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Identifications: 1.

The Renaissance
The Renaissance occurred in Europe from the mid 15th century to the early 17th century. It begun in Italy and slowly spread throughout Europe. During this period the interest in classical antiquity and humanism was renewed. There were very little considerable developments in agriculture and the stands of living rose. Intellectuals aspired to satisfy the senses, take pleasure in life, and had no apprehension about death and the afterlife.

2. The Age of Revolution
The Age of Revolution occurred after the Renaissance from the late 16th century to the end of the 18th century throughout the world. Five revolutions rose during this age: the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the American Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. The Scientific Revolution began in the late 16th centuries gave rise to a new way of studying nature through the use of the experimental method. The Enlightenment, the age of the philosophers, occurred during the 18th century. During the Enlightenment period intellectuals endeavored to put an end to the oppression of religion and saw science as the salvation to the problems occurring. The French Revolution (1781-1799) was a period of political and social turmoil in French and European history with the removal of the Ancient Regime. The American Revolution (1776) was a chain of wars fought on the American continent and against European colonialism, which resulted in democracy as a reality. At the end of the 18th century England, then progressively Europe and most of the Western civilization underwent an Industrial Revolution. The social order moved from an agricultural and semi-feudal society to the modern industrial world.

3. Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer who formulated astronomical reforms. Copernicus was the first to create a comprehensive heliocentric system and put the earth in motion in order to achieve his goal of purifying mathematical astronomy.

4. The Copernican System
The Copernican system is the heliocentric model that Copernicus created. In this system the sun is in the center of the universe and showed that the observed motions of the other planets can be explained with the Earth in motion.

5. The problem of Mercury and Venus
The problem of Mercury and Venus is that observations show Mercury 22° and Venus 44° from the Sun. Ptolemy could not explain why the center of the epicycles of Mercury and Venus on the line connecting the Earth and the Sun are placed between the Earth and the Sun. Copernicus solved this problem by stating that the planets orbit the sun and since Mercury and Venus are closer to the Sun they are never more than the set distance from the Sun.

6. The problem of parallelism of radii
The problem of parallelism of radii is Ptolemy could not explain why all the planets have epicycles the same size as the Sun¶s orbit and the lines connecting the planets to their respective epicyclical centers is parallel to the line connecting the Sun and Earth. Copernicus explained it by predicting a ³tie rod´ connecting the Sun to a planet, which forces the planet to remain at a fixed distance and makes the radii remain co-parallel.

7. The problem of retrograde motion
The problem of retrograde motion could not be explained by Ptolemy, he could only observe retrograde motion occurring. Copernicus could say that retrograde motion occurs because the

Copernicus promoted a heliocentric system. Advantages of the Copernican system The advantages of the Copernican system were that it solved the problems of Mercury and Venus. mercury. and the order of the planets. Because of his interest in science and math. Copernicus got the idea of a heliocentric system from reading ancient astronomers like Cicero. he stated that Copernicus¶ heliocentric system was for mathematical purposes only and was not a physical representation of the cosmology of earth. Where did Copernicus get his inspiration for the new system? Copernicus got his inspiration for the new system from the ancient. Cosmographic Mystery Start: 19. Andreas Osiander Andreas Osiander was a first generation Lutheran astronomer who wrote an anonymous preface attached to De Revolutiones. Plutarch.Earth catches up to and passes another planet going around the Sun. parallelism of radii. He influenced the establishment of the new Protestant curriculum in Lutheran universities and initiated educational reforms. 13. Cosmological implications of Copernicus¶ work The cosmological implication of Copernicus¶ system was that in putting the Earth in motion Copernicus destroyed the sense and coherence of Aristotelian physics. retrograde motion. and Aristarchus all of whom discussed a heliocentric system. and Saturn. The problem of the order of the planets The problem of the order of the planets was that Ptolemy arbitrarily placed the epicycles of Mercury and Venus on the line connecting the Sun and Earth. 14. Mars. In De Revolutiones. De Revolutiones offered an alternative from Ptolemy¶s geocentric system. 17. 10. twelve years after it was finished. Casper Peucer. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres or De Revolutiones was written by Copernicus and published in 1543. The Copernican order is the Sun at the center. Geo-heliocentric model The geo-heliocentric model was the compromise to Copernicus¶ heliocentric model to preserve Aristotelian physics created by Tycho Brahe. 9. 12. The heliocentric system wouldn¶t work unless the Earth was in motion. Philip Melancthon Philip Melancthon (1497-1560) was a professor of Greek at the Lutheran University in Wittenberg. This model never developed into mathematical model capable of making predicitons. so that the other planet appears to be going backward. 8. and Erasmus Reinhold. Jupiter. ³Area law´ . Kepler Start: 18. Venus. he assembled a circle of intelligent mathematicians around him. In the preface. including George Joachim. The model places the planets revolving around the Sun and the Sun revolving around a fixed and stationary Earth. 15. Stellar parallax Start: 16. In the Copernican system planets are ordered by their increasing period of revolution. 11. Earth and the Moon.

Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Start: 28. Galileo¶s contribution to scientific method Start: . Galileo on free fall Start: 30. Galileo on rest and motion Start: 32. New Astronomy Start: 22. Conflict between science and religion Start: 29. Galileo on projectiles Start: 31. Literal interpretation of the bible Start: 25. Galileo¶s foundations for a new system of physics Start: 33.Start: 20. Galileo Galilei Start: 23. The Protestant Reformation Start: 24. Galileo¶s choice of circular inertia Start: 34. William Gilbert¶s treatise on magnetism Start: 21. Letters on Sunspots Start: 27. Giordano Bruno Start: 26.

12. Explain the theory of homocentric spheres. 14. What were the ancient competitors of the two-sphere universe? 6.Essay Questions: 1. What was the two-sphere universe view of cosmology? 5. What is the apparent motion of the sun and how did ancient calendars address the problem? 4. 20. What was the state of astronomy at Copernicus' birth? 17. Describe the Aristotelian universe. What was the attitude of the church towards astronomy? 15. How was Copernicus' work first received? 22. Describe Copernicus's astronomy (the Sun. 21. Describe Copernicus' physics and cosmology. planets and harmony). Describe the significance of Copernicus in the making of the modern mind. 19. 11. What is apparent planetary motion? 7. 8. Who was Tycho Brahe and what was his astronomy/cosmology? 23. 2. Why was Copernicus' innovation so revolutionary? 18. How was Aristotle criticized by the scholastics? 16. What are epicycles and deferents? 9. What is the Aristotelian Plenum? 13. Discuss Copernicus's preface to the Revolutiones. Describe European science and learning to the 13th century. Who was Kepler and what was his astronomy/cosmology? 24. Describe the heavens in primitive cosmologies. what was his astronomy and how was it validated? 10. 3. Who was Ptolemy. Who was Galileo and what was his contribution to the Copernican system? . Explain the Aristotelian laws of motion.