CHAPTER TEN

**Waveguide Ring Resonators and Filters
**

10.1 INTRODUCTION

The annular ring structure has been studied thoroughly for the planar transmission structure [1–10]. Many attractive applications for the planar ring circuits have been published [11–23]. This chapter presents a new type of rectangular waveguide ring cavity that can be used as a resonator or a building block for ﬁlters or multiplexers [24, 25]. Compared with planar ring circuits, the waveguide ring cavities have higher Q values and can handle higher power. This new type of waveguide component has the ﬂexibility of mechanical and electronic tuning as well as good predictable performance. The second section of this chapter discusses the single-mode operation of the waveguide ring cavities. Two fundamental structures for the waveguide ring cavities, H- and E-plane waveguide ring cavities, are introduced in this section. Section 10.2 also discusses regular resonant modes, split resonant modes, and forced resonant modes. Mechanically tuned and electronically tuned waveguide ring resonators that are based on the tuning from regular resonant modes to forced resonant modes are also discussed in the second section. The third section discusses the dual-mode operation of the waveguide ring cavities, plus two new dual-mode ﬁlters that use the dual resonant modes. A single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter using the H-plane waveguide ring cavity has been developed with a bandwidth of 0.77%, a stopband attenuation of more than 40 dB, and a sharp gain slope transition. The other two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter using two E-plane waveguide ring cavities has been fabricated with a

Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures, Second Edition, by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

271

272

WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS

bandwidth of 1.12%, a stopband attenuation of 70 dB, and a sharp gain slope transition. The dual-mode index related to the generation of transmission zeros is also discussed in the third section.

10.2

WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS

The waveguide ring cavity can be classiﬁed as either an H-plane waveguide ring cavity or an E-plane waveguide ring cavity [24, 25]. Figures 10.1 and 10.2 show the physical conﬁgurations of the H-plane and E-plane waveguide ring cavities, respectively. The H-plane waveguide ring cavity is formed by a circle of rectangular waveguide that is curved in the plane of the magnetic ﬁeld. The E-plane waveguide ring cavity consists of a circle of rectangular waveguide that is curved in the plane of the electric ﬁeld. The differing geometric conﬁgurations make the H-plane ring cavity more suitable for a pileup design and make the E-plane ring cavity more suitable for a cascaded design. Because the electromagnetic ﬁeld bending in the E- and H-planes are different, these two structures bear different characteristics and need different excitation methods.

FIGURE 10.1 Physical conﬁguration of the H-plane waveguide ring structure.

WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS

273

FIGURE 10.2 Physical conﬁguration of the E-plane waveguide ring structure.

Both waveguide and coaxial couplings are suitable for exciting the waveguide ring cavities. The external feeds of the waveguide ring cavities use coaxial– waveguide transitions. The H-plane waveguide ring cavity has coaxial feeds on the top side of the cavity, whereas the E-plane waveguide ring cavity has coaxial feeds on the annular side of the cavity. These coaxial feeds for the H-plane and E-plane annular ring waveguide cavities are designed to excite the dominant TE10n modes, where n is the mode number of the annular ring resonators. Figure 10.3 shows the coordinate systems for the H-plane ring cavity of cross section a ¥ b with its axis bent to a curvature of c = 1/R, where R is the mean radius of the waveguide ring cavity. Figure 10.4 shows the coordinate systems for the E-plane ring cavity of cross section b ¥ a with its axis bent to a curvature of c = 1/R, where R is the mean radius of the waveguide ring cavity. The second-order correction to the guide wavelength for the dominant mode in the H- and E-plane ring cavities is given by [26] to be c 2 Ï 12 + p 2 Ê 2 a ˆ 1 1 15 - p 2 Ê 2 a ˆ ¸ for the H - plane = 2 + + Ì1 ˝ 2 ring cavity 24 Ë l0 ¯ l H l g 24 Ó 2p 2 Ë l0 ¯ ˛ (10.1a)

2 4

274

WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS

FIGURE 10.3 Coordinate system for the circular H-plane bend.

FIGURE 10.4 Coordinate system for the circular E-plane bend.

WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS

275

1 1 = 2 l2 lg E

c 2 b2 Ê 8p 2 b 2 ˆ ˘ È Í1 - 12 Ë 1 - 5l2 ¯ ˙ Î ˚ g

for the E - plane ring cavity

(10.1b)

where a is the broad side of the rectangular waveguide, b is the narrow side of the rectangular waveguide, c is the curvature of the waveguide ring cavity, l0 is the wavelength in free space, and lg is the guide wavelength in the rectangular waveguide. The waveguide ring cavity can be treated as a closed rectangular waveguide. Figure 10.5a–c show the equivalent waveguide circuits for the waveguide ring cavities. According to the equivalent circuits shown in Figure 10.5, the wave functions of the dominant mode in the waveguide ring cavity are given by

FIGURE 10.5 Equivalent waveguide circuits: (a) ring cavity; (b) equivalent H-plane rectangular waveguide; and (c) equivalent E-plane rectangular waveguide.

276

WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS

Ê px ˆ Ê px ˆ ¢ ¢ H z = H 0 cos cos(kz z) or H z = H 0 cos sin(kz z) Ë a¯ Ë a¯ Ey = jwm ∂ H z kc2 ∂ x Hx = ¢ - jkz ∂ H z 2 kc ∂ x

(10.2) (10.3)

where H0 is the amplitude constant, k¢ is deﬁned by z ¢ kz = and ¢ kz = and ¢ kc2 = w 2 m 0e 0 - kz 2 (10.5) 2p lE for the E-plane ring cavity (10.4b) 2p lH for the H-plane ring cavity (10.4a)

As shown in Equation (10.2), both of the sine (odd) and cosine (even) solutions can satisfy the boundary conditions of the waveguide ring cavities. This means that by applying appropriate perturbations it is possible to excite dual resonant modes in a single waveguide ring cavity. This phenomenon is discussed later in Section 10.3. The resonant conditions for the waveguide ring cavities are determined by 2pR = nl H and 2pR = nl E for the E-plane ring cavity (10.6b) for the H-plane ring cavity (10.6a)

where R is the mean radius of the waveguide ring cavity and n is the mode number.

10.2.1

Regular Resonant Modes

Symmetric external feeds excite the regular resonant modes in waveguide ring resonators. The regular resonant modes are the dominant TE10n modes, where n is the mode number of the ring structure. Figure 10.6 shows the mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for the regular resonant modes of a symmetrically coupled waveguide ring cavity. As shown in Figure 10.6, the symmetric feeds generate the single-mode operation of the waveguide ring cavity. Figure 10.7 shows the

WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS

277

FIGURE 10.6 Mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for the regular resonant modes.

measured frequency responses of insertion loss and return loss for an H-plane ring cavity, and Figure 10.8 illustrates the measured frequency responses of insertion loss and return loss for an E-plane ring cavity. The test H-plane ring cavity was designed to operate in K-band with the following dimensions: mean radius R = 16.185 mm, broad side of rectangular waveguide a = 10.73 mm, and narrow side of rectangular waveguide b = 4.44 mm. The test E-plane ring cavity was also designed as a K-band cavity with the following dimensions: mean

23%. and narrow side of rectangular waveguide b = 3. Figures 10.278 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS FIGURE 10. . The regular resonant frequencies of the E-plane ring cavity can be predicted within an error of less than 0.9 and 10.1) and (10.20 mm. The theoretical results shown in Figures 10.32%.11 mm.10 are calculated from Equations (10.7 Measured frequency response for the regular resonant modes of the Kband H-plane ring cavity.88 mm. broad side of rectangular waveguide a = 10. radius R = 10.10 show the theoretical and experimental results for the regular resonant frequencies of the H-plane and E-plane ring cavities. The H-plane ring cavity has coaxial feeds on top of the cavity. The coaxial feeds for the Hand E-plane ring cavities are both designed to excite the dominant TE10n modes. As shown in Figure 10. respectively. Easy and correct prediction of resonant frequencies and a simple design procedure make the waveguide ring cavity a good candidate for many waveguide circuits.9 and 10. the regular resonant frequencies of the H-plane ring cavity can be predicted correctly within an error or less than 0.6).9. whereas the E-plane ring cavity has coaxial feeds on the annular side of the cavity.

8 Measured frequency response for the regular resonant modes of the Kband E-plane ring cavity. is given by [27] Qu 1 + g 1 + g 2 + g 1g 2 = QL g 1g 2 . QL. and dX is the actual change in reactance between the f0 and f0 + df points. which are transmission forms of resonators. The relationship between loaded Q and unloaded Q for the waveguide ring cavities. shown in Tables 10.2 list the loaded and unloaded Q’s for each type of waveguide ring cavity at various resonant frequencies.1 (10.1 and 10.WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS 279 FIGURE 10.7) where R0 is the resistance at the resonant frequency f0. Tables 10.1 and 10. Both the R0 and dX values were read from the Smith chart using an HP-8510 network analyzer. The loaded Q.2 is measured using the following equation [27] QL = f0 dX ◊ 2df R0 (10.8) .

10 Measured and calculated results for the regular resonant frequencies of the E-plane ring cavity. . FIGURE 10.280 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS FIGURE 10.9 Measured and calculated results for the regular resonant frequencies of the H-plane ring cavity.

449 23.823.180 0. the resonant modes with mode numbers .4 Calculated f0 (GHz) n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6 n=7 15.2 6.907 TABLE 10.600 151.272.945 where g1 is the voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) of the input coupling circuit with a matched output load and g2 is the VSWR of the output coupling circuit with a matched input load.187.6 3.1 shows that H-plane ring cavity has an average unloaded Q of 3342.48 Calculated f0 (GHz) n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 15.412 23.2 Split Resonant Modes The split resonant modes of waveguide ring cavities are generated by using a tuning post at a speciﬁc angle of the circle.564 18.06.320 0.928 Error (%) 0. respectively.13 1.69 2.1 Measured QL and Qu for the H-plane Ring Cavity Measured f0 (GHz) 15.93 GHz and 14. The cutoff frequency of the waveguide ring cavity is determined by fc = c 2a (10.080 0.900 684.87.02 GHz.9 2.482 20.900 775.090 0.200 222. 10.9) where a is the broad side of the rectangular waveguide and c is the speed of light in free space.11 shows the mode chart of E-ﬁeld for the symmetrically coupled waveguide ring cavity with a tuning post at 45°.502 20.2 shows that the Eplane ring cavity has an average unloaded Q of 1933.593 24. The designed and measured cutoff frequencies for the E-plane ring cavity are 14.040 0. whereas Table 10.100 194.348 20.110 0.889 Error (%) 0.395 22.17 2.098 16.080 Measured QL 198.146 16.570.100 Measured Qu 1.WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS 281 TABLE 10.91 GHz. According to the mode chart shown in the ﬁgure.559.4 3.700 Measured Qu 1.505.190.900 604.038 3.157.230 Measured QL 714.070 0.443 17. Figure 10.530 18.2 Measured QL and Qu for the E-plane Ring Cavity Measured f0 (GHz) 15. Table 10.210 0. the measured cutoff frequency of the H-plane ring cavity is 13.333 20. The designed cutoff frequency of the H-plane ring cavity is 14.300 163.72 GHz.615 24.454 17.386 22.600 183.2.483.

2.11 Mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for the split resonant modes. . have a maximum or minimum E-ﬁeld point that corresponds to a magnetic or electric wall at the position of the tuning post and will not be split. . Figure 10.282 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS FIGURE 10. n=m 90∞ q (10.12 shows the measured frequency response .10) where q = 45° and m = 1. . . 3.

The tunable and switchable conditions can be derived using the concept of forced resonant modes. the tunable and switchable conditions have not been studied thoroughly.2. of insertion loss for an H-plane ring cavity that has a tuning post at 45°. However. This section discusses the forced resonant modes of the ring cavities. As expected. 10. which are caused by the short or open boundary conditions on the ring structure.3 Forced Resonant Modes A tunable–switchable resonator has been introduced by Martin et al. [17] on microstrip ring circuits.12 Measured frequency response for the split resonant modes of the Hplane ring cavity with a tuning post at 45°.WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS 283 FIGURE 10. the fourth resonant mode is not split. .

the tuning post forces minima of the E-ﬁeld to occur FIGURE 10.13 Mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for the forced resonant modes. Figure 10. The short boundary can be obtained by inserting a tuning post across the waveguide inside the ring cavities. open or short circuits.13.13 shows the mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for a symmetrically coupled waveguide ring cavity with a fully inserted tuning post at 90°. . As shown in Figure 10. on waveguide ring cavities. that is.284 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS Forced resonant modes are excited by forced boundary conditions.

Therefore. the even resonant modes will disappear and the half-wavelength resonant modes will be excited. and fn is the resonant frequency of the excited halfwavelength resonant mode with mode number n = n ± 1/2.3 WAVEGUIDE RING FILTERS Dual-mode ﬁlters have been reported which use circular and rectangular waveguide linear cavities [28–30]. The mechanically tuned ring cavity was designed as a waveguide ring cavity with symmetrical feed lines and a tuning post at 90°.1).11) where fn is the resonant frequency of the full-wavelength resonant mode with even mode number n. The capacitance of the varactor decreases with increasing bias voltage. which is controlled by varying the bias voltage from 0 to 25 V. By applying different bias voltages. When the post is fully inserted across the waveguide. the resonant modes with even mode numbers cannot exist. As shown in the ﬁgure. The tunable capacitance of the varactor is varied from 2.11) is applied in the following discussion of the mechanically tuned and varactor-tuned waveguide ring cavities. will be excited due to the short boundary condition. The tuning range shown in the ﬁgure is 190 MHz. The variance of the capacitance changes the resonant modes from n . The varactor-tuned ring cavity has a tuning post mounted with a varactor.11). .1/2 to n. 10. The variance of the capacitance changes the resonant modes from n to n . . By inserting the post from zero-depth to full-depth across the waveguide inside the ring cavities. 5. The maximum tuning range of the forced resonant modes is determined by dfn = fn . the tuning range from n = 4 to n = 3. The general design rule of Equation (10. According to the mean radius of the mechanically tuned ring cavity.WAVEGUIDE RING FILTERS 285 on both sides of the short plane.1/2. the half-wavelength resonant modes with mode numbers n = m/2. For the fourth resonant mode. and (10.14 shows the measured frequency response of insertion loss for the mechanically tuned ring cavity. A varactor with a larger tunable capacitance can be used to achieve better tuning range.6).75 pF. which is limited by the tunable capacitance of the varactor.64 to 0. . The excitation of dual resonant modes in linear waveguide cavities uses a tuning post inserted at the corner of a square . Figure 10.fv (10. the capacitance of the mounted varactor will change. which is within the maximum tuning range predicted by Equation (10. 3.5 is 677 MHz. . (10. the capacitance of the tuning post increases with the insertion depth.15. where m = 1. the resonant modes will change from regular resonant modes to forced resonant modes. a maximum tuning range of 993 MHz for the fourth resonant mode is obtained from Equations (10. The measured frequency response of insertion loss for the vactortuned ring cavity is shown in Figure 10.11). On the other hand.

286 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS FIGURE 10. .14 Measured frequency response for the mechanically tuned H-plane ring cavity. FIGURE 10.15 Measured frequency response for the electronically tuned H-plane ring cavity.

As shown in Equations (10. that is. both sine (odd) and cosine (even) wave functions can exist in waveguide ring cavities.16 shows the mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for an asymmetrically coupled waveguide ring cavity whose external feeds are 90° apart. The sign of the mutual coupling coefﬁcient between the dual resonant modes depends on the position of the inserted post. 25]. 10. . According FIGURE 10.3. The sine and cosine wave functions have 90° phase differences and are orthogonal to each other.1 Decoupled Resonant Modes Figure 10. sine (odd) and cosine (even) resonant modes. in waveguide ring cavities and the applications of dual resonant modes in ﬁlter design [24. This section discusses the excitation of dual resonant modes.16 Mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for the asymmetrically coupled resonant modes.WAVEGUIDE RING FILTERS 287 waveguide [30].2) and (10.3).

As shown in Figure 10. which has a 90° split of the external feed lines without any tuning post. These resonant modes are called decoupled resonant modes. The measured results shown in the ﬁgure agree with the prediction of the mode-chart analysis. the resonant modes of the single H-plane ring cavity.17.288 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS to the mode chart of the E-ﬁeld in the ﬁgure.17 Measured frequency response for the asymmetrically coupled H-plane ring cavity.17 shows the measured frequency response of insertion loss for an asymmetrically coupled H-plane ring cavity. Thus the electromagnetic energy cannot be coupled through the output port. display maximum insertion loss for those decoupled odd modes. Figure 10. the resonant modes with odd mode numbers have minimum E-ﬁeld at the output coupling point. FIGURE 10. .

22a.3. = maximum -Ey point for cosine wave. . respectively. Key: = maximum Ey point for cosine wave. According to this inserted boundary condition. a sine (odd) resonance is generated to meet the inserted boundary condition. This means FIGURE 10. the inserted post forces zero E-ﬁeld on its metal surface.WAVEGUIDE RING FILTERS 289 10. the polarizations of even and odd resonances for the dual resonant mode n = 1 are opposite. Figures 10. As shown in Figures 10. however.21. an inverted-sine (odd) resonance is excited to cancel out the E-ﬁeld of the input-coupled cosine (even) resonance on the post metal surface.18 Mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for the dual resonant mode n = 1. Figures 10.22a and b show the equivalent circuits for the dual resonant modes n = 1 and n = 3. respectively. For the dual resonant mode n = 3 shown in Figure 10. Figure 10. = maximum Ey point for sine wave.19 and 10. the dual resonant modes can be excited from the decoupled resonant modes.19. for the dual resonant mode n = 1 shown in Figure 10.2 Single-Cavity Dual-Mode Filters By inserting a tuning post at 45° or 135°.21.19 show the mode chart of E-ﬁeld and the phase relationship between the inputcoupled cosine (even) and post-excited sine (odd) resonance for dual resonant modes with mode number n = 1. = maximum -Ey point for sine wave.21 show the mode chart of E-ﬁeld and the phase relationship between the input-coupled cosine (even) and post-excited sine (odd) resonance for dual resonant modes with mode number n = 3. As shown in Figure 10.20 and 10.18 and 10.

For the dual resonant mode n = 1 with a . the transfer function has two transmission zeros when the mutual coupling coefﬁcient of the dual resonant modes is negative [31].19 Phase relationship between the input-coupled cosine resonance and post-excited inverted-sine resonance for the dual resonant mode n = 1. The polarizations of the even and odd resonances for the dual resonant mode n = 3. or 315°. For the implementation of a two-pole canonical dualmode ﬁlter. that the sign of the mutual coupling coefﬁcient between the dual resonant mode n = 1 is negative. 225°. 135°. as shown in Figure 10.12) where n is the resonant mode number and q is the location of the tuning post that can be 45°. A dual-mode index is used for the prediction of the polarization of the even and odd resonance and deﬁned by m= n q + 2 90∞ (10. This means that the sign of the mutual coupling coefﬁcient between the dual resonant mode n = 3 is positive. are in the same direction.22b. It is not possible to generate transmission zeros using the dual resonant mode n = 3.290 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS FIGURE 10.

maximum Ey point for sine wave. as shown in Figure 10. Similarly. was obtained for the n = 7 mode with the following results: (1) center frequency . and the polarizations of even and odd resonances are opposite. as shown in Figure 10.20 Mode chart of the E-ﬁeld for the dual resonant mode n = 3. = = 45° perturbation.12).28 GHz. The other dualmode ﬁlter caused by a tuning post at 135°.24 show the measured frequency responses of insertion loss for a 90° asymmetrically coupled H-plane ring cavity with tuning posts at 45° and 135°. as shown in Figure 10. and the same polarizations for the even and odd resonances. = maximum -Ey point for cosine wave. for the dual resonant mode n = 3 with a 45° perturbation. respectively.19. Figures 10. using a single H-plane ring cavity with a tuning post at 45°.24. the dual-mode index of m = 1 implies that the perturbation post is within the ﬁrst phase domain of a full guide wavelength.WAVEGUIDE RING FILTERS 291 FIGURE 10. as shown in Figure 10. (2) bandwidth BW = 250 MHz. the dual-mode ﬁlter with an even dual-mode index does not have any transmission zero. and (4) stopband attenuation A = 40 dB.22b. has been achieved for the n = 5 mode with the following results: (1) center frequency f0 = 20. (3) midband insertion loss IL = 2. The single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter shown in Figure 10. = maximum -Ey point for sine wave. The measured results agree with the prediction of Equation (10. As shown in the ﬁgures. the dual-mode index of m = 2 predicts the second phase domain perturbation of a full guide wavelength. However. as shown in Figure 10. Key: maximum Ey point for cosine wave.21.22a.23.23 and 10.69 dB. the dual-mode ﬁlter with an odd dual-mode index has two transmission zeros and bears a sharp gain slope transition.

3. 10. As shown in the .3 Two-Cavity Dual-Mode Filters A two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter using two E-plane ring cavities with 90° splits of the external feed lines was designed to improve the stopband attenuation. The measured frequency response of insertion loss for the two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter is shown in Figure 10. (3) midband insertion loss IL = 1.292 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS FIGURE 10. (2) bandwidth BW = 190 MHz. f0 = 24. The following illustrates a new type of two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter that uses two E-plane ring cavities to achieve better in-band and out-band performance.21 Phase relationship between the input-coupled cosine resonance and post-excited sine resonance for the dual resonant mode n = 3. Though an excellent in-band performance has been achieved with a single waveguide ring cavity.62 GHz.5 dB. Two tuning posts located at 45° and 135° were used in each E-plane ring cavity. The two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter was built by cascading two identical E-plane ring cavities.25. the out-band behavior cannot meet the requirements in some system applications. and (4) stopband attenuation A = 48 dB.

22 Equivalent circuits for the dual-mode ﬁlters with mode number (a) n = 1 and (b) n = 3.WAVEGUIDE RING FILTERS 293 FIGURE 10. .23 Measured frequency response for the single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter with a tuning post at 45°. FIGURE 10.

FIGURE 10.25 Measured frequency response for a two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter.24 Measured frequency response for the single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter with a tuning post at 135°. .294 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS FIGURE 10.

1067–1071. Makimoto and M. Vol. Wolff and N. Vol.” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Optics and Antennas.REFERENCES 295 ﬁgure. January 23. Karacaoglu. P. H. “Varactor-tunable.. Chang. [5] J. pp. “Measurement technique in microstrip. Martin.. December 1975. pp. No.” IEEE Trans. 2d ed. 7. Chichester. Gautray. Wang. Jung. “Varactor tuned bandpass ﬁlters using microstripline ring resonators. [3] W.82 GHz. J. Microwave Conf. and J. Robertson.” Electron. 25–26. (3) insertion loss IL = 2. June 1993. J. 302–303. pp. MTT-39. Microwave Theory Tech. Toughton. Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design. Hsu. Guglielmi. “Microstrip ring resonator and dispersion measurements on microstrip lines.. [8] P. MTT-23. Vol. 901–906. T. Chattopadhyay. Eddison. Vol. 592–595.” Proc. December 1981.. 1969. a two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlter was achieved for the n = 5 mode with the following results: (1) center frequency f0 = 26. pp. 8. 27. 411–414. No.. March 1991. 20th Eur. [9] I.” Electron. [4] P. 42. . Dig. “Varactor tuned microstrip ring resonators.” in IEEE MTT-S Int. No. Vol.” Electron. June 1986. Gatti. Bernard and J. Vol. Dawson. G. pp.” IEE Proc. Sagawa. Nakano. “Experimental investigation of dual-mode microstrip ring resonators. H. Lett.. I. Klein. [14] K. REFERENCES [1] T. [13] M. 620–624. England. September 1984.” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Lett. (2) bandwidth BW = 300 MHz. 1992. J. “Measurement of relative dielectric constant using a microstrip ring resonator. Deutsch and J.” Nachrichtentech. Finlay. A. [10] M. Dig. Z. C. pp. and K.. 123–128.. [7] H. 20. 1971. Presser. Edwards. S.. Jenkins. Vol.. Microwave Theory Tech. [12] A. 1981. 189–192. December 30. “On the study of microstrip ring and varactor-tuned ring circuits. pp. L. pp. M. 2.” IEEE Trans. and I. 165–168. 267–270. “A dual-mode microstrip ring resonator ﬁlter with active devices for loss compensation. Microwave Symp. Wolff. “Find optimum substrate thickness for millimeter-wave GaAs MMICs. 691–705.. 26. Microwave Symp. 12.. H. MTT35. Microwave Theory Tech. April 1989. Al-Charchafchi and C.09 dB. Vol. pp. 136. “Microstrip bandpass ﬁlter using degenerate modes of a microstrip ring resonator. Dig. Vol. September 1990. Chang.. December 1987.“Evaluation of the equivalent circuit parameters of microstrip discontinuities through perturbation of a resonant ring.” RCA Rev. “Microstrip ring resonator and dispersion measurement on microstrip lines from 2 to 12 GHz. [15] S. pp. J. 1288–1295. June 15. and (4) stopband attenuation A = 70 dB. Vol. [11] U. Hoefer and A. R. 1970. pp. Microwaves.” IEEE Trans. Knoppik. [6] I. Jansen. and M. 1972. pp. “Accurate characterization and modeling of transmission lines for GaAs MMICs. pp. Wiley. high-Q microwave ﬁlter. A. Berenz. Microwave Symp. pp. Lett. D. Guglielmi and G.” Microwaves & RF. F. June 1986. F. 779–781. 5. [2] K.

Texas A&M University. M. K. Chang. Vol. 121–123.. Ho. December 1988. Fall 1971. “Narrow bandpass waveguide ﬁlters. MTT-39. [22] I. Chang. Rev. F. E. April 1972. pp. Texas A&M University. MTT-20. S. Microwave Theory Tech. “Experimental investigation of microwave optoelectronic interactions in a microstrip ring resonator. 1307–1312. MTT-36. Tech. Vol. Vol. Williams. 42. Atia and A. Microwave Theory Tech. 27.. March 14. “A new type of waveguide ring cavity for resonator and ﬁlter applications. 1. Chang. Williams. S. January 1994. C.. MTT-36. Navarro and K. Rogers. CPW ring circuits and waveguide ring cavities for coupler and ﬁlter applications. Boston. New York. Microwave Theory Tech. December 1988. Zaki. . [29] A. S.” IEEE Trans. Weichold. “Microwave and optoelectronic performance of hybrid and monolithic microstrip ring resonator circuits. [17] T. Vol. K. 1977.. [25] C. Microwave Theory Tech. pp. F. M Chen. E. Electromagnetic Waves and Curved Structures. “Electronically tunable ring resonator microstrip and suspendedsubstrate ﬁlters. pp. May 1989.” IEEE Trans. [27] R. January 17. L. 159–162.” Electron. E. Vol. S. F. [19] G. Yeh. Gopalakrsihnan.. [30] H. H.” Ph. pp. “Varactor-tunable uniplanar ring reseonators. Ho. B. Wang. Gopalakrishnan. C. Zaki.” Microwave Opt. College Station. H. Fairchild. 2. Chang. Lett. pp. 258–265. and M. Fan.” IEEE Trans. K. Vol. H. C. Lett. Taylor. 521–523. 760–766. C. [18] D. S. 1. May 1991. 74–82. No. 2052–2060. Weichold. A. 41. Microwave Theroy Tech.D.296 WAVEGUIDE RING RESONATORS AND FILTERS [16] S.” Ph. No. Microwave Theory Tech. pp. Microwave Theory Tech. W.. No. 1733–1739.” IEEE Trans. [31] K. McGregor. H. pp. 1740–1745. pp.D.” IEEE Trans. 27. K. Atia. M. pp. Vol. 5. Fairchild. Bahl. December 1980. May 1993. “A circuit model of probes in dual-mode cavity. “Optically excited microwave ring resonators in gallium arsenide.” COMSAT Tech. “A new microstrip radiator for medical applications. Vol. 21–43.. E. and K. pp. Chang. 2. Weichold. Taylor. [23] J. [26] L. Vol. C. 1991. [20] G. Stuchly.. Vol. pp. C. Chap. No. Park. No. and H. Microwave Theory Tech. C. [24] C. 5.” IEEE Trans. pp. Low Phase Noise Microwave Oscillator Design. S. Kumar. “Evanescent-mode coupling of dual-mode rectangular waveguide ﬁlters. “Theoretical and experimental investigation of novel varactor-tuned switchable microstrip ring resonator circuits.. 1464–1468. G. 27. pp. Chang and K. 41–51.. Park. 36–43. Artech House. [28] A. College Station. “Microwave performance of nonlinear optoelectronic microstrip ring resonator. Taylor. Lewin et al. May 1994. MTT-28. and H. 4. Martin. August 1991. 3. Lett. Stuchly. dissertation.” Electron. IEEE Press. Yeh. and K. dissertation. and A.” IEEE Trans.. Park. [21] G. A. K. 1. and K. Gopalakrishnan. B. 1991. pp. F. 1991. E. No.” IEEE Trans. A. December 1991. Chap. W. “Slotline.. J. MTT-39. Atia and A. A. H. M. Vol. S.. Chang. H. “New types of bandpass ﬁlters for satellite transponders. Vol.

a numerical model based on a full-wave spectral-domain method of moment is used to model the connection between the probe feed and ring antenna. The slot ring antenna is a dual microstrip ring antenna.1 INTRODUCTION The ring antenna has been used in many wireless systems. and cost over conventional designs. The ring antenna has been rigorously analyzed using Galerkin’s method [5. It has a wider impedance bandwidth than the microstrip antenna. Active antennas have received great attention because they offer savings in size. The ring resonator is constructed as a resonant antenna by increasing the width of the microstrip [1–4]. By introducing some asymmetry to the slot antenna.CHAPTER ELEVEN Ring Antennas and FrequencySelective Surfaces 11. a circular polarization (CP) radiation can be obtained. Another rigorous analysis of probe-feed ring antenna was introduced in [7]. a coaxial feed with the center conductor extended to the ring can be used to feed the antenna. vehicle identiﬁcation transceiver. and microwave identiﬁcation systems [11. weight. whereas TM11 mode is best for resonator applications. These advantages make them desirable for possible application in microwave systems such as wireless communications.The slot ring antenna in the ground plane of a microstrip transmission line can be readily made into a corporate-fed array by implementing microstrip dividers. the bandwidth of the slot antenna is greater than that of the microstrip antenna [8–10]. Inc. 12]. 297 . As shown in Figure 11. Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. In [7].1. 6]. collision warning radars. Second Edition. self-mixing Doppler radar for speed measurement. It was concluded that the TM12 mode is the best mode for antenna applications. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. Therefore.

The inside radius is a. a reﬂectarray using ring resonators will be described in this chapter. 11. The feed is assumed to support only a z- .2. Frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs) using circular or rectangular rings have been used as the spatial bandpass or bandstop ﬁlters. 14]. The ﬁrst step in obtaining the model is to ﬁnd the E and H ﬁelds supported by the annular ring.1 The annular ring antenna conﬁguration.1 can be modeled by radial transmission lines terminated by radiating apertures [13. This model will allow the calculation of the impedance seen from an input at point c.1 Approximations and Fields The antenna is constructed on a substrate of thickness h. Also. and the feed point radius is c. 11. the outside radius is b.298 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES FIGURE 11. The antenna is constructed on a substrate of thickness h and relative dielectric constant er. which is very small compared to the wavelength (l).2 RING ANTENNA CIRCUIT MODEL The annular ring antenna shown in Figure 11. This chapter will brieﬂy discuss these applications.

This results in the following expressions for the admittance at any point r: Y (r ) = rH f (r) . f.4) fn(f) is a linear combination of cos(nf) and sin(nf). This current excitation will produce transverse magnetic (TM) to z-ﬁelds that satisfy the following equations in the (r. The modal current is -rHf(r) or rHf(r) for power propagating in the r or -r direction. E z (r ) . and Yn is the nth-order Neumann function.6) ¢ ¢ where Jn (kr) is the derivative of the nth-order Bessel function and Yn (kr) is the derivative of the nth-order Neumann function with respect to the entire argument kr. are Ez (r) = An J n (kr) + Bn Yn (kr) H f (r ) = jk ¢ [ An Jn (kr) + Bn Yn¢(kr)] wm 0 (11.1) (11.RING ANTENNA CIRCUIT MODEL 299 directed current with no variation in the z direction (d/dz = 0). z) coordinate system [15]: Ez = Hr = k2 Y jwe 1 dY r df dY dr (11. An and Bn are arbitrary constants. Ez (r) r<c (11. The modal voltage is simply deﬁned as Ez(r).3) Hf = where jwe ( An Jn (kr) + BnYn (kr)) fn (f ) k2 k = w m0 e 0 e r w = frequency in radians per second m0 = permeability of free space y = e 0 = permittivity of free space j = –1 (11.8) .5) (11.7) Y (r) = r>c (11. without the f dependence.2) (11. The equations for Ez(r) and Hf(r). These ﬁelds are used to deﬁne modal voltages and currents.rHf (r) . respectively. Jn is the nth-order Bessel function.

7) and (11.65) Ë 2h¯ a FIGURE 11.2.2 the annular ring antenna is modeled by radial transmission lines loaded with admittances at the edges.The wall susceptances bs(a) and bs(b) come from Equations (11.77 + (0.41e r + 1.) .2 Wall Admittance Calculation As shown in Figure 11. be = b 1 + ae = a 1 2 hx pbe r 2 hx ¢ pae r h Ê bˆ x = ln + 1.8). Ys(a). Ys(b)) are found using two approaches.300 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES 11.41e r + 1.2 The annular ring antenna modeled as radial transmission lines and load admittances [13]. The Hf(r) ﬁeld is assumed to go to zero at the effective radius be and ae.65) Ë 2h¯ b h Ê aˆ x ¢ = ln + 1. The s subscript is used to denote self-admittance while the m subscript is used to denote mutual admittance. The reactive part of the self-admittances (Ys(a). The admittances at the walls (Ym(a. The magnetic-wall assumption is used to ﬁnd the constants An and Bn in Equation (11. b).77 + (0. (Permission from IEEE. respectively.268e r + 1. Ys(b)) is the wall susceptance.6). The effective radius is used to account for the fringing of the ﬁelds.268e r + 1.

8) will be purely reactive when the magnetic-wall assumption is used to calculate An and Bn.Yn (kb) J n (kbe ) ¢ ka J n (ka)Yn¢(ka e ) .11) Then the magnetic ﬁeld at r = b and z = 0 can be found from Maxwell’s equation: 1 (11. that is. b) = 2p 0 H f hbEb cos f df phEa Eb .13) where a is the angle representation for the differential segments.Yn (ka) J n (ka e ) ¢ (11.9) (11.Yn¢(kb) J n (kbe ) ¢ ¢ wm0 J n (kb)Yn¢(kbe ) . The mutual admittance will obey the reciprocity theorem. This results in the expressions bs (b) = kb J n (kb)Yn¢(kb3 ) .10) bs (a) = - The mutual admittance Ym(a.RING ANTENNA CIRCUIT MODEL 301 It is easily seen that Equations (11.12) dH = — ¥ dE jwm0 The total Hf component of the magnetic ﬁeld at r = b and z = 0 due to the current at r = a is Hf = Ú 2p a =0 dH f (11. circular.7) and (11. The electric ﬁeld at an observation point is found from dE = -— ¥ dF (11. The magnetic line current at r = a was divided into differential segments and then used to generate the differential electric vector potential dF. The variational technique is then used to determine the equations [15]. coplanar magnetic line sources.Yn¢(ka) J n (ka e ) ¢ ¢ wm0 J n (ka)Yn¢(ka e ) . b) and wall conductances gs(a) and gs(b) are found by reducing the annular ring structure to two concentric. the effect of a current at a on b will be the same as a current at b on a. The reaction concept is used to obtain Ym where Ea = the radial electric fringing aperture ﬁeld at a Eb = the radial electric fringing aperture ﬁeld at b The mutual admittance is then found to be Ú (a.

a cos a ) 2 2 È ¥ Í2(1 + jk0 r ) cos a + (k0 r .3 jk0 r .a cos(f .302 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES .3)˝ da ˙ df r2 ˛ ˚ (11.2 ab cos f . b) = where r = a 2 + b 2 .k02 rb2 sin sin k0 rb ˙ da (11.a ) .k0 rb cos k0 rb ) .3)˘ da ˙ r2 Î ˚ (11.jk r jabh 2p È 2p Êe 0 ˆ Ú0 cos f ÍÚ0 cos a Ë r 3 ¯ {2 cos(f .2ab cosa The self-conductance at a or b can be found by substituting a = b in Equation (11.a k0 = w e 0 m0 This equation can be reduced to a single integral equation by replacing the coefﬁcient of the cos f term in the Fourier expansion of Hf with the sum of all the coefﬁcients and evaluating at f = 0: Ym (a.14) Ym (a.15) and extracting only the real part: g s (a) = a 2 h 2p cos a 2pwm0 Ú0 ra3 a2 ˆ a2 ÈÊ ˘ (sin k0 ra .jk0r Ú0 cos a r 3 pwm0 (b cos a .17) ¥ Í 1 + cos Ë ¯ 2 2 Î ˚ g s (b) = where ra = 2a sin rb = 2b sin a 2 a 2 .a )) ¸ ˘ + ¥(k02 r 2 .3 jk0 r . b) = jabh 2p e .k0 ra cos k0 ra ) .15) and r = a 2 + b 2 .a)(b .a)(b .16) ¥ Í 1 + cos 2 ¯ 2 ÎË ˚ b 2 h 2p cos a 2pwm0 Ú0 rb3 a2 ˆ a2 ÈÊ ˘ (sin k0 rb .a )(1 + jk0 r) 2 2p wm0 Î (b cos(f .k02 ra2 sin sin k0 ra ˙ da (11.

18) .3 shows the equivalent circuit and the simpliﬁed circuit.2. r1 ) + p ˙ wm 0 D(r 2 . 1 for n > 0 (Z A + R A )(Z B + RB )ZC + RC ZC (Z A + R A + Z B + RB ) h ps n ps n (Z A + R A )(Z B + RB ) + (ZC + RC )(Z A + R A + Z B + RB ) (11. r1 is replaced by c and r2 is replaced with a.3 Input Impedance Formulation for the Dominant Mode The next step is to transform the transmission lines to the equivalent pnetwork. r 2 ) Î ˚ g 2 (r ) = -2 j pwm 0 D(r 2 . r1 ) Î ˚ where D(r1 . When r = b.Yn¢ (kr1 ) J n (kr 2 ) ¢ For r = a. The g-parameters of a p-network can then easily be found: g1 (r) = -j 2˘ È Íkr1 D 1 (r1 . This is accomplished by ﬁnding the admittance matrix of the twoport transmission line. the input impedance is seen to be: Z in = where h = thickness of the substrate s n = 2 for n = 0. r1 is replaced with b and r2 by c.RING ANTENNA CIRCUIT MODEL 303 This completes the solutions for the admittances at the edges of the ring: Ys (a) = g s (a) + jbs (a) Ys (b) = g s (b) + jbs (b) 11. r 2 ) = J n (kr1 )Yn (kr 2 ) . From simple circuit theory. r 2 ) + p ˙ wm 0 D(r1 . r 2 ) = J n (kr1 )Yn (kr 2 ) . r1 ) g3 (r ) = j 2˘ È Íkr 2 D 1 (r 2 . Figure 11.Yn (kr1 ) J n (kr 2 ) D 1 (r1 .

(Permission from IEEE.Ym (a. (b) simpliﬁed circuit model [13]. b) + g1 (a) ZC = 1 g s (b) + g1 (a) .Ym (a.) ZA = ZB = 1 Ys (a) .304 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES FIGURE 11.3 The complete circuit model of the annular ring antenna: (a) circuit model with g-parameters. b) + g3 (a) 1 Ys (a) .

b)g 2 (b) g + g 2 (a) + Ë 2(b ) g 2 (b) + Ym (a. b) g 2 (b) + Ë g 2 (b) + g 2 (a) g 2 (a) + Ym (a. b) ¯ Ê 1Á 1 1 Rc = Á + 2Á Ym (a. b) ˆ ˜ 1 ˜ g 2 (b)g 2 (a) + Ym (a. b)g 2 (a) Ym (a. 11. Equation (11.Ym (kc ) J m (ka e ) ˘ ¢ ¢ Í J m (kbe )Ym (ka e ) . as stated earlier. b) g 2 (b) + Ë g 2 (b) + g 2 (a) g 2 (a) + Ym (a.4 Other Reactive Terms The equation for Zin. b) ˆ ˜ 1 + Ym (a.19) . b)g 2 (b) ˜ ˜ g 2 (a) + g 2 (b) + Ym (a.Ym (kbe ) J m (ka e ) ˙ 2s m Î ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ˚ 2 È sin(md / 2 c ) ˘ ¥ [ J m (kc )Ym (kbe ) . b)¯ Ê 1Á 1 1 RB = Á + 2 Á g 2 (b)g 2 (a) Ym (a. b) g 2 (b) + Ym (a. given earlier assumes that the dominant mode is the only source of input impedance. b)g 2 (b) ˜ ˜ g 2 (a) + g 2 (b) + Ym (a. to ﬁnd the nonresonant mode reactance: a XM = m=0 mπ n Â wm0 h È J m (kc )Ym (ka e ) .2.Ym (kc ) J m (kbe )]Í ¢ ¢ Î (md / 2 c ) ˙ ˚ (11. b) ˜ ¯ g 2 (b) + g 2 (a) The h/(psn) term arises from the discontinuity of the Hf ﬁeld at c. b)g 2 (a) + Ym (a. b) ˆ ˜ 1 Ym (a.18).RING ANTENNA CIRCUIT MODEL 305 Ê 1Á 1 1 RA = Á 2 Á g 2 (b)g 2 (a) Ym (a. The wave equation is solved using the magnetic walls. The width of the feed probe and nonresonant modes contribute primarily to a reactive term. b)g 2 (a) + Ym (a.

The reactive terms are summed because XM and Xp contribute very little to the radiated ﬁelds.4.21) where Re and Im represent the real and imaginary parts of Zin. FIGURE 11.20) The complete input impedance is found by summing the reactive elements given earlier. .781w e r d (11.6 Computer Simulation A computer program was written in Fortran to ﬁnd the input impedance. 11. The results shown in Figure 11.306 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES sm = 2 for m = 0.2. The program followed the steps shown in Figure 11. respectively.5 Overall Input Impedance wm0 h 4 vc ln 2p 1.5 were checked well with the published results of Bhattacharyya and Garg [13].2. The ﬁnal form of Zinput is Z input = Re{Z in } + j[Im {Z in } + X M + X P ] (11. 11. 1 for m > 0 d = the feed width n = the resonant mode number The reactance due to the probe is approximated from the dominate term of the reactance of a probe in a homogeneous parallel-plate waveguide [16]: Xp = where uc is the speed of light.4 Flow chart of the input impedance calculation.

0 cm. Œr = 2.2.5 Input impedance of the TM12 mode. a = 3.0 cm. b = 6. 11.3 CIRCULAR POLARIZATION AND DUAL-FREQUENCY RING ANTENNAS A method for circular polarized ring antennas has been proposed in which an ear is used at the outer periphery [17].CIRCULAR POLARIZATION AND DUAL-FREQUENCY RING ANTENNAS 307 FIGURE 11. The ear is used as a perturbation to .

308 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES FIGURE 11. A shorted annular ring antenna that was made by shorting the inner edge of the ring with a cylindrical conducting wall [19] was recently reported. and the impedance seen by the voltage source will be real at resonance.7. their effective inner and outer radii are different even though their physical dimensions are the same.6 shows the circuit arrangement.) separate two orthogonal degenerate modes.36 percent for the ﬁrst three modes have been achieved. 21]. Dual-frequency operation can be achieved using stacked structures [18]. (Permission from IEEE.30 to 9. the ﬁrst-order mode is excited as shown in Figure 11. the inner conductor of the coaxial probe passes through a clearance hole in the lower ring and is electrically connected to the upper ring. To use the structure as an antenna. Figure 11.6 Circular polarized ring antenna [17]. The lower ring is only coupled by the fringing ﬁeld and the overall structure can be viewed as two coupled ring cavities. Two resonant frequencies are thus obtained.8 shows the geometry of the arrangement. The comparison is given in Figure 11. The frequency separation can be altered by means of an adjustable air gap between the lower ring and the upper substrate. but has a smaller stored energy that allows for a larger bandwidth.4 SLOTLINE RING ANTENNAS The slotline ring antenna is the dual of the microstrip ring antenna. Figure 11. Analyses of slot ring antenna can be found in [20. 11.10. As shown in Figure 11. Since the fringing ﬁelds are different for the two cavities. All the power delivered to the ring will . The separations of the two resonant frequencies ranging from 6.9 [20]. This antenna therefore radiates as a circular patch.

[20]. Using the standard spherical coordinates r. the far-ﬁeld radiation patterns and the input impedance at the feed point can be calculated. f ) = +k0 e . q. The resonant frequency. the far-ﬁeld equations are [20] Eq (r . which is the operating frequency. Following the analysis by Stephan et al.22) e .k0 E0 (r . (Permission from IEEE.7 Dual-frequency stacked annular ring microstrip antenna [18].q .23) . can be calculated using the transmission-line model discussed earlier in the previous chapters. and f to refer to the point at which the ﬁeld are measured.jk0r j n e jnf ˜ [ E0 (k0 sin q )] r 2 (11. f ) = .) be radiated [20].jk0 r j n +1e jnf ˜ cos q [Ee (k0 sin q )] r 2 (11. q .SLOTLINE RING ANTENNAS 309 FIGURE 11.

25) .) where k0 = w m0 e 0 and the linear combinations of the Hankel-transformed estimates are used ˜ ˜ ˜ E0 (k0 sin q ) = E( + ) (k0 sin q ) .9 Comparison of (a) microstrip ring and (b) slot ring structures.8 Shorted annular ring antenna [19].) FIGURE 11.E( .) (k0 sin q ) (11. (d) No ground plane [20]. (c) Ground plane. (Permission from IEEE.310 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES FIGURE 11. (Permission from Wiley.) (k0 sin q ) ˜ ˜ ˜ Ee (k0 sin q ) = E( + ) (k0 sin q ) + E( .24) (11.

respectively. For the ﬁnite thickness of the dielectric substrate. An example of calculated and measured E and H-plane patterns is given in Figure 11.10 Slot ring feed method showing electric ﬁeld [20]. (Permission from IEEE. a is the Hankeltransform variable. and ri and ra are the inner and outer ring radii.SLOTLINE RING ANTENNAS 311 FIGURE 11. The input impedance at the feed point can be calculated by [20]: Zin [ln(r = a ri ) 2 ] P (11. n is the order of resonance being analyzed. r = 0. In the case of interest. At the center of the ring. n = 1 and w = w0 = the resonant frequency.) where the (n ± 1)th-order Hankel transforms are deﬁned by a ˜ E( ± ) (a) = Ú J n ±1 (ar )dr r ri (11. .28) where Zfs is the intrinsic impedance of free space. the preceding equations for ﬁeld patterns need to be modiﬁed for better accuracy [20].27) where P is the power given by 1 2 2 2 Eq + Ef Zfs P = ÚÚ sphere ds (11.11. These integrals can be evaluated analytically using tables.26) where Jn(ar) is the nth-order Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind.

outer ring radius = 0.—measured [20]. thickness = 0. Inner ring radius = 0. dielectric er = 2.11 Calculated and measured patterns for a 10-GHz slot ring antenna.23. (a) H-plane. (b) E-plane. (Permission from IEEE.54 cm.39 cm. All patterns are decibels down from maximum.312 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES FIGURE 11.3175 cm.) . Key:– –calculated.

45 and height of 0.3 mm).12 shows a multifrequency annular slot antenna [8. At 2. lgs is equal to the mean circumference of the antenna (93.148 ˙ ln(h / l o )˝ 100e r Î ˚ ˛ (11. (f = 90o ) (q = -90o ) Y x (f = 0o ) Slot antenna Y x (q = ±180o ) Substrate A C wm ws B Ground plane Feed C Top view Side view FIGURE 11.9 mm.3 mm.97 GHz.95) ˘ È ¸ . .12 The conﬁguration of the multifrequency annular antenna.81(e r + 0. one expects the operating frequency to be the frequency at which the circumference of the slot-ring antenna becomes one guided wavelength of the slot (lgs). The widths of the microstrip (wm) and slot ring (ws) were 2.365 ln e r + (238.3(w s / h)e r . respectively. Slot-guided wavelength for the frequency range of interest can be obtained from [22] 0 6.0. 9].16 mm and 2.29) where lo is the free-space wavelength and h is the thickness of the substrate. Ignoring the microstrip feed and treating the slot-ring antenna as a transmission line.64 + 100ws / h) Ó 8.762 mm.SLOTLINE RING ANTENNAS 313 Figure 11. The mean circumference of the slot ring is 93. The circuit was etched on a Keene Cor-poration substrate with relative dielectric constant of 2.045 .945 Ï l gs = l o Ì1.Í 0. A 50-ohm microstrip feed is electromagnetically coupled to the slot ring at point A and is extended to the point C.

9.52 GHz.97 GHz.5 ACTIVE ANTENNAS USING RING CIRCUITS An active antenna was developed by the direct integration of a Gunn device with a ring antenna as shown in Figure 11. 11.13.85 mm [8]. ﬁrst-operating frequency of the slot-ring antenna is 2. The measured patterns of the antenna at resonant frequency of 2. The return loss of the multifrequency antenna and simulation results agree well and as shown in Figure 11. (Permission from IEEE. Amplitude (dBi) . as a ﬁrst-order approximation.58. Deﬁning the operating frequency to be a frequency at which return loss is less than 10 dB. (Permission from IEEE.) Ef (f = 0°) Ef (f = 90°) 10 0 –10 –20 –30 –40 –90 –60 –30 0 30 60 90 Elevation Angle (Degrees) Eq (f = 0°) Eq (f = 90°) 10 0 –10 –20 –30 –40 –90 –60 –30 0 30 60 90 Elevation Angle (Degrees) Amplitude (dBi) FIGURE 11. 5.314 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES 0 Return Loss (dB) –10 –20 –30 –40 1 2 3 4 Measurement Simulation 5 6 7 Frequency (GHz) 8 9 10 FIGURE 11. The actual operating frequency of the microstrip-fed slot-ring antenna can be above or below this approximate frequency depending on the length of the microstrip stub.14 Radiation patterns of the multifrequency antenna with microstrip stub length AC = 46. The radiated output power level and frequency response of the active antenna are shown in Figure 11.13 Measured and simulated return loss of the multifrequency antenna with AC = 46.03.15 [24].16. The simulation was carried out by electromagnetic simulator [23]. these experimental operating frequencies are centered at 2. 3.65 GHz are shown in Figure 11.14.65 GHz [8]. and 7.85 mm at 2.) From this information.

ACTIVE ANTENNAS USING RING CIRCUITS 315 FIGURE 11.16 Power output and frequency vs. bias voltage [24].15 The active annular ring antenna integrated with Gunn diode [24].) . (Permission from Wiley. (Permission from Wiley.) FIGURE 11.

An active antenna using a ring-stabilized oscillator coupled to a slot antenna was reported [27].19. A circular microstrip ring is used as the resonant element of the oscillator.7 GHz. The Gunn diode used produced a maximum of 100 mW in an optimized waveguide circuit. The circuit conﬁguration is shown in Figure 11. A slot on the ground plane of the substrate coupled with the circular microstrip ring served as the radiating element. A metal mirror block is introduced one-quarter wavelength behind the ring to avoid any back scattering.20 shows the physical conﬁguration. Figure 11. The active antenna radiated 21. The operating frequency of the active antenna was designed to be close to the ﬁrst resonant frequency of the circular microstrip ring. (Permission from IEEE. A simple transmission-line method was used to predict the resonant frequency. FIGURE 11.) . A radiated power of +16 dBm at 5. 26]. A Gunn diode is mounted between the ring and the ground plane of the substrate at either side of the ring. An active slotline ring antenna integrated with an FET oscillator was also developed [28].5 GHz occurred at the bias level of 12.805 GHz. It can be seen that over 70-mW output power was achieved with a bias of 16 V at 6.18 and 11.17.316 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES The Friis transmission equation was used to calculate the power radiated from the active ring [25.6 mW with 18% efﬁciency at 7.6 V. The radiation patterns are shown in Figures 11.17 Circuit conﬁguration [27].

) -5 -10 Power Level (dBm) -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -90 Co-Polarization Cross-Polarization -45 0 Angle (degree) 45 90 FIGURE 11.) The active antenna shown in Figure 11.18 E-plane pattern [27]. The slotline ring’s resonant wavelength can be determined from .21 consists of a Gunn diode and a slotline-notch antenna stabilized with a slotline-ring resonator [29]. (Permission from IEEE.19 H-plane pattern [27]. (Permission from IEEE. The Gunn diode is placed across the ring resonator at a low-impedance point to meet the conditions for oscillation [30].ACTIVE ANTENNAS USING RING CIRCUITS 317 FIGURE 11.

20 Circuit conﬁguration of an FET active slotline ring antenna [28].21 Conﬁguration of active antenna: (a) Gunn-diode active-notch antenna using a slotline-ring resonator (the wire for dc bias to the center of the ring is not shown) and (b) CPW-fed passive antenna (some dimensions in the ﬁgures are exaggerated to enhance detail) [29].318 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES FIGURE 11. .) GND V-Bias 100 ohm Slotline Ring Notch Antenna Aluminum Mount (Heat Sink) Gunn Diode (a) 100 ohm Slotline Ring Notch Antenna GND 50 ohm CPW Feed (b) FIGURE 11. (Permission from Electronics Letters.

whereas Figure 11. Figure 11. A number of representative techniques for analyzing FSSs have been reviewed in a paper by Mittra.18 mm. 3. 2. The antennas were etched on Duroid 5870 board with a relative dielectric constant of 2.16 dB below the fundamental frequency.1 mW and an effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of 720. the gridded square-loop element shown in. . The radiation pattern of the CPW-fed passive antenna is essentially similar with the exception that the cross-polarization levels are 18. and the second harmonic radiation produced by the active antenna is 26. For square loops.23 shows these elements. FFSs using circular rings or square loops have been studied extensively [32–46]. The spectrum has a phase noise of -95. They include dipole.25.26 GHz with a bias voltage of 10.30) where r is the mean radius of the slotline ring. and the gap at the feed point is 0.22 shows the radiation patterns of the active antenna. The CPW feedline in the passive antenna has a center strip width of 1. The slotline-notch antenna uses an exponential taper to match the impedance of the ring to free-space. The antennas are truly uniplanar. Figure 11. Jerusalem cross. Figure 11. . requiring no backplane for excellent performance.FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES 319 2pr = nl g for n = 1. A thin-wire air bridge is used to operate the CPW line in the even mode.and H-planes.2 mm and symmetrical side gaps of 0. Many different element geometries have been used for FSSs [31].6 FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES Frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs) have found many applications in quasioptical ﬁlters.81 mm and a slot width of 0. and square loop. cross dipole. For example.18 and 6.0 mW. an inductance L2 represents the .51 or the E. For a vertically incident electric ﬁeld.21a shows the circuit conﬁguration of the active antenna. circular ring.33 dBc/Hz at 100 KHz from the carrier. The active antenna produces an effective power output of 27. The aluminum mount used in the active antenna also serves as the heat sink for the Gunn diode. . 11.18 mm. The E-plane and H-plane patterns are smooth with cross-polarization levels of 13. The radiation E-plane and H-plane are 33° and 47°. diplexers. circular patch. and multiplexers. closed-form equations are available to design the elements [39]. The active antenna radiates a clean spectrum at 9. The dc bias is provided directly to the center of the slotline ring. (11. Chan. square patch.21b shows the coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed passive antenna developed for radiation pattern comparison. and Cwik [31]. respectively.74 and 16.24 can be represented by an equivalent circuit given in Figure 11.08 mm.0 V and draws 410 mA. and 1-oz copper metallization. substrate thickness of 62 mils (1.33. lg is the guide wavelength in the slotline ring and n is the mode number. The slotline ring has a mean radius of 3. Figure 11. respectively.69 dB below copolarization. The antenna length is 6 cm.575 mm).

) grid and a series-resonant inductance L1 and capacitance C represent the squares. Solving for the circuit admittance. (d) Cross dipole. cross-polarization = 6. (b) Dipole.18 dB below copolarization and H-plane radiation pattern: HPBW = 47°. (c) Circular patch.23 Some typical FSS unit cell geometries [31]. (e) Jerusalem cross.22 E-plane radiation pattern: HPBW = 33°.320 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES 0 H-Plane Co-Pol -5 Relative Power (dB) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -90 E-Plane Co-Pol E-Plane Cross-Pol H-Plane Cross-Pol -60 -30 0 30 60 90 Angle (Degree) FIGURE 11. cross-polarization = 13. the transmission coefﬁcient is given by . ( f) Square loop. (Permission from IEEE. The equations given below are used to design for the transmission and rejection bands [39]. FIGURE 11.69 dB below copolarization [29]. (g) Circular loop. (h) Square aperture. (a) Square patch.

FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES 321 FIGURE 11.24 Unit cell for gridded square frequency-selective surface.(1 B)) The values of L1.25 Equivalent circuit for the gridded FSS element. FIGURE 11. l ) ◊ d p . and C are given as X1 = wL1 = 2(X 2 X 3 ) where X 3 = F ( p. 2w 2 .(1 B) X 2 (X1 . L2. t = where Y= 2 4 4+Y 2 X1 + X 2 .

If the incident angle is assumed normal to the array plane. 41].and TM-incidence at oblique angles. w. 38. l ) B = wC = 2e r F ( p.24.26. l ) = pÈ ˘ Ê pw ˆ ln csc + G( p. l . g. l ) = where G is a correction term [39]. Figure 11. g. For circular ring elements shown in Figure 11. the resulting equations then become F ( p. Similar design equations can be applied to double-square elements as shown in Figure 11. . g. Comparing with the reﬂectarray using square patch antennas. w. 11. 40.29 shows the conﬁguration of the reﬂectarray with a Ka-band feed horn [48]. and ﬂat surface [47].26 Double-square element and its equivalent circuit. the model analysis moment method or other numerical methods can be used to predict the performance [37. w1 . w1.27. l ) ◊ d p where p. q & f = 0∞ )˙ lÎ ˚ F ( p. FIGURE 11. this conﬁguration using ring antennas has wider bandwidth and can reduce blockage when using in a dual-layer and dual-frequency application. l . easy fabrication.28 shows typical results for a double-ring FSS as a function of incident angles [38]. g . and w2 are the dimensions deﬁned in Figure 11. The admittances can be solved for TE. d. The technologies involve a ﬂat printed array integrated with space-feeding horn and have the advantages of low cost.7 REFLECTARRAYS USING RING RESONATORS Microstrip reﬂectarrays have been shown to be good candidates for replacing conventional parabolic reﬂector antennas. low proﬁle. Figure 11. q & f = 0∞ )˙ Ë 2 p¯ lÍ Î ˚ pÈ ˘ Ê pg ˆ Íln csc Ë 2 p ¯ + G( p. The reﬂectarray is constructed by ring resonators with two slits at the top and the bottom.322 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES X 2 = wL2 = F ( p.

508 mm thickness. The measured results at 31. Due to the nature of reﬂection. (a) Single ring. an incident right-hand circularly polarized wave is reﬂected as a left-hand circularly polarized wave.7. (b) Slot ring. (c) Double ring.75 GHz are shown in Figure . Also.5-m reﬂectarray has been designed for broadside radiation at a focal distance of 350 mm corresponding to a f/D ratio of 0. The space between rings is 0.REFLECTARRAYS USING RING RESONATORS 323 FIGURE 11. However.27 FSSs use circular ring elements. which is selected to avoid grating lobes. the repetitious behaviors of array conﬁgurations are found to be more than four times of a 2p radian. the reversal of polarization can be canceled out. Each ring antenna is rotated counterclockwise by f radians at each position when 2f radians are needed for compensating these additional path lengths. a simple trigonometric relation is used to calculate the required additional path lengths to create a parabolic phase front across an array’s surface. by using these two slits on the ring.5 free-space wavelength.33 and 0. For the whole reﬂectarray. A 0. The ring antennas are fabricated on an RT/Duroid 5870 substrate with er = 2.

28 H-plane transmission coefﬁcients as a function of incident angles [38]. ••• experimental results.5 dB.) 11. The highest efﬁciency is 50% at 31. The relative high peak sidelobe is due to feed horn blockage effects. The measured efﬁciency of the reﬂectarray is shown in Figure 11.5 to 32. The cross-polarization level is 40.75 GHz.324 RING ANTENNAS AND FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE SURFACES FIGURE 11.30.3°. Key: æ calculated values. (Permission from Electronics Letters.47 dB occurring at 2°. and the sidelobe suppression is greater than 19.31.71 dB down at broadside. . The efﬁciency is better than 40% from 31.5 GHz. (c) q = 45°. This cross-polarization level corresponds to an axial ration of less than 0. (a) q = 0°. (b) q = 30°. The main beam has a beam width of 1.

) 0 -10 Co-polarized at 31.29 Conﬁguration of Ka-band reﬂectarray (a) setup and (b) ring antenna [48].30 Measured radiation patterns [48].4 mm y f x Gap: 0.26 mm 0.75 GHz Cross-polarized at 31.REFLECTARRAYS USING RING RESONATORS 325 (a) 2. (Permission from Electronics Letters.28 mm (b) FIGURE 11. (Permission from Electronics Letters.75 GHz Relative gain (dB) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Angle (degrees) FIGURE 11.) .

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magic-Ts. Figure 12. Therefore. The wave incident at port 1 will not be coupled to port 4 since the two component waves are 180° out of phase. Second Edition. Inc.2 RAT-RACE BALANCED MIXERS The hybrid couplers described in Chapters 8 and 9 can be used to build balanced mixers. measurements. ports 1 and 4 are isolated. cavities. Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. Oscillators. These properties are used to build the balanced mixer. The combined wave at port 2 has a phase difference of 180° with the combined wave at port 3. Similarly. antennas. 12. this wave is divided into two equal components at the ring junction. The two component waves arrive in phase at ports 2 and 3.CHAPTER TWELVE Ring Mixers. This chapter introduces some ring mixers. ﬁlters. oscillators. and frequency-selective surface applications. and 180° out of phase at port 1. 330 .1 shows the physical conﬁguration of the microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler.2. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. One example is the microstrip rat-race balanced mixer using the rat-race coupler discussed in Section 8. The two component waves that both arrive at ports 2 and 3 are combined in phase. and Other Applications 12. When a unit amplitude wave is incident at port 4 of the hybrid coupler. a wave incident at port 1 is divided equally and coupled to ports 2 and 3. couplers. and other applications.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapters discuss the use of rings for resonators.

Figure 12.4.3 shows the circuit of a 94-GHz rat-race mixer. or vice versa. The RF chokes provide a tuning mechanism and prevent the RF signal from leaking into ground. two mixer diodes. and a low-pass ﬁlter. . Wide-band mixers can be constructed using the broadband coplanar waveguide hybrid-ring couplers and magic-Ts described in Chapters 8 and 9.RAT-RACE BALANCED MIXERS 331 FIGURE 12. Rat-race mixers have been demonstrated up to 94 GHz. Because the microstrip hybrid ring coupler is bandwidth limited.1 Physical layout of the microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. It consists of a hybridring coupler. Both the LO and RF are mixed in these diodes.2 shows a rat-race hybrid-ring mixer. two RF chokes. The results are given in Figure 12. only a 10 to 20% bandwidth has been achieved using rat-race mixers. The single-balanced mixer consists of two diodes arranged so that the local oscillator (LO) pump is 180° out of phase and the radio frequency (RF) signal is in phase at the diodes. The LO input is also split equally but is 180° out of phase at the mixer diodes. which generate signals that are then combined through the ring and taken out through a low-pass ﬁlter. The balanced operation results in LO noise suppression and provides a larger dynamic range and better intermodulation suppression compared with the single-ended mixer [1]. A conversion loss of less than 8 dB was achieved over a 3-GHz RF bandwidth using LO pump power of +8 dBm. two dc blocks. The RF input is split equally into two mixer diodes. and less than 6. The LO and RF ports are isolated.5 dB with LO pump power of +10 dBm [2]. Figure 12.

3 94-GHz rat-race mixer [2].2 Rat-race mixer conﬁguration. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS FIGURE 12. OSCILLATORS. (Permission from IEEE.332 RING MIXERS.) . FIGURE 12.

The RF signal arrives as a horizontally polarized plane wave incident perpendicular to the antenna.5 shows the circuit arrangement.VRF 2 while D2 receives VLO + VRF 2 In effect. each diode has its own independent mixer circuit. Figure 12. and can arrive from either side of the structure. The LO signal is vertically polarized.3 SLOTLINE RING QUASI-OPTICAL MIXERS The slotline ring antenna discussed in Chapter 11 was used to build a quasioptical mixer [3].SLOTLINE RING QUASI-OPTICAL MIXERS 333 FIGURE 12. VLO and VRF are the electric ﬁeld vectors on the antenna plane. The IF signal appears as a voltage between the central metal disk and the surrounding ground plane. By resolving each vector into two perpendicular components. with the intermediate frequency (IF) outputs added in parallel. it is easy to see that the mixer diode D1 receives VLO . and .4 Performance of a 94-GHz rat-race mixer [2]. (Permission from IEEE.) 12.

Similar circuits were recently analyzed using a nonlinear analysis [4].5 Antenna-mixer conﬁguration [3]. A varactor diode was . because of the symmetry provided by the balanced conﬁguration. This phase noise level is 12 dB and 26 dB less than the copper oscillator at 77 K and 300 K. A double-balanced mixer with improved isolation can be made by adding two additional diodes D3 and D4.7. At 77 K.7%. The antenna-mixer has good LO-to-RF isolation. OSCILLATORS. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS FIGURE 12. as indicated. 12. The circuit employed two microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) ampliﬁers as the active devices. respectively.5 dBm and a maximum efﬁciency of 11. A voltage-tuned microstrip ring-resonator oscillator was reported to have a tuning bandwidth of 30% [7].0 GHz and fabricated with all the components mounted inside the ring as shown in Figure 12. (Permission from IEEE.) is removed through an RF choke. and a tunable microstrip ring resonator in the feedback path was designed to operate over the frequency range of 1. A similar circuit was demonstrated using a high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device giving a phase noise of -75 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz from the carrier [6].5–2.5 dB was measured for this quasi-optical mixer operating at X-band [3]. The circuit exhibited an output power of 11.4 RING OSCILLATORS Since a ring circuit is a resonator. it can be used to stabilize an oscillator. Figure 12. the best phase noise of the superconductor oscillator was -68 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 10 kHz. A conversion loss of 6.334 RING MIXERS.6 shows a high-temperature superconductor ring-stabilized FET oscillator built on LaAlO3 substrate [5].

7 Layout of the microstrip ring resonator oscillator [7]. (Permission from IEEE.) FIGURE 12. (Permission from Electronics Letters.) .6 The physical layout of the reﬂection-mode oscillator on a 1-cm2 LaAlO3 substrate [5].RING OSCILLATORS 335 FIGURE 12.

8% by slightly forward biasing the diode with 1-mA current [7]. An osciplier with an output signal of 1.9 shows the output power. with high isolation between them. the phase noise of the oscillators are signiﬁcantly improved. Figure 12.92 GHz with the capacitance changed from 0.) . the resonant frequency of the ring was varied and the oscillation frequency was thus tuned.44 to 3.44 GHz. Both oscillators are composed of a common dual-mode resonator and two identical negative resistance circuits.8 Oscillation frequency vs. corresponding to a tuning range of 28. Dual-mode ring resonators were used to build low phase noise voltagecontrolled oscillators (VCOs) and oscipliers (oscillator plus multiplier) [8]. The frequency was adjusted from 1. (Permission from Electronics Letters. separately.336 RING MIXERS. As a result.8 shows the oscillation frequency as a function of tuning varactor voltage.6 GHz was demonstrated with a fundamental suppression level of 18 dB [8]. The oscillation frequency can be tuned down to 1.10 shows the VCO circuit conﬁguration. FIGURE 12. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS mounted across the gap in the ring.69 pF.533 to 1. Circuit 1 covers the lower frequency band ranges. The dual-mode resonator can be used to obtain two outputs of the fundamental frequency fo and its second harmonic frequency 2fo. OSCILLATORS. while circuit 2 covers the higher frequency band ranges. Using a dual-mode resonator reduces the variable frequency range to about one-half of the conventional one.11 shows the circuit conﬁguration of osciplier [8]. Figure 12. By adjusting the bias voltage to the varactor. tuning voltage [7]. Figure 12. and Figure 12.

oscillation frequency [7].RING OSCILLATORS 337 FIGURE 12. (Permission from Electronics Letters.10 Circuit conﬁguration of a low phase noise VCO [8]. (Permission from IEEE.) .9 Output power vs.) FIGURE 12.

an orthogonal feed ring resonator is shown in Figure 12. The close-loop ring resonator using a pair of orthogonal feed lines suppresses odd resonant frequencies and operates at even resonant frequencies.338 RING MIXERS. This operation has a similar characteristic of high operating resonant frequencies as that of the push-push oscillators [10.) l9 l8 l3 l4 Vg l5 G D S GND l6 Output l7 Vd FIGURE 12. which consists of the upper and lower sections of l1 = 3nlg/4 and l2 = .) Another type ring oscillator using feedback conﬁguration is shown in Figure 12. (Permission from IEEE.13. This conﬁguration consists of a feedback ring circuit and a twoport negative-resistance oscillator with input and output matching networks [9]. As seen in Figure 12. To investigate the high-frequency operation of the ring circuit. 11]. (Permission from IEEE.11 Circuit conﬁguration of an osciplier [8]. the high Q ring resonator is used to reduce the noise of the two-port negative-resistance oscillator.13.12 Feedback ring resonator oscillator [9]. The ring resonator fed by the input and output feed lines represents a shunt circuit. Also. the closed-loop ring resonator with total length of l = nlg is fed by two orthogonal feed lines. OSCILLATORS. where n is the mode number and lg is the guided-wavelength.12. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS FIGURE 12.

1b) and given by ÈY11 Y12 ˘ = È D j / B j (B j C j . In addition.1b) jZ o sin bl1 ˘ cos bl1 ˙ ˚ (12.1a) where b is the propagation constant and Zo = 1/Yo is the characteristic impedance of the ring resonator.jYo (cos bl1 + cot bl 2 ) jYo (csc bl1 + csc bl 2 ) =È Í jYo (csc bl1 + csc bl 2 ) . The Y parameters of the upper and lower sections are obtained from (12.13 Conﬁguration of the ring resonator fed by two orthogonal feed lines [9].A j D j ) / B j ˘ ˙ ÍY21 Y22 ˙ j Í -1 / B j Î ˚ Aj / Bj Î ˚ (12. (Permission from IEEE.3) Furthermore.3) and is expressed as .) nlg/4. respectively.2) where j = upper or lower is for upper or lower sections. S21 of the ring circuit can be found from (12.1a) and (12. the total Y parameter of the whole circuit is expressed as ÈY11 Y12 ˘ = ÈY11 Y12 ˘ ÈY11 Y12 ˘ ÍY21 Y22 ˙ ÍY21 Y22 ˙ upper + ÍY21 Y22 ˙ lower Î ˚ Î ˚ Î ˚ .RING OSCILLATORS 339 l1 Input l2 l = l1 + l2 = nlg Output FIGURE 12. The ABCD matrixes of the upper and lower sections of the lossless ring circuit are given by È cos bl1 ÈA B˘ ÍC D˙ upper = Í jYo sin bl1 Î ˚ Î and È cos bl 2 ÈA B˘ ÍC D˙ lower = Í jYo sin bl 2 Î ˚ Î jZ o sin bl 2 ˘ cos bl 2 ˙ ˚ (12.jYo (cos bl1 + cot bl 2 ) Î (12.

3. lf = 8 mm.49 mm. .j Ë cot 2 + cot 2 ¯ ˙ + Í csc 2 + csc 2 ˙ Î ˚ Î ˚ 2 2 = (12. Observing the measured and simulated results. 5. they agree well with each other.15. . . l2 = 9. OSCILLATORS.4) For odd-mode excitation S 21 = 0. and for even-mode excitation S 21 = 1. lf Input l1 l2 w s w Output FIGURE 12. (Permission from IEEE. This operation has a similar characteristic of high operating resonant frequencies as that of the push-push oscillator [10. w = 1. The simulation is performed using an IE3D EM simulator [12]. 11].33. n = 1.j 2 csc + csc Ë 2 2 ¯ 3np np ˆ ˘ 3np np ˘ È È Ê Í1 . AND OTHER APPLICATIONS S 21 = -2Y21Yo (Y11 + Yo )(Y22 + Yo ) . The dimensions of the ring circuit are l1 = 27.5b) (12. Figure 12.5) show that the ring resonator fed by two orthogonal fed lines can suppress the odd mode resonant frequencies and operate at even mode resonant frequencies only. 4.5). and s = 0. The measured unloaded Q of the ring resonator is 125. 6.14 shows the layout of the ring circuit using two orthogonal feed lines with coupling gap size of s.) . The results also agree with the predictions given by (12.14 Conﬁguration of the ring resonator using enhanced orthogonal feed lines [9].13 mm. .340 RING MIXERS.2 mm. . This ring circuit was designed at the fundamental mode of 6 GHz and fabricated on a 20-mil-thick RT/Duroid 5870 substrate with a relative dielectric constant of er = 2. (12. n = 2. .38 mm.2.5a) The calculated results in (12. The measured and simulated results of this circuit are shown in Figure 12.Y12Y21 3np np ˆ Ê .

17 dBm at the oscillation frequency of 12. The phase noise of the oscillator is -96. (Permission from IEEE. as shown in Figure 12.47 mm.12 can oscillate at high oscillation frequency. The two-port negative-resistance oscillator uses the one-open-end S terminal as a series-feedback element to obtain a potential instability. l6 = 10.15.7% with output power of 3. The highest DC-to-RF efﬁciency of the oscillator of 41.15 Simulated and measured results for the ring resonator using enhanced orthogonal feed lines [9].16 shows the measured spectrum of the oscillator with applied voltages of Vgs = -0. Figure 12.95 mm. .4% is obtained with output power of 6. and l9 = 21. Also.19 mm. then oscillators can possibly research to a high DC-to-RF efﬁciency.69 mm. with the input and output matching network. if the decreasing rate of IdsVds is faster than that of the RF output power.17 dBc/Hz at offset frequency of 100 KHz.41 mW at 12.65 V and Vds = 1 V has a negative resistance around 12 GHz. Efficiency = h(%) = Pout ¥ 100% I ds Vds (12.6). Inspecting the equation of the DC-to-RF efﬁciency in Equation (12. The second and third harmonics of the oscillator are 22.6).RING OSCILLATORS 341 0 Magnitude S21 (dB) n=2 -10 -20 n=1 n=3 n=4 -30 -40 -50 0 5 Measurement Simulation 10 15 20 Frequency (GHz) 25 30 FIGURE 12. Pout.65 V and Vds = 1 V.6) Observing Equation (12. the maximum efﬁciency can be obtained by selecting a low Vgs and Vds.09 GHz.3 mm. the feedback oscillator shown in Figure 12. The oscillator has the efﬁciency of 48. l4 = 6.104 GHz.19 mm. The active device used in the oscillator is a NE 32484A HEMT. The dimensions of the oscillator are l3 = 3 mm.8 dB and 15.16. the oscillator is operated at the second harmonic of the ring resonator. l7 = 7. l8 = 9.1 dB down from the fundamental oscillation frequency. l5 = 15. Also.) By using the characteristic of the high resonant frequency operation shown in Figure 12. the two-port oscillator with an applied bias of of Vgs = -0.

01 12. Figure 12. 12. OSCILLATORS. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS 30 20 10 Output Power (dBm) 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 11.) These harmonics have less effect on the fundamental oscillation frequency. Figure 12. mixing. 14]. the PET tuning range is about 4. In addition. Fur- .18 shows the measured results of the oscillator using the PET tuning. and thus vary the resonant frequency of the ring resonator.49 GHz (+90 V) with a power output of 3.67 to 5. The perturber attached on the PET has a dielectric constant of er = 10.19.19 shows the tunable oscillation frequencies and output power levels versus PET tuning voltages.11 12. This good tuning rage is due to a large area perturbation on the whole ring that signiﬁcantly tunes the resonant frequency of the ring.17 12.07 12. a wider tuning range and a lower DC applied voltage could be achieved [15].8 and a thickness of h = 50 mil.342 RING MIXERS. and the output power is varied from 2. by using a higher dielectric perturber.33 dBm.03 12.5 MICROWAVE OPTOELECTRONICS APPLICATIONS An optical control in microwave ring devices has been developed for its potential applications in signal switching. When applying a DC voltage to the PET.19 Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 12.13 12.33 dBm.09 12. The tuning range of the oscillator is from 11. As seen in Figure 12.15 12. Figure 12.17 shows the conﬁguration of the ring resonator oscillator integrated with a piezoelectric transducer (PET) with an attached dielectric perturber. this oscillator provides a high DC-toRF efﬁciency.17 dBm to 12 GHz (0 V) with a power output of 5. (Permission from IEEE.05 12.16 Output power for the feedback ring resonator oscillator operated at the second harmonic of the ring resonator [9].25% around the oscillation frequency of 12 GHz.99 12. the PET move the perturber up or down vertically to change the effective dielectric constant of the ring resonator [9. and frequency modulation. Comparing with other oscillators [13].

58. Corresponding loaded Q-factors are 45. microwave-optoelectronic mixers fabricated on GaAs substrate have been reported [16–19]. These slits are designed to be collinear with the feed lines so that mode .17 Conﬁguration of the tunable oscillator using a PET: (a) top view and (b) 3D view [9]. 7. The circuit is fabricated on semi-insulating GaAs.) thermore.4 GHz. Two 4-mm slits are introduced at diametrically opposite locations of the ring for optical excitation. Resonances were measured to occur at 3. and 74.18 GHz. The layout of the circuit is illustrated in Figure 12. and 10.20.MICROWAVE OPTOELECTRONICS APPLICATIONS 343 Vdc PET Dielectric perturber Output GND Vg Vd (a) Perturber Oscillator PET Vdc Test fixture (b) FIGURE 12. (Permission from IEEE.467 GHz. Since the Q-factor of the ring resonator is better than that of the linear resonator. the ring was chosen for experiments.

54 11.0 OutputPower (dBm) 8 11.75 11.1 Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 12.4 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 PET Tuning Voltage (V) FIGURE 12.6 2 11. the microwave LO excitation is applied via the more loosely coupled 100-mm gap and the output signal is extracted across the 30-mm gap.) conﬁguration of this resonator is identical to that of the completely closed ring. (Permission from IEEE. OSCILLATORS.4 11.61 11. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS 30 20 10 Output Power (dBm) +90 V +0 V 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 11.96 12. In this conﬁguration.68 11. respectively.344 RING MIXERS.82 11.03 12.89 11.18 Measured tuning range of 510 MHz for the tunable oscillator using a PET [9].19 Tuning oscillation frequencies and output power levels versus PET tuning voltages [9].) Oscillation Frequency (GHz) 12. extraction of the output signal is more efﬁcient due to the tighter coupling associated with the 30-mm gap.47 11. (Permission from IEEE.8 6 4 11. The dimensions of the coupling gaps between the feed lines and the resonator were chosen to be 30 mm and 100 mm. . It is thus ensured that whereas the LO signal is loosely coupled into the resonator.

an RF voltage is induced. The RF signal is the modulating signal to the optical carrier. this signal is mixed with the RF optical signal if both the LO and RF frequencies are at the ring’s resonance. (Permission from IEEE.84 mm . The Ortel SL 1010 laser diode. For operation in this mode. When the IF signal at basehand is extracted from the bias pad.20 Layout of ring resonator circuit [19].) The test setup is illustrated in Figure 12.21. By virtue of the ring’s moderately high Q-factor. the manifestation of this phenomenon is enhanced when the circumference of the ring becomes an integral multiple of the wavelength corresponding to the RF signals.MICROWAVE OPTOELECTRONICS APPLICATIONS 345 FIGURE 12. the circuit is said to be operated in the “resistive mixing” mode. When a larger amplitude LO microwave signal is applied to the feed line of the circuit. the RF and LO ports are mutually isolated and the low-pass ﬁlter automatically suppresses the image frequency. the down-converted IF difference signal is obtained from the bias pad of the circuit. When a modulated optical signal from a laser diode is applied to one of the slits of the ring resonator. as the circuit operation in this case involves the modulation of the conductance of the detector diodes. with an operating wavelength of 0.

the strength goes down. the peak of the IF signal output occurs when the LO is close to the ring’s resonance.22 IF power output vs. the ring should resonate at the RF. (Permission from IEEE. Both degenerate and nondegenerate parametric ampliﬁcation of the optical carrier signal can take place [19].) FIGURE 12. and IF frequencies. is biased at 9 mA and operated with an input-modulated power of -14 dBm at 3. LO.6 mA. the IF signal strength at the bias pad gradually decreases. For operation in this mode. This is illustrated in Figure 12.346 RING MIXERS. As can be seen.467 GHz. Similar effects were observed in varying the RF. when tuned out of resonance. If either one of the RF or LO frequencies is tuned away from resonance.21 Experimental test setup [19]. In the “parametric mode. LO frequency [19].) and a threshold current of 6. (Permission from IEEE.22. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS FIGURE 12. . OSCILLATORS.” sum and difference frequencies in the microwave band are extracted from the feed line of the circuit.

(Permission from IEEE. By using a periodic split-ring resonator array.) . Also. there are some attempts to debunk all of these experiments [26–29]. H. many papers have been published for the matematerials [21–25]. However. Recently. which shows a reversal of Snell’s law [21]. 25]. despite those incredible reports in LHM. Figure 12.6 METAMATERIALS USING SPLIT-RING RESONATORS The metamaterials with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability (e < 0 and m < 0) were proposed by Veselago in the late 1960s [20]. the wave vector k and Poynting vector are anti-parallel. some propose the negative refraction index by using periodically L-C loaded transmission line [24. these simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability were only derived from mathematics without any experimental proofs because the negative permittivity and permeability do not exist in the nature world. He termed the metamaterial with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability as “left-handed material” (LHM) because the vectors E. The unit c d r (a) (b) FIGURE 12. a negative permeability can be obtained [22]. Also.23 (a) Plan view of a split ring showing deﬁnitions of distances and (b) sequence of split rings shown in their stacking sequence [22].23 shows the one unit of split-ring resonator arrays. and k form a left-handed triplet.METAMATERIALS USING SPLIT-RING RESONATORS 347 12. However.

AND OTHER APPLICATIONS resonator consists of two concentric rings.24 (a) Plain view and (b) 3D view of a split rings structure in an array (lattice spacing a) [22]. Also. d is the gap size between tow rings. the effective permeability is given by [22] a (a) (b) FIGURE 12. and each has a split that is used to prevent current from ﬂowing around any ring.348 RING MIXERS. The inside ring is used to induce capacitances to make current ﬂow to the ring.) .7) where c is the width of the ring. OSCILLATORS. The capacitance between tow rings is given by [22] e o 2c 1 2c ln = ln 2 p d d pm o c o C1 = (12. (Permission from IEEE. and co is the speed of light in free space.

and W. Stephan. and r = 2.0 ¥ 10-2 m. Chang. Chap. Vol. 1375–1382.25 Plot of meff for the cubic split ring structure [22]. Camilleri. Phan. February 1983.8) where s1 is the resistance of unit length of the sheets measured around the circumference. 1994. d = 1. MTT-33. Piotrowski. December 1985. REFERENCES [1] K.” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. “A quasi-optical polarization-duplexed balanced mixer for millimeter-wave applications. 12. c = 1. Sun. R. pp..0 ¥ 10-3 m. Microwave Solid-State Circuits and Applications.” IEEE Trans. Vol. Chang. and T. M. 2. 6. Microwave Theory Tech. l = 2. MTT-31. pp. (Permission from IEEE) m eff = 1 1+ pr 2 a2 2ls 1 iwrmo 2 3lc o 2c pw 2 ln r 3 d (12. C. No. “W-band (75–110 GHz) microstrip components. It can be found the effective negative permeability is around 13. as shown in Figure 12. The plotting of meff is shown in Figure 12. and a is the distance between two split-ring resonators (SRR). Wiley. 164–170.25 by using parameters of a = 1. English.24. D. [3] K.0 ¥ 10-3 m. T. D.REFERENCES 349 3 3 2 2 m real 1 mimag 1 0 0 -1 0 5 10 15 20 -1 GHz FIGURE 12. S.0 ¥ 10-4 m. N. No. Itoh. . G. r is the radii of the inside ring.6 GHz within a narrow band.0 ¥ 10-3 m. New York. Yen. A. [2] K. Grote. Tahim.. P. Hayashibara. M. J.

817–824.” IEEE MTT-S Int. Vol. S. Microwave Symp. “Degenerate parametric ampliﬁcation in an optoelectronic GaAs CPW-to-slotline ring resonator. J. 1602–1609. Hsieh and K. Gopalakrishnan. Crosnier. [11] J. 235–237. Microwave Theory Tech.. T. [6] D. “Voltage-controlled hair-pin resonator oscillator with new tuning mechanism. “A highly stabilized GaAs FET oscillation using a dielectric resonator feedback circuit in 9–14 GHz. K. 1865–1871. K. Fla. dissertation. Hong. Microwave Theory Tech. Yeh.” Electron. G. Kim. C. [12] IE3D Version 8. Texas A&M University. pp. S.. W.” Electron.. B. [18] G. Weichold. Lee. “Microwave and optoelectronic performance of hybrid and monolithic microstrip ring resonator circuits. Yngvesson. No. 1313–1316. Y. and J. J. pp. pp. B. F. November 1993. 27. “Miniaturized stripline dualmode ring resonators and their application to oscillating devices. 7. Dig. AND OTHER APPLICATIONS [4] S. Lett.0. Sawano. Vol. J. [9] L. 30. Vol. No. N. 1994. Nakatani. May 1991. Chauvel. Yabuki.. pp. Fremont. D... September 1994. Microwave Symp. pp. L.” IEEE Trans. H.. H. Lee. No. “Hybrid high temperature superconductor/GaAs 10 GHz microwave oscillator: Temperature and bias effects. Lee. 51. J.. No. Vol. H. M.” IEEE Trans. pp. [5] N. Zeland Software Inc. 121–123. Poplavko. Ishihara. pp.” IEEE Trans.” IEEE Trans. Chang. Vol. Chang.. Lett.. 21. and A. Chambonnet. H. 28. Paul. K. and K. Park. August 2000. Feburary 2003. Tan. 9. pp. 51. G. S. pp. Fairchild. H. January 2001. [16] J. No. Microwave Theory Tech. 1991. C. H. 6.” IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. V.” IEEE Trans. 9. No. Lee. T. Hwang. Dig. Valco. [7] P.. August 5. 1020–1026. Kim. S. . 267–269. and M. and U. April 2003. No. C.-C. College Station. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-41. Rohrer. September 1997. M. M. No. Taylor. Chang. F. [15] Y.-H.” Electron. Orlando. Gardner.D. Molchanov. pp. 2. Wolverton. Vol. “Effective structure of a push-push oscillator using a hair-pin resonator for Kband application.-H. P. and U. and H. Gingras. Matsuo. K. C. [17] G.. Vol. and K. 49. 17. M. Sagawa. L.” 1995 IEEE Int. CA. 452–455. K. D. Microwave Theory Tech. Y. 1995. [8] H. No. Bhasin. 8. 520–525. and D. Carru. June 2001. October 134. [14] L. “Modeling of a monolithic slot ring quasi-optical mixer. Technol. Microwave Theory Tech. Y. Hong. W. Cardiasmenos. N. 5. “Microwave performance of nonlinear optoelectronic microstrip ring resonator. C. 1995. pp. A. Hong. [13] O. Vol. Vol. Lett. Vol. S. V. J. R. MTT-42. 1999. August 1980. I. 36. Sherer.” Ph.” Microwave Opt.. M. 1141–1145. Cho. 1770–1771.” IEEE Trans. “Tunable microstrip bandpass ﬁlters with two transmission zeros. No. P.. OSCILLATORS.. Lett. Gopalakrishnan. Dogan. Makimoto. 4. pp. “High efﬁciency piezoelectric transducer tuned feedback microstrip ring resonator oscillators operating at high resonant frequencies. 1470–1471. Drubin. B. K. 11. Hsieh and K. Taylor. Masarweh. Kim. 9. No. Prokopenko. “A 12-GHz hightemperature superconducting semiconductor oscillator. Mori. Lee. and K. pp. K. [10] Y. 2. K. H.350 RING MIXERS. “Frequencytunable microwave dielectric resonator. Chang. J. “Microwave voltage tuned microstrip ring resonator oscillator. Vol. January 17. and M.

[23] R. [28] P. 47. M.” Phys.. Vol. Siddiqui. Eleftheriades. 187041–187044. V. and W. Ziolkowski. 18. [21] J. Robins. V. No. No. 13. and H. D. C. Veselago.. M. and P. [25] G.” IEEE Trans. “Planar negative refractive index media using periodically L-C loaded transmission lines. No. pp. p. No. Gopalakrishnan. Lett.. Vol. Weichold. F. Rev. 396–399. Lett. “Comment on ‘negative refraction makes a perfect lens’. K. B. 2075–2084. pp. pp. W. [27] J.” IEEE Wireless Compon. 85. Chang. [20] V. December 2002. pp. Microwave Symp. W. “Double negative metamaterial design. and A.” Phys.. Vol. MTT-39. Stewart. 2. Vol. Williams.” IEEE MTT-S Int. –Usp. Rev. Valanju. pp. 2702–2712. December 2001. Vol. 12.. Valanju.” IEEE Trans. 3966–3969. B. pp. 88. 88. Lett. pp. [29] N. October 2000. “Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous. Rev. Pendry. Iyer. Microwave Theory Tech. Park. 2052–2060. 12.” Phys... “Left-handed materials do not make a perfect lens.” Phys. No. “Transmission line models for negative refractive index media and associated implementations without excess resonators. K. and applications..” Phys. Vol. K. Lett. Fairchild.” IEEE Trans. J. J. C. H. December 1991. Microwave Theory Tech. Vol. R. May 2002. Lett. pp. Holden. 87. Kremer. January–February 1968. Yeh. 2002. December 2001. [22] J. 249701. [26] G. P. Microwave Theory Tech. experiments. Vol. Taylor. Nieto-Vesperinas. Vol. 11. [24] G. “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena. November 1999. A. W. February 2003. Rev. Garcia and M. Phys.. 207403–207406. 50. B. C. “Experimental investigation of microwave-optoelectronic interactions in a microstrip ring resonator. Vol. Dig. May 2002. ‘t Hooft. K.” Sov. O. M. 509–514. No. . Iyer. Walser. 10. Rev..REFERENCES 351 [19] G. pp. A. G. M. “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of e and m. “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens. Lett. 51–53. “Some problems with negative refraction. 249703. and A. Eleftheriades.. J. p. 87. 4. Pendry. L.

297 ring circuits. Second Edition. transmission-line ring resonator model.and open-loop microstrip ring resonators. ring antenna construction. 352 . 301–303 circular polarization. microstrip ring resonators. 303–305 distributed-circuit ring resonator model. 39–40 distributed-circuit ring resonator model. 75–77 transmission-line model. 307–308 conﬁguration. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. 29–32 Antisymmetric excitation. 169–171 Active antennas: applications. 298–299 input impedance formulation. 48–51 Amplitude imbalance: CPW magic-Ts. frequency modes. 224–226 Annular coupling. 175–178 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 298–299 Asymmetric coplanar strip (ACPS) hybridring couplers: branch-line couplers. 17–22 Approximations. 209–211 Asymmetric ring resonators. 198–203 ring oscillators. coupling gap equivalent circuit. 233–237 reverse-phase 180º hybrid-ring couplers. 167–171 Attenuation constants: closed. 303–305 wall admittance calculation. Inc. 301–303 input impedance formulation. 67–70 Asymmetric step capacitance. 226–227 structure and properties. 314–319 Admittance matrix: annular ring antenna. 300–303 Annular ring resonators: annular ring element. equivalent lumpedelements. notch perturbation. 250–254 reduced-size uniplanar 180° reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. 47–51 Back-to-back baluns: coplanar waveguide resonators. 47–51 microstrip branch-line couplers. regular resonant modes.Index ABCD-matrix: distributed-circuit ring resonator model. 339–341 slow-wave bandpass structure. 229–231 microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring couplers. wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 214–217 Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. 76–77 Annular ring antenna: admittance matrix. 56–58 coupling methods.

16–22 varactor-tuned resonator: equivalent circuit. 231–233 microstrip branch-line couplers. 307–308 frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs). coupling gap equivalent circuit. 27–29 Boundary conditions: forced resonant modes: annular ring element. 233–237 CPW-slotline branch-line couplers. 9–10 rigorous solutions. 300–303 Circular polarization: dual-frequency ring antennas. 306 reactive terms. 109–112 Capacitive coupling. varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuits. transmission-line ring resonator model. frequency solution. 179–186 wideband ﬁlters. 306–307 input impedance: dominant formulation for. 298–299 computer simulation. 298–307 approximations and ﬁelds. 141–145 ring resonator ﬁltering: dual-mode ring. linear resonators. 104–109 Capacitance: closed. 68–70 Bias lines. varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 15–16 Bow-tie conﬁguration. 227–231 Bulk resistance. microstrip dispersion.and open-loop microstrip ring resonators. 115–117 ring bandstop ﬁlters. coupling gap equivalent circuit. 111–112 353 Bypass capacitor. active annular ring antenna. structure and properties. transmissionline ring resonator model. 227–237 asymmetrical coplanar strip branch-line couplers. 174–178 transmission-line ring resonator model. 127 frequency measurements. 311–314 symmetric ring resonator. 161–164 Bessel function: magnetic-wall ring resonator model. 344–346 ring antennas. 319–322 reﬂectarrays. 9 degenerate modes. 186–187 slow-wave ﬁlters. 17–22 Circuit model: microwave optoelectronics applications. 322–326 Closed-form equations: distributed transmission-line ring resonator model. transmission-line ring resonator model. ring bandstop ﬁlters. input impedance and frequency response. 21–22 .INDEX coplanar waveguide (CPW)-slotline 180º reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. capacitance measurement. uniplanar ring resonators. transverse magnetic ﬁeld. 319–324 reﬂectarrays. 184–186 slow-wave bandpass structure. 159–161 ring bandpass ﬁlters. 8–9 slotline ring antennas. coupling gap equivalent circuit. input impedance and frequency response. varactor-tuned resonator. 104–109 Bias voltage. package parasitic effects. 169–171 Charge distribution evaluation. 314–319 Bisection method. 153–161 narrow-band elliptic function ﬁlters. 100–103 package parasitic effects. 164–171 Bandstop characteristic. 176–178 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 58–61 waveguide ring resonators. 144–145 transmission-line ring resonator model. notch perturbation. 43 ring resonator measurements. 219–223 Bandpass ﬁlters: electronically switchable ring resonators. 284–285 magnetic-wall ring resonator model. 113–115 Branch-line (90º) couplers. 303–305 overall impedance. 164 slow-wave bandpass structure. 85–90 Cascaded multiple ring resonators: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 187–188 piezoelectric transducer-tuned bandpass ﬁlters. 322–326 Circular rings: frequency-selective surfaces. 305–306 wall admittance calculation. varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 37–40 double varactor-tuned microstrip ring resonator. 171–178 two transmission zeros. 16–22 Charge reversal method.

354 INDEX electronically switchable ring resonators. 28–29 Coplanar strips (CPS): asymmetrical branch-line couplers. 155–161 piezoelectric transducer-tuned microstrip ring resonator. 145–147 Compact bandpass ﬁlter. discontinuity measurements. 298 distributed transmission-line ring resonator model. frequency solution. 181–186 ring resonators. 311–314 Discontinuity measurements. 5–6 Computer simulation. 12–13 waveguide ring resonators. ring resonator applications. regular resonant modes. 164–171 Continuous functions. 306–307 Conductance measurements. 16–22 ring equivalent circuit and input impedance. input impedance and frequency response. 113–115 Decoupled resonant modes. ring resonators. 203–209 Coupled split mode. 145–147 Dispersion measurement. microstrip ring resonators. applications. 36–40 Closed rectangular waveguide. 149–151 Closed-loop microstrip ring resonators: calculation and experimental results. 40 equivalent lumped elements. 37–40 Conductor losses. bandpass ﬁlters. 217–223 structure and properties. 22–25 Coupling gap: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 318–319 coupling methods. 103–109 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuits. 75–77 uniplanar ring resonators. ring resonator discontinuity measurements. annular ring antenna. 281 DC block capacitor: varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. input impedance. 21–22 transmission-line equivalent circuit. 275–276 Coaxial-to-microstrip transitions. 77–81 measurement applications. 144–145 transmission-line ring resonator model: equivalent circuit. 85–90 magic-Ts. 233–237 asymmetrical coplanar strip hybrid-ring couplers. 273–276 Cutoff frequency. 212–217 varactor-tuned uniplanar ring resonators. 231–233 180º reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. 84 Dielectric constant: annular ring antenna. 244–254 180º reverse-phase CPW-slotline Tjunctions. waveguide ring resonators. transmission-line ring resonator model. 44–45 magnetic-wall ring resonator model: ﬁeld analyses. enhanced coupling. 223–226 reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. 6–7 microstrip ring resonators. 117–123 Coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers: branch-line couplers. 63–64 Coupling capacitance: electronically switchable ring resonators. 164–171 Computer-aided-design (CAD): ring ﬁlter mode suppression. 42–43 dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 287–288 Degenerate modes. 186–187 ring resonator measurement. bisection method. wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 243–244 reduced-size uniplanar 180º reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. 25–27 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. closed. 139–145 slotline ring antennas. 155–161 effects on ring resonators. waveguide ring resonators. input impedance and frequency response.and open-loop microstrip ring resonators. waveguide ring ﬁlters. 145–147 Dielectrically shielded ring resonator. 85–90 Curvature effect: distributed transmission-line ring resonator model. 77–81 . 191–193 ring resonator modeling. ring resonator models. microstrip ring resonators. 134–138 transmission-line ring resonator model: coupling gap equivalent circuit. 139–145 split mode measurements. 209–211 Coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators: active/passive ring antennas. 103–109 Coupling methods: loose coupling. 7–9 relative permittivty. 133–134 ring bandpass ﬁlters. ring resonator applications.

289–292 355 waveguide ring resonators: regular resonant modes. reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. 124–125 bandpass ﬁlters. 130–131 experimental/theoretical results. 140–145 E-ﬁeld distribution: CPW magic-Ts. 287–288 single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. 307–308 slotline ring structure. 153–161 slotline ring ﬁlters. 134–138 PIN diode equivalent circuit. 292–295 waveguide ring resonators. 276–281 split resonant modes. 75–77 ring resonators. 69–70 Dominant mode calculations. 112–115 input impedance and frequency response. annular ring antenna. 297 Dual-mode excitation: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. transmission-line ring resonator model. distributed transmission-line ring resonator. resonant frequency. 287–288 single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. 103–109 varactor-tuned uniplanar ring resonator. 115–117 package parasitic effects. narrowband structure. 16–22 Enhanced coupling: microstrip ring resonators. 211–217 Double-sided magic-T. 45–51 forced resonant modes. 115–117 Dual-frequency ring antennas: circular polarization. 243 Double-sided slotline rat-race hybrid-ring coupler. 82–84 ring bandpass ﬁlters. 33–34 ring bandstop ﬁlters. basic components. two-cavity dualmode ﬁlters. 109–112 piezoelectric transducer-tuned microstrip ring resonator. basic structure. ﬁeld analyses. coupling gap equivalent circuit. 41–43 notch perturbation. 258–262 waveguide ring ﬁlters: decoupled resonant modes. 98–99 varactor equivalent circuit. 127–128 microstrip ring resonator: analysis. 131–134 varactor-tuned switchable resonators. 187–188 End-to-side coupling. 241–243 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts. 272–276 regular resonant modes. 128–130 Electronically tunable ring resonators: basic principles. 161–164 Electronically switchable ring resonators: basic components. 262–269 reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. 305–306 Double-sided ground planes. active/passive ring antennas. 40–51 curvature effect. 97–98 double varactor-tuned microstrip ring resonator. 186–187 sample analysis. 167–171 Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP). 244–254 double-sided (180º) slotline ring magic-Ts. 99–103 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit: experimental results. 117–123 Elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlters. 206–209 Double-sided (180º) slotline ring magic-Ts. ring resonator dispersion measurements. 45–51 Distributed transmission-line ring resonator model. 8–9 Electromagnetic simulation: one-port ring resonator errors. 281–283 Electromagnetic ﬁelds.INDEX Distributed-circuit model. 254–258 Double varactor-tuned microstrip ring resonator. 59–61 microstrip dispersion. 214–217 tapered-line magic-T. 217–223 coplanar waveguide-slotline branch-line couplers. 289–292 two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. 232–233 . structure and applications. 289–295 decoupled resonant modes. coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. 308–314 Dual microstrip ring antenna. 254–258 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. magnetic-wall ring resonator model. 34–35 waveguide ring ﬁlters. 189–191 transmission-line ring resonator. 278–281 Equivalent circuits: coplanar waveguide (CPW)-slotline 180º reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. 303–305 reactive terms. 155–161 enhanced coupling ring resonators. 44–45 distributed-circuit model. 81–84 E-plane waveguide ring cavity: waveguide ring ﬁlters. 292–295 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 318–319 Effective permittivity.

128–130 frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs). 319–322 reﬂectarrays using ring resonators. 130–134 varactor-tuned microstrip resonators. 314–319 CPW magic-Ts. 186–187 ring bandstop ﬁlters. ring oscillators. 250–254 dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 153 compact. 155–161 one-port ring resonator errors. 227–231 microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring couplers. 171–178 two transmission zeros bandpass ﬁlters. ring resonators. 191–193 narrow-band elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlters. and wideband bandpass ﬁlters. 166–171 Even-coupled slotline modes. magnetic-wall ring resonator. 291–292 two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. 164–171 . annular ring antenna. electronically switchable ring resonators: microstrip ring resonators. 292–295 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 130–131 PIN diodes. 20–22 Far-ﬁeld equations. 334–342 Field parameters. active antenna structure. 161–164 slotline ring ﬁlters. slotline ring antennas. 27–29 input impedance. 322–326 Equivalent circuits (Continued) coupling gap. 32–36 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. PIN diode equivalent circuit. 141–145 slotline ring antennas. 128–130 varactor-tuned resonator. sharp rejection. 173–178 transmission-line ring resonator model: coupling gap. 316–318 ring oscillators. ring resonators: basic principles. 198–203 Extra charge calculations. wall admittance calculation. 100–103 Field effect transistor (FET): ring antennas. 267–269 reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. 14–16 Frequency response measurements: active annular ring antenna. 258–262 varactor-tuned resonator. ring antenna construction. 163–164 slow-wave bandpass structure. 319–322 lumped elements. 298–299 Filter applications. 16–22 ring equivalent circuit and input impedance. 287–292 single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. 25–27 transmission-line equivalent circuit. 279–281 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 79–81 CPW magic-Ts. 134–138 Fourier-Bessel integrals. low insertion loss. 309–314 Feedback conﬁguration. 153–161 mode suppression. two-cavity dualmode ﬁlters. coupling methods. regular resonant modes. 22–25 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts. transmission-line ring resonator model. 147–149 waveguide ring resonators. 58–61 ring resonator measurements. 277–281. 260–262 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 187–188 piezoelectric transducer-tuned bandpass ﬁlters. ring resonator discontinuity measurements. 179–186 Forced resonant modes: annular ring element. 283–285 Forward-biased condition. equivalent circuit. 338–342 Fermi levels: electronically switchable ring resonators. 145–147 Even-odd-mode method: microstrip branch-line couplers. 29–32 basic equations. 35–40 ring bandstop ﬁlters. coupling gap equivalent circuit. 313–314 transmission-line ring resonator model. 246–254 electronically switchable ring resonators: microstrip ring resonators. magnetic-wall ring resonator. 166–171 Frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs): basic properties. 88–90 Even-mode incidence.356 INDEX dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 99–103 waveguide ring ﬁlters. 103–109 waveguide ring ﬁlters: decoupled resonant modes. 302–303 Frequency-dependent solutions. 214–217 ring resonator dispersion calculations. 188–191 slow-wave bandpass ﬁlters. 292–295 waveguide ring resonators. 15–16 Fourier expansion. 26–27 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts.

148–149 Gap size. degenerate modes. 310–314 H-arm conﬁguration: CPW magic-Ts. 259–262 Impedance matrix. 314–319 Hairpin resonators. 130–131 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts. 10 Frequency-splitting: ring resonant measurements. 340–342 Helmholtz equation. 81–84 Q-factor measurement.INDEX Frequency splitting: magnetic-wall ring resonator model. 233–237 coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. 103–109 Insertion loss: CPW magic-Ts. ring resonator measurements. 306–307 overall impedance calculations. 258–262 Harmonic effects. 48–51 IMSL library. 183–186 Green’s function. coupling methods. active annular ring antenna. microstrip ring resonators. 14–16 H-plane waveguide ring cavity: waveguide ring ﬁlters. 179–186 Half-modes: electronically switchable ring resonators. 98–99 Input coupling gap. 167–171 Inductively-coupled ring resonator. 189–191 varactor-tuned uniplanar ring resonators.and open-loop microstrip ring resonators.158–161 electronically switchable ring resonators. 333–334 . 278–281 split resonant modes. 18–22 Gunn diode. frequency measurements. 250–254 dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 118–123 Input impedance: annular ring antenna. 250–254 double-sided (180º) slotline ring magic-Ts. ring bandpass ﬁlters. varactor-tuned uniplanar ring resonators. 266–269 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts. 248–254 electronically switchable ring resonators. split mode measurements. voltage-controlled ring oscillators. microstrip ring resonators. magnetic-wall ring resonator. transmission-line ring resonator model. varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 134–138 ring resonator measurements. linear resonators. 214–217 ring bandpass ﬁlters. 272–276 regular resonant modes. distributed-circuit ring resonator model. 110–112 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 303–305 computer simulation. 106–109 Inductance: varactor tuned resonator: equivalent circuit. 259–262 Input admittance: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. slotline ring quasi-optical mixers. 127–128 varactor-tuned microstrip resonators. 103 package parasitic effects. 254–258 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. 241–243 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts. input impedance and frequency response. decoupled resonant modes. 171–178 transmission-line ring resonator model. 244–254 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. 160–161 varactor tuned resonator. 133–134 enhanced coupling and reduction of. slotline ring antennas. 306 closed. 288 waveguide ring resonators. ring equivalent circuit. ring bandpass ﬁlters. 262–269 tapered-line magic-T. coupling gap equivalent circuit. 87–90 In-phase mode coupling: CPW magic-Ts. 142–145 Full-wavelength resonant modes. 143–145 reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. 114–115 input impedance and frequency response. 118–123 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 107–109 Hankel-transformed estimates. 25–27 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 207–209 357 CPW magic-Ts. 180–186 slotline ring ﬁlters. See Input impedance asymmetric coplanar strip (ACPS) branchline coupler. 148–149 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 282–283 Impedance. 164–171 Intermediate frequency (IF) outputs. 151 Fringing ﬁelds. 36–40 slow-wave bandpass structure.

150–151 ring resonators. 9–10 transverse magnetic ﬁeld. 164–171 Lowpass ﬁlter (LPF). 140–145 Mean radius calculation. reﬂectarrays. dual modes. 141–145 Line charges. 133–134 reduced-size uniplanar 180º reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. 241–243 Matrix inversion method. wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 283–285 Maxwell’s equations: magnetic-wall ring resonator model: degenerate modes. 78–81 slow-wave bandpass structure. 45–51 microstrip ring resonators. 41–43 . transmission-line ring resonator model. 344–346 single-balanced ring mixer. charge distribution evaluation. 34–35 Mean circumference. 24–25 Low insertion loss. 241–243 coplanar waveguide magic-Ts. 331–333 slotline ring quasi-optical mixers. 6–7 Loss-free lines. 191–193 L-shaped coupling arm. 232–234 180º reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. forced resonant modes. 234–237 coplanar waveguide-slotline structures: branch-line couplers. 64–66 ring resonant measurements. 8–9 transmission-line ring resonator model. 64–66 Longitudinal section electric (LSE) mode. applications. transmission-line ring resonator model. ring resonator measurements. split-ring resonators. 222–223 electronically switchable ring resonators. 244–254 180º double-sided slotline ring magic-Ts. 19–22 Line-to-ring coupling. distributed transmission-line ring resonator model. 173–178 L-network capacitance: coupling gap. input impedance and frequency response. varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. equivalent circuit. 131. 75–77 ring resonator measurements. distributed transmission-line ring resonator model. 16–22 Maximum tuning range. 224–226 Junction capacitance. 333–334 Local resonant sector (LRS): annular ring element. slow-wave bandpass structure. waveguide ring resonators. 46–51 Isolation: asymmetric coplanar strip (ACPS) branchline coupler. 347–349 L-EQ2C subroutine. 243–244 180º uniplanar slotline ring magic-Ts. varactor-tuned resonator. transmission-line ring resonator model: frequency modes.358 INDEX Loose coupling: distributed-circuit model. 322–326 Left-handed material (LHM). 150–151 Local resonant split mode: measurement applications. dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. frequency measurements. 106–109 Linear resonators. uniplanar ring resonators. microstrip ring resonators. 254–258 180º reverse-phase coplanar waveguideslotline T-junctions. 140–145 ring resonator models. 31–32 transmission-line equivalent circuit.and open-loop microstrip ring resonators. 258–262 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. 262–269 Matched waveguide double-T. distributed-circuit ring resonator model. 174–178 Loaded-Q values. 85–90 Local oscillator (LO) pump: microwave optoelectronics applications. 41–43 Longitudinal section magnetic (LSM) mode. 22–25 Magic-T circuits: basic components. coupling gap equivalent circuit. mode suppression. 154–161 Lumped-parameter-equivalent two-port network: closed. 36–40 transmission-line ring resonator model: ring equivalent circuit and input impedance. 100–103 Ka-band feed horn. 25–27 transmission -line equivalent circuit.

45–51 double varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. piezoelectric-transducer tuned microstrip ring resonator. 308–314 Microstrip ring resonators: closed. annular ring antenna. 2–4 resonator mode chart. 41–43 Microstrip gap: distributed-circuit ring resonator model. 112–115 input impedance and frequency response. 139–145 piezoelectric transducer-tuned microstrip ring resonator. and Q-factor measurements. regular resonant modes. 61–67 coupled split modes. reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. split-ring resonators. 106–109 Mode suppression: annular ring element. 223–226 voltage-tuned microstrip ring-resonator oscillator. 2–4 reduced-size uniplanar 180º reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. 197–203 single-balanced ring mixer. 145–147 distributed-circuit model. 347–349 Microelectromechanical system (EMS). 227–231 rat-race hybrid-ring couplers. 334–342 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 2–4 Microwave optoelectronics ring devices. 334–342 Multifrequency annular slot antenna. 139 split modes. 124–125 slit (gap) perturbations. 57–58 ring ﬁlter applications. 145–147 dispersion. 36–40 coupling methods. 191–193 hybrid-ring couplers: branch line couplers. 66–67 patch perturbation split modes. 63–64 local resonant split modes. 301–303 Mutual coupling. 131–134 varactor-tuned microstrip resonators. 64–66 notch perturbation split modes. dispersion. 130–131 experimental and theoretical results. 55–58 slit (gap) perturbations. 103–109 voltage-tuned microstrip ring-resonator oscillator. ring resonators: discontinuity measurements. 58–61 notch perturbations. input impedance and frequency response.and open-loop. 299 Model veriﬁcation. 11 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit: experimental results. 185–186 . 85–90 Microwave integrated circuits (MIC): asymmetrical coplanar strip hybrid-ring couplers. dielectric constant. 209–211 microstrip line. transmission-line ring resonator model. 139–145 forced modes. 115–117 electronically switchable resonators: analysis. 124–125 Microstrip baluns. equivalent lumped elements. 67 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 331–333 magnetic-wall ring resonator. 147–149 research background. 70–75 split resonant modes. 16–22 Microstrip reﬂectarrays. ring antenna construction. 134–138 ﬁlter applications. 297 slotline ring antenna. improvements. 29 Mode phenomena: ring resonators: forced resonant modes. 164–171 Microstrip slotline transition. 342–346 Modal voltages and currents. 46–51 transmission-line ring resonator model: coupling gap equivalent circuit. capacitive coupling. dielectric constant. 149–151 Metamaterials. 211–217 Microstrip dispersion. ring resonator applications. and Q-factor. 322–326 Microstrip ring antenna: dual structure. ring bandpass ﬁlters. 171–178 359 structure. 75–77 discontinuity measurements. 209–211 microstrip line. 313–314 Mutual admittance. 11–13 measurement applications. basic conﬁguration. 67–70 regular resonant modes.INDEX Measurement applications. 70–75 slow-wave bandpass ﬁlters. mode suppression. 191–193 Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC): asymmetrical coplanar strip hybrid-ring couplers.

101–103 resonant frequency effects. slow-wave bandpass structure. 140–145 Perturbations: notch perturbation: asymmetric ring resonator circuits. 186–187 tuned microstrip ring resonator. 305–306 Notch perturbation: asymmetric ring resonator circuits. 97–98 equivalent circuit. frequency modes. waveguide ring resonators. 172–178 “Parametric mode. 124–125 voltage-controlled ring oscillators. 187–188 Open-loop ring resonators. linear resonators. input impedance and frequency response. 109–112 Patch perturbation split mode. 299 Non-resonant mode reactance. 254–258 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. 101–103 . bandpass ﬁlters. 40 equivalent lumped elements. 29–32 Open circuits: frequency measurements. 346 Parasitic components. 23–25 Q-factors: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 163–164 Optoelectronics. 342–346 Ortel SL laser diode. 262–269 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts. dual-mode. 182–186 Open-stub bandstop ﬁlter. 155–161 ring bandstop ﬁlters. annular ring antenna. 167–171 Neumann function. 134–138 Planar magic-T.360 INDEX parasitic effects on resonant frequency. resonant frequency. 66–67 slotline ring ﬁlters. 252–254 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. 128–130 microstrip ring resonators. 224–226 Piezoelectric transducer (PET): bandpass ﬁlters. microwave optoelectronics applications. active annular ring antenna. 241–243 Planar waveguide model. 187–188 Narrow bandwidth. PIN diode equivalent circuit. 149–151 Odd-mode excitation. 161–164 ring oscillators. ring resonators. 314–319 Propagation constant. 141–145 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. applications. split modes. 66–67 split mode measurements. microstrip ring resonators. 12–13 PN junction: electronically switchable ring resonators. 109–112 Parallel resonances. microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring couplers. 130–131 One-port ring resonators: errors in frequency modes. 155–161 Narrow band elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlters. 128–130 varactor-tuned resonator. 198–203 Odd-numbered mode: discontinuity measurements. Hplane waveguide ring cavity. 259–262 Packaged diodes. microwave ring devices. 263–269 reduced-size uniplanar 180º reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. 272–276 PIN diodes. 99–103 Power division. varactor-tuned resonator: equivalent circuit. 338–342 Out-of-phase coupling: double-sided (180º) slotline ring magic-Ts. 146–147 electronically switchable ring resonators. 36–40 narrow band elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlters. 32–34 transmission-line model. ring resonator applications. 67–70 ring resonators. electronically switchable ring resonators: basic functions. ring antenna construction. 342–344 Pileup design. 67 Permittivity measurements. transmission-line ring resonator model. transmission-line equivalent circuit. 90–93 Phase balance/imbalance: CPW magic-Ts.” microwave optoelectronics applications. 344–346 Orthogonal feed lines: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 189–191 uniplanar ring resonators. ring resonators. varactor-tuned resonator: equivalent circuit. introduction of. 131–134 varactor-tuned microstrip resonators. 127–128 equivalent circuit. 106–109 Open-loop microstrip ring resonators: calculation and experimental results. 67–70 split mode ring resonators.

73–75 symmetric ring resonator. 217–223 reduced-size uniplanar couplers. 63–64 local resonant split modes. 12–13 Resonance splitting: microstrip ring resonators. 56–58 coupling gap. slit (gap) perturbations. 57–58 split resonant modes. 201–203 Regular resonant modes: annular ring element. 262–269 uniplanar 180º reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. 224–226 Reverse-biased diodes. ring resonators. 142–145 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuits. 26–27 varactor-tuned resonator: package parasitics and. 276–281 Rejection bandwith. 82–84 microwave optoelectronics applications. regular resonant modes. 189–191 waveguide ring ﬁlters. 67 slotline ring ﬁlters. annular ring antenna. 66–67 patch perturbation split modes. 277–281 split resonant modes. electronically switchable ring resonators: microstrip ring resonators. ring couplers. 58–61 regular resonant modes. 330–333 Rat-race hydrid couplers. 55–58 waveguide ring resonators. 343–346 ring bandpass ﬁlters. decoupled resonant modes. input impedance. 139. 76–77 Radial transmission lines. 61–67 coupled split modes. magnetic-wall ring resonator. 191–193 Relative permittivity. 223–226 Reﬂectarrays. 109–112 varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuits.INDEX microwave optoelectronics applications. 130–131. 197–211 asymmetrical coplanar strip hybrid-ring couplers. 223–226 Ring antennas: active antenna ring circuits. 183–186 ring resonator measurement. 211–217 Reverse-phase (180º) CPW-slotline Tjunctions. 298–299 . structure and properties. 298 Rat-race balanced ring mixers. 203–209 microstrip ring couplers. See also Frequency solution annular ring resonator. 133–134 PIN diode and shift in. 298–307 approximations and ﬁelds. notch perturbation. 2–4 Reduced-size structures: uniplanar magic-Ts. 155–161 electronically switchable ring resonators: microstrip ring resonators. 112–115 waveguide ring resonators. 11 slotline ring antennas. 297–298 circuit model. ring resonators. 217–227 asymmetrical coplanar strip. 64–66 notch perturbation split modes. reduced-size uniplanar 180º reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. 314–319 basic properties. 28–29 transmission-line ring resonator model. regular resonant modes. ring resonator applications. 171–178 transmission-line ring resonator model. 163–164 resonator mode chart. 309–314 slow-wave bandpass structure. 68–70 Resonant frequencies. 283–285 regular resonant modes. 281–283 Return loss. 279–281 Quasi-linear coupling. 342–346 ring bandstop ﬁlters. 114–115 Resonant modes: ring resonators: forced resonant modes. 243–244 Reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. 209–211 coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. 134–138 Reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. 287–288 waveguide ring resonators: forced resonant modes. microstrip ring resonators. 129–130 varactor-tuned microstrip resonators. 226–227 CPW-slotline couplers. structure and properties. 131–134 PIN diode equivalent circuit. ring ﬁlter applications. 322–326 Reﬂection coefﬁcient. 197–203 Rectangular waveguide. structure and characteristics. basic conﬁguration. microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring couplers. 128 361 enhanced coupling. 79–81 dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters.

179–186 magnetic-wall model. 171–178 two transmission zeros bandpass ﬁlters.and H-plane conﬁguration. equivalent lumped elements. 330–333 slotline ring quasi-optical mixers. 179–186 Ring bandstop ﬁlters. 209–211 coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. 314–319 Ring couplers: basic principles. 226–227 CPW-slotline couplers. 186–187 ring bandstop ﬁlters. 276–281 split resonant modes. input impedance. and wideband bandpass ﬁlters. 333–334 Ring oscillators. 25–27 Ring mixers: basic conﬁgurations. 227–237 asymmetrical coplanar strip branch-line couplers. 231–233 microstrip branch-line couplers. 32–34 ring equivalent circuit and input impedance. 223–226 Ring equivalent circuit: calculated and experimental results. 1–3 transmission-line model: basic components. 11–13 resonator mode chart.and open-loop microstrip resonators. 139 split modes. 283–285 regular resonant modes. 153–161 mode suppression. 149–151 reﬂectarray applications. active antennas. 305–306 wall admittance calculation. 187–188 piezoelectric transducer-tuned bandpass ﬁlters. 306 reactive terms. and Qfactor measurements. 191–193 narrow-band elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlters. applications.and open-loop microstrip resonators. 34–35 frequency modes. 14–16 simpliﬁed eigenequation. 32 frequency solution. 153 compact. 272–276 forced resonant modes. 145–147 dispersion. 197 ninety-degree branch-line couplers. rat-race balanced mixers. 188–191 slow-wave bandpass ﬁlters. 147–149 research background. 22–25 transmission lines and waveguides. 300–303 circular polarization and dual-frequency conﬁgurations. 307–308 slotline structures. 35–40 calculated and experimental results. 16–22 dual mode. mode. basic conﬁguration. 217–227 asymmetrical coplanar strip. 40 closed. 27–29 mode veriﬁcation. 322–326 research background and applications. dielectric constant. 334–342 Ring resonators: distributed transmission-line model. 161–164 Ring circuits. two transmission zeros. 227–231 rat-race hybrid couplers. 271–272 E. 306–307 input impedance: dominant formulation for. 303–305 overall impedance. 29 one-port ring circuit errors. 25–27 transmission-line equivalent circuit. 197–211 asymmetrical coplanar strip hybrid-ring couplers. 36–40 transmission-line ring resonator model. 139–145 forced modes. 45–51 microstrip dispersion. 217–223 reduced-size uniplanar couplers. equivalent lumped elements. 40–51 curvature effect. low insertion loss. 197–203 reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. 36–40 ﬁlter applications: basic principles. 161–164 slotline ring ﬁlters. 16 coupling gap equivalent circuit. 41–43 equivalent circuit. 9–10 ﬁeld analyses. 44–45 distributed-circuit model. 13 measurement applications: discontinuity measurements. 7–9 improvements. and frequency. 233–237 CPW-slotline branch-line couplers. 281–283 Ring antennas (Continued) computer simulation. sharp rejection. 308–314 Ring bandpass ﬁlters. 40 . 211–217 reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. 164–171 dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 2–4 waveguide ring resonators: basic properties. 203–209 microstrip ring couplers. 11 rigorous solution. 5–6 degenerate modes.362 INDEX closed.

297 Slow-wave bandpass ﬁlters. 70–75 Slotline structures: ring antennas. 300–303 Self-conductance. 77 Silver epoxy. 85–90 ﬁlter applications. 298 Superposition principle. 14–16 Series resonances. 50–51 electronically switchable ring resonators. transmission-line ring resonator model. 48–51 . magnetic-wall ring resonator. 14–16 Stopband bandwidth: slow-wave bandpass structure. microstrip line. 174–178 transmission-line model: dual modes. 172–178 Sharp cutoff characteristic. 319–322 Square ring resonators: errors in frequency modes. 166–171 Shunt capacitance. annular ring element. 188–191 reverse-phase back-to-back baluns. magnetic-wall ring resonator. 316–318 quasi-optical mixers. 27–29 Self-admittances. annular ring antenna. 289–292 Single-mode excitation. magnetic-wall ring resonator. 169–171 Substrate thickness. frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs). coupling gap equivalent circuit. 169–171 Split resonant modes: ring resonators. 231–233 180º reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. basic conﬁguration. 112–115 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 66–67 patch perturbation split modes. 171–178 Root-ﬁnding problem. 29–32 Standing wave calculations: forced resonant modes: annular ring. 34–35 frequency modes. frequency modes. waveguide ring ﬁlters. 308–314 active antenna structure. 13 Single-balanced ring mixer. annular ring antenna. transmission-line ring resonator model. 171–178 Smith chart. 302–303 Self-reaction. 63–64 dispersion measurements. applications. 59–61 ring resonator measurements. microstrip ring circuits. metamaterials. 217–223 coupling methods. 171–178 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. slow-wave bandpass structure. 21–22 Side coupling. 113–115 Simpliﬁed eigenequation. wall admittance calculation. transmission-line ring resonator model. coupling gap equivalent circuit.INDEX Ring slow-wave bandpass ﬁlters. 232–234 coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. 130–131 varactor tuned resonator. 203–209 uniplanar-slotline ring magic-Ts. 65–66 transmission-line ring resonator model. 64–66 notch perturbation split modes. microstrip ring resonator. 281–283 Split-ring resonators. microstrip ring resonators. 203–209 branch-line couplers. 32–34 slow-wave bandpass structure. 258–262 363 Slot ring antenna: active antenna-coupled slot antenna. 67 waveguide ring resonators. 61–67 coupled split modes. 331–333 Single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. 333–334 ring resonators: coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuits. 20–22 Surface-roughness resistance. annular ring antenna. 57–58 S-parameters: distributed-circuit ring resonator model. microstrip ring resonators. wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 149–151 local resonant split modes. 148–149 local resonant split mode. distributedcircuit ring resonator model. 117–123 uniplanar-slotline hybrid-ring coupler: branch-line couplers. frequency solution. 155–161 Slit (gap) perturbations. 31–32 Stationary solution. 347–349 Square loops. 212–217 varactor-tuned uniplanar ring resonators. regular resonant modes. 316–318 basic structure.

16–22 CPW magic-Ts. 198–203 Two transmission zeros: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 45–51 microstrip dispersion. mode suppression. 135–138 Symmetrical discontinuity. rigorous solutions. 34–35 ring bandpass ﬁlters. transmission-line equivalent circuit. resonator mode chart. 299 Trial current distribution. microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring couplers. 8–9 ring antenna construction. transmission-line ring resonator model. 164 T-network parameters. bandpass ﬁlters. parasitic effects. forced resonant modes. 246–254 Tapered-balun structure. 44–45 distributed-circuit model. 15–16 Tunable-switchable waveguide ring resonator. 241–243 Tapping positions. 183–186 Switch/ﬁlter circuits. 173–178 transmission-line equivalent circuit. ring bandpass ﬁlters. microstrip rat-race hybrid-ring couplers. 168–171 Undercoupled conditions. waveguide ring ﬁlters.and open-loop microstrip ring resonators. 160–161 equivalent circuit and input impedance. 283–285 Tuning range: piezoelectric transducer-tuned microstrip ring resonator. magnetic-wall ring resonator model. coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. regular resonant modes. 6–7 slow-wave bandpass structure. 180–186 Through-reﬂect-line (TRL) calibration. 164–171 Turn ratio. input impedance formulation. 11 Transverse magnetic (TM) ﬁeld: magnetic-wall ring resonator model. 132–134 varactor-tuned microstrip resonators. 23–27 Transmission coefﬁcients. ring resonator models. 22–25 varactor-tuned resonator. 32–34 ring ﬁlter applications. 118–123 Transmission zeros. 211–217 Tapered-line magic-T. electronically switchable ring resonators: microstrip ring resonators. 179–186 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. CPW magic-Ts. See Two transmission zeros Transverse electric (TE) modes. ring bandpass ﬁlters. ﬁeld analyses. 189–191 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 191–193 ring resonators. 32 frequency solution. 186–187 varactor tuned resonator. 29 one-port ring circuit errors. equivalent lumpedelements. 248–254 distributed transmission-line model. coupling gap equivalent circuit. 57–58 T-junction effect: asymmetric coplanar strip (ACPS) branchline coupler. 256–258 dual mode. 40–51 curvature effect. 99 microstrip ring circuits. 153–161 narrow band elliptic-function bandpass ﬁlters. 27–29 mode veriﬁcation. 276–281 Symmetry plan. 198–203 Two-port circuits. 303–305 basic components. 112–115 uniplanar ring resonators. 292–295 Two-component waves. microstrip rat-race hybridring couplers. reverse-phase backto-back baluns. 154–161 slotline ring ﬁlters. regular resonant modes. 188 ring bandpass ﬁlters. 204–209 ring bandstop ﬁlters. 25–27 . 236–237 coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. 207–209 Two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. equivalent circuit.364 INDEX frequency modes. 201–203 Transmission-line models: annular ring antenna. annular ring. 146–147 Symmetric excitation: transmission-line ring resonator model. 38–40 coupling gap. 41–43 double-sided (180º) slotline ring magic-Ts. ring resonator measurements. 109–112 Tuning stubs: dual-mode ring bandpass ﬁlters. 17–22 waveguide ring resonators. 16 closed. introduction of.

115–117 electronically switchable ring resonators: microstrip ring resonators. 130–131 experimental results. 336–342 Voltage derivatives: ring antenna construction. 109–112 simple analysis. 164–171 Width/ring radius.and H-plane conﬁguration. 134–138 PIN diode equivalent circuit. ring antenna calculation. package parasitic effects. dualmode ring resonators. 244–254 perturbations. 271–272 decoupled resonant modes. 112–115 input impedance and frequency response. 117–123 365 waveguide ring resonators. resonator mode chart. 299 transmission-line ring resonator model. 198–203 Unit cells. 180–186 wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 217–223 coupling methods. 90–93 reduced-size uniplanar magic-Ts. 287–288 dual-mode ﬁlters. 285–287 single-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. forced resonant modes. 292–295 Waveguide ring resonators. 258–262 varactor-tuned resonators. 276–281 split resonant modes. ring resonator applications.INDEX Uniplanar structures: coplanar waveguide (CPW)-slotline 180º reverse-phase hybrid-ring couplers. 300–303 Waveguide ring ﬁlters: basic properties. frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs). 31–32 Voltage-tuned microstrip ring-resonator oscillator. 103–109 resonant frequency. 145–147 . microstrip rat-race hybridring couplers. ring resonator models. 283–285 regular resonant modes. 271–272 E. 98–99 uniplanar ring resonators. ring resonator discontinuity measurements. 11 Y-parameters: ring bandpass ﬁlters. 223–226 slotline hybrid-ring coupler: branch-line couplers. 272–276 forced resonant modes. frequency modes. 281–283 Wideband bandpass ﬁlter. 262–269 reduced-size uniplanar 180º reverse-phased hybrid-ring couplers. basic conﬁguration. 141–145 Voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). 169–171 Z-parameters. 203–209 slotline ring magic-Ts. 97–98 double varactor-tuned microstrip ring circuit. 233 coplanar waveguide-slotline hybrid-ring couplers. 285 Velocity measurements. 85–90 CPW magic-Ts. 334–342 Wall admittance. 99–103 microstrip ring circuit: electronically switchable resonators. 117–123 Unit amplitude. See also Coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators basic properties. 289–292 two-cavity dual-mode ﬁlters. 129–130 equivalent circuit. 319–322 Varactor-tuned resonators: basic principles. applications.

MICROWAVE RING CIRCUITS AND ANTENNAS • Kai Chang MICROWAVE SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS AND APPLICATIONS • Kai Chang RF AND MICROWAVE WIRELESS SYSTEMS • Kai Chang RF AND MICROWAVE CIRCUIT AND COMPONENT DESIGN FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS • Kai Chang. Second Edition • Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh DIODE LASERS AND PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS • Larry Coldren and Scott Corzine RADIO FREQUENCY CIRCUIT DESIGN • W. J. Second Edition. C. Booton. A. Jr. ALGORITHMS. . K. Brandão Faria PHASED ARRAY-BASED SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS • Nick Fourikis FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION LINES • Jon C. Alan Davis and Krishna Agarwal MULTICONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION-LINE STRUCTURES: MODAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES • J. Third Edition • Govind P. C.) MICROSTRIP FILTERS FOR RF/MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS • Jia-Sheng Hong and M. Chan ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUIT ANTENNA MODULES • K. Bhattacharyya COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR ELECTROMAGNETICS AND MICROWAVES • Richard C. Goswami and Andrew K. Inder Bahl. Giancarlo De Marchis and Eugenio Iannone HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNIQUES: RECENT ADVANCES AND APPLICATIONS • Asoke K. by Kai Chang and Lung-Hwa Hsieh ISBN 0-471-44474-X Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons. Gupta and Peter S. Inc. Agrawal COHERENT OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS • Silvello Betti. and Vijay Nair MICROWAVE RING CIRCUITS AND RELATED STRUCTURES. AND SIMULATION • A. Freeman OPTICAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES • Mitsuo Fukuda MICROSTRIP CIRCUITS • Fred Gardiol HIGH-SPEED VLSI INTERCONNECTIONS: MODELING. Lancaster Microwave Ring Circuits and Related Structures. Goel FUNDAMENTALS OF WAVELETS: THEORY. Hansen HIGH-FREQUENCY ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN • Ravender Goyal (ed. Hall PHASED ARRAY ANTENNAS • R.WILEY SERIES IN MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL ENGINEERING KAI CHANG. ANALYSIS. AND APPLICATIONS • Jaideva C. Editor Texas A&M University FIBER-OPTIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS.

Lee (eds. Hirobumi Nishida. AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS • A. Karmel. Basavanhally. Partain (ed. N. Francesco Matera.) INFRARED TECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS TO ELECTROOPTICS. S.MICROWAVE APPROACH TO HIGHLY IRREGULAR FIBER OPTICS • Huang Hung-Chia NONLINEAR OPTICAL COMMUNICATION NETWORKS • Eugenio Iannone. Awwal INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC AND MICROWAVE ENGINEERING • Paul R. Camisa MILLIMETER WAVE OPTICAL DIELECTRIC INTEGRATED GUIDES AND CIRCUITS • Shiban K.) SPHEROIDAL WAVE FUNCTIONS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY • Le-Wei Li.) WAVELETS IN ELECTROMAGNETICS AND DEVICE MODELING • George W. Colef. V.) OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION • Shunji Mori. Gabriel D. Karim and A.) INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-SPEED ELECTRONICS AND OPTOELECTRONICS • Leonard M. Zhao THEORY AND PRACTICE OF INFRARED TECHNOLOGY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING • Xavier P.) ANALYSIS OF MULTICONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION LINES • Clayton R. Madsen and Jian H. MICROWAVE. Jha SUPERCONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS TO MICROWAVE. Riaziat NEW FRONTIERS IN MEDICAL DEVICE TECHNOLOGY • Arye Rosen and Harel Rosen (eds. A. S. Jha OPTICAL COMPUTING: AN INTRODUCTION • M. Koul MICROWAVE DEVICES. and Marina Settembre FINITE ELEMENT SOFTWARE FOR MICROWAVE ENGINEERING • Tatsuo Itoh. and Mook-Send Leong ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC IN COMPUTER SYSTEMS • Mi Lu OPTICAL FILTER DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: A SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH • Christi K. R. CIRCUITS AND THEIR INTERACTION • Charles A. and Raymond L. and Hiromitsu Yamada ANTENNAS FOR RADAR AND COMMUNICATIONS: A POLARIMETRIC APPROACH • Harold Mott INTEGRATED ACTIVE ANTENNAS AND SPATIAL POWER COMBINING • Julio A. Paul ELECTROMAGNETIC OPTIMIZATION BY GENETIC ALGORITHMS • Yahya Rahmat-Samii and Eric Michielssen (eds. Antonio Mecozzi. AND SENSORS • A. Maldague OPTOELECTRONIC PACKAGING • A. ELECTROOPTICS. and Y. Lee and G. C. Silvester (eds. PHOTONIC DEVICES. ELECTRICAL MACHINES. R. Rowe . R. Mickelson. Navarro and Kai Chang ANALYSIS METHODS FOR RF. Pan SOLAR CELLS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS • Larry D. AND MILLIMETER-WAVE PLANAR TRANSMISSION LINE STRUCTURES • Cam Nguyen FREQUENCY CONTROL OF SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS • Motoichi Ohtsu (ed. Giuseppe Pelosi and Peter P.) ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPAGATION IN MULTI-MODE RANDOM MEDIA • Harrison E. Conrad Dalman ADVANCES IN MICROSTRIP AND PRINTED ANTENNAS • Kai-Fong Lee and Wei Chen (eds. Xiao-Kang Kang. R. Paul INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY • Clayton R.

G. Singh and Akhlesh Lakhtakia (eds. and Robert J. Simons ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN UNCONVENTIONAL MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES • Onkar N. Magdalena Salazar-Palma. Michael C. Sauter COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE CIRCUITS.ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPAGATION IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL RANDOM MEDIA • Harrison E. Yu and Suganda Jutamulia SiGe.) ACTIVE AND QUASI-OPTICAL ARRAYS FOR SOLID-STATE POWER COMBINING • Robert A. Popovic (eds. Wicks.) ´ OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING. COMPUTING AND NEURAL NETWORKS • Francis T. GaAs. K. Bonneau .) FUNDAMENTALS OF GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM RECEIVERS: A SOFTWARE APPROACH • James Bao-yen Tsui InP-BASED MATERIALS AND DEVICES: PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY • Osamu Wada and Hideki Hasegawa (eds.) COMPACT AND BROADBAND MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS • Kin-Lu Wong DESIGN OF NONPLANAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS AND TRANSMISSION LINES • Kin-Lu Wong PLANAR ANTENNAS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS • Kin-Lu Wong FREQUENCY SELECTIVE SURFACE AND GRID ARRAY • T. York and Zoya B. Wu (ed. AND InP HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS • Jiann Yuan ELECTRODYNAMICS OF SOLIDS AND MICROWAVE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY • Shy-Ang Zhou SWART ANTENNAS • Tapan K. Rowe NONLINEAR OPTICS • E. S. Sarkar. AND SYSTEMS • Rainee N. COMPONENTS.

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