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In: Health and Human Development Series

HEALTH AND HAPPINESS FROM MEANINGFUL WORK:
RESEARCH IN QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE

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HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERIES
Joav Merrick (editor)
Adolescent Behavior Research: International Perspectives Joav Merrick and Hatim A. Omar 2007 ISBN 1-60021-649-8 Disability from a Humanistic Perspective: Towards a Better Quality of Life Shunit Reiter 2008 ISBN 978-1-60456-412-9 Complementary Medicine Systems: Comparison and Integration Karl W. Kratky 2008 ISBN 978-1-60456-475-4
Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work: Research in Quality of Working Life Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick 2009 ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2

In: Health and Human Development Series

HEALTH AND HAPPINESS FROM MEANINGFUL WORK:
RESEARCH IN QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE

SØREN VENTEGODT
AND

JOAV MERRICK EDITORS

Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
New York

cm. No part of this book may be reproduced. or reliance upon. Quality of work life. tape. instructions. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. Health and happiness from meaningful work : research in quality of working life / Soren Ventegodt. Joav Merrick. ISBN 978-1-61324-981-9 (eBook) 1. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. Merrick. 1950. Inc. no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods. Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www. the services of a competent person should be sought.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book. magnetic. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special. electrostatic. but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. consequential. Joav. products. Independent verification should be sought for any data. HD6955. mechanical photocopying. I. from the readers’ use of. or exemplary damages resulting.II. 2. this material. Work environment. Inc. Title. p. in whole or in part.3'61--dc22 2008050567 Published by Nova Science Publishers. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic. ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. advice or recommendations contained in this book. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269.Copyright © 2009 by Nova Science Publishers. In addition. Includes index.V45 2009 306. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS.  New York . recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. All rights reserved. Søren. Any parts of this book based on government reports are so indicated and copyright is claimed for those parts to the extent applicable to compilations of such works. If legal or any other expert assistance is required.novapublishers. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Ventegodt.

Happiness and Meaning of Life Søren Ventegodt. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Mastery in your Work Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Up – or Down in your Life? Søren Ventegodt. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Personal Quality of Life Søren Ventegodt. Isack Kandel. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Lars Enevoldsen and Joav Merrick vii ix 1 3 5 9 Chapter 3 23 Chapter 4 33 Chapter 5 43 Chapter 6 51 Chapter 7 59 Chapter 8 77 . Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Creating Value Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Niels Jørgen Andersen.CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgements Introduction Part I: Understanding Quality of Working Life – How to Be Happy at Work Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Working Life Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick Quality of Life. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick How to Improve Working-life Quality. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Working with Colleagues and Management Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Quality of Life and Health Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen.

Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Working Life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire Søren Ventegodt. Postolache 109 111 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 125 155 161 183 185 197 201 203 217 221 225 227 229 Part III: Travelling and Inspiration for Development as Leader Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Travel and Shift Work Tatiana Menick and Teodor T. Postolache Reflections Lars Enevoldsen Part IV: Acknowledgements Chapter 15 Publications on Quality of Life 1994-2008 from an International Group of Collaborators Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick About the Quality of Life Research Center in Copenhagen About the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel Chapter 16 Chapter 17 About the Authors About the Editors Index . Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Mood Disorders and Suicide Jong-Min Woo and Teodor T.vi Contents Part II: Research in Quality of Working Life: Improving Value by Making your People Happy at Work Chapter 9 Working Life Quality and Value Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Antonovsky Salutogenesis Related to Work Søren Ventegodt.

Today employees and leaders also expect work to provide their life with meaning and stimulating experiences and developing challenges. sense of coherence and similar core concepts of modern medical and psychosocial sciences have in many studies now been strongly associated with work satisfaction. . Often the companies have health insurance for their people. We have decided to call the integrated concept of all above mentioned dimensions for working life quality. selfrealization. joy on the job and similar concepts. based on a theory of quality of working life. Today what we do is often done as a part of a large organization. a mathematical formula from which the created value of an employee or leader can be known. We are proud to present. clients or patients the best products and services. The health of the employees has become a major financial interest of the company as only healthy employees and leaders can perform optimally. and the value created by the single member of the organization has become increasingly difficult to measure. as it always has been. We also provide a questionnaire for measuring the quality of working life. The scientific challenge we have taken upon our shoulders is to put the whole messy and chaotic area in order. well-oriented and culturally integrated employees can win the competition by offering costumers. but also for the mental working environment. Organizations have become increasingly responsible for not only the physical work environment. Society is developing fast and only companies with modern. but work has become more complicated that before. meaning of life. The work is often abstract manipulation of matter or information. development of talents and skills. in the present book. We have in a study on a random sample of the Danish population found a strong statistical association between the measured quality of working life and health. similar to the well-known global quality of life concept in medicine and social sciences. and create a formula according to which the actual integrated status of worker can be calculated.your quality of life and sometimes your life depends on it. development of personal character. Work is an important part of the life of the modern man. if only the working life quality is known. A strong association between quality of life. physical and mental health. Scholarly knowledge is substituted with experiential learning in a developing and dynamic environment.PREFACE Happiness at work……. and factors like stress and sexual harassment are becoming more and more regulated by company rules and culture.

viii Preface We started the research in quality of working life in 1994. and the first version of the QWL-theory was ready in 1996. After adjusting the questionnaire and analysis of the data we further improved our understanding to the level that we are happy to present in this book. based on a number of published scientific papers. .500 persons and 30 companies. In 1997 it was empirically tested in a study involving 1.

Staff from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The studies were supported by grants from the IMK Almene Fond in Denmark and the scientific papers published in the Int J Disabil Hum Dev 2008. Jerusalem in Israel was supported by the Israel Foundation for Human Development in New York. Office of the Medical Director. We also thank Frank Columbus of Nova Science and his staff in New York for his support and guidance. .7(2) and in the Int J Child Health Hum Dev 2008.1(2) and (3) issues.

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and create a formula according to which the actual integrated status of worker can be calculated. We also provide a questionnaire for measuring the quality of working life. a mathematical formula from which the created value of an employee or leader can be known. well-oriented and culturally integrated employees can win the competition by offering costumers. Scholarly knowledge is substituted with experiential learning in a developing and dynamic environment. We are proud to present. Today what we do is often done as a part of a large organization. The work is often abstract manipulation of matter or information. as it always has been.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. We have in a study on a random sample of the Danish . similar to the well-known global quality of life concept in medicine and social sciences. Society is developing fast and only companies with modern. Today employees and leaders also expect work to provide their life with meaning and stimulating experiences and developing challenges. clients or patients the best products and services. in the present book. The health of the employees has become a major financial interest of the company as only healthy employees and leaders can perform optimally. development of talents and skills. but also for the mental working environment. meaning of life. Inc. joy on the job and similar concepts. selfrealization. physical and mental health. Often the companies have health insurance for their people. INTRODUCTION HEALTH AND HAPPINESS FROM MEANINGFUL WORK Happiness at work… your quality of life and sometimes your life depends on it. but work has become more complicated that before. Work is an important part of the life of the modern man. development of personal character. based on a theory of quality of working life. and factors like stress and sexual harassment are becoming more and more regulated by company rules and culture. Organizations have become increasingly responsible for not only the physical work environment. We have decided to call the integrated concept of all above mentioned dimensions for working life quality. The scientific challenge we have taken upon our shoulders is to put the whole messy and chaotic area in order. and the value created by the single member of the organization has become increasingly difficult to measure. A strong association between quality of life. sense of coherence and similar core concepts of modern medical and psychosocial sciences have in many studies now been strongly associated with work satisfaction. if only the working life quality is known.

mental and physical health and happiness in life that can result from a wise and conscious use of yourself in the every day working situation. It is our sincere hope that our development and research in quality of working life will inspire many companies. After adjusting the questionnaire and analysis of the data we further improved our understanding to the level that we are happy to present in this book. sense of coherence. In 1997 it was empirically tested in a study involving 1. We started the research in quality of working life in 1994. based on a number of published scientific papers.2 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick population found a strong statistical association between the measured quality of working life and health. leaders and employees to improve the meaning of life. and the first version of the QWL-theory was ready in 1996. .500 persons and 30 companies.

PART I: UNDERSTANDING QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE – HOW TO BE HAPPY AT WORK .

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If you cannot see the point of what you are doing and you do not feel that you contribute anything valuable.such a constant companion . Chapter 1 WORKING LIFE Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick Work can be one of the greatest pleasures in life. your life energy is drained. if you do not consider your work valuable. your work wears you out. Few human beings can cope with leading a meaningless life .bit by bit. Work is such a vital part of life . only one in every three employees is happy in his or her job [1. It was a lovely day. He was lying with his eyes half open. there is nothing worse than a job you are unhappy with. carried out by the Quality-ofLife Research Centre in Copenhagen. . This is catastrophic for society. Without responsibility and commitment. quality and efficiency disappear into the blue. Yes. your joy in life may be shattered.all spent working in jobs that they do not really enjoy. but more like a prison with displeasing work. If your work is not a place where you can thrive and be happy. the same will apply to your company. For a moment he felt completely happy. Aha.2]. like this! In his dream he had solved the problem. Furthermore.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. Knud could hear the love of his life potter about in the kitchen. We are convinced that an uninspiring and detached working life is one of the main reasons why people on average retire at the age of 61 years. On the other hand. Inc. According to a Quality-of-Life survey of 10. And it may also be the reason why people in Denmark rate such a short average life span. as proven by several surveys and reports. It is difficult to feel happy when you do not really feel committed to your work. It takes its toll because our health and wellbeing are dependent on our ability to renew ourselves and develop new expressions of our personality in order to use life properly. the customers and the environment in general.that if you do not feel at ease when leaving for work in the morning. He wondered how his colleagues would react? Blinking against the clear morning sun. it wasn't that bad his solution. and he was now wondering if the solution could be applied to real life. That kind of work may kill you slowly .000 Danes.

Result from a study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen. At your company it should not be difficult to agree on commencing a project with the purpose of developing your working-life quality because an improvement in your work satisfaction will be in the interest of your company too. Merrick J. [3] . [Danish] Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ. Instead it becomes the challenge of our life. with friends in our spare time as well as on the job. The IQOL theory: An integrative theory of the global quality of life concept. 1996. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. The meaning of life is found in all aspects of life: within the family. This requires alertness and your best efforts. It seems that we all have a dream of contributing something to this world . Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Employees and management who have gained more insight and a more profound sense of responsibility will be concerned to implement a production process that does not interfere with the delicate balance of the ecosystem. to use their talents in the best possible way to the benefit of themselves and others [3-5]. It may sound easy. Livskvalitet I Danmark. REFERENCES [1] [2] Ventegodt S.500 31-33 year-olds. but as a matter of fact it requires an immense amount of selfdiscipline. becomes what we dreamed of doing.6 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick Human beings are created to be active. Results from a population survey. as well as influencing and creating a world in accordance with our private dreams. it is essential to be aware of your attitudes and your way of doing things. in private as well as professionally.in our private as well as our professional lives. 1995. it can be thrilling and. There seem to be four basic conditions that determine the quality of working life: • • • • Personal quality of life Mastery of the working process Fellowship with colleagues and management Creating real value for both customers and environment. Research showed [1. Which is described in papers in this special issue and we would also like to take a closer look at personal development: How do you improve your life? What is it that makes it so difficult for us to develop? In order to develop and improve your life. Work can be exciting. There is nothing more exhilarating than an exciting job because work is about being useful to the world. Scientific World Journal 2003.2] that people who feel useful are the ones who are happy. With your decision to make improvements. at best. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Quality of life in Denmark. Quality of life theory I. The quality of life of 4. which very few possess at the outset.3:1030-40. That is what is meant by life. it is not experienced as mere work. miracles may be waiting around the corner.

Quality of life as the realization of life potential: A biological theory of human being. Scientific World Journal 2003. Andersen NJ. Quality of life theory II. Quality of life theory III. Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ.Working Life [4] 7 [5] Ventegodt S.3:1050-7. Scientific World Journal 2003. Merrick J. . Maslow revisited.3:1041-9. Merrick J.

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Denmark and its scientific international coworkers have walked the path to try to understand quality of life (QOL) and QWL. the Quality of Life Research Centre in Copenhagen. It is only natural. Most interestingly it seems that we all have great gifts to give to the world. and for that purpose we have constructed the word working-life quality or the quality of working life (QWL). HAPPINESS AND MEANING OF LIFE Søren Ventegodt.30-37] our works have often . Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Good work is an activity that creates a strong sense of personal meaningfulness. Chapter 2 QUALITY OF LIFE. Niels Jørgen Andersen.5] and papers [12. Our love of life is revealed in what we do. publishing books [4-11] and scientific papers [12-29] on the good life and the good work.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. The fine art of working and the secret of working are to be found in the intimacy of the intersection between our lives and the world around us. INTRODUCTION Philosophers have through all ages been occupied with the immense questions and seemingly unsolvable problems related to the quality of human life. Inc. We all want to become complete. As life for most people have consisted of a professional and a private life. that we take these general solutions and apply them in relation to our worklife. The secret of the extraordianry working life is the blossoming of all our human talents. but only after many years of dedicated practice will these gifts reveal themselves fully. a sign of our time is that these problems are starting to soften up on the thinkers [1-3]. Work should be a direct manifestation of life. both of these have been subject to consideration. we need to grow and achieve fulfilment. Exept for a few books [4. For half a century grand thinkers have been reflecting on the meaning of life and how to improve it and quite surprisingly. Life is a simple and clear expression of what you do. Good work challenges us to go beyond our limits and confront new and exciting aspects of life. For more that a decade. because it is directly connected to the project of our personal development. To this end. what we want from life.

we needed to look at the consequesces of patients and co-workers being taught this philosophy layed out here. but without adressing the philosophical questions directly. which materialise in our papers on QWL philosophy. TO WORK IS TO THRIVE AND PROSPER – OR TO DIE SLOWLY The worst thing he knew was to wake up in the morning and go to work. The quality of our QWL reflexions are soft and general – pretty vague. How did they feel ? How content were they with their lives ? How happy were they ? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled ? These were part of the many questions asked. We asked the questions we believed to be important for the QOL. In this book on QWL philosophy we take our offset in the Danish Quality of Life Survey. Nevertheless we find such general perspectives of utmost importance. if you are accustomed to the “hard” quality of natural science .as much philosophy is and even vague if you are accustomed to medical QOL science. interpretations of life and production goals. we call this QOL as medicine [28. fellowship and true creation of value? To argue that these philosphical questions. and preferences of focus. trying not to be late for work. Quite surprisingly it seems like just assimilating the QOL and QWL philosophy already makes things feel better and more meaningfull. The day had started and he was already busy. as all scientific and systemtical action is build on such general considerations of values. and the expierience of creating real value to the community.22-27] forced us to contemplate deeply on the following philosophical questions. We need a specific research line in QWL also. were actually related to medicine and the providing of high standard health sevices. The results [8-11. both related to QOL and QWL. hearthful relationships at the working place. as we believe that such a positive interpretation of life and reality can help many leaders and coworkers in the modern health service organisation. SEQWL. Our series of QWL pilosophy papers will adress these items one by one. especially when it comes to large health care units.17] with more that 300 questions on their quality of life. what is human talent and how is it supported. helping the patient to assume responsibility for his or her own life [30]. but the focus is on using all their talents and obtaining joy of work and proficiency. When we work with patients. this is not wise. But as philosophy is the basis of science. QWLsupportive perspective. Niels Jørgen Andersen. like what is QOL and QWL.10 Søren Ventegodt. and the subsequent work done on QWL and the related 100 questions QWL-questionnare. the principles are not very different. with all their to wellknown problems related to QOL and QWL.29] and this improvement of the patient’s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine. When we work with leaders and coworkers. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick been discussing philosphy related to the concept of quality of life (QOL) and quality of working life (QWL). He felt that his eyelids fought him on days like this and refused to open. He forced himself out of bed and got dressed. So please bare with this vagueness and look for the abstract. where we asked 10. what is personal mastery. perspectives on reality. . We need an explicit discussion of the philosophy behind the major aims and developments in our medical science and the related sciences making it possible for us to deliver the service to our patients and clients that we want.000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire [16.

we can only say that their attitude may be wrong. only one in three people feels very much at ease with his or her job. travel around the world. Basically. Life is too short for boring work. for instance.washing. And that is the secret of work: work is where our efforts can make a difference . status and personal identity. Would you keep the job you are in? What would you do differently? To what would you say no? If you would not keep your job in this situation. We must be alive on the job. According to statistics (Danish WorkingLife Quality project). Life is far too short for meaningless work. Other ways will make us suffer from the wrongs we do. A job that we do not really want is just not good enough. The core of work is very close to our soul. Most people feel fine on the job even though it is rarely superb. The world has grown too rich for that. This is not to say that all physical work . It is important to understand that our body cannot endure the strain of doing things we consider meaningless. We are too tolerant. We really must make demands to feel fully alive at work. boring. become an artist or make yourself comfortable and take it easy all day long? Many people daydream about not having to work. Consequently. you will end up with a merely 'bearable' job and never obtain really rewarding work. Thus there are great possibilities for progress. What would you like to do? What do you feel like? What are your interests? What possibilities are offered by your present employer to get you where you want to be? Imagine that your physician has just passed you your death sentence: about three years left to live. maybe you should quit tomorrow. happiness .and where our contribution can help to make this a better world to live in. study. we must be eager and keen and go full speed ahead! You will not become more alive from doing work that you consider routine. Of course. It is the meaning of life that we use ourselves for a purpose.but is that standard necessary? Happiness does not depend on a car or a mobile telephone and electric toothbrush . What can we do to find a better job or improve our job? First of all. To those people who insist on arguing that many people still have to work for their daily bread. There is no guarantee that we will grow very old. Do not take it for the sake of money. Get your fantasies going. monotonous and exhausting. But.maybe there was something special about working after all.is bad work. using ourselves in constructive and useful ways gives us great experiences. stop being so content. Only work close to our soul is good. It can make us happy and healthy or it can corrode our souls and jeopardise everything.Quality of Life. This. Happiness and Meaning of Life 11 Do you look forward to going to work in the morning? Or is it a necessary evil? Does your work draw you or must you force yourself to leave home? Would you continue working if you had enough money? Or would you do something quite different . Work can build up something in life or tear it down. because we are content with far too little. of course. If you like it and you have good colleagues and if you consider it useful. then it might be the right job for you. they realise that maybe a lot of freedom and time off is not sufficient . But this may be the essence of the problem: if you do not make further demands of your work. It is in our nature as human beings to be active and creative.change professions. It takes a lot of pain to experience life as a gift. since it fulfils our need to develop ourselves to be useful and valuable. cleaning up or sewing . one day. But work that you do not consider good for you is not worth having. We may die tomorrow. it is necessary to work to maintain a good standard of living .nor the good claret and sirloin. We have to work simply because we cannot help it. Something that goes deeper than money. which cannot hide the fact that human beings need to work. does not mean that all work is good. if we consider ourselves useless creatures.

exhausting and destructive simply because work takes up such a big part of our life.and you are the only one who can change things. Apathy flowing sluggishly through the veins and listlessness causing heavy eyelids all day long result in an almost dead person. If there is no commitment on your part towards your work. Life is short and the chances are few . Or we can let go and give up and gradually grow tired. your spouse gets infuriated or the whole world laughs at you . there is no reason to be unhappy about a life without material goods. then it is obvious that we suspect our working life of being too uninspiring. It is your own responsibility to get on with your life. tomorrow you may be trying to recover from a cerebral haemorrhage.12 Søren Ventegodt. Our body needs a commitment that is alive. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Your working life is your responsibility. To what extent is our health endangered. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick comes from your own wellbeing. Today we know for a fact that human beings. there will not be any enthusiasm either for your spouse. A good job is . Maybe there is no fire in you at all? If you can make a change by quitting a boring and monotonous job in favour of what you see as the challenge of your life. forgetfulness as well as rather poor performance in your job. Life is shorter than you think. Indeed . Our greatest enemy is resignation.and this comes as something of a surprise . fear. and if you have no close friends that will not help you either. our freshness and connection to life. But we can assume that there is a severe health risk. weak. Of course. your surroundings and from doing what you really like to do. although those on social benefits were on average less happy. You have no time for fiddling about. As living creatures we are made for a whole range of lively activities. who really knows what is good for you . If you feel that you are moving downhill. when we are bored on the job? We do not know all the consequences yet. sad. in fact. old and desolate. your problematic relationship with your partner is worth a thought. Is it possible that your way of living is causing your deterioration? If we do not thrive and our body keeps telling us that we are unbalanced. people suffering from a wide range of weaknesses and health defects. If you can achieve such a state of wellbeing. indolence and laziness. 55% of the jobless persons stated that they were happy or very happy compared to 66% of the persons in jobs.according to the previously mentioned study on quality of life . To find out what to do with our working life is the great opportunity to do something about it.so take a chance while it is there. It needs to feel excitement. Today you may be young and vital. you have made an excellent bargain. The same research also showed that it is not unusual to be happy without a job. But everything in life fits together. so to speak. We so easily lose our clarity. You are the only person. your children. you are far better off than the average person is. if you are to renew yourself. We are able to renew our lives by demanding everything. A person without dreams of life is a person who is only half-alive. your friends or your hobbies. you need to give thought to what is wrong.people with jobs they do not really like generally feel worse about life than those who are unemployed. who seemingly will not take the initiative in his or her own life. happiness and hope. According to the survey. who have lost their joy in life are. Nobody will do the work for you. When we are wrapped up in old habits and comfortable wealth we lose our need to be alert and do our best. And no matter whether you get half your former salary.do not take any notice. and this is accompanied by a symptomatic and increasing number of days lost through sickness. It is as if we cannot live without feeling alive. In that case. if you are in a job that you do not like.

But you have to stay alive and becoming a blacksmith was no problem. He has constant visions of the finished product. while others just fumble with the tool of their trade? Is it not common experience that under exactly the same conditions some thrive and prosper. Work should be a direct manifestation of life. The Good Blacksmith The hammer hits the red-hot iron. its workability as well as the slowness and precise movements of his body in full harmony with the purpose of his work. The perfect mastery of the tool. The blacksmith is one with his hammer. Create a job for yourself . which anyway is much too long. Work was less complicated in the old days. before the computer. what we want from life.get a job that you really care about. It is quite well done. Good work challenges us to go beyond our limits and confront new and exciting aspects of life. Happiness and Meaning of Life 13 one chance in a lifetime. whereas .Quality of Life. a total confidence in the red-hot iron. Life is a simple and clear expression of what you do. The fine art of working and the secret of working are to be found in the intimacy in the intersection between our lives and the world around us. even though he takes no pleasure in handling the hammer. and the customer is usually content with what he gets. I should have done otherwise. the forge is hot and the noise from his constantly hammering the anvil is at times insufferable and always fatiguing. the perfect temperature. customers come from all over to ask for this blacksmith when they want the best. the forge is very hot and dirty but he was lucky to get two apprentices to do the heavy work. The work is grubby and the air inhaled is far from pure. Take the chance and go for it. But imagine a modern open-plan office. The Mediocre Blacksmith He shows a certain pride when delivering the finished product. It is important to avoid too many errors even though things move fast at times. i. The work is good and the pay is not bad. One has to be flexible. be good to yourself. The hammers are heavy. we need to grow and achieve fulfilment. He is quite content with being a blacksmith. WHAT IS GOOD WORK – AND HOW DO YOU ATTAIN IT? The Bad Blacksmith The work in the forge is hard. At the end of the day. Our love of life shows in what we do. He always sees to it that they measure up to the professional standards. Of course. Good work is an activity that creates a strong sense of personal meaningfulness because it is directly connected to our personal development project. To this end. the blacksmith always sighs a little. masters the creative process and is fully present in the situation. Of course. the right material. We all want to become complete. because this blacksmith's work is superb. the complete understanding of the qualities and properties of the iron. Will you not find someone here mastering the forge hammer (the keyboard) with perfection and discipline.e. he thinks.

It takes time. It will not be long either before a small scanner registers what is in your shopping basket in order to draw money from your bank right away. That is what counts. Niels Jørgen Andersen. That is why there is no point in occupying the unemployed and receivers of social benefits by making them dig holes or produce pegs and pins. Good work entails much joy and happiness but also many challenges. They do nothing. not as a means of obtaining something else. there may still be lots of trouble. To be stuck in a place where you are not meant to be is quite dreadful. For instance. fatiguing or unpleasant. for instance money. when work is considered as a great personal fulfilment. prestige and identity. Please remember that what is important is your personal experience of doing your job. but rather an intense one. Such a state may be reached. It is the feeling of being burdened in a very unpleasant way. They do not make any demands. If you do not like your job. Often you are quite tired when you get to the end of a job.but some day they will not. You do it because you cannot help doing it. You do it for the sake of the work itself. it is vital for you and just the thing to do. to be burdened in this way is being a mule on which others load their burdens. Stress in your life is when you cannot cope with external demands. It may be a painful and difficult experience because it will take you right to your limits where you must make all your best efforts to handle the challenges. problems and struggles. then maybe you are one of those in a good job. The piece of work that is felt as good and meaningful one day may very well be outworn and obsolete the next. It is not to your advantage. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick others whither and fall into decay? Why is it that human beings reach such different degrees of mastering their work and why do human beings display such different talents? Work can be a fantastic experience and a potential peak in a person's life. in that case you must get on with your life. thus replacing the cashier in the supermarket. A strange and interesting feature about work in general is that it develops. even though your social environment deems it a good job. then it does not matter that you get tired. even though other people perceive your job at the machine or the computer as mere routine. When the day comes. it does not help you to feel better about it. when electronic and mechanical devices can do the job just as well as human beings. it will not be regarded as comfortable. And you do the work not for the sake of others but for your own sake. cleaning and floor washing will be carried out by crawling electronic night-time tortoises? Such robots may still have difficulties in observing the dirt as well as manoeuvring past doorsteps.not external demands. Good work attracts you . And even if it is experienced as really good.not as a relaxing experience. But still. They do not start changing things and they do not complain about anything. it is not stressful. But if you think that this specific piece of work just must be done and that you are the one to finish it. In good work your own inner demands direct you . work will lose its meaning. Think of your work. Even though your work is fine.14 Søren Ventegodt. However. It may be wise to change things right where you are or start looking for a new job. how long will it be before sweeping. Does it really suit you? Do you feel like doing it? Are you given the freedom to carry out the work the way you want to? Are you good at your work? Is your working performance improving? If you can answer yes to these questions. What if you are not the right person in the right place? Well. Yet many people remain stuck where they are and do not look for alternatives. They are fatalists and gradually they become almost . You do it because it fits you perfectly.

unless their mortgage is far too high. One likely explanation is that the salary and status may comfort you in your personal life. These are your relationship to your own self. according to surveys carried out. Happiness and Meaning of Life 15 unnoticeable. How can you endure spending seven to eight working hours every single working day without feeling alive? How can you accept that what you are doing in your life does not make your happy? Do you seriously believe that you can return to your home after a long day of doing meaningless work and still be happy. Your relationship to your own ego has to do with quality of life. do not apply when it comes to the actual experience of the work as well as life as a whole. money etc. it looks as if the social status derived from work is of less importance. your relationship to the people with whom you work (your company) and your relationship to those you service (customers. Our relationship to those we work with is about joint efforts. Real life-mastery may be quite problematic as most of us are tempted to keep doing what we are good at. It seems as if the common denominators of good work such as education. they are going downhill. which means that material comforts are given the lowest priority as compared to a good life and a good job. If we consider working life.your pay does not really matter since you do not use your money there. In this respect your relationship to your own self and your environment is far more important. self-esteem.working . In most everyday matters we operate only on the surface of life . Surprisingly enough.which means that you are doing your job excellently and show true commitment as well as being the right person in the right place.Quality of Life. Our relationship to the job is all about mastery . you are a positive. Similarly. your relationship to what you are doing (the job/work). Nor is anyone likely to be attacked because his father is a garbage collector or a receptionist. be it as an expert or group manager. Quality of life means that you like being the person you are and that. but while on the job . your environment). society. pay is less important than job satisfaction. there are four relevant conditions to be prioritised. your children or your friends? THE GOOD WORK – HOW TO GET THERE? In order to feel at ease at your work it is necessary to understand which components in working life may contribute to improving your situation and which will not. in general. . love life and health.human relations.and we operate in depth when we are in contact with our potential and talents while trying to fulfil our dreams. status. as long as one's pay covers one's basic needs and the social status is not of a debasing nature. enthusiastic and inspiring to your spouse. The development of mastery demands from us that we continue our process of learning by jumping into deep water. Year by year it goes from bad to worse . improving and developing with the relevant challenges. In most of the western world there are few people who worry about whether they can afford a pair of shoes for their children. The quality of life survey showed us that managers do not feel better than the man in the street and that professionals do not feel better than lower wage earners. It is crucial that you understand your part and function and that you are where you want to be. clients. You may be part of a very creative team. constructive and well-balanced human being.

With regard to titles. It is not that difficult to imagine good work. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Your relationship to customers. . It goes beyond just making money for your company. but not impossible. JOB SATISFACTION – RELEVANT AND IRRELEVANT FACTORS Work could be something we love to do together with people we are fond of in a situation where we use our joint efforts to create something that is highly valuable. It is difficult to get there. Life is about being valuable to yourself and one another and enterprises are created in order to make products or render services as a joint effort complying with the real needs of the environment. To get there requires confrontation with the issues that we normally associate with work. This requires employees who are genuinely valuable to their surroundings. salary and excellent opportunities for further training. A brain-dead person can also earn money. like the oxygen and blood sugar needed by your body. showing an inconsistency between annual income and job satisfaction). the job must be a good one. it seems obvious that there is a poor correlation with job satisfaction (see figure 1. clients and so forth. The interesting thing is that these twelve issues are likely to have very little influence on working life quality.16 Søren Ventegodt.earning money is just as little the true meaning of work as metabolism is the true meaning of your life. But . to whom you give attention. A certain amount of profit is a prerequisite for your company's survival. How would you for instance answer the following twelve questions in connection with a new job? Is it important for you that: • • • • • • • • • • • • Your salary is good? (Yes/No) Your occupational status is attractive? (Yes/No) You have short working hours? (Yes/No) The job description matches your qualifications? (Yes/No) The job implies status at work and in society? (Yes/No) There are good possibilities of continuing education? (Yes/No) The prospects of promotion are good? (Yes/No) You have job security? (Yes/No) You are content with your work? (Yes/No) You have freedom to make your own job schedule? (Yes/No) There is no stress in the job? (Yes/No) You are not confronted with tasks that you cannot handle(Yes/No) Did you mark all twelve with a “yes” response? At first sight. Niels Jørgen Andersen. is about genuine added value. most people might think that if the above-mentioned issues are in order.

50%= 'neither good nor bad'. In a quality of life survey 2. and how interesting they found their work (from 'very interesting' to 'very uninteresting').67) Figure 1.33 Income in thousand Euro (intervalse: 6. Happiness and Meaning of Life Working-Life Quality (on a scale 0-100) 80 17 75 QWL-s cale 0-100 70 65 60 55 50 6.500 Danes were asked to state their annual income as well as their level of job satisfaction. The study included only three people who found their work uninteresting or very uninteresting. The height of the columns shows the average working-life quality.67 means 0-6. In a pilot study of six medium-sized companies 60 employees filled in a questionnaire on their working-life quality ('How do you feel at work?') Answers: 90%:'Very good' to 10%:'Very bad'. It shows that working-life quality is closely correlated with how interesting the work is. 70% ='good'. .67 13.33 133. so we have not shown their two averages. The diagram illustrates that well-being at work is unrelated to annual income. Working-Life Quality (On a scale 0-100) 75 70 65 60 55 50 Not interesting at all Of little interest Somew hat interesting Interesting Very interesting How interesting is your work? Figure 2. as all income groups feel equally well at work except for the highest income group.67 40 53.Quality of Life. which shows an insignificantly higher degree of well-being than the other income groups. The correlation between working-life quality (well being at the job) and interesting work. Each column shows varying degrees of interesting or uninteresting work. Coherence between working-life quality and annual income. as persons with interesting jobs show significantly greater workinglife quality than those not indicating an interesting job. 30% = 'bad' and 10% ='Very bad'). The height of each column corresponds to the average measured well-being at work (90% ='very good').33 26.

Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Job satisfaction cannot be salvaged by course programs or prospects of promotion. DISCUSSION The major critiques our philosophy of working-existentialism could invite is the argument that by focusing on jobs and work.physically and mentally? (Yes/No) To be so good at your job that you master it as well as being able to express yourself fully and creatively in the working process? (Yes/No) To forget yourself while working? (Yes/No) Be able to become deeply absorbed and concentrate so much that the distance between yourself and your work almost disappears? (Yes/No) Experience the degree of intensity. This profound harmony is the only way of ensuring that our efforts will provide us with good and meaningful experience. we have the possibility of experiencing a genuine and thorough commitment. The informational society presumably coming in a few years will need people who are not working in the classical sense of this word. When we are truly fit and adjusted to our inner life at work.18 Søren Ventegodt. which cause stress if we cannot cope adequately with their demands? Another questionnaire can be compiled based on questions focusing more on the actual experience of work and including a number of factors related to feeling alive on the job. Who wants a job that does not demand quality or deadlines. presence and attendance at work that you consider vital to feel really alive? (Yes/No) How did you answer these twelve questions? These questions are related to our existence and devotion to our work. Please try to answer the following twelve questions in relation to a new job? Is it important for you to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Feel commitment to what you are doing? (Yes/No) To experience your job as the challenge of your life? (Yes/No) To feel that you create true value in the work? (Yes/No) To feel that you are applying yourself wholeheartedly with all your talents when on the job? (Yes/No) That your work is quite interesting to you. but continuously . The freedom to do meaningless. after all? (Yes/No) That you relate well to your surroundings through your work? (Yes/No) That you feel part of an entity . Niels Jørgen Andersen. we are strapping the human being to the production form of the industrial society. Job security may be fatal if it blunts the professional nerve necessary to ensure your best efforts in order to make your own future. senseless things when you choose to do them is not likely to make for much pleasure. for example (see figure 2) These questions concern the correlation between what we do at present and what we really want from our deep inner selves. you might easily be in a fine job that is well paid and seemingly satisfactory but which bores you in the depths of your being. Various studies revealed that questions of this kind are far more important to working-life quality than the pay.the joint efforts of your company?(Yes/No) Have a good working environment . Besides. Good work is a natural extension of our true wants.

Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. joint efforts and creating true incremental value. but that might lead to an unbalanced focus on action and materialistic wealth. Today most people in the western world see work as the primary route of personal liberation. 1999. To preserve the planet it might be that we collectively should abstain from work. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Maslow A. Toward a psychology of being. NJ: Van Nostrand. 1996. The philosophy of life that heals. Another big problem with the presented view is that unemployed people are doomed not to develop or blossom.Quality of Life. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. How we collectively conceive work is to a very high degree giving birth to our collective values and understanding of the whole world – actually our whole consciousness as already noticed by Karl Marx in his book “Das Kapital”. Quality of life in Denmark. Ventegodt S. if developed consciously. Frankl V. 1995. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. which might give serous backfiring on the citizens of society – and perhaps this will even lead to serious damage of the global ecosystem. Results from a population survey. New York: Simon Schuster. Ventegodt S. Princeston. Unravelling the mystery of health. San Franscisco: Jossey-Bass. grey and boring working life. Measuring the quality of life: From theory to practice. These questions should be thoroughly explored as they might be of extreme importance. It is startling how many end up having an awfully meaningless. The questions above link up with the four conditions that are decisive for the quality of our working life. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Antonovsky A. 1996. It is curious that human beings rarely have the courage to dream life differently from that defined by our materialistic and superficial culture. this means that when we have this kind of idealising idea about work in society we will keep a certain fraction of the citizens in the dark – forcing them to risk behaviors in order to survive. our intention was to show that work can be great fun and of huge value. Ventegodt S. Seizing the meaning of life and becoming well again. In the following papers we shall take a closer look at these four topics: the quality of life. and a lack of focus on being and spiritual wealth. How we today organise the creation of value (money) in our society is determining which kind of behaviour will be rewarded and which type of personality will be seen as heroic. mastery. Happiness and Meaning of Life 19 engaging themselves in all kinds of activities that will help them to develop and bring them joy. So maybe the whole focus on work also presented in this paper is leading mankind to Armageddon. To become valuable to yourself and your surroundings. 1987. 1962. But this is not our mission here. 1995. Man´s search for meaning. How people manage stress and stay well. moneymaking and all activities that transform the surface of planet earth and destroy nature. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Very few people know what they want from their working lives. The quality of life. Working-life quality. [Danish] . 1997. Most people focus on the surface and miss the whole point of their working life.

3:950-61. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. The IQOL theory: An integrative theory of the global quality of life concept.15(1):89-91. Ventegodt S. Merrick J.500 31-33 year-olds.3:1041-9. Merrick J. Sex and the Quality of Life in Denmark. birth and infancy. Lindholt JS. Quality of life theory II.14(3-4). ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Ventegodt S. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2003. A short. Merrick J. Lohmann-Devantier E. ScientificWorld Journal 2003.3:714-20. 1996. Arch Sex Behav 1998. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. The quality of life and major events in life. birth and infancy. Results from a follow-up study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen 1959-61. Ventegodt S. The life mission theory: A theory for a consciousness-based medicine. 210-5. Hilden J.27(3):295-307. Lindholt JS. Merrick J. 1995 [Danish]. Ventegodt S.3:1030-40. Agrippa 1994. Maslow revisited. Results from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61. global and generic questionnaire based on an integrated theory of the quality of life. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag.3:972-91. Result from a study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen. Ventegodt S. Hilden J. Henneberg EW. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Ventegodt S.168:103-7. 2000. Measurement of quality of life I: A methodological framework. Ventegodt S. Henneberg EW. Quality of life as the realization of life potential: A biological theory of human being. Long-term effects of maternal smoking on quality of life.3:1050-7. Ventegodt S.3:412-21. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] . Validation of two global and generic quality of life questionnaires for population screening: SCREENQOL and SEQOL. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Medication on Global Quality of Life Measured with SEQOL. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Eur J Surg 2002. Merrick J. Quality of life theory I.3:962-71. Results from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61. New tools to measure quality of life. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. Pruzan P.500 31-33-year-olds and data about their parents. generic SEQOL questioinnaire. Correlation between quality of life of 4. Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ. [Danish] Ventegodt S. The quality of life of 4. Ventegodt S.3:707-13.25(3):213-21. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Poulsen DL. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Andersen NJ. Andersen NJ. The quality of life and factors in pregnancy. Frimodt V. Ventegodt S. Measurement of quality of life III: From the IQOL theory to the global. Merrick J. [Danish] Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Ventegodt S. Quality of life theory III. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. Measurement of quality of life II: From the philosophy of life to science.20 [9] Søren Ventegodt. A prospective study on quality of life and traumatic events in early life – 30 year follow-up. Ventegodt S. Development and validation of QOL5 for clinical databases. Child Care Health Dev 1998.

[31] Editorial. [37] McDowell I. ScientificWorld Journal 2003.3:1138-46. Bullinger M. Merrick J. Ahmedzai S. [32] Diener E. The Quality-of-Life Hypertension Study Group. [28] Ventegodt S. 2000. Lancet 1991. [29] Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press. Quality of life as medicine II. Nackley JF. Bergman B. A pilot study of alcoholics. quality of life and health.41:1043-53. Lifestyle.3:694-706. [35] Testa MA. Psychoactive drugs and quality of life. Meaning in life and psychological well being: An empirical study using the Chinese version of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire. 1996. Hollenberg NK.3:320-32. In: Diener E. N Engl J Med 1993. [33] Shek DTL. Andersen NJ. [27] Ventegodt S. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30: A qualityoflife instrument for use in international clinical trials in oncology.338:350-1. 2nd ed. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Duez NJ et al. [30] Ventegodt S. Quality of life. Quality of life as medicine. Happiness and Meaning of Life 21 [26] Ventegodt S. de Haes JCJM. Quality of life and antihypertensive therapy in men.Quality of Life. J Clin Epidemiol 1988. Culture and subjective well-being. Merrick J. A pilot study of patients with chronic illness and pain.3:811-25.153(2):185-200. Merrick J. eds. Suh EM. [36] van Knippenberg FCE.85:365-76. Measuring the quality of life of cancer patients: psychometric properties of instruments. Cambridge. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. J Genetic Psychol 1992. MA: MIT Press. Money and happiness: Income and subjective well-being across nations. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Holistic medicine III: The holistic process theory of healing. Oishi C. Andersen NJ. Andersen NJ.328:907-13. Newell C. Measuring health: A guide to rating scales and questionnaires. [34] Aaronson NK. Anderson RB. Merrick J. Cull A.3:320-32. J Nat Cancer Inst 1993. .

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He does not have the energy for them. because he has talent and in many ways he is a handsome man . they say.tall and strong. the beautiful.they love life . Quality of life is something inside you and it accompanies you wherever you go. These people are ready and willing to communicate and they are alert and attentive to life. They represent resources to be drawn upon. This is not as simple as it may sound. INTRODUCTION Peter feels best when he is on his own. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Our viability and vigour in general is derived from our state of well being and life as a whole. the talented and the marvellous. Inc. When he is with people he feels something jarring. Human beings are to a much greater extent the masters of their good or bad lives. It is difficult for him to make a decision and keep his promises. But no. It cannot be said that he is doing a poor job. However. It is as if other people are too much for him. Some people are born under a lucky star. One cannot make him out really. Often they are very valuable to themselves . Human beings who communicate great joy in life and a reserve of strength. But you can shape the good life yourself. Niels Jørgen Andersen. are those who easily rise to the occasion and quickly adapt to getting on with other people. while others had a bad start. Many people think that it is a matter of chance whether or not there is quality of life and surplus energy. Chapter 3 PERSONAL QUALITY OF LIFE Søren Ventegodt. but he is not really good at it and he keeps blaming himself for repeating the same mistakes. there is something tormented . By chance some humans have better genes and by nature they are the chosen few. He does not seem to have the potential to realise his goals. as if their existence makes him uncomfortable. It is as if they hurt him. Quality of life implies that you know and accept yourself. Some people are harmonious. At work he easily flies into a temper and he is not capable of withstanding demands made upon him. They thrive and prosper and have the energy to solve all the problems they encounter.and they are shown respect and appreciation. a bit boring not possessed of the most brilliant minds.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. though he cannot figure out what might be wrong. while the rest of us must accept the twists of nature and accept being plain.

He does not feel superior or in any way put on airs. If you want to check on your quality of life. But in idle moments he wonders what is missing. Kristian knows how to share his words in whatever situation he finds himself. In general. it is not bad. Niels Jørgen Andersen. but the excitement has gone. But Henrik tends to become bored. And his words are useful to others. He feels fine about his wife and children. he is always in a good mood. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick about him. The children are almost grown up .24 Søren Ventegodt. Kristian feels fine. They represent resources to be drawn upon. but still he often feels a stranger even though they are only 13 and 15. Quality of life is something inside you and it accompanies you wherever you go.too grown up in fact. They cannot help it. QUALITY OF LIFE Our viability and vigour in general is derived from our state of well being and life as a whole [1-22]. He is 45 years old and has the feeling that life has slowed down a bit too much. leaving him out of the joint efforts. His love life has become a routine. It is as if life has more in store for him but he cannot grasp that ‘more’. His life has lost its nerve. On the contrary. He always has a twinkle in his eye and he makes people smile. with a scent of the forest. He works well and he is reasonably good at his job. These people are ready and willing to communicate and they are alert and attentive to life. which makes other people prefer doing their job without him. FEELING GREAT ABOUT ONESELF Kristian cannot help being in high spirits. Human beings who communicate great joy in life and a reserve of strength. To put it plainly. Often they are very valuable to themselves . He wakes up in the morning and looks forward to his newspaper and the smell of fresh coffee. he is humble and has a modest bearing. are those who easily rise to the occasion and quickly adapt to getting on with other people.they love life . His humour without any vulgarity follows him everywhere. he is a happy man. its spirit and passion. He is well liked and supported by his fellow beings. the following questions are relevant: • Are you where you should be in your life? . He is like a breath of fresh air wherever he goes. Of course. as if they are growing away from him. the resin and the magic secrets. FEELING REASONABLY AT EASE Henrik is content with his work. It is as if Peter's life will not allow him to succeed. Not that he is very talkative. Some people are harmonious. They thrive and prosper and have the energy to solve all the problems they encounter. He understands. he has the energy to lend others an ear. The work is good and that is it. the pines. Henrik is happy about life. But what he says makes sense.and they are shown respect and appreciation. He functions well on all fronts. Kristian understands how to live as well as getting the best out of almost any situation. they are about to live their own lives. How will it be when they grow older? Anyway.

Some people are born under a lucky star. • • • • • • • • You can shape the good life by: Respecting life Having good values Knowing what you want Listening to your inner wants and dreams Not wasting your energy Knowing that time is short and go for a life Taking responsibility RESPECTING LIFE Quality of life implies that you know and accept yourself. Principal. including your work. e. the talented and the marvellous. the beautiful.Personal Quality of Life • • • • • • • 25 Are you happy with the conditions of your life. We are in possession of intuitive knowledge . married. it is difficult to wrest from them anything but something like: Peter Jorgensen. at work and away from work? Do you know what to do with your life and are you willing to fight to realise your dreams? Many people think that it is a matter of chance whether or not there is quality of life and surplus energy. First and foremost. while others had a bad start. two children and principal shareholder in Good Cucumbers Ltd.g. Human beings are to a much greater extent the masters of their own good or bad lives – maybe best exemplified by the possibility of the human being to influence on his own good or bad health [23-43]. they say. By chance some humans have better genes and by nature they are the chosen few. life is inherent in us. It is just a name. including what you understand as a meaningful occupation? Do you feel happy and strong and free in your life as a whole and when at work? Do you feel fine . while the rest of us must accept the twists of nature and accept being plain. There are a number of reasons why some people have good quality of life while others squander it and we can go a long way in the influence we exert on these causes. ancient beings from of old because life has been here almost endlessly and because the wisdom of life is passed on from one generation to the next. But no. we are alive. This is not as simple as it may sound. We are infinitely more than that. In common with all other beings. so to speak. your friends and your family life? Are your needs satisfied. But we are not Peter Jorgensen or whatever our parents have chosen to call us. a bit boring not possessed of the most brilliant minds. Who are we and what are we really? If you ask people what and who they are. a label. the happiness of living.when it comes to the essentials? Is your life as such OK? Are you OK with your lover? Your friends? Your children? Yourself? Your surroundings? Do good experiences occur to you weekly that make you recover and renew yourself. We are living creatures with billions of years behind us. 48 years old.

The values that we rate so highly today. love. . food. children. we go for money. what we consider serious. Typically we ask for materialism.26 Søren Ventegodt. colleagues. in the long run. We have to give life space. By nature we are magnificent creatures. consumer goods. The values are the small number of central concepts that are our guiding principles. which is not positively related to quality of life. and. We have an obligation to love life and live accordingly. friends. If every single one of us does not feel alive and brilliant. a residence. they are about money and things. The values are what we like. Too often we are just too lazy to do something about it. because we know that it is so. To respect life means to know as a human being that you are first and foremost alive and that life has its own deep regularities with which we must identify and to which we must conform. Existentially. That is the first and crucial condition in order to be valuable to yourself and others. Life has its own enchanting magic. as individuals and jointly. Life has its own deep values that provide the key to the good life. We have an obligation to seek those values that accompany life: friendship. exercise. a ’good’ education and security. This ought to shock us but it does not. we spend amazingly little time and energy on what could relate most fully to quality of life. We fail to take account of our inner lives. vanity and power without any purpose. it is because the magic has vanished and our life has become weak and fragile. clothes. We have stopped asking ourselves what to do with life and what it is about. In our culture the important values are often extremely material. If we do not. diet and so forth. In short. risk devastating effects on our health. What made us choose these values? Could we not prioritise in favour of love and friendship. Discover the feeling of being alive. togetherness and to shun those values that are detrimental to life. happiness and purpose. bad habits and every day routines. for instance superfluous materialism. joint efforts. vouchers. 'All values are equal and everyone is free to choose'. HAVING GOOD VALUES Each of us has a set of values that consciously or unconsciously guides our actions and choices. our lover. nature or the experience of feeling really alive while we are on this earth? We could have chosen otherwise but we did not. valuable and attractive. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick of everything from sex and love via friendship and community to language and the intelligent use of tools. On the contrary. etc. With these kinds of values we set up for ourselves a life without joie de vivre. We make a point of being tolerant with regard to others' values. we have fallen into a deep dreamless sleep and we have failed to look for the meaning of it all. is our democratic line. nature. We have stopped listening to it. namely the quality of our relationship to ourselves. what we are looking for. A minority group adds to this picture some confidence in a long life on earth because of a healthy life style. the community. educational level. be it in the public or the political sphere. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Yet we know deep down inside of us that this is not true. annual income. housing. it will be strangled in common sense and formalities. have little to do with quality of life. However.

you will see the way forward. We prefer to live with the smouldering pain of suppressed yearning. The opening will present itself.which is.you do not find yourself. The colour of adult life is not a flashy one. It starts with your life's dream. The problem is not that the world does not offer any possibilities . A typical feature of our greatest dreams is the happiness when the dream comes true. About achieving something extraordinary in life. it may be difficult to imagine it coming true. the right opportunity will present itself some day. What is difficult is to live up to that knowledge because what is ahead of you is the difficulty of cultivating and refining your spirit. By then it is often too late. about the great job that will absorb us for years to come. We can do what we want if we are smart. It is not that difficult to find out what to do with your life. Most people walk around in a daze. just like that. We have to be goal-oriented.as well as efficient . First you must find your vision and your imaginative concept of good . about the love of your life.Personal Quality of Life KNOWING WHAT YOU WANT 27 We create our lives by making our dreams come true. at first glance. Life is an arrow that points towards the future as well as towards death. do people wake up. laziness and indolence in order gradually to re-conquer your life. the strictness of waiting with patience. In the midst of a fantastic working-life . but that is no excuse for throwing away all the dreams of your life and just resigning yourself and adapting to whatever comes your way. not knowing what their lives are about. It is within your reach to achieve mastery. The problem is rather that we do not know what we want. You may experience that the distance between what you do and what you are vanishes. Trust yourself and listen to your heart. ingenious and strategic .for life is short. Dreams about friendship. Right from the beginning we reject possibilities that seem. ignorance. the harshness of living strategically. in fact. to be out of our reach.when you accept the greatest challenges and resolve the most trying problems. We are offered such a wide range of possibilities to succeed but this necessitates us to be conscious of 'what' it is about.there are many possibilities. practising control and discipline. the pain of living with a feeling of yearning and loss. a prerequisite for change. energetic and persevering. that is to say that the higher meaning of your life is to do exactly what you are doing. Not knowing what we want makes us lose our lives. Not until death is near. rather than the clear and obvious pain from dissatisfaction with the present state of things . You may experience that you are where you want to be and where you belong. We all have frustrated dreams from the beginning of our adult lives. You may reach the most intense and joyful state of mind . When you dream your life dream. In your working life you may experience a strange kind of happiness after a real effort. We are content with almost nothing. We make no demands. You may gain the experience that life at this point is a success. Great professional accomplishments may be achieved. The knowledge of the meaning of life demands from you that you dust your morale and start fighting yourself for your life .against your apathy. PAYING ATTENTION TO YOUR INNER WANTS AND DREAMS How do you find out what you really want? Listen to your longings and dreams. But if you show perseverance and patience.

things will not work for us. Those who really know what they want are willing to fight like lions to make their dreams come true. and we will not spend our time daydreaming about the quarter of a million prizes. Where does this energy come from? From inside of us. in the following thereof you materialise it by working laboriously through changes and adjustments taught by reality. But there is no such luck in life . by importance. by love.000-volt cable with unlimited energy on which to draw ad libitum. Lotteries like the State Lottery. By frittering away our tasks and results due to lack of alertness to shortcomings. Many people apply this kind of lottery strategy as a common feature of their lives. The world appears soft and malleable when we are in control of our selves and our personal energies. like a vision. Right through the middle of our heart runs a 10. First you spend your money and energy on a ticket with artificially induced excitement and unrealistic hopes of winning a prize.to sense life's deepest purpose with us. Basic rules of profitability make it obvious that the lottery ticket is worth far less than the money paid for it. For instance by getting involved with matters that take more than they give. However. it is possible to waste the immense energy of life in various ways. By using our vital energy properly it is possible to conserve energy and consequently always have surplus energy. Quality of life will then be derived from our own efforts and wisdom. there will be plenty of energy . By quarrelling in vain.until we have accomplished the measure of our days and death takes us away. AVOIDING WASTING ENERGY Shaping your own life needs energy [1-22]. The potential reaches us in a strange and magic way.and we hear all too often: 'No luck this time'. . From here we can get all the energy needed. The few years of work we have left may prove to be our most significant chance of achieving something of lasting value in life. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick work. Niels Jørgen Andersen. People who try to justify their unhappiness with a fatalistic attitude are typically irresponsible people. When that happens we see our life blossoming. Life is shaped by your self-expression.’ and so forth. are good examples of wasting time and money. an unexpected and surprising idea. KNOWING THAT TIME IS SHORT AND LIVE ACCORDINGLY Life is shorter than we expect. The energy is drawn from life experienced as significance. This is our chance to leave our mark on the world in more ways than just providing the requisite couple of children that nature stipulates (which can be managed before you are 18 without too much trouble). The right spirit is the ability to sense the deeper meaning of life's way of being with us . It is all there inside of us in the form of opportunities and potentials to be realised. the Pools etc. Life is full of energy because life itself is the source of its inner meaning. ’With a bit of luck it works. As long as we act in accordance with our love of life.28 Søren Ventegodt. without our true/proper inner spirit being involved. But. One reason for this is that we finish our professional careers long before we shuffle off this mortal coil. By expending our conserved energy on worthless entertainment. Then.

Try to look through the windows of the train and watch the sluggish and torpid passengers inside. it is obvious that the speed of the train is 160/kph and the trip is soon over. it is like taking the first step into a cold shower.it was about superiors in general. No. fought with perseverance until you get what you want. But other people rarely constitute a real obstacle. It means that you realise how your words and actions have an impact on what your life is. cut off from the real beauty of life and quite complacent while slurping up coffee and eating pastry while they are entertained by movies on the television. When we start the fight for change the very first time. it is necessary to take a look from the outside. It is as if we are on a train. it is often possible to induce change. But your problem with your superior is not that he is an idiot. Accepting responsibility means changing your lifestyle and transforming yourself into a fighter. so to speak. as a fighter. it is far more appealing to pay attention to others’ faults. What if your boss is a hopeless case? Will he become less awful and idiotic as a result of your taking responsibility and treating him in a strategic manner? Not really. all the more or less slow routines work according to the clock. taking on responsibility is not tempting. In such a process where you take on a responsibility and clean up your own house. In general. Maybe he will even give you the freedom you so desperately want as a consequence of his sympathy for you as well as his confidence in you.Personal Quality of Life 29 Life is surprisingly short and time flies. you take things as you find them. As a victim. The days come to an end too soon . Actually it was not just my dislike of my superior . signalling nothing unusual. This is not to say that there will not be grumbles and complaints from your environment when you fail to live up to others' expectations and start making demands and being troublesome. If you think it your responsibility to educate all the idiots of this world. the moment you are in control of your attitude to the man as well as the way you treat him. But seen from the outside. so that we may carry out our jobs in the best way possible? . most people discover unpleasant truths. we often realise that the obstacles are not in the world out there but have their roots within us. We have far more freedom to shape our lives than is generally believed. it is too late to do anything about it. he will start treating you far better in the future. ACCEPTING RESPONSIBILITY Accepting responsibility means that you see to it that things become the way you want them to be. you will have your job cut out. To take responsibility for yourself means that you begin perceiving yourself as the acting cause of your life. You are compelled to search out your personal attitudes to life in order to review your problematic situation. no less [9-15]. On board. and when you hear the voice of the engine driver telling you that your trip is coming to an end within a few minutes. If you understand how to communicate and explain your motives clearly.one day ending the other. He can be that. Do not waste your life like that! Time is far too short. you embark on a constant battle. Obviously. And maybe there are good superiors around who will wish us the best and provide us with maximum support and working conditions. as long as you do not suffer from it. In order to grasp how short time and our working life is.

1948. New York: Harper Torchbooks. Human beings are to a much greater extent the masters of their good or bad lives. Berkeley. Often they are very valuable to themselves . Reich W. Honoring the body.. Die Function des Orgasmus. Niels Jørgen Andersen. the talented and the marvellous. Alachua. CA: North Atlantic Books. London: WW Norton. Man and his symbols. New York: Anchor Press. Brenner S.30 Søren Ventegodt. at the end of the day. 1961.and they are shown respect and appreciation. 2004. The individual psychology of Alfred Adler. 1969. This could be the most relevant scientific argument for a strong relation between working life quality and health. Our viability and vigour in general is derived from our state of well being and life as a whole. Quality of life implies that you know and accept yourself [1-29]. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Jones E. 2003. But sense of coherence is dependent on the person developing his purpose of life and character. Quality of life is something inside you and it accompanies you wherever you go. Köln: Kiepenheuer Witsch. not about thriving and personal development. we may have to admit our own faults and prejudices. The life and works of Sigmund Freud. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Life appears to be like that all the way through. London. These people are ready and willing to communicate and they are alert and attentive to life. Marcus S.or herself. while the rest of us must accept the twists of nature and accept being plain. Ansbacher HL. Rosen method bodywork. Adler A. while others had a bad start. Jung CG. But no. a bit boring not possessed of the most brilliant minds. 1956. Rosen M. Lowen. Accessing the unconscious through touch. To take responsibility means trying to solve the problems. Many people think that it is a matter of chance whether or not there is quality of life and surplus energy. Ansbacher RR. . FL: Bioenergetics Press. [German] Horney K. Some people are born under a lucky star. Human beings who communicate great joy in life and a reserve of strength. 1964. Trilling L. Some people are harmonious. eds. A. It is a major challenge for every organization of our time to organise work in a way that it offers room for personal development and self-exploration that in the end leads to optimal job satisfaction and lasting health.they love life . Our inner conflicts: A constructive theory of neurosis. Much to often a job is about collecting money. the beautiful. they say. They represent resources to be drawn upon. are those who easily rise to the occasion and quickly adapt to getting on with other people. New York: Basic Books. They thrive and prosper and have the energy to solve all the problems they encounter. DISCUSSION Sense of coherence and health seems to be dependent on contributing and creating value in life. eds. including sex-character. There are lots of excuses for leading a poor life but. By chance some humans have better genes and by nature they are the chosen few. Many kinds of work are severely limiting the individual’s possibility to stem into character and using him.

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Torp M. Struve F. Merrick J. Bassaine L.5:155-64. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful.7:31723.4:362-77. Intervention and follow-up in a clinical setting. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick [30] Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Merrick J. Enevoldsen L. Clinical holistic medicine: Treatment of physical health problems without a known cause.4:571-80. Enevoldsen L. Andreasen T. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Struve F. Torp M. Self-reported low self-esteem.2004. Enevoldsen L. Clinical holistic medicine Tools for a medical science based on consciousness. Merrick J.7:324-9. Merrick J. Torp M. [34] Ventegodt S. Struve F. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Solheim E. Kandel I. Enevoldsen L. .7:299-305. Andreasen T. Hyam E. Merrick J. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced mental illness. Morad M. Thegler S. Andersen NJ. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced impaired sexual functioning. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced physical illness and chronic pain. exemplified by hypertension and tinnitus.4:716-24. Clinical holistic medicine: Metastatic cancer. [37] Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Clinical holistic medicine: Induction of Spontaneous Remission of Cancer by Recovery of the Human Character and the Purpose of Life (the Life Mission). Bassaine L.7:310-6. Thegler S. Bassaine L. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: Holistic sexology and treatment of vulvodynia through existential therapy and acceptance through touch. Struve F. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Thegler S. Struve F. Morad M. Enevoldsen L. [32] Ventegodt S. Clinical holistic medicine: Chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. ScientificWorld Journal. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. [41] Ventegodt S.5:288-97. Struve F. Clinical holistic medicine: Holistic treatment of rape and incest traumas. Merrick J. Neikrug S. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Andreasen T.32 Søren Ventegodt. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. and ability by induction of Antonovsky-salutogenesis. [31] Ventegodt S. [43] Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Thegler S. Andreasen T. Bassaine L. Andreasen T. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful. Thegler S. Enevoldsen L. health. Thegler S. Clinical holistic medicine: Psychodynamic short-time therapy complemented with bodywork. A clinical follow-up study of 109 patients. Merrick J. Torp M. Morad M. Morad M. [42] Ventegodt S.7:306-9. Merrick J. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Morad M. Merrick J. [36] Ventegodt S. Saunte ME. Bassaine L. Morad M. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Torp M. [35] Ventegodt S. Merrick J. [33] Ventegodt S. [40] Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful. ScientificWorld Journal 2007.1:256-74.4: 562-70. [38] Ventegodt S. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) improves quality of life. Torp M. TSWHolistic Health Med 2006. Bassaine L. [39] Ventegodt S. Kandel I. ScientificWorld Journal 2004.4:913-35.4:347-61. Andreasen T. Clinical holistic medicine: Problems in sex and living together.

Slowly and systematically it is done. Today almost all human beings have both the potential and the opportunities to develope their mastery. Mastery is about developing our potential. Developing mastery is one of the four conditions besides quality of life. He prefers comparisons with his personal visions and life dreams about the best way of improving. Our potential is all we might be and do in life. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Mastery in the process of work is one of the four dimentions developing the quality of work life. Inc. Niels Jørgen Andersen. It consists of all potentially achievable skills. In mastery life is unfolded more freely. He finds the greatest challenges at work and confronts them. They will gradually master a profession to perfection. But a master is not preoccupied with comparing himself with others. Chapter 4 MASTERY IN YOUR WORK Søren Ventegodt. But we . including personal qualities. To master something means to do it brilliantly and to be among the best in what you do. This is not just about the salary. It consists of all potentially achievable skills. joint efforts and creating true incremental value. and our potential is all we might be and do in life. A master loves his work intensely. People who seek mastery live with a dream of ultimate professionalism and then go for it. The master develops professionally and mentally at the same time. INTRODUCTION Every human being can develop towards mastery [1-7]. Every human being can develop towards mastery.7].In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. In this paper we shall take a closer look at what mastery really is about and how it is developed. more perfectly. It is a fact that most people are prepared to make an effort in their working life. At first glance it might not seem as if humankind is well equipped with possibilities and potentialities. that are decisive for the quality of our working life. and it is a fact that most people are prepared to make an effort in their working life. Almost all human beings have an unlimited potential of what we might be and do in life. but also about providing the world with a valuable and personal contribution which gives a strong sense of personal meaningfulness. including personal qualities [6.

Old? Tove is only 51 years old! The Good Secretary Ellen. our life dreams and what we really want to do with our life. deadlines not met . But those who achieve a great mastery will prove valuable according to a different scale. We all have an invitation and a possiblity to develop our mastery in the process of work when we grasp the sense and content in ourselves. We hold back. which requires: A deeply felt commitment that will not show until the day: When you find and grasp the challenge of your life. We all have this possibility. thinking 'I am no genius. is more energetic. She is a good and thoroughly reliable secretary who keeps up with new word-processing packages. what happens to most of us. But only a few of us seize this opportunity. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick are indeed. 'It is unfortunate that we were so busy that we had to let her take care of it' and -'She is growing old. business letters filled with little faults such as double spacing and punctuation errors. It is quite easy to live one's life without ever realising it. Niels Jørgen Andersen. She can barely make the word processor run a spell check. in fact.34 Søren Ventegodt. In this article we will examine the four aspects of developing mastery: • • • • Finding the potential for your mastery: Your gifts and talents Realising that potential in the form of skills. however. those who are on the way towards mastery.not to mention her depressed voice on the phone. If you really find the challenge of your life and make the most of your cerebral capacity. MASTERY IN THE PROCESS OF WORK The Bad Secretary Tove has been on the way out for a long time. She is a lively and cheerful presence in the office. letters not mailed. no one really bothers about correcting her. She is efficient and competent and makes only the occasional error. you have to bear with her'. Even when she makes serious mistakes. Each month she costs her company a fortune due to mismanaged sales appointments. The brain is to be used according to your preferences and you may increase or decrease your demands on its functioning. people who have not developed mastery are still needed. Often she makes jokes and becomes difficult only when under too much pressure because handling stress is not her strong point. . Curiously enough she and everyone else seems to live with 'that is how Tove is'. That is. it may be possible to make the brain answer even the most complicated questions. She thinks that she is too old to learn such skills. However. Her voice on the phone is brisk and she keeps her promises and deadlines. She is good at dictation and drafts. not even in my field of activity'.

As mastery develops so the distance between the person and the mastery diminishes until the two have fully merged. She can lay her hands on all letters. She writes letters based on minimal drafts because she knows the ins and outs of procedures. Please try to answer the following questions: • • • • • • • • • • • How competent are you at your job? How good are you compared to the best in your field? How good are you compared to the full realisation of your potential? How well developed is your sense of quality. She is on good terms with secretaries in dozens of client companies and they do each other favours.' In mastery life is unfolded more freely. She is 54 years old and has hardly had a day off sick in her nine years with the company. Nobody remembers having seen her stressed or confused. files. what time is it? It is dark already. How does she manage? MASTERING YOUR WORK To master something means to do it brilliantly and to be among the best. Slowly and systematically it is done. She is a genius. She is the only one who can manage three phones simultaneously. The distance disappears. She has rescued the firm many times. They will gradually master a profession to perfection. Jill ought to be covered in three layers of gold. more perfectly. She comes up with suggestions to promote efficiency and quality assurance in sections that she only knows from the correspondence. The master develops professionally and mentally at the same time because work has become fully integrated with his personality. and how ambitious are you in respect of your work and its quality? How fast and efficient are you compared to how efficient you could be? Do you develop the skills necessary for your profession? Do you experience work as a challenge? Are you doing your best to succeed? Are you preoccupied with matters that really interest you? Do you fully understand the purpose of your work and do you agree with this? Do you feel that work builds you up. customers' lists etc. She knows all that is going on in the company. mysterious Jill. He finds the greatest challenges at work and confronts them. People who seek mastery live with a dream of ultimate professionalism and then go for it. The master is completely absorbed: 'Oh. But a master is not preoccupied with comparing himself with others.Mastery in your Work 35 The Brilliant Secretary Then there is Jill. it will take her less than one minute to find any of them. Even though the files contain thousands of documents. or is it breaking you down? . Try considering how things stand with regard to your own mastery. because she is alert and attentive to errors committed in the company. order books. A master loves his work intensely. He prefers comparisons with personal visions and life dreams about the best way of improving.

which requires: A deeply felt commitment that will not show until the day: When you find and grasp the challenge of your life.and touch the soul where the happiness and joy are to be found. the plant must set its root properly into the ground . The good soil is a prerequisite of mastery. If we do not possess the necessary physical strength. in fact. Playing a game of tennis requires a well-trained body. for some reason or another. We are not in the habit of believing that we are likely to become brilliant. our vast potential suddenly comes to the fore. provided that we train persistently in spite of the difficulties encountered in the protracted learning process involved in mastering a new field of activity. At first glance it might not seem as if humankind is well equipped with possibilities and potentialities. It consists of all potentially achievable skills. hard physical work will not be tempting. The leaves must reach the light.36 • Søren Ventegodt. we are forced to do our best. We are predisposed to a certain degree but we can all grow better in relation to how nature has shaped us. That is. It is not that easy to become brilliant. SKILLS Why are we not normally geniuses within our field of activity. It would not be true to say that we are sufficiently gifted to learn anything. We are just human beings and it is hard to believe that we possess special features and talents. but just reasonably competent at what we do? Why do we so rarely reach the zenith in our working life? It hardly comes as a surprise to anyone that mastering one's working life is difficult if one cannot master life in general. Niels Jørgen Andersen. How can we use proper professional language in our working life if we have a poor command of our language in ordinary situations? If we cannot express our ideas precisely and . But we are indeed. agility and speed. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Do you realise your full potential at work? Developing mastery has to do with four aspects: • • • • Finding the potential for your mastery: Your gifts and talents Realising that potential in the form of skills. We can do what we want to do. including personal qualities. It is almost unlimited. until we have used these talents and become really good. Try to think of your potential as flower seeds to be sowed in good soil to germinate and grow. But when. we would like to convince in the following way. Somewhere out there is a need for our development. Those who cannot yet understand the necessity of involving life as part of the discussion. Let us take a look at each of the four consecutive points. That was why quality of life is an important issue. YOUR UNLIMITED POTENTIAL Our potential is all we might be and do in life [8-14]. what happens to most of us. In order to develop. It is quite easy to live one's life without ever realising it. Life is not easy for all of us.

for instance. a wild and profound commitment. Mastery encompasses life. your well-being increases. When life is right. it is a fact that when you decide to become very good at what you are doing. There is so much to learn about iron and glass.which we get for free . Can you achieve a professional mastery if you are not in control of your private and social life? No. Nothing is boring when it fits into an overall objective. A DEEPLY FELT COMMITMENT A true commitment is something that makes you direct all your attention and energy to the matter in hand. Expressing yourself is an art. That is to say that mastery makes you very happy .our adult life requires quite a lot from us if we want specific experiences to be part of our everyday life. To achieve something great is tied up with our physical and mental well being.your employer does not offer you a job with commitment on a . And life is an art in itself. Can you fall in love with your wife once more? Is it possible to discover new.and exerts pull and push on you . If you work with materials. but there are no obstacles if you want to change the circumstances as the possibilities are just beneath the surface. Likewise.is the need to become deeply immersed in order to experience yourself as a fully alive person. that you could go on forever. happy and lively. It is as if what really interests you . It is the same quality. it is not possible to be a master behind your desk or in production if you have severe problems with the one you love. and this is hard work. a situation of glowing intensity may arise with its eternal magic so difficult to put into words. fantastic traits in your friends? Can you take up new hobbies at an advanced age? Can one keep finding hidden sides of one's personality to exploit and develop? Of course one can. Fortunately.Mastery in your Work 37 concisely? Reading and writing is more than reading a tabloid and leaving notes for one's spouse. No matter what your occupation. Think of your first experience of falling in love and the desperate need you felt to be with the other person. Very few humans feel this way about work. Thus matters that really interest you will wake you up and make you happy too . But there is no alternative really. Each profession requires an extensive knowledge. In contrast to our first falling in love . you will have to acquire professional know-how. Maybe you remember how you were once caught up in a good book or a movie . Everything in life fits into a whole. A person who is deeply committed to his or her profession may acquire an incredible amount of professional knowledge.happiness derived from your ability to express yourself fully. We have to do our best and train systematically to improve. One might say that the reason for your troubles during this process is that you are carrying your basic existence with you. Commitment cannot be expected to be a common feature of your day . The choice to focus on the development of working-life quality is based on the fact that most people are prepared to make an effort in their working life.or maybe what someone told you about his life fascinated you.and in the end you will be renewed. mastery involves your ability to laugh and become absorbed in playing with your children. It is not just about the salary but also about providing the world with a valuable and personal contribution. Is it possible to experience this kind of interest at work? Yes it is. but they do not appear just like that. There is so much to learn and to master. you may derive your knowledge from the science of engineering and building materials. Not until we master a lot of tiny technical details can it all merge into a functional entity.

. FINDING THE CHALLENGE OF YOUR LIFE Can work become a challenge? The same piece of work may. Something calls us. You cannot take drama and wildness away from love without killing it. Normally. Challenges are found in one's private as well as one's professional life. A challenge is a necessary task to be accomplished because a challenge is something very personal. In fact. It is one's development towards accomplishing one's essential task. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick plate. As adults we are responsible for adding energy. we will find challenges everywhere. What you can learn here is generally related to your experiences with regard to professional challenges. you cannot handle it until you have done it. those who fail to see challenges are pursued by back luck.not to mention decisiveness. a new partner etc. It is experienced as a vocation. Nothing could be further from the truth. One might say that any small challenge derives energy from the great challenge that we basically see in our lives. Challenge is strictly personal because it is about one's personal development towards mastery. So too it is believed that some work provides challenges while other does not. by one's personality and by one's situation in a community. But many fail to see their complete relationship as a challenge and try to make peace with their partner. you will lose your way. People who see challenges everywhere are pursued by good luck. A partner or spouse is a worthy opponent and an immense challenge. shrewdness and clarity. because a challenge is a challenge precisely because it requires you to make moves and learn more in order to accomplish your task. You are forced to develop your personality. Challenge is the basic prerequisite for becoming good at something since it is challenge that propels us beyond our own limits. There is always a tiny chance of heading in the right direction. If you fail to perceive work as an exciting and fascinating challenge that demands great efforts. be considered either as a challenge or as a nuisance. But those who do not see a challenge when it is there may miss their chance.amidst a tangled world of opportunities. significance and meaning to life. depending on who you are. which you will have to cope with until the situation changes due to death. If peace at home is attempted and finally achieved. If it is in our nature to interpret the world as a place full of challenges. Challenges are something we find for ourselves . In general. as you know. This destination is defined by one's nature. Of course. self-discipline and patience . Niels Jørgen Andersen. A human being who is incapable of experiencing his or her life as fundamentally a challenge will not consider his/her work and private sphere as a challenge either. one's love life is quite a challenge. Many people wrongly think that challenges appear from the outside and that the employer will provide them with challenges.38 Søren Ventegodt. Such a person will find it very hard to develop towards true mastery. the final and completely senseless phase of a private relationship has begun. something that is very important to you and which for personal reasons you must take on. this stage lasts for the rest of your life. all people experience both good and bad luck. This means that our contribution is like sawing knotty wood: we have an invitation to find the challenge of our life. My definition is as follows: A challenge is something that you feel you have to seize but offhand do not know how to handle.

but what kind of life is that? Where is the spark? Where is the commitment? Where is the excitement? Many people would be able to improve their lives considerably if they accepted a lowering of their salary in favour of devoting their time to work that makes their commitment prosper. Speak out for yourself! Make you superior understand where you are heading and make him or her understand the potential of your future value and commitment to your company. for instance. as well as letting go of your will and your responsibility for creating change. nationally and . few people consider work a challenge. Albert Einstein did not do well in primary school. Take the best from your working life.m. but it was not. you may enter into a passionate relationship with your work. Make heavy demands on yourself and at work. not even in my field of activity'. these geniuses were not born brilliant.Mastery in your Work 39 In the same way.. It was widely believed that his brain would be different. Ask for the necessary freedom to make your own working schedule as well as solving problems your way. it may be possible to make the brain answer even the most complicated questions. We all have this possibility. The day you start making peace with it. renouncing your expectations of changes. but that is not your problem.m. Ask for influence on the stated goals and targets. you must dream your personal life dream of becoming a master. Only few of us seize this opportunity. He or she will become one of a kind and make a significant difference. EVERY HUMAN BEING CAN DEVELOP TOWARDS MASTERY The word genius is applied to very few human beings. you stop fighting and start being contented. It is possible that your ambitions are considered as slave work. The person in the company who succeeds in achieving mastery will change his or her status notably. His first job as an adult was an ordinary one at a Patent Bureau. The brain. It is a way of 'beating' your brain. is to be used according to your preferences and you may increase or decrease your demands on its functioning. The brain of Einstein was thoroughly examined after his death. standards of quality. This is the way to lead your personal development into a deadlock. No particular features were found. working procedures . It may be that you will be considered peculiar. thinking 'I am no genius. which is why it will be wise to ignore what others think about you and your development project. This brilliant person will make a considerable contribution to making a company locally. However. When you find your challenge and accept it. You will also have to accept that your communication with your superiors may cause some gossip about your ‘buttering up'. We hold back. If you really find the challenge of your life and make the most of your cerebral capacity.all of it. Short working hours and high pay is the norm. Also. Go for it .and accept the risk. to 4 p. It is naive to believe that your company will immediately grant you the privileges you want in order to develop your mastery. But you are the only one who knows your reasons. Why must we always be so small and modest? Ask for more! Trust yourself. But this requires you to consider work as a situation in which to be challenged. Show your will power. Apparently. it will probably bring about supreme skills. yours for example. We often think of geniuses as fellowbeings with innate special talents. To be content with something is to accept things as they appear to be. So one finds oneself a well-paid job from 8 a. But he kept developing and today he is considered a genius of our time. Seize the opportunity and become brilliant.

DISCUSSION People who seek mastery live with a dream of ultimate professionalism and then go for it. But this requires you to consider work as a situation in which to be challenged. This is the way to lead your personal development into a deadlock. as well as letting go of your will and your responsibility for creating change. A challenge is a necessary task to be accomplished.40 Søren Ventegodt. Challenges are something we find for ourselves . He or she calls down to earth the spirit and makes significant moves forward. because if you do not have any challenges or feel deep commitment. That is to say that mastery makes you very happy . Niels Jørgen Andersen. He develops professionally and mentally at the same time. A secretary.not to mention decisiveness. Not until we master a lot of tiny technical details can it all merge into a functional entity. They will gradually master a profession to perfection. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick internationally. . watch out! To be content is to accept things as they appear to be. people who have not developed mastery are still needed. And that is a personal thing. The master finds the greatest challenges at work and confronts them. you are about to loose yourself. shrewdness and clarity. where you are forced to develop your personality. you must dream your personal life dream of becoming a master. selfdiscipline and patience . If it is in our nature to interpret the world as a place full of challenges. But those who achieve a great mastery will prove valuable according to a different scale. A master is practically irreplaceable. It is the master who makes our world develop through the realisation of his or her life dreams and through fighting the biggest challenges. Nothing could be further from the truth. To feel that you are developing your self towards mastery you have to meet your challenges and that requires your commitment. We all have an invitation to find the challenge of our life and to develop mastery in the process of work. it will probably bring about supreme skills when you do your best and train systematically to improve. However. When you find your challenge and accept it. those who are on the way towards mastery. Those people who achieve a great mastery will prove valuable according to a different scale. we will find challenges everywhere.happiness derived from your ability to express yourself fully. Many people would be able to improve their lives considerably if they accepted a lowering of their salary in favour of devoting their time to work that makes their commitment prosper. renouncing your expectations of changes. Also. call it a personal gift which follows each one of us. while other does not. Challenges are found in one's private as well as one's professional life. So too it is believed that some work provides challenges. because a challenge is something very personal. because work has become fully integrated with his personality. Slowly and systematically it is done. Is a life without challenges and commitment less worthy? In fact. The masters are the truly valuable employees. When you stop fighting and start being content.amidst a tangled world of opportunities. He or she will leave a unique stamp on the environment. Many people wrongly think that challenges appear from the outside and that the employer will provide them with challenges. something that is very important to you and which for personal reasons you must take on. an engineer or a welder can do things nobody else can. There is no denying it. the answer is affirmative.

The life mission theory III: Theory of talent.3:1230-40. QOL philosophy II: What is a human being? ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Kromann M.4:859-80. The life mission theory II: The structure of the life purpose and the ego. Andersen NJ.5:377-89. Andersen NJ. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Andersen NJ. Andersen NJ. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. The life mission theory V. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. provided that we train persistently in spite of the difficulties encountered in the protracted learning process involved in mastering a new field of activity. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] . The life mission theory VI: A theory for the human character. Andersen NJ. Andersen NJ. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Merrick J. QOL philosophy V: Seizing the meaning of life and getting well again. QOL philosophy VI: The concepts. Ventegodt S. Merrick J.3:1286-93. But when. Merrick J. happiness. Ventegodt S. The life mission theory: A theory for a consciousness-based medicine. A theory of the antiself and explaining the evil side of man. Ventegodt S. We are just human beings and it is hard to believe that we possess special features and talents. Merrick J.3:1302-13. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Merrick J. and meaning of life. The life mission theory IV. Ventegodt S.3:1176-85.3:1277-85. Quality of life philosophy: when life sparkles or can we make wisdom a science? ScientificWorld Journal 2003.3:1164-75. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. QOL philosophy III: Towards a new biology.15(1):89-91. Andersen NJ. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003.3:1199-1209. Ventegodt S. We can do what we want to do. Merrick J.3:1160-3. until we have used these talents and become really good. ScientificWorld Journal 2003.3:1186-98. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Flensborg-Madsen T. our vast potential suddenly comes to the fore. Merrick J. for some reason or another. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Andersen NJ. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2003. It is almost unlimited. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. Andersen NJ.Mastery in your Work 41 Life is not easy for all of us.3:1294-1301. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. QOL philosophy I: Quality of life. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. We are not in the habit of believing that we are likely to become brilliant. health and ability for use in holistic medicine. A theory of child development. Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ. QOL philosophy IV: The brain and consciousness.3:1210-29. Life Mission Theory VII: Theory of existential (Antonovsky) coherence: a theory of quality of life. we are forced to do our best. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Merrick J.

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Fellowship is something in life that contains immense potential. many of us fight others. This includes being authorised by the group to organise the work so that everybody contributes his best efforts to solve the group's common task. The groups that manage to handle all conflicts and conflicting interests turn into regular small combat units that perform miracles none would ever think of. mastery and creating real value. cliques and arguments prevails. if you disagree with him or her. A group has a natural leader. Much time is wasted and valuable energy lost in internal disputes. the brilliance of leadership originates from the leader's ability to inspire the group. There is enormous potential in the development of the joint energy of an organization and of groups. Chapter 5 WORKING WITH COLLEAGUES AND MANAGEMENT Søren Ventegodt. His or her task is to secure the group's common interests. You not only have a right to. the role of the leader and the workers. INTRODUCTION The brilliant leader does not acquire his or her dominance and power by obstructing the employees. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick The job has become the modern man's bridge to the world. If you open up and let things happen. A section of a company may end up being unproductive and without profit if the classical pattern of complaints. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Instead of fighting our personal limitations and ourselves. and fellowship is the third aspect of working life quality besides quality of life.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. envy. Inc. you have an obligation to enter into dialogue with your superior. It is first and foremost our joining an organization (company) that provides man with actions that confront us with the outer world. Rather. Through this article we shall have a look at what creates and builds fellowship. Cooperation and management gradually disappear in favour of group members' increasing ability to act intuitively and directly. . who may be characterised as the person who most clearly is able to understand the common objective as well as to express the collective intention and will of the group. a group may turn into an incredibly intense and creative unit.

CO-OPERATION WITH COLLEAGUES AND MANAGEMENT Bad Co-operation Anders does not thrive at work.' When they speak about him. He considers it a coincidence that he is working for this firm and not another. he thinks. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick In this chapterarticle we shall have a further look at co-operation. management and public relations (public or private) as an entity. Anders sees merely as a management problem. He feels embraced by his section. Ideally. Actually. since he considers his work meaningful and more than his money's worth. The management does its best to back him up as well as to support his development. Niels Jørgen Andersen. his colleagues sometimes adopt quite an acrimonious and sarcastic tone. Normal Co-operation Thomas feels all right at work. He is not particularly proud of working for this company. For his part. He gets on well with his colleagues at lunchtime. The head of section knows best and Thomas is confident in leaving his superior with all the administrative and planning matters. Bjarne considers the company his own even though he is not a partner. He experiences his company as a good opportunity to make a valuable contribution to his surroundings. The manager and the chief executives decide and define which tasks are to be carried out. Whether the company sells its products and survives. The work is also done for the sake of his pleasure and personal . He feels good here. these three aspects converge into an overarching entity uniting employees and managers in a sense of fellowship within the organisation . He is always happy to meet his colleagues and he is highly regarded by his superior. Thomas has no real reasons to complain although he is not very content and Thomas does not feel any true commitment to his company. He might as well be employed by a competitor. Anders tries to work as little as possible. Even when he is a bit tired and worn out after a period of long working hours and lack of sleep. Anders considers them idiots in varying degrees. Good Co-operation Bjarne has a good feeling each morning on arriving at the company's main entrance.in order to carry out its goals. 'It can never be my problem if the company is doing badly'. he likes to join his team for ten minutes in the morning to make plans for the day. to get as much money as possible and to avoid his superiors and colleagues to the greatest possible extent.44 Søren Ventegodt. He often feels exploited when asked to carry out extra work. since Anders is not 'understood'. He is in good standing with his superior and they communicate politely. Anders does not think highly of the head of the section. 'I am not the one who makes more money when the company has a high turnover. but when he works he minds his own business and rarely notices the presence of his colleagues. He does not distinguish strictly between work and spare time. He rarely benefits from doing this.

Danes see themselves essentially as friendly people. Bjarne is a very loyal and conscíentious employee. which would have proved impossible the individual way. Consequently co-operation is a great advantage that makes for great achievement.Working with Colleagues and Management 45 development. If he were to become redundant. your colleagues and your subordinates. FELLOWSHIP The advantage of co-operation is that work may be divided up in a way that is tailor-made to suit each member of the group. There is enormous potential in the development of the joint energy of a group. If you open up and let things happen. which is most unlikely. Co-operation and management gradually disappear in favour of group members' increasing ability to act intuitively and directly. they often experience problems with regard to co-operation and a sense of community in their . managers and customers. a joint project or a united statement of objectives will survive only for as long as there is a reason to keep the group intact. Management appreciates his efforts and considers him a future key person in the company. he would continue with something similar. It may be that it is part of the essence of life that joint efforts for a collective purpose. Unfortunately. Thus things are done. and the groups that manage to handle all conflicts and conflicting interests turn into regular small combat units that perform miracles none would ever think of. Only a united challenge keeps the group together. joint energies are immensely vulnerable and experience shows that even the best groups do not survive for long. Think once more of your present perception of fellowship and your own cooperation by answering the following questions: • • • • • • • • • • Do you experience yourself as a perfect part of your group? How good is the co-operation? How good is management? Do you like your superior. He works late if needed and gives of his best all round including in his relationship with colleagues. Humans who join together in well functioning communities may experience a closeness and intensity that is hard to put into words for outsiders. or are your personal relations cool and formal? Have you chosen the right organisation to work for? Are you comfortable with the organisation's mission statement? Does your organisation show proper values? Is the organisation alive or is it 'half dead'? Is your heart and soul in it when you enter the company premises? Do you take any responsibility for the internal and external affairs of the organisation? Fellowship is something in life that contains immense potential. for example. Although. A group needs a leader to promote unity and to co-ordinate individual contributions into a powerful whole. a group may turn into an incredibly intense and creative unit.

it is clear that organisations. the good organisation is rare. i. The good organisation provides us with opportunities to perform tasks that we are fit for. he or she serves the overall objective of the organisation. THE GOOD ORGANIZATION The job has become the modern man's bridge to the world. The organisation sees to it that we develop within our professions. It is first and foremost our joining an organisation (company) that provides man with actions that confront us with the outer world. The deeper meaning of organisations. so to speak. many of us fight others. Management's objective is co-ordination of the work in order to maximise the value of the overall efficiency. This development dates back to when man started walking the earth. There is no need for conflict between employee and manager or between people and their organisations. but in principle it is not out of reach. Even though he or she is authorised with the power to define tasks.e. Unfortunately. the reason for their existence. In the good organisation the leader is considered a valuable and appreciated person who deserves to be held in high esteem. the leader is part of the group. there are in our personalities a few quite distinctive diversities that shape our preferences. thrive and prosper in the organisation. (according to Quality-of-Life survey results).46 Søren Ventegodt. may be found in the diversity of humankind. Niels Jørgen Andersen. community and togetherness with the world. friendship. This is not really an astonishing feature in cultures where. albeit very few. cliques and arguments prevails. The organisation is. However. Instead of fighting our personal limitations and ourselves. Much time is wasted and valuable energy lost in internal disputes. Even though we are all provided with the same basic features and preferences with regard to food and drink. It is. People live. The good organisation enables people to co-operate and make joint efforts to solve tasks that might otherwise be difficult to deal with alone. the good leader does not serve his personal interest in doing this. It is difficult to define an organisation but basically it is about a group of people who join together for a common purpose. Various professional groups may develop into factions or cliques and manifest considerable difficulty in adjusting to an overall sense of community in the company. an extension of life and does not function in opposition to life. love. It is a natural thing for people to join this kind of community. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick companies. only one in two people has a close friend in whom they can confide and with whom they can discuss anything. It operates efficiently and develops quality. envy. A section of a company may end up being unproductive and without profit if the classical pattern of complaints. In the good organisation all employees solve their tasks efficiently and well. to lay off some members and welcome others. nature and society. . In a good organisation. Often there will be considerable distance among the workers themselves and between management and the workers. Some people may be on friendly terms with a few colleagues. departments and companies will suffer in the long run as a result of imperfect communication. clothes and a place to live. it does not go against our nature as human beings. Rather. at its best. and it is a fact that people rarely establish friendships with their superiors. placing mastery within our reach. The fact that people are not as sociable at work as they could or should be might be considered a private matter. a modern version of humankind's natural community.

However. Rather. My point is that the brilliant leader has not acquired his or her dominance and power by obstructing the employees. In many large companies there are several hierarchies of heads of sections and this may serve to slow down the work process as well as preventing greater efficiency.Working with Colleagues and Management 47 Some people show a strong preference for acting and doing things. These people appreciate a co-ordinated and overall direction of goals in order to make the details fit into the total context. others prefer leadership and organizing. This situation leads to a range of communication problems and conflicts between managers and employees that could have been avoided. Instead of becoming the group's representative. His or her task is to secure the group's common interests. some people have preferences for science and technology whereas others cannot possibly take an interest in the periodic system or complicated software diagrams but instead concentrate on linguistic. communicative and humanistic matters. the leader may end up being a stranger who never gets close to the group. Again. . Interdepartmental projects that cut across traditional structures (e. freedom and independence at work instead of supporting his associate in these respects. Similarly. THE GOOD LEADER A group has a natural leader. affiliated sections) may strengthen the independence of the employees as well as more or less spontaneous group formations.g. An important symmetry of this kind is the relationship between the leader and the group members. Often the project group may choose its leader from the group. many large modern companies dismiss part of their managerial staff and develop a flatter organizational hierarchy. Some people consider it a vocation to manage and spend all their energy on superior levels while others prefer to become absorbed in detail. their conditions and wishes. The company may suffer from lack of confidence in managers and immediate superiors in cases where the executives have been employed without paying adequate attention to the employees. A manager who has no confidence in his associates easily creates a barrier to the individual initiative. Some prefer knowledge and wisdom. the brilliance of leadership originates from the leader's ability really to inspire the group. the associate who has no confidence in the leader will not accept his or her help and support. Some people take an interest in selling and doing business. Others take up the classical attitude of assisting and helping. Others prefer to minimise the role of commercialism in their lives. To avoid these effects. This includes being authorised by the group to organise the work so that everybody contributes his best efforts to solve the group's common task. who may be characterised as the person who most clearly is able to understand the common objective as well as to express the collective intention and will of the group. it is still not clear whether this type of solution has a great future but the idea is good in theory. The above-mentioned diversities of preference are useful when we try to match them to our personalities in real life. Some people prefer a tangible reality whereas power and the broad overview attract others.

Niels Jørgen Andersen. A prerequisite for cooperation is that we like each other. Experience shows that we all have our flaws and imperfections and these cause us to jar against each other and to collide with each other. The good leader abandons his or her personal interests. be it the creation of a new product or a new way of servicing customers. He or she must be able to articulate the group's project in comprehensible terms that can be agreed upon. If he or she is unable to communicate the basic ideas to the employees and make them share the vision of the good values in future projects to be carried out by the group. In other respects the leader subordinates himself to the group. in favour of servicing the unit and the community. It is important to take on the responsibility and to carry it through in the face of difficulties. To be a good leader requires a highly developed understanding of what is needed 'out there' . GOOD CO-OPERATION When carrying out different tasks necessary for the organisation to create its products or provide services. If we do not like each other. The leader's vision and creative mind must guide the employees into collectively creating value. The leader supports each individual member of the group and finds out the best way of combining the given tasks with preferences and needs within the group. so to speak. to take offence and put on a sour look.48 Søren Ventegodt. The precondition of co-operation is that we manage to ignore each other's imperfect personalities and instead try to develop a more profound and basic confidence in and sympathy for other people.which means quite a cultivated sense of human potential as well as knowledge about the way it operates in life. When joining in close teamwork people get to know each other intimately. The leader must be courageous and visionary. In order to co-operate we need communication. leadership requires knowledge about our complex society. we co-operate. Properly speaking. You must also be able to cope with honest criticism of yourself and put up with your colleagues' strengths and weaknesses. The other way. which is a far better one. Not until the leader understands himself or herself as ultimately the primary and most important supporter of the employees will the organisation flourish. including an open-minded and friendly way of speaking. The leader's duty is to collect all ideas. This joint task must be accomplished along with the personal and professional development of the members of the group. we are engaged in joint efforts with colleagues and management. which is why co-operative endeavours can lead to unpleasantness when a person's behaviour is commented on. Apart from insight into human or personal development. There are two ways to cope with criticism: One is to defend oneself and put a distance between oneself and one's critic. including personal development. is a more humble and open-minded attitude where criticism is not taken as an offence but rather as a mirroring of . Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick In this way the leader takes a position vis-à-vis the individuals of the group. It is always easier to find fault with your neighbour. we cannot find a reasonable way of communicating. the prospects are none too good. A leader who gets no support for defined projects does not have a chance. The idea of co-operation is to supplement one another. impressions and opinions for a clear and precisely expressed vision of the relevant project. Criticism will be understood as unfriendly and manifestly hostile intentions rather than as assistance to improvement and development.

Nowadays. switching tasks might solve problems. and ability of functioning in all areas from sexuality to social life are often low. respect and understanding is encouraging sub-environmental initiatives for creating groups and departments able to support its members and letting people heal and grow. you have an obligation to enter into dialogue with your superior if you disagree with him or her. But healing must happens in a sound environment with full support and acceptance for the individual. Unfortunately. modern IT-companies cannot function without dialogue. This way the critics show which points should be relevant for further personal development. DISCUSSION The largest challenge in creating a well-functioning organisation is the development of the physical. We human beings are social beings. Only on very rare occasions will a competent modern chief executive force through his own point of view. If. The art of co-operation is particularly difficult when it is a matter of co-operating with your superior. In case of long-term problems in regard to teamwork it is still not an acceptable solution to suppress a colleague's point of view. To be able to say 'yes' and 'no' is essential for good teamwork. Here we are up against fundamental differences in points of view that ought to be sorted out. We are all gifted with different talents [1-7] and only together can we do great and complicated things like sending men to the moon or developing science and technology. Employees of the late 20th century must be well informed and conscious of what is going on. writing to the colleague instead of waiting for him in vain can solve the problem. you know that your colleague rarely meets an appointment on time. You not only have a right to. We need to see and acknowledge the talent in every person. it can be described as a state of severe psychoform and somatoform dissociation. mental and existential health of its employees. quality of life is often low. and this is the very situation where any modern leader should be particularly observant and attentive. as today it is of the utmost importance that we engage with each other properly and that all points of view are respected. and support each one and facilitate the need for personal development of talents and self-insight. if the manager can overcome his or her pride and recognise this.Working with Colleagues and Management 49 yourself. Thus modern employees tend to hold views that are fully valid vis-à-vis their superiors. and reflections are not deep. that provides us all with our needs and longings. Such people are in severe need of existential healing. A company culture with love. The employee may often be right and great value may be achieved. Most unfortunately many people in the world today is in a state of chronic stress. for instance. and only when we can do that. The disagreements might very well focus on views on the stated objectives and values of the organisation. can we create the company and the society. in such situations most of us have trouble with emotions because they remind us of events in our personal life when we may have experienced the pain of rejection. neither through mind or body can he or she be contacted. . The person is not really there. In the old days the authoritarian executive style held sway. The behaviour is often quite mechanical. If you know that your colleague is very good at accounting whereas you dislike this job.

The life mission theory VI: A theory for the human character. The life mission theory IV. The life mission theory II: The structure of the life purpose and the ego. Ventegodt S. healthy. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. The life mission theory V. Only when everybody is connected to the world and giving their gift to the world though the work.3:1277-85. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2003. oriented and fully informed about what is going on everywhere in the organization can do an optimal job. Ventegodt S. for only through fellowship can man be nourished and supported enough to grow and heal existentially. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick A company is in many ways like a living organism. A theory of child development. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Merrick J. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ. The life mission theory III: Theory of talent.5:377-89. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Andersen NJ. . Ventegodt S.4:859-80. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. The key to all this is fellowship.15(1):89-91. health and ability for use in holistic medicine. Andersen NJ. The life mission theory: A theory for a consciousness-based medicine.3:1302-13. where every employee and leader corresponds to a living cell. Merrick J.3:1294-1301. Only when all the cells are happy. Flensborg-Madsen T. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Life Mission Theory VII: Theory of existential (Antonovsky) coherence: a theory of quality of life.50 Søren Ventegodt. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2003.3:1286-93. Andersen NJ. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. can we have an optimal performance in an optimal organization. Only in the soil fertilised with human respect and unconditional love can geniuses and masters grow. The team must support personal and professional growth. Merrick J. A theory of the antiself and explaining the evil side of man.

clients. maybe also those of animals and plants. This article is about how we can create real value and how organisations become valuable to customers. Consider this a personal obligation. customer satisfaction will be subordinate to a more global perspective on production. We can all grow and develop. if we do not put our uniqueness and best talents to proper use. These values are about satisfying people's real needs. we betray ourselves as well as others. By being part of a valuable organisation we create genuine value. Put in another way. This must be considered an emergency solution. not just market value. thus becoming more valuable. we build up instead of breaking . Niels Jørgen Andersen. it is necessary to adhere to good and viable values.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. The transition towards creating proper values requires a profound rethinking of our attitudes. Inc. INTRODUCTION You can question wether a company really creates value with its product or services or not. without destroying the world we inherited and which our children will inherit from us in the future. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Creating real value is one of the four dimensions of developing the quality of work life besides the quality of life. Every one of us can be useful by contributing our individual skills to the environment. mastery and fellowship. If we live up to values that respect these conditions. it is necessary to adhere to good and viable values which allows us to create clear preconditions for quality of life instead of wasting these preconditions. Chapter 6 CREATING VALUE Søren Ventegodt. In order to create real value. To this end. of course. but does it create genuine value? How beneficial are the product and the activities? Do they contribute to making this world a better place to live in? In order to create real value. It earns money. patients and the environment. The organisations is our chance to become valuable to a much wider circle than the one closest to us. The world needs competent people exactly where change is needed. It may well be better to remain in your job and change a bad company than fleeing to another job.

physicians consider this proposal a problematic one. Others know how to gain from life as well as being pleasant company for others. Niels Jørgen Andersen. But since patients lack professional knowledge. whereas those who do not feel useful are unhappy. Let us start this difficult subject with an example from the world of health care in order to illustrate how much value can be created. Quality-of-life surveys have shown that people who feel useful. A considerable amount of money is spent on research and the physicians often participate in conferences abroad to present their results. The physicians do all they can to fight the cancer with all means available: chemotherapy. In this way you will make a significant change not only for yourself but also for your place of work and your environment. You can contribute to a shift in attitudes and practice. A hospital Department with Poor Ability to Create Value This department has specialised in treating breast cancer. a new type of 'troublesome and critical' patient has appeared on the scene. Some people are not of great value to themselves or in their personal relationships. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick down. They are proud that over the past thirty years science globally has succeeded in doubling the lifetime of cancer patients (even though critics argue that it is because the diagnosis is made at an earlier stage. Every one of us can be useful by contributing our individual skills to the environment. Patients who undergo the prescribed treatment often feel very bad physically during the course of the treatment (often for the rest of their lives). We support other people in their self-expression instead of wasting global resources on superfluous consumption. A person may be more or less valuable. which makes women aware of their cancer for a relatively longer period). The physicians hope for a breakthrough with new products and focuses on molecular research rather than involving . also as a group.52 Søren Ventegodt. thus becoming more valuable. She asks questions about the customary treatment or refuses to accept it. We can all grow and develop. We create clear preconditions for quality of life instead of wasting these preconditions. However. • • • • • • How valuable are you in relation to your potential value? Could you grow to be twice as valuable to your spouse? Your children? Your friends? Could you become twice as valuable to your organisation? Your customers? It feels good to be useful. are happy. CREATING REAL VALUE FOR CUSTOMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT In this article we shall have a look at how organisations become valuable to customers/clients/patients/users and the environment. radiation and surgery. Some nurses are becoming aware that patients must be involved much more in the decisions made about their treatment.

The physicians were surprised at preliminary results showing that patients can do far more for themselves than could have been hoped for. Far-sighted leaders seized the opportunity and arranged for the production to become viable. since their conscience is clear. They exchange views on their joys and sorrows. Nonpolluting chemicals are now used to produce water-based paints. . The car proved fully viable when re-usable panels and spare parts became available. first and foremost. Customers are more content with the cars now. Fortunately it is on its way. In those days cars transformed a large quantity of valuable raw materials into gigantic quantities of worthless waste. Ecology and advanced technology supplement each other wonderfully. In this department experiments are initiated . Many of the women consider the cancer department a most valuable experience. Today the factory creates real significant value. according to statistics. USA and reported on in the Lancet in 1989 [1]. Technological advances that led to this improvement were. traditional treatment of advanced breast cancer with chemotherapy. Not to mention the car's various built-in computers now made of fibre-optic materials that do not waste energy. Women do not think that they obtain much help from the cancer department. values and goals in life for about one and a half hour per week. It has become evident over the past ten years that. A Hospital Department Creating Great Value The department has specialised in treating breast cancer.Creating Value 53 psychological and social events in the treatment. They not only get better but also live twice as long as patients who do not join an existential group. created by the political consumer. The department runs different projects to enhance the women's self-esteem and self-confidence to make them act more constructively in life. the treatment often ruins the patients' quality of life. After that came the durable and efficient electrometer. The very best thing to happen was the new effective generation of solar cells that keep the car recharged all day. The Good Car Factory – Bad in the Old Days – the 1990’s Not many years ago this car factory let its product burn off a considerable amount of leaded petrol and diesel oil which polluted the environment. Will this car be for sale? Give it twenty to thirty years . Some of the otherwise doomed women join groups of twenty persons.where ordinary treatment is being offered to all patients (but not always accepted) and supplemented with a clearly articulated request to the patients to take very good care of themselves. Furthermore.and a bit of help. Thus neither nature nor we will be contaminated in the future. good rechargeable and re-usable batteries. For a while it looked as if the factory would continue contributing to global environmental deterioration. but then a niche appeared on the market. These materials are fully degradable in ordinary sea sand. radiation and surgery prolongs the patient's life by only a few months. Quite often they succeed in gaining deeper insight as well as improving their quality of life. The experiment leading to this surprising result was carried out by David Spiegel and associates at Stanford University.

the supplier has measured up to expectations. contributing to the transformation of natural resources into waste deposits. The transition towards creating proper values requires a profound re-thinking of our attitudes. In this respect. These values are about satisfying people's real needs. more is needed than just customer satisfaction. there are private and public organisations which. energy and money on the product. we build up instead of breaking down. A well-known example is the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM). it is time to take responsibility and start improving your organisation. water and raw materials and produce direct and indirect pollution. that is to say. it is necessary to adhere to good and viable values. It is questionable whether a company really creates value with its product or services. customer satisfaction will be subordinate to a more global perspective on production. They will not become healthier or happier. A company would have to evaluate whether it is actually creating value (other than employment) by means of its products and services. services and so on. simply by demanding more. but does it create genuine value? How beneficial are its product and its activities? Does it contribute to making this world a better place to live in? In order to create real value. We create clear preconditions for quality of life instead of wasting these preconditions. It is debatable whether the consumers are better off after all. not just market value. Perhaps you work for such an organisation.which are superficial and culturally determined values. commercials and materialism have imposed upon us. that the standard of quality does not call for a further investigation into the quality of the demand. which part of the demand for goods may be detrimental to the environment. Today several companies are content with a standard of quality expressed by customer satisfaction: if the customers get what they expect. To this end. Often the demand for goods is not grounded in genuine and profound needs. It may derive from more or less artificial needs such as cultural trends. fashion whims. If you think about it. The organisation is our chance to become valuable to a much wider circle than the one closest to us. without destroying the world we inherited and which our children will inherit from us in the future. We support other people in their self-expression instead of wasting global resources on superfluous consumption. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO CREATE REAL VALUE? Companies create value when they produce products or services for sale. It may be a fact that we take less interest in existential values. consumer goods. There are many perceptions of quality.54 Søren Ventegodt. materials. Maybe they merely waste their time. than in power. such as love of life and the environment. It earns money. . short-sighted and therefore often quite stupid. of course. managers and employees use comprehensive internal standards of quality which help customers increase their knowledge about products. maybe also those of animals and plants. clearly do not exist in order to create genuine value. Niels Jørgen Andersen. If you do. In order to create real value. and comfort . At the same time they consume energy. Our culture is said to be materialistic. money. If we live up to values that respect these conditions. etc. We eventually realise that these are status symbols or masks that we could really do without. however. The good organisation usually creates far more value than customers do. the local area and its quality of life. status. By being part of a valuable organisation we create genuine value. The problem is. for various reasons.

We can all grow and develop. Put in another way. This is dictated by our basic nature as human beings. This must be considered an emergency solution. we betray ourselves as well as others. another set of values for professional life. thus becoming more valuable. primarily concerned with power and money? How does it impact on a person's life when the two sets of values do not harmonise? Is it likely that such a person can become really valuable to himself/herself and to others? . also as a group. We are more closely tied to the world than we think. one for private life (with love a dominant feature). it is difficult for you to contribute to the world. Every one of us can be useful by contributing our individual skills to the environment. The world needs competent people exactly where change is needed. Some people are not of great value to themselves or in their personal relationships. But why is it that people often adhere to two sets of values. Our freedom not to be useful is limited. How valuable are you in relation to your potential value? Could you grow to be twice as valuable to your spouse? Your children? Your friends? Could you become twice as valuable to your organisation? Your customers? 'Well. It may well be better to remain in your job and change a bad company than fleeing to another job. Consider this a personal obligation. if we do not put our uniqueness and best talents to proper use. maybe I could' you think. are happy. A valuable person is one who leads a life in accordance with good and stable values. Things fit together. Try reconsidering how value is created in your organisation. whereas those who do not feel useful are unhappy. Quality-of-life surveys have shown that people who feel useful. It feels good to be useful. Others know how to gain from life as well as being pleasant company for others.Creating Value 55 It may be your opening to find the challenge of your life and to make a contribution to a better world. We are obliged to be useful and resourceful beings. 'but why should I'? The answer to this question is very simple: Because you are no more valuable to yourself than you are to others. A valuable organisation also manifests good and enduring values. Please try to answer the following questions: • • • • • • • How good is the quality of the products/services? How resource-conscious and viable is the production process? How successful is the organisation measured in terms of its stated objectives for the future? How efficient is the organisation? How well prepared is your company to take a lead and to pioneer new paths? How beneficial is the organisation to the employees? How useful is the organisation to the local environment? Becoming a Valuable Human Being A person may be more or less valuable. If you do not like yourself and your life. and vice versa.

life-cycle analysis and projects add to the development of zest. mastery and management.56 Søren Ventegodt. enhancing the possibility of sustaining a process of development directed to employees and managers becoming more alert and more oriented to value. What are the good values? Let us make a distinction between our personal values at work and the shared values formulated in an organisation's mission statement. They are about the experience of creating value. and when you have grown professionally. the door will be open for deriving knowledge and strength from the great hidden reserve of human potential. Lots of good tools are marketed at a reasonable prize. If the organisation wants to create more genuine value for customers. its position and responsibility. Companies often practise double standards. a change to better values is needed. its conventional wisdom. It takes great individual efforts to determine what the values of the organisation really are in respect of its overall philosophy. The working environment. In this way you will make a significant change not only for yourself but also for your place of work and your environment. A healthy organisation takes an overall and global view: We want to participate in creating the future the way we like it. Niels Jørgen Andersen. If you have a clear perception of where you are heading. We must not make do with short-sighted solutions. but it is not as simple as that. for instance a new product or a service that is unique. action is possible. its view of people as well as of itself. They focus on survival and growth. until the day production is interfered with. Good personal working values refer. In principle these values might also carry the organisation. It would be very hard for anyone within the company to reject criticism of values which are basically hostile to people or nature. the time has come for you to make a difference to the whole. Today. economically and otherwise. You can develop values within the company if you really believe that you are able to make a difference by seeing what is wrong and acting to put it right. If you understand what is going on in your organisation. making a profit for the owners and satisfying the employees. Nature must be preserved and protected. You can contribute to a shift in attitudes and practice. These values are about achieving a goal. An organisation has its own values. They may very well be conflicting. to commitment. you will quickly gain understanding as to how to increase your influence. Environmental concern. it is not an easy task to determine the company's values. People who fight for their personal values to be implemented in the company . We must all accept our share in that responsibility. Often the values have not been formulated. If you believe in fighting to make the difference. Often. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Make your Organisation Valuable When you have found out who you are personally and professionally. for instance. there are many good things to be done if you want to make sure that good values are implemented. Our central conviction with regard to humanity is that you can make the difference. there are innovative workshops for management combined with dialogue with the industrial council. one thing is proposed and something entirely different is carried out. Furthermore. It is urgent that we make suitable investments in research that will secure the company's profitability in the long run. if you want to. for the most part. This is an enormous challenge that requires all of us to raise our level of awareness. is considered important until that environment requires expenditure. However. Awareness of the company's values puts you in a powerful position.

Our last chance is to change the values and attitudes within organisations to assure that what we produce contributes to creating appropriate values. we are completely transforming the surface of the planet. Our feelings of being present. Our present society has turned into an awfully efficient but also very complex world and we have seen just the beginning of the IT revolution. It is people like this who make the world a better place. We are in the middle of a technical revolution and explosive population growth. as health and happiness is highly dependent on this [2-16]. Fortunately. Most interestingly. This demands a highly developed consciousness and maybe the development of human consciousness itself is the next area we need to focus on for man to create value and the human race to survive. if you want to. Our central conviction with regard to humanity is that you can make the difference. The immense power gained from technology means that contemporary employees and managers must be highly conscious and alert. Medicine might very well be about developing the human consciousness as well. We can waste global raw materials in no time and before knowing it we may have ruined nature and thus the basis of our existence. the development of consciousness and self-insight is closely connected to development of sexual ability and the ability to love others and function socially. but also for your place of work and your environment. In this way you will make a significant change not only for yourself. DISCUSSION Real value might be more strongly connected to our common survival on the planet than most people realise. Work is no longer oil stains and sweat but an alert handling of energy and information. In a modern IT-company work is not so much about your personal initiative but rather about letting technology do the work. deep inside. fully alive and in line with reality will not manifest themselves fully until we grow fully conscious and alert. the company and the environment.Creating Value 57 contribute to making a difference. We simply have to get technological development under control. This is all we long for. We suggest that real value very soon will be about contributing to the global eco-system. It is people like this who make the world a better place. Why should you not become one of them? Technology and Value Today a good machine can easily do the work of 100 employees. You can contribute to a shift in attitudes and practice. People who fight for their personal values to be implemented in the company contribute to making a difference. consciousness and alertness are original features of the human character. All processes must be carefully and precisely managed with a view to the complex realities within each section. Most people are aware of the potential of science and technology. The most efficient machines available these days may cause world-wide pollution. Why should you not become one of them? . more than anything.

Morad M. Kandel I.4: 562-70.4:571-80. Hyam E. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: Induction of Spontaneous Remission of Cancer by Recovery of the Human Character and the Purpose of Life (the Life Mission).58 Søren Ventegodt. Merrick J. Gottheil E. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Merrick J. Philosophy behind quality of life. Global quality of life. Neikrug S. Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Principles of holistic medicine. Holistic Medicine IV: Principles of the holistic process of healing in a group setting. Morad M. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Quality of life and health. 2005. Saunte ME. Clinical holistic medicine: Chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. Ventegodt S. Clinical holistic medicine: Treatment of physical health problems without a known cause. Merrick J. Lancet 1989.4:362-77.4:716-24. Bloom JR.3:1294-1301. Merrick J.4:913-35. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: Metastatic cancer. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. 2005. Clinical holistic medicine: Holistic sexology and treatment of vulvodynia through existential therapy and acceptance through touch. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ. Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Merrick J. Kandel I. BC: Trafford. ScientificWorld Journal. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Morad M. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Morad M. Clinical holistic medicine: Classic art of healing or the therapeutic touch. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Principles of holistic medicine. ScientificWorld Journal 2004.2004. Clinical holistic medicine: Problems in sex and living together. Kandel I. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S.3:1138-46. Merrick J. Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Andersen NJ. Principles of holistic medicine. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Kandel I. Morad M. Merrick J. Merrick J. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] Spiegel D.4:347-61. Victoria. Morad M.4:96-9. ScientificWorld Journal 2003.5:155-64. Clinical holistic medicine: Applied consciousness-based medicine. Andersen NJ. Ventegodt S. Clinical holistic medicine Tools for a medical science based on consciousness. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ. Merrick J. 2005. Merrick J. Holistic Medicine III: The holistic process theory of healing.4:134-47. exemplified by hypertension and tinnitus. ScientificWorld Journal 2005.Theory. Morad M. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ.5:288-97. research and methodology. . ScientificWorld Journal 2004.2(8668):888-91. Kraemer HC. Merrick J. Solheim E. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: Holistic treatment of rape and incest traumas.

In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick

ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 7

UP – OR DOWN IN YOUR LIFE?
Søren Ventegodt, Niels Jørgen Andersen, Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick
It is amazingly rare for people to succeed in creating really good lives through their work and making the big dream come true. Surveys carried out by The Quality-of-Life Research Centre showed that only one Dane in three is really happy in his work. Few people burn for their work, they just burn themselves out. We all have the option of revising what we think of ourselves, life and the world around us. Likewise we can make adjustments to our habits and our way of life in general. We can all do a lot to feel better, in private and on the job. For some reason we do not do anything about it until we are forced to. But we could easily do something if we decided to do so. There is nothing more delightful than discovering that nature actually created us wonderful, intelligent, attractive, talented and humorous etc. We must stop preventing ourselves from being so. The four issues necessary for a company to really succeed and create real value in the world are; quality of life and job satisfaction, mastery within each individual field of activity, a sense of community with respect to cooperation and management, and finally creating real value. This is an ongoing process that affects revising of values, working procedures and goals. The company or organisation with these qualities will be successful both from the perspective of employees and customers. Such an organisation will go one step further and also prove to be valuable to the environment: nature and society. It is this type of development, which will carry companies forward into the 21st century.

INTRODUCTION Most of us do not grow old gracefully, we become sad and decrepit. What is it that makes some people develop and systematically improve their lives year by year? What are the characteristics of people who understand how to develop? The basic principles of personal development can be studied thoroughly in a rather special situation, which is when a life-threatening condition becomes terminal. In this

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situation most of us suddenly experience an immense love of life as well as a very strong motivation to improve life radically while we still can. The fantastic thing about this is that it seems to be possible. It does not even take long to improve life significantly when we are terminally ill - maybe a few weeks or months. We all have great hidden resources. Nothing is as sensitive to attitudes and conduct as our dealings with others. We are able to create for ourselves most favourable circumstances provided that we know how to bring to the surface the best in people, if we consider them delightful, talented, constructive etc. Often we can inspire to personal development by observing fine traits in people who have not yet themselves discovered their good points. This is one of the best ways to interact with your friends and colleagues. Now and then we meet a very happy person - and they do exist. A feature of very happy people is that they do precisely the work they want to. Look closer and you will find that these people consider themselves hunters or warriors. They fight to make their dreams come true. They are very different from the majority since their efforts are not motivated by duty and mere necessity but by love of life. This love provides an indomitable will to make life come true. In a flash of profound insight, a lucky moment in which we sense very intensely what life has in store for us, we suddenly decide to change our lives. When made wholeheartedly, the decision to change our lives is an extremely effective one. Unfortunately, our existence is often so unconnected that the decision is not made in our existential centre, in our inner integrity, but in a far corner of the brain. Such a decision has no great and pervasive effect. It can be compared with a decision to stop smoking where you start again after a fortnight. On the other hand, this is what we have to make do with. The missing discipline must be developed gradually through perseverance. As long as we do our best and a little more, we cannot blame ourselves. What does it matter if we fall back into less fortunate patterns? If we eventually realise what is wrong, we can escape once more. This is exactly the struggle we are involved in, all of us. Such are the tough conditions of life. Very few people ever develop enough discipline to experience the full strength of a decision made by the whole person. This kind of decision simply changes life from one moment to the next. But again, people who are that disciplined rarely have anything to improve. They have achieved mastery. They have put their life in complete order. It is often an advantage when a coach can keep you at it and prevent you from taking the easy way out. A coach can observe you from the outside and he or she has excellent opportunities of keeping an eye on you and finding out how you prevent yourself from creating true progress in your life. The ideal coach is a person who is not necessarily a close friend but he or she is somebody you trust and like.

ARE YOU ON YOUR WAY UP IN LIFE – OUR DOWN?

When you Cannot Find any Challenge in Work: Stress and Lack of Development
Tanya works in the marketing department. She thinks that her work is strenuous and stressful. Her superior keeps making demands of her and she has difficulty keeping up with these demands. She feels inadequate. Often she doubts whether she has found her niche though she

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cannot think of something else to do. She wonders why she is always so busy and she can tell from her superior's looks that he thinks she works too slowly and does not do her job properly. Sometimes she believes she is going to wear herself out.

Taking up the Fight of Life: Developing
Gertrud is developing well in her job and her life. She thrives and grows and has changed completely. It appears that she gets better year by year. She is in full bloom, laughing and joking. She is alive. Gertrud has made a strange leap. Her posture has changed from a stooped to an erect carriage. Mentally she has changed her attitude towards life to a positive and constructive belief in survival. She is coping. Each day she practises living. And she makes astonishingly good progress.

Developing Personal Challenges: Developing a Great Deal
Tea is part of an interesting team in the marketing department. She experiences life as a great personal challenge. Her work is also her hobby. She knows that she does what she is best at and that it corresponds exactly with what she wants to do. Often her work absorbs her for days. Each day brings her something new. She is not worried about working at full speed all day as well as working overtime. She lives for using her life and she loves her work. If she is made redundant, she will continue to fill her life with meaning. Her colleagues look at her with a wry expression. They say she works like a horse. But Tea does not work for compliments. She works because she is convinced that this work is her purpose in life. People think they develop because life's panorama changes and because they gradually rearrange their values in accordance with current trends. But the crucial point is that the experience of life as such does not change for the better in most people's lives. If it changes, it usually goes gradually downhill. On the other hand, people rarely become radically happier with living as they grow older. Nor do they radically improve their experience of their working life - although it does happen.

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT There is much evidence to indicate that it is possible to become happier [1]. Most of us know of some people who have done it, have improved their lives, and acquired a new and more fulfilled working life, leisure life, etc. Rather few people achieve a better working life without improving their life in general. It happens that people find a new job and say without hesitation: I feel so much better at work now. Now the problems, the conflicts and the bad experiences vanish for a while. But they will resurface if one suffers from such tendencies. It is amazingly rare for people to succeed in creating really good lives through their work and making the big dream come true. It is very important to keep in mind that change itself is not human development. A great deal of change is often superficial whereas the tough reality at the depth of life offers only

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stagnation and adaptation. Development takes more than that. It demands a goal-oriented and disciplined effort. It requires us to really want to change. We must want a better life before we start improving our life at work. In order to succeed we must be truly motivated. When we embark on growth and development as human beings, whether in our private lives or at work, we come against strong, conservative forces. We have developed into egos through a long personal history which has confirmed our perception of reality as taught by parents, teachers and all other adults explaining what reality looks like. We were given a set of attitudes, a set of habits and behaviour patterns drummed into us. Now these more or less permanent attitudes form the backbone of our lives. Such a backbone has to be quite stable, rather rigid, so to speak; otherwise we are too impressionable and dependent - soft as molluscs. Unfortunately this rigidity makes it difficult for us to develop because development requires certain softness and flexibility, as well as a basic openness to the views of others.

Developing as a Human Being - Improving the Experience of Life
To push it to its logical conclusion, one could say that what really needs to be developed in us is our somewhat half-finished, coarse and less refined perception of ourselves, of life and of the world around us: This is what gives us unpleasant personalities. Human development is largely focused on being able to accept oneself as a human being with flaws and weaknesses that we would like to correct. This is followed by years of hard work trying to correct these flaws and weaknesses. When we do not develop, it is because we much prefer to justify ourselves instead of acknowledging our shortcomings and trying to correct them. Our experience of living, that is to say our joy in life, needs to be developed further since quality of life is a function of this joy. Life experience manifested by good or bad quality of life covers two issues: our perception of reality and the things we do in life. Our perception of reality embraces our attitudes to life and what it brings us. What we do in life is our practice of life, all we do and say, our habits, decisions etc. Our practice of life mirrors our attitudes and ends up confirming them, be they conscious or unconscious. If we dislike somebody, for instance, we behave accordingly, showing distance and reservation. Such a behaviour pattern provokes repulsion. It makes us believe that there are numerous reasons for not liking the person, despite our own initial bad behaviour. Or maybe we were trained in inept behaviour during our childhood by not being taught actively to search for knowledge, etc. and are now in trouble in our adult life because we have come to regard ourselves as untalented. Or we feel that we are not good-looking, intelligent, admirable, courageous or whatever. We have learned to picture ourselves in terms of the number of words available to us in our language. To each quality or feature is attached a detailed behaviour. We contain a huge amount of behaviour patterns, taught by vocation and thousands of repetitions. Our concept of the state of things is confirmed by experience during a lifetime, even though we were the underlying reason for what happened. We create our own experiences through our attitudes and life practice, often without knowing it! We suffer from a dreadful tendency to be unaware of what is happening in our lives.

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But logically, the solution is within reach. When we become attentive, we overcome many of the barriers that keep us fixed at a certain level through life. An increasing awareness of our personal likes and dislikes makes us reconsider our motives. Not until we realise that we do have an opinion on life, may we discover the wide range of alternative attitudes. Furthermore, we discover that our behaviour is an expressed attitude, which leads to different ways of doing things, some of which may be better than others. In fact, comprehensive development is not compatible with a wish to achieve development within a few areas, privately or professionally. It is our whole attitude to life and our corresponding behaviour that creates our lives. All the way through life we must be attentive and do our best. We must take up life's challenges and train ourselves, be totally attentive and do our best. To be attentive and make an effort corresponds to a solution where you act according to your true convictions. Bear in mind that being attentive is not something you do; it is something you are. In a way you have to change something deep inside your existence in order to start developing. This is a barrier that deserves respect and must be overcome through persevering, active and goal-oriented effort. Most people find it hard to believe that inside of us we possess all the wisdom needed to lead a good life. To most people it sounds preposterous that we just need to surrender to life and trust it. To modern western Europeans it seems naive and romantic to listen to the soul hidden beneath the busy and confused surface. To improve your life is quite complicated when you try. When taking up the challenge, try testing the simple idea that life is full of wisdom which can be located and expressed in many ways, provided that you have faith in yourself while you listen to your inner self. It requires courage to recognise and live out your innermost dreams and longings. But we will not become harmonious and happy beings until the day we start asking for and doing what we really want to do [2-6].

Ability to Function and Age
There is a sinister curve regarding the state people find themselves in. It is the curve showing the correlation between people’s age and their ability to function. This ability to function comprises issues such as ability to manage one's job and one's social obligations and is directly related to health. Research results show that people reach their peak activity between 20 and 40 years. After this they decline, at first very slowly, then faster later on. Around 60 years of age most people have deteriorated to such an extent that they are of very little value on the job. At present, the average retirement age is 61 years. At this age most people have acquired their first chronic disease. Normally it is not a harmful disease, just a slight attack of arthritis or dementia. But the decay accelerates and around the age of 75 most have reached the end of the road. Results of research done in Denmark (Quality-of-Life Survey, 1995) has revealed interesting but worrying facts and patterns that seem to relate strongly to our ability to function in relation to age. The results revealed that most Danes do not really feel very good or very bad during their lives - they live in a ’lukewarm middle-group' revealing the following characteristics:

old people who are highly esteemed and vital until their last day. We all have great hidden resources. These exceptions do exist. Every fourth Dane does not have a girlfriend or boyfriend.64 Søren Ventegodt. She had come to terms with quite a few symptoms from stomach-aches to insomnia. The fantastic thing about this is that it seems to be possible. It does not even take long to improve life significantly when we are terminally ill . most of us do not grow old gracefully. Her life had gradually turned into a routine. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick • • • • • • • • • • Almost every other Dane does not have a close friend. It did not seem to offer her the proper opportunities. Happiness is clearly and closely connected with the quality of personal relationships.maybe a few weeks or months. painful and weak. One in twenty contemplates suicide from time to time. that she was rather useless and tired of life. They often die within 24 hours at a very advanced age. valuable and highly appreciated human beings. Niels Jørgen Andersen. As if it contained no value . She thought of life as hard. 94% of the population suffer from a health defect. which is when a life-threatening condition becomes terminal. Could this picture of the Danish culture be true of other western cultures too? However. Of those with a partner. The surveys have also shown that the Danes are one of the most contented populations in Europe. In a way. she felt life a bit unreal. It seemed as if her life would not work out properly. Half of the population suffers from chronic conditions. Nor was she content with the world around her. She did not feel bright and attractive. at times she felt ugly and unloved. A few percent get better year by year and become rounded. one in three women and one in four men have sex problems. all in all. At the same time they have the second highest suicide rate in Europe as well as one of the lowest life expectancies. it was hard and unyielding. In this situation most of us suddenly experience an immense love of life as well as a very strong motivation to improve life radically while we still can. soft. Only one Dane in three feels very good at work. She could not help feeling that she did not comply with life's demands.and it was useless to start fighting. There is no correlation between happiness and annual income. They are the ones who end up as wise. we become sad and decrepit. warm. She thought. Those who feel bad on the job feel worse in life than unemployed people do. What is it that makes some people develop and systematically improve their lives year by year? What are the characteristics of people who understand how to develop? The basic principles of personal development can be studied thoroughly in a rather special situation. She had come to accept that things would not work out for her at work. you could not even scratch it with a nail. The most interesting feature about this curve is that a small proportion of the population does not seem to follow the curve. Apprehension and Life Practice For a long time Lisa felt she was ailing. where she felt excluded when colleagues chatted among themselves .

Instead she chose. She refrained from confronting executives and colleagues. Now she finds that life is valuable and good and full of meaning and fighting spirit. She was not an easy person to care for. The prognosis is bad. she discovers a new love of life that changes her attitude and mental outlook. Feeling the pressure of the short time left to her. How do you perceive life.Up – or Down in your Life? 65 and left her out of it. even maybe behind her back. She gives the matter a great deal of thought and reaches the conclusion that everything important in life is caused by something and that nothing happens . not really wanting to. the role of the victim. her friends and her boyfriend with her opinion of the situation. yourself and your environment? Put a circle around a number in each line . no one really liked her.between the two statements. Understandably. Try to plot Lisa in the attitudinal questionnaires below: We know from research that statistically quality of life correlates strongly with answers in the left-hand column. The numbers mean: 1: You agree 100% with the statement to the left 2: You agree more with the statement to the left 3: You agree or disagree with both statements 4: You disagree more with the statement to the right 5: You agree 100% with the statement to the right Perception of Life Life is full of joy Life is full of meaning Life is enhanced through fighting 12345 12345 12345 Life is full of pain Life is meaningless It is useless to fight Self-Perception I am … Loved … Extroverted… Headstrong… Competent… Courageous… 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 Unloved Introverted Weak-willed Incompetent Cowardly Perception of Environment The world is soft and malleable… 1 2 3 4 5…The world is hard and unyielding The world contains all I need… 1 2 3 4 5… The world cannot satisfy my needs My personal achievements matter to the world 1 2 3 4 5… My personal achievements are unimportant to the world Then Lisa gets breast cancer. like innumerable other women.

a great freedom to shape her life and her reality the way she wants. The opportunities are far more extensive than she ever imagined. which is again confirmed through the response from life and the surroundings caused by our conduct. the life we have created. Perception Experience Behaviour Figure 1. the truth and value of which we are quite sure of. can only be valued by a single parameter. . She accepts herself as she is. Behaviour. Our behaviour (Life practice) is defined by our conception (Sense of reality).66 Søren Ventegodt. Lisa finally experiences a new love for herself. which is our experience of life. even though it may be in deep conflict with life inside us. Perception. She discovers. She experiences an intense blossoming accompanied by many declarations of love. She opens up to life and people around her in a touching whirl of events that change her life completely. Experience Our experience of life is defined by two basic parameters in life: our perceptions or attitudes and what we do and say to express these perceptions. The whole construct. finally. At one point she can say honestly and in the middle of disease and misery: 'I never felt so good in all my life'. A complicating feature in human beings is that we find confirmation of our initial attitudes and opinions in the reactions that come to us from life and our surroundings. our quality of life. She is forced to improve her marriage and her working life as well as the way she is using her friends. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Figure 1 depicts the situation. In the midst of this openness she discovers life itself to be strong and that she has far more strength than she thought. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick by chance. weak and vulnerable. We end up being caught in a self-affirmative bubble.

She becomes attentive to a whole new set of beliefs and a whole new perception of life. Rasmus experiences a crisis in which he finds himself in serious doubt as to whether he really wants to work in an office or whether he should try manual work. Our perception and our behaviour provide us with our experiences. At a particular point. our perception gives us an attitude. The secretaries perceive him as somewhat misplaced. He ends up concluding that he does have talent but is not good at utilising it. he is in doubt as to whether he has a talent for office work at all. Do I Have a Talent for this Task? Rasmus is trainee clerical assistant and not very good at his job. which leads to a response from our surroundings. Rasmus radically . practising alertness and making your best efforts at living. which in turn inevitably confirms us in our beliefs. all she believed in and her way of life. He does not have the curiosity towards the profession. which is typical of good trainees and he prefers to avoid the difficult tasks. which corresponds to a new practice of life. She stops opposing life and finally finds herself close to life and alive according to the original meaning of her life as illustrated by figure 2. He does not think of himself as talented. What happens to Lisa. she achieves a far better experience of life. As he does not try and does not do his best. Concurrently with rearranging her life. Put together. In general. her attitudes and behaviour have not caught up with life and expressed love of life. or you can develop by making a decision to improve your life. as a failure. Pressed by circumstances. when she is confronted by the death sentence is that she experiences her life structure.Up – or Down in your Life? 67 Awareness Perception (1) Experience (1) Perception (2) Experience (2) Development Behaviour (1) Exercise State of being 1 Behaviour (2) State of being 2 Figure 2. the head of section makes it clear to Rasmus that he has to change his attitudes if he wants to stay with the company. You can either jump from one state to another. he appears lazy and unmotivated. Human beings develop when they become attentive to attitudes which are more in accordance with life and when life simultaneously is restructured and rearranged in favour of expressing more constructive and positive attitudes. he cannot expect to get better at his job. Furthermore.

strong guy with square features. Anders thought. a big. when dropping by. He ordered a beer. He did not go there all that often but when he did. but had not had a drop before the stranger started bothering him with stupid remarks. Some people are incredibly good at meeting other people whereas others systematically make trouble for themselves. Anders could provide the stranger with useful information and they ended up getting on fine. Nothing is as sensitive to attitudes and conduct as our dealings with others. if we consider them delightful.1 2 3 4 5… I have no dreams about mastering my profession to become really valuable Meeting People Anders was very fond of his small favourite bar. he met a big nasty guy. towards Co-operation and Management I like other people… 1 2 3 4 5… I do not like other people I believe that otherpeople like me… 1 2 3 4 5…I do not count on other people liking me . It appeared that he had just moved into town and did not yet have any friends. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick changes his attitude to the job and decides to remain in the profession and give it all it needs. One day. talented. We are able to create for ourselves most favourable circumstances provided that we know how to bring to the surface the best in people. they improve only slowly I love challenges and continually look for new tasks that will force me to develop… 1 2 3 4 5 …Challenges stress me. he really let go. Anders was very fond of his small favourite bar. constructive etc. our attitudes and prejudices as well as our behaviour will always decide the quality of our human relations. Often we can inspire to personal development by observing fine traits in people who have not yet themselves discovered their good points. Attitudes towards others. Soon after he begins to make progress and in time he becomes very valuable to the office and very happy in his job. The big guy was the kind of person who hit people for no cause and carry a gun in their inside pockets. Niels Jørgen Andersen. I try to hold on to what I am used to do I am a person who succeeds. He ordered a beer and after a while he was talking to the stranger. This is one of the best ways to interact with your friends and colleagues. in general… 1 2 3 4 5… I am a person who does not really succeed I have big dreams of mastering my profession and create genuine value…. One day at the bar he met a customer he had not seen before.68 Søren Ventegodt. The way we meet people. they improve quickly… 1 2 3 4 5… When I work on improving my skills. Try to plot in Rasmus' attitudes before and after the crisis according to the list below: Attitudes towards Becoming Really Good I have many important talents… 1 2 3 4 5 …I have no specific talents When I work on improving my skills.

This fight is the ultimate test. But we could easily do something if we decided to do so. For some reason we do not do anything about it until we are forced to.Up – or Down in your Life? 69 I am sure that my colleagues can perform just as well as I can… 1 2 3 4 5…I do not have confidence that my colleagues can do the job as well as I can The best thing is to create results together with others… 1 2 3 4 5… The best thing is to create something on your own Managers are a steady help and support in my development… 1 2 3 4 5… You cannot make friends with your manager . The tools are organised in such a way that it makes it easy for you to analyse your attitudes and find out what problems you cause for yourself in various situations at work. We all have the option of revising what we think of ourselves. Everyday examples. including creating genuine values. They are very different from the majority since their efforts are not motivated by duty . talented and humorous etc.there are too many differences At times things are not perfect and we are obliged to change the situation because we are the best placed to do so. We can all do a lot to feel better. There is nothing more delightful than discovering that nature actually created us wonderful. which acts as a barrier to any development. Only when we are involved in confronting challenges of this size can we see the direct benefit of personally developing into a better and more influential person. The above lists are examples found in the tools for improving working-life quality. A feature of very happy people is that they do precisely the work they want to. intelligent. like those provided by Lisa and a lot of other people. Likewise we can make adjustments to our habits and our way of life in general. attractive. They fight to make their dreams come true. Now and then we meet a very happy person . life and the world around us. Attitudes towards Creating Real Value At work I get the good feeling that I create value for others and myself …1 2 3 4 5…I do not give much thought to how valuable my work is to customers and others I feel that I realise some of my most significant values and dreams within the organisation… 1 2 3 4 5…I do not feel that I can realise my true values within the organisation My values are in line with those of the organisation… 1 2 3 4 5… My values are very different to those of the organisation The purpose of the exercises above is to draw your attention to your own attitudes and the way these attitudes are expressed. for instance. By paying attention to your attitudes and continually trying to develop and train these. is managed by an authoritarian and out of date board. We must stop preventing ourselves from being so. In this situation it is important to start fighting in order to create order. show that human beings have within them many more hidden resources than we think. in private and on the job. you may ensure a better experience of life and a more valuable existence. Our place of work. To accept the big challenge is to place yourself in a situation which leaves you with no choice but to do your best and to do it quickly. Look closer and you will find that these people consider themselves hunters or warriors. You only develop when you are forced to.and they do exist.

the bad and uninspiring atmosphere makes it hard to attract young people. Agreement is reached that lack of information and lack of responsibility and commitment to the company are the main reasons for poor efficiency. there is trouble and quarrelling. Though it is not clear how production is supervised.in the so-called red area. There are cliques. The cheese and some of the other products could be better. many of whom are elderly. who respond by pointing to shortcomings and lack of efficiency as well as lack of flexibility among the workers. Happy people squeeze all they can get out of life. We have now examined the four issues necessary for a company to really succeed and create real value in the world: quality of life and job satisfaction. it is obvious that improvement is needed through a better working environment. When you have improved your skills in solving problems on the job. Get started . poor communication between sections. This may benefit your private life as well. sense of community and the creation of genuine values. above 70%. An attempt to understand what is wrong is made by measuring the level of job satisfaction at the dairy.Personally and within the Company The Churchill Dairy's bottom line is in the red. mastery. They fight to make life succeed. The consultant recommends quick implementation of a radical cure to raise the company to the orange area (60-70%). Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick and mere necessity but by love of life. the consultant says. The green area. Unfortunately it seldom occurs to us that they may have developed and shaped their lives individually and finally achieved mastery. though this is not obviously the case. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Milk. They are poorly educated and have problems handling the latest technology. sales are declining. you will discover a general upgrading of your skills in troubleshooting. When we meet people of this kind. too. This love provides an indomitable will to make life come true. There is no particular point of failure but generally the dairy's working-life quality is 50-60% of its potential . It has proven difficult to contact the customers. we often think they were privileged by birth. The customers complain about lack of consistency as well as fluctuating quality. Employees seek jobs elsewhere and everybody has a feeling that the company is a sinking ship. personal commitment and job satisfaction. butter and cheese are always in demand and the dairy's products are not significantly poorer than those of other companies. The employees blame the situation on management. Furthermore. The evaluation shows that all four dimensions of working-life quality are low: personal quality of life. the effects will be positive on the job as well. Such a company runs at only half speed or less and is hardly able to compete. a sense of community with respect to co-operation and . mastery within each individual field of activity. provided the trend of development takes a turn for the better. the dairy may succeed. Management presents the analysis at a staff meeting where the connecting principles are discussed concerning the bottom line and working-life quality. will take a few years to attain. Still. In general. It works both ways: if you try hard to solve private problems.70 Søren Ventegodt. The willpower to fight uncompromisingly provides them with a special capacity for living and they develop a certain competence in life. However. lack of team spirit among the employees and conflicts between management and employees are other reasons for inefficiency.

This kind of decision simply changes life from one moment to the next. people who are that disciplined rarely have anything to improve. On the other hand. They have put their life in complete order. although naturally this situation could never arise artificially. They have achieved mastery. How to Start Developing We all have resources. Consciousness about death and the fighting spirit to remain alive are gifts we receive unexpectedly and often undeservedly. a lucky moment in which we sense very intensely what life has in store for us. our existence is often so unconnected that the decision is not made in our existential centre. and finally creating real value. The second method is always at hand. Joint inspiration and support is an advantage when running a development project in the company in order to improve life. The company or organisation with these qualities will be successful both from the perspective of employees and customers. It is easier to decide if more people want the same thing. A coach can observe you from the outside and he or she has excellent opportunities of keeping an eye on you and finding out how you prevent yourself from creating true progress in your life. The missing discipline must be developed gradually through perseverance. we can escape once more. in our inner integrity. The situation is highly effective if you confront it properly. This is the method for those given a death sentence by their doctor. But how do we get started? Traditionally there are two ways. but in a far corner of the brain. Very few people ever develop enough discipline to experience the full strength of a decision made by the whole person. It is often an advantage when a coach can keep you at it and prevent you from taking the easy way out. which will carry companies forward into the 21st century. Such an organisation will go one step further and also prove to be valuable to the environment: nature and society. we suddenly decide to change our lives. the decision to change our lives is an extremely effective one. This is exactly the struggle we are involved in. Unfortunately. The ideal coach is a person who is not necessarily a close friend but he or she is somebody you trust and like. We have the resources to ameliorate our actions. hidden as well as obvious. this is what we have to make do with. Such are the tough conditions of life. What does it matter if we fall back into less fortunate patterns? If we eventually realise what is wrong. In a flash of profound insight. But again. working procedures and goals. . to improve our lives. When made wholeheartedly. all of us. As long as we do our best and a little more we cannot blame ourselves. It can be compared with a decision to stop smoking where you start again after a fortnight. This is an ongoing process that affects revising of values. It is this type of development. The first and ordinary way is the most difficult one to implement: we discover that we are to die within a short time and that we love life immensely and this makes us rearrange our limits.Up – or Down in your Life? 71 management. Such a decision has no great and pervasive effect.

may lead to significant development. sense of community. Supplementary to the individual folder. the perception and practice of life that must be developed analogously and brought in harmony with our inner lives. It is not very difficult to use this tool but it commits you to being alert and effecting changes. WORKING-LIFE QUALITY – THE TOOL The tool itself guides you through a course lasting 15 weeks during which you improve the four central issues at work: your relationship to yourself. i. which will help you to realise what particular efforts may be required on your part in order to improve. for instance) to train and do the exercises. At the moment reference values from six Danish companies and their employees are included in the programmes in order to give you an idea of your company's standing or rating. It may. The tool attends to the four aspects of good work: quality of life. as well as an inspirational brochure. which acts as an impediment. The material is collected in a folder including a 12-page questionnaire about working-life quality. you can get a company analysis programme (QOL Working-Life Quality . Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick ABOUT WORKING-LIFE QUALITY: A TOOL FOR EMPLOYEES AND EXECUTIVES The Working-Life Quality tool has been developed in order to help you acquire the inspiration and discipline needed to develop personal working-life quality. which informs you about the basic ideas. The folder also contains a floppy disc with a programme (Windows operating system) showing your personal profile of working-life quality. You will also find information on where to purchase the tools and questionnaires.Company Profile) which provides you with a profile of the whole department or organisation with regard to its working-life quality. Furthermore. a focus on better attitudes plus adjustment of less satisfactory conduct. they should earmark 1-2 hours weekly for 15 weeks for each employee (spread over 4-8 months. you will not improve. to the tasks you work with. It is a workbook of 160 coloured pages with exercises and various examples. Finally. If you do not try.e. consultants as well as the Danish Research Centre in Copenhagen that can provide help and support for measuring working-life quality and quality development projects based on working-life quality. it supplies a form (including a chart for checking yourself) for exercises that may motivate the discipline needed. and creating authentic value. customers and your environment. Our attention to positive attitudes as well as proper behaviour is what opens us up and gives us access to our hidden resources. to those you work with and to those you work for. If your company reaches the conclusion that they want to address working-life quality. The tool is an instrument to help make a difference in your working life. however. be a good idea to ask your company to take initiative and to start a development project with the purpose of improving the working-life quality of the employees and the executives. the tool comprises an understanding of what is needed for people to develop and grow.72 Søren Ventegodt. You can use the tool on your own. Niels Jørgen Andersen. mastery. A combination of disciplined effort and understanding of the principles of development. . In appendix A you will find references and addresses of public information centres.

However. Another suggestion is to let management take the lead in the development process in order to build up consecutive steps of motivation and guidance for the employees. either within the community of the organisation or alone. Once this decision has been taken. conscientious and resourceful employees are needed. To an increasing extent companies need people who can find individual challenges on the job. Such a way of living is a prelude to a life of mental decline. We wish you good luck with the improvement of your working-life quality. There are many obstacles to initiating the process. creative. which makes people grow and prosper and have fewer accidents. the greatest challenge is believing that we are in fact able to make a change for the better in our lives. To this end. More than ever independent-minded. A decision such as. But let us face it: They are not the ones who for thirty solid years went on doing things they did not like. Many companies may be interested because of a wish to retain their employees for the company and keep them healthy. It is much more pleasant to do it together with someone else. It is no secret that the general unofficial retirement age of 61 constitutes an increasing drain on the cost of keeping the labour market going. once the basic idea of human development is accepted and the necessary self-discipline is established. As individuals we are our own greatest and most dangerous enemies in the process of development. We can also do it together with a friend or a coach. instead of becoming worn-out and decrepit slowly but surely. or take an interest in what they were doing. If you can succeed in starting a developing process. many people are still active. projects of this type may be applied. But when love of life is with us we have a fair chance of success. But when it comes to our personal development. most company executives have come to realise that job satisfaction and commitment are significant parameters for quality assurance and efficiency. very much alive. 'I will do it. loved. Furthermore. It is hardly natural for most people to become so decrepit at the age of 61 that they are mainly a burden on the job. We have to convince ourselves. the exercises will be much easier to cope with. we must always realise that when engaged in the most significant struggles we are on our own. your company will gain an incredible advantage. This will make the organisation a forum for the discussion of ideas. respected and visited at the age of 87. On the contrary. it would be to everyone's advantage if management and employees were equally convinced of the benefit involved in embarking on the exercise. we need no longer wait for a life-threatening situation to impel us forward.Up – or Down in your Life? 73 Today. we are faced with a dilemma that necessitates a firm decision. . cancer and heart attacks at an early age. We can start our development process right away. But one must beware of romanticising the project of improving working-life quality. When we are about to embark on personal development. for I intend to improve my life as well as my working life' cuts through the doubt and uncertainty. Consequently. But we do not believe it until we see it. They are not the ones who were bored with their work from the age of 30 to the age of 60. Such people are rare and the companies will have to develop such capabilities themselves. And we do not start until we believe. in respect of their substance and their viability.

the greatest challenge is believing that we are in fact able to make a change for the better in our lives. You have working-life quality when your work is an extension of what you want in life. for I intend to improve my life as well as my working life' cuts through the doubt and uncertainty. Flensborg-Madsen T. Niels Jørgen Andersen. But every improvement starts with yourself. when the people around you do not follow. keep your heart warm and open. Merrick J. when you are proud of your place of work. Global quality of life (QOL). It is almost impossible to change other people. when you experience fellowship with colleagues and managers. 'I will do it. Soc Indicator Res 2005. When we are about to embark on personal development. health and ability are primarily determined by our consciousness. The leader or employee that wants to introduce the concept of quality of working life and personal development in his company most therefore be extremely aware that everybody will resist development. Nielsen M. Andersen NJ. Ventegodt S. and development without pain for the prophets and saints. just reflect on the sad fact that it is very hard to change yourself. mastery and fellowship can be that path. do good and serve your friends. If only the project is managed well. Once this decision has been taken. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Hard discipline in combination with doubtful results is only for the few God have chosen to be great examples for the rest of us. Speak the truth. Merrick J. colleagues. And we do not start until we believe. Andersen NJ. But we do not believe it until we see it. as well as a change of our daily routines. Just continue to say and do what you find appropriate. we need no longer wait for a life-threatening situation to impel us forward. but do not despair. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick DISCUSSION There are many ways stating to improve the quality of working life in the company. Holistic Medicine III: The holistic process theory of healing. they just burn themselves out. it calls for personal development and a critical revision of our attitudes. Andersen NJ. we are faced with a dilemma that necessitates a firm decision. So bring your idea forward. We have to convince ourselves. REFERENCES [1] Ventegodt S. But work is our great chance to develop our quality of life. Merrick J. Mohammed M. A decision such as. Few people burn for their work.3:1138-46. And personal development of quality of life. Self-leadership is for the inspired ones. Even the best of ideas will receive fierce resistance. Surveys carried out by The Quality-of-Life Research Centre showed that only one Dane in three is really happy in his work. To change and develop you needs a strategy that immediately pays off. Holistic Medicine IV: Principles of the holistic process of healing in a group setting. when you develop and become master of your particular field. costumers and mankind. The rest of us needs to be pushed by suffering to change our attitudes and become self-reflective. Ventegodt S. [2] [3] . We need to walk a path that is immediately rewarding. ScientificWorld Journal 2003.3:1294-1301. Consequently.74 Søren Ventegodt. Research findings from Denmark 1991-2004. and when you are useful to the world and able to deliver products and services of high quality in a responsible manner.71:87-122.

2005. BC: Trafford. research and methodology. Ventegodt S. Victoria. Merrick J. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ. Global quality of life. 2005. 2005. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Kandel I. Principles of holistic medicine. Principles of holistic medicine. Philosophy behind quality of life. Principles of holistic medicine. Kandel I. Quality of life and health. Merrick J. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ. .Up – or Down in your Life? [4] [5] [6] 75 Ventegodt S.Theory.

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The QWL-tool box is today complete with QWL-questionnaires. It seems that people do not have the skills or right attitudes to deal with and handle all the pressures of current times. leaders and divisions. vastness and insecurity of the changes that they have to keep up with. fellowship and creation of value. Some people feel insecure and threatened by the speed.especially in the world of work . INTRODUCTION The scope and complexity of change at all levels of our society . Inc.have placed a heavy burden on employees and leaders alike to ensure that they attain the necessary skills and understanding to survive and thrive in this new reality. Uncertainty about how to react to cultural differences as well as bad economic times is claiming its toll. QUALITY OF LIFE AND HEALTH Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen. The impact on the employees of our companies manifests itself in rising health problems and tremendous rises in claims for depression and stress-related medicine. Fear of losing their jobs because of downsizing. leading to a happier. organization. restructuring and affirmative action have put employees under tremendous pressure and stress and thrown many in crisis. As the use of more traditional medicine can and will not stop the causes for its use (symptomatic treatment). Isack Kandel. healthier and more productive working life. Lars Enevoldsen and Joav Merrick We present a complete package of know-how and tools for improving quality of working life (QWL) in an intermediate to large. QWL-software for measurement of employees. it is becoming more and more clear that we will have to focus . mastery. and developmental tools (exercises books and intervention programs).In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. we demonstrate how the companies revenue can be developed by helping the company to use its employees and leaders in a better way. We believe that a company unaware of the idea of human capital can increase its value over a few years by implementing the concept of QWL as a policy tool. Chapter 8 HOW TO IMPROVE WORKING-LIFE QUALITY. Using the concepts of quality of life. public or private.

Practically. especially negative attitudes and nonconstructive behaviour. People spent a lot of their personal energy and effort in and around their work. if you improve your living style [2]. But we do not need to suffer from a deadly disease in order to improve our QOL and health. the help. All it takes is a change of attitude and a change of habits.that a major cause of health problems is poor living style. And when they do this. but that is all it takes (see statistical connections between QWL and health in appendix I). This is where focus on QWL (quality of working life) becomes important [10. Isack Kandel et al. And it is surprisingly easy to improve the QWL . Of cause it takes a lot of effort to do that. Science has shown that even if you have a life threatening disease. our effort on prevention of illness rather than cure. This can only be done if we can develop values and skills in our employees that will enable them to take control of their own future and health. But what is so surprising is that it seems possible for everybody to improve their living style and radically improve their experience of life and working-life. like disseminated breast cancer [1]. hard living and old age. leaders as well as employees on all levels of the organisation will have to take individual as well as shared responsibility for this effort. you can improve your quality of life (QOL) and live longer. to your boss. As most people are lacking self-discipline it is of great help to do things together.78 Søren Ventegodt. Information and openness how to obtain these should be widely promoted. to the customer and to yourself (see appendix E: basic theory and concepts). Today we know . FOCUS ON QOL. science has recently shown that you can reverse the deadly decay of your vessels. This can be done by running a QWL project in the company.11]. If you have heart-problems due to atherosclerosis. Consciousness and understanding about the fact that we can change our health by changing our attitudes about life and developing the right abilities and skills to handle uncertainties. Research has shown that the statistical connection between the number of health problems and QOL is so strong that for example headache and sleeping disorders are likely to disappear. the comfort. if people understood themselves and their lives better [3-9]. We have to teach them to practice self-management of their health and life.you just have to improve your relations in your work. . QWL AND HEALTH Some time ago it was thought that ill health was a simple function of poor genes. they also usually get healthier. the relation to your colleagues. and the moral back up that is needed. Open minds are needed to accept the fact that in order to solve our problems in respect of our health crisis we have to begin to care about our people in order to help them help themselves. According to research.although we still do not understand it completely . Niels Jørgen Andersen. must be created everywhere in the organisation. The limitations of practising by yourself in order to make a difference in your personal and professional life can thus be lowered immensely. they can get an invitation to join in. Here people can get the support. As this is a huge task. they can get a reminder to practise. to thrive on the job seems to be one of the most important sources for a general good QOL. When you want to change your QOL or QWL (and through that your health) you first of all need some self-discipline.

economic. worries and ill fortune all through their lives. The good life is about expressing life’s potentials. All it takes is a willingness to open up and learn and a safe environment in which to partake in the most important experiment in life. It will be a hindrance for you to find the good things in yourself and it will definitely inhibit you when you want to express yourself and the life you contain. namely learning to look at the world and on life itself in a different manner. It seemed quite unfair that some people materially have everything. all the dreams.How to Improve Working-life Quality. the good life. health and standard of living has lend itself to a host of subjective and one-sided definitions and interpretations of the concept by all interested parties alike . On the other hand: if your attitude denies life and expresses negativity and destructiveness it will hardly do you any good. QWL and Health In recent years the term quality of life almost became a household word in the domestic language of layman and professionals alike. while others had virtually nothing. as well as in the political arena. social. A Need for an Integrated Approach towards QOL. while other attitudes are actually quite harmful. containing and allowing attitude can make that possible. But as people reconsider their personal history and their fundamental attitudes and confront them with their intuition about life. The concept has also been widely referred to by health and social services. QOL has been a research area in the western world.12-17] that some attitudes are good for your life. Reference to terms such as happiness. The scheme is quite simple: if your attitude expresses something positive and constructive towards life. It seemed very unfair and strange that two people in exactly the same physical conditions could have very different lives. The good life is a life where we grow and use all the enormous potentials we carry within us. It seems that QOL is greatly a function of the person's personal philosophy of life and his/her attitudes towards life. because the personal philosophy of life is in a way a simple function of their personal history. well-being. starting with Freud and psychoanalysis. it has been possible to measure the strength of an attitude and rate the colour of an evaluation: the degree of positivity and negativity. For no obvious reason some people lead a good life. They all claim to have the individual welfare foremost in their minds. For the last 100 years. all the talents. Quality of Life and Health 79 Understanding Quality of Life: The Experience of Life as a Function of our Attitudes and our Personal Philosophy of Life QOL has for centuries been a mystery to mankind. But only recently science came closer to a rational answer in this regard. when it came to mood and happiness. the personal philosophy of life can fairly easy be developed.medical. People cannot really be taught a new philosophy. healthy through-out life and most of the time without a single worry. By comparing peoples attitudes. it can been shown [7-9. then it is of good value. supporting. It cannot really be changed. all the abilities. psychological and political. And since Rensis Likert (1903-1981) made his brilliant Likert scale for psychometric measurement in 1932. The fantastic thing is however that the personal philosophy of life can be developed. because it allow you to find good things in yourself and express it. . needs and wants. And only a loving. while others seem to be tortured by pains.

But how do we get started on this road? We work from the premise that individuals are able and willing to tell us. QWL and health. We believe that the research done in Denmark has laid the groundwork for such an approach. On the basis of the integrative theory on quality of life and health this research evolved into a theory on working-life quality (see appendix E). QWL and health in the organisation is. ethnic group. improving health or personal circumstances. as well as the development of training programs and interventions to improve these and hopefully in the future even prevent illness. Isack Kandel et al. controlled and cost effective way within the organisation. if at all. All of the above pointed towards an urgent need to search for a global.80 Søren Ventegodt. culture. if you do not know what the state of current affairs in respect of QOL. hidden as well as obvious. because we all have the potential for personal growth. Within such an approach we then need to do research in order to determine and understand what constitutes quality of life for all people. This research developed a meta-theory for studying the concept of QOL. measure and improve the quality of life. Thus a QWL-Health intervention process should be planned in such a way that it continuously and systematically guides the company through preventative QWL-Health interventions and at the same time teach people to help themselves. sex. Although their questionnaires still must be validated in truly multicultural and multiethnical societies. How is it the same and how does it differ from that of other cultures. . Niels Jørgen Andersen. examine. holistic concept of the quality of life. of work-life and of health in a scientific and controlled way. In the interest of both cost-effectiveness as well as creating new knowledge and understanding about the interrelatedness and development of these variables. it is wise to follow a scientific and controlled approach. Generic and scientifically constructed questionnaires were further developed in order to measure the dimensions that constitute QOL. The answer thus lies in dialogue (effective measurement) and the continuous practice of personal development. their basic philosophy and methodology of a generic concept of QOL and QWL seems sound and worthwhile exploring in any context. how they feel about themselves and their circumstances and that they can learn. It must be theoretically sound and common to people everywhere irrespective of age. to improve their lives. This in term led to fragmented and limiting research approaches and ways to measure the quality of individual lives. explore and scrutinise all efforts and domains that claim to determine. Lots of efforts and money spend to enhance quality of life have consequently failed or were found not really to have had an impact on optimizing life quality. which is philosophically and methodologically sound (see appendix I). which focuses on the totality of life aspects of the individual. appendix A) for the individual and organisation it makes good sense to structure such efforts in a practical. Such an approach will allow us to investigate. However in order to ensure the wanted outcomes (see features and benefits. income and state of health. A Strategy for the New Millennium: Hard Value from Soft Values All individuals have resources. It is however not good or cost effective practice to start with any intervention.

lifestyle. QOL for many years. The degree of reliability is measured by a test-retest procedure. remained a subject for religion and philosophy only. Sensitivity is given by the standard deviation.How to Improve Working-life Quality. etc. breathtaking technology. paintings. just as every other measuring instrument can be valid. see appendix E). the different dimensions of well being. machines and life saving medication. Science also allows us to develop tools to change the world. if the state of QWL and health have improved and to what extent. Thereafter it can be checked by comparing the questionnaire with some external standard. A questionnaire can be valid. Because of this. You can see how improvement of health follows improvement . are developed with relation to QOL and preventative health-care intervention. QWL and health. At present more than a thousand papers yearly are published on quality of life. The QWL-health questionnaire (developed in Denmark at the Quality of Life Research Center) seems to be such a questionnaire. that it can be used in practice. Generic means that it can be used on everybody in spite of age. It allows us to master the universe. (For these aspects of the QWL questionnaire. health. socio-economical status. new materials. Quality of Life and Health 81 A Scientific Approach: Using Knowledge to Create Knowledge Science has given us our wealth. as soon as you know what it is. to get freedom and control. If you for example intervene on the QWL.the different ways you can feel. When you do different things you can see which alternative works the best for the changes you want to achieve. computers.medical doctors.have believed that science should and could not cope with it. Science only works within narrow borders and when it comes to existence and survival many scientists . As soon as you want that kind of questionnaire you are limited to choose from a handful. Furthermore very few. Medical science has put an end to that. psychologists. but a questionnaire which can be used on all employees and managers from all different cultures is seldom found. this mean you must know what it measures and show that it measured precisely and reliably. which is generally acknowledged to measure the same. science has suffered greatly from methodological problems. existence and functionality. It is about knowing what to do and how to do it. which is the same as to pick the right questionnaire and there are virtually a thousand questionnaires available to choose from. If you also want to focus on the dimensions of QOL that are related to health and development of diseases your choices are narrowed down once again. This is done by constructing the questionnaire according to sound principles. ample food. Very few of these questionnaires are what you call generic and global. QOL can be many things . If you want to look at quality of the work-life the situation is very much the same. The problem therefore is to pick the right dimension to measure and improve. Basically science is nothing but knowledge structured in such a way. which has been shown to be easy to measure. culture etc. Many branches of industrial psychology that deal with the domain of work-life have there own questionnaires. if any. When it comes to QOL. This is because one of the basic features of science always has been its need to define its boundaries. you can examine the test-group before and after the intervention to see. good or bad. This makes it possible to learn from your experiences and to see if it works or not. ideally a good theory for QOL or QWL. when you want to make a difference. sociologists . When you have a validated and sensitive questionnaire you can measure a difference. If you measure with the combined QWL-health measuring instrument you can follow QWL. QOL and health. gender.

The accompanying development of lifeskills. But there is a significant element of taste . From our integrated theory of QOL [10. Learning and Personal Development (QOL-health and QWL-health Interventions) Even though the principles are fairly simple.e. but at the same time feel good about ourselves. appendix J) and can easily detect the difference. It helps us to identify the variables and dimensions to work with . This may be difficult to detect. A Practical Solution: Measurement. what works). Education. as underlined by Thomas Blakeslee (he called it “the attitude factor” in 1997) it seems more and more that people do not differ from one another in terms of their basic need for the experience of quality of life and quality of work-life. Questionnaires to do so should therefore be available in the persons preferred language. Isack Kandel et al.g. Determining people’s experience of quality of life and quality of working-life is done by asking them about their deep-felt opinion of the quality of their relation with others. This is especially important for people with lower levels of education. Bridging Cultural Differences: Valuing Diversity and Creating a New Society According to world wide research and scientific studies. when you look at a single individual only. conflict-resolution. To a large extent the choice of approach is an empirical question (i.e. For what can be more useful than developing attitudes and a philosophy of life that allow us to value other people around us. where you look at many people together (see sensitivity statistics for QWL-health studies. It helps us to make a change. QWL-Health is a promising new science. stress .18-28] and the derived QWL-theory [11] we know that the essence of both these experiences are our satisfaction with the relationships we have with other people in our lives and environment. the workprocess and themselves. when it does. It is therefore important to give them the opportunity to do so in a language they feel comfortable with.82 Søren Ventegodt. the practical implementation of the ideas and processes explained can be done in many different ways. but already advanced enough to give us promises of success with QOL-interventions in the future. A scientific approach also gives us practical and reliable tools with which to make the difference. but also make us more aware and understanding of the immense richness in possibilities the various cultures offer for experiencing QOL and learning from one another. of QWL and QOL. our work-process (colleagues and leaders) and ourselves. For any multicultural society this holds immense promise. self-esteem. Scientific research on the QOL-QWL-health connection however does much more than allow us to measure. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Statistical science however functions as a magnifying glass. such as conflict-resolution and stress-management will help us to resolve problems and difficulties that might arise.therefore assuring that we most likely get the change we aim for (see table-works on the QWL-QOL-health connections in appendix J). We also know that this satisfaction depends greatly on our philosophy of and attitudes towards life. The science of QOL.

Quality of Life and Health 83 and art in it to. Its construction has been well considered: 100 questions on the central aspects connected to QWL e.How to Improve Working-life Quality. Everybody who does his or her exercises will be changed little or much . A special situation. everybody with a serious desire to learn and understand will be a little different thereafter. The real purpose of life is to create value for yourself and others! Useful people are most often happy people!" Although this may seem innocent. The first education begins with a measurement. a special group of people or maybe a special company might need a very different approach than others. workshops.according to the exercise. knowing. but they are also forced to evaluate their present work/job situation from a QWL perspective. expressed negativity towards life. skilful. but at the same time unobtrusively raise awareness about the reality of the participant's conception of there own life and the fact that a lot of their attitudes and beliefs are not appropriate any more. will facilitate learning and change. Awareness-exercises cast light on limiting beliefs and change-exercises induce real changes in the old habits until now. No one is forced to do anything that seems or feels .g. “How much do you develop professionally?” “How do you feel at work?” “How stressed are you at work?” “How interesting is your work?” By filling in the questionnaire people learn the basic concepts. This seems to be the consequence of higher awareness by the individual of the reality of his/her real situation regarding QWL. lectures and programs) designed to address various needs and specific problems. If personal development is continued the consequent QWL-scores should be higher. QOL. the QWL-questionnaire itself. playful and capable being. Hereafter the process is guided by interventions/tools (seminars. etc. Based on the above rationale. awareness campaigns. The principles behind development of QWL-health are really simple.” Even if taken lightly. but also good construct and content validity in order to educate and train employees and leaders in the basic concepts of the good working life. This is done by letting the employees and leaders/managers identify bad attitudes and destructive behaviour and then consequently create their own exercises to make a change happen. the intervention design is very important. life sucks. Because resistance against change is normal and this process is aimed at changing old comfortable attitudes and beliefs. big companies are abusing their employees and managers. draining them of energy and leaving the burnout victim to a hopeless destiny and struggle for survival. working life quality and health seminars confront people with a very optimistic and positive philosophy of life and working life: "Your life can be better! You have lots of hidden resources! Deep down you are a joyful. Carefully designed activities and exercises that is fun. courses. as well as the skills needed to achieve good working life quality. It is about improving the relations in the work-situation. Please beware that the QWL-score obtained at the second (retest) measure is very often lower than the first measure. This confront them with the real nature of QWL and raise awareness regarding the problems and aspects of their QWL that they are not satisfied with at present and create a need and will to change. the implementation process can therefore successfully be guided by tools and instruments with face validity (acceptable appearance) such as to be acceptable to participants. it is a direct provocation of the negative set of attitudes most of us carry around unconsciously: "Work means suffering and is a necessary evil. A 16-week QWL training program lets people search in their souls for the right answers and attitudes necessary to obtain good quality of working life. a special work environment.

exercises and other interventions. This is accomplished by lessons in the philosophy of life. We have developed a theory of quality of working life. This provide participants with a personal profile of their present QWL. If they have problems with health a unique course in health management (heal yourself) is offered. As soon as people have been measured for QWL-health it is very easy to identify the persons with specific problems i. as understanding is the road to joy and freedom at work and only the joyful and satisfied worker will eventually do an excellent job. CONCLUSIONS There are so many uncontrollable factors in a company that everybody seems to agree that human thriving and health is too complex and farfetched to be the companies responsibility. An inspirational book. some classical therapeutic procedures and through bodywork i.84 Søren Ventegodt. But nobody forces any specific drill unto anybody. The only thing you are obliged to do is to be aware and practise your own exercises. During the course people are taught how to listen to their body and follow its messages. It should be given to everybody in the company who wants a copy. Niels Jørgen Andersen. quality of life and healing during the last decades has indicated that thriving at work and productivity are most intimately connected. QOL-problems. The concept is one of ultimate freedom. wrong.e. QWL-problems. We think that the research in human development. exercises with specific focus on the body. The course also makes people aware of the connection between the quality of their working-life and their health. health problems. that its leaders needs for taking the challenge. We hope that this work will be of value to all involved. will be successful in the new millennium. and according to this all the tools for measuring and developing the company. ''Working-Life Quality" will give employees and leaders with a deeper interest in QWL a chance to understand the background and the concepts in more detail.e. Teaching QWL to the employees may in the long run prove to be the best investment the company ever made. from mission to daily management. The QWL-questionnaire-personal profile is available in an electronic version to be run under Windows. problems with stress or problems as a result of lack of skills in conflict-resolution. . Due to the screening-process people can be offered exactly the intervention. thus allowing them to continuously follow their own development. as they progress due to courses. whilst saving previous profiles. This provides a unique opportunity for the company to really enhance and practice preventative health care/medicine. Isack Kandel et al. If you need help to create the exercises you can get it. which match their specific problems. Only the companies who understand this connection and use it in the development of the whole organisation.

QWL and health Promote personal life and health management • • • • . community and environment (nature) which can be improved through education. QOL and health? Strategy • • • Implement a continuous preventative Health Care process within the company based on QOL-QWL-Health connection rationale Determine current status re quality of life. DETAILED PROPOSAL FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PREVENTIVE QWL-HEALTH INTERVENTION PROCESS WITH COMPANIES 85 Rationale • • • There is a direct connection between Quality of Life (QOL). using the QOL. which can be developed thereby improving health Quality of Working-life arises from good relations in the work situation. Quality of Working Life (QWL) and Health Quality of Life is a function of our philosophy of and attitudes towards life. QWL and health programs. training and personal development. tools and instruments or other applicable sources as appropriate Analyse and evaluate outcomes through retest measures and correlation with external health audit data Align and integrate efforts with other company health care efforts Create a culture of awareness about the connection between QOL. Quality of Life and Health APPENDICES APPENDIX A. namely your relation to: − Yourself − The work-process − Those you work with and − The customer. working-life and health in the company.How to Improve Working-life Quality. thus empowering people to take responsibility for their own QWL. using the QWL-Health Questionnaire? or QOL-Health Questionnaire? Provide and implement intervention processes for individuals with problems after scientific screening.

change. age. gender. state of health. departments. etc Establish a preventative health care approach Identify individuals who need treatment Pinpoint appropriate choice of intervention needed Equip employees and leaders with attitudes and skills to handle problems.86 Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen. etc • Establish a preventative health care approach • Identify individuals who need treatment • Pinpoint appropriate choice of intervention needed • Equip employees and leaders with attitudes and skills to handle problems. Tools and Instruments Features • • • • • • • • • • Accurate. etc. culture. Features and Benefits of the QOL. Methodologically and philosophically sound Benefits Features • Accurate. immediate analyses of QOL. change. etc. Isack Kandel et al. QWL and Health Programs. . departments. QWL and health situation of individuals and the organisation as a whole Quick and user friendly measurements Accommodates all levels Independent of income. QWL and health situation of individuals and the organisation as a whole • Quick and user friendly measurements • Accommodates all levels • Independent of income. immediate analyses of QOL. personal and inter-personal relationships and crises • Allow for comparison with other companies (benchmarking) as well as between branches. gender. • Methodologically and philosophically sound Benefits Direct Benefits • Lowered absenteeism • Improved health • Less stress • Better ability to solve conflicts • Improved personal development • Higher efficiency • Improved commitment to work • Better co-operation • Improved communication • Better leadership • Improved organisational image • Individual life and health management Indirect Benefits • Lowered medical costs • Higher productivity • Healthier retirees and older workforce • Higher value to society • More innovation • Improved competitiveness See Appendix I for tables on statistical connections and Appendix B for estimation of immediate financial value gained . culture. age. state of health. personal and inter-personal relationships and crises Allow for comparison with other companies (benchmarking) as well as between branches.

available to everybody who participate in the process. k) Invite executive members to attend 2-day seminar on Quality of Life.questionnaire (paper or diskette) to all involved h) Collect data (questionnaires or diskettes) for analyses i) Provide each participant with his/her personal profile. tools and instruments for preventative Health Care − Determine success of various interventions − Analyses for possible effects of multicultural realities Process: a) Establish a QWL-Health project team to co-ordinate.How to Improve Working-life Quality. working life and health and eventually the 16-week course l) Screen rest of participants for specific health problems . Quality of Life and Health 87 Proposed Process for Implementation Step 1: Initial Project (Include the Executive Management Group) • Purpose: − Launch preventative QWL-Health intervention process within the company − Conduct qualitative interviews to validate and explore the processes − Evaluate the value of the QWL-Health programs. low ability to solve conflicts. general problems with QOL and QWL .high stress rating.Working-Life Quality .and offer appropriate courses and interventions to those in need m) Retest all participants with QWL-Health Questionnaire after six months n) Retest all intervention participants every 3 months after intervention for 1 year o) Report results: − Analyses of QWL-Health situation within the company − Evaluation of QWL-Health project-interventions and outcomes for the pilot project − Results of QWL-Health standardisation and validation process Project management Budget • • • . f) Communicate QWL-Health-project and process to the people involved – written communiqué – One hour inspirational lecture /session g) Administer QWL-Health Questionnaire as well as the QWL. explaining results and possible solutions to problems (Users of PC-version get his/her profile immediately but borrow diskette to company consultant in order to compile company profile) j) Compile company-profile and give feedback to the executive team. low psychological health rating. plan and execute project b) Obtain support and commitment from senior management for the process c) Launch QWL-Health awareness campaign through internal company media d) Distribute inspirational brochure to everybody in the company e) Make inspirational book .

stress.Features and Benefits. training and licensing of internal trainees to run the 16-week QWL-program internally under supervision − provide intervention programmes (QWL-. resilience-learning (stress) and conflict-resolution courses) on a yearly basis employees − empower managers to manage the QWL-Health situation in their departments. Step 2: Continuation of QWL-Health Project • Purpose: To sustain the benefits of implementing the process it is important to: − continue with the preventative QWL-health process as a permanent strategy for Health Care management in the years to follow − Change the company culture towards one of understanding the implications of the connections between QWL. value to society quality of services etc. poor QWL and QOL.88 Søren Ventegodt. the following can be expected: . As seen in the previous appendix .g. AN ESTIMATE OF IMMEDIATE VALUE GAINED AS A RESULT OF QWL-HEALTH INTERVENTIONS It is predicted that QWL can be raised with 1% yearly as a result of QWL-health interventions. for instance that of 1% lower absenteeism. Niels Jørgen Andersen. thus gaining and creating new knowledge for the future − continuously calculate the impact on the bottom line APPENDIX B. Health-. that of higher efficiency. by letting them attend the QWL-course and the 16-week program themselves − continue scientific approach through (1) continuously mapping and analysing changes in the companies QWL-Health situation and the effects of interventions and (2) continuing qualitative interviews to validate and explore the process. e. QOL and health for personal well being and happiness as well as organisational performance. The hard value of some of these aspects is difficult to estimate.this will influence a wide variety of variables directly as well as indirectly. The value of other aspects are however much easier to calculate. divisions etc. On the basis of the statistical connections achieved in research studies so far. Isack Kandel et al. poor conflict-resolution abilities and unhealthy lifestyle timeously − make self-help tools available to everyone who needs and want it ( 16-week QWL-programme ) − empower the company through selection. The value of better and more stable client-customer relationships as a result of employees who are happy and satisfied with their work should also not be underestimated. − implement yearly screening of employees to detect problems with health. 1% better health and 1% less stress and depressive related illnesses and the accompanied lower medical costs. and financial growth.

These estimations are only for one year. LEGAL ASPECTS Intellectual Rights The Quality of Life Research Center (QOLRC) in Copenhagen. QWL-QOL-Health courses and the QOL-QWL-Health concepts belong to the QOLRC. disability pensions etc. Quality of Life and Health • • • • • • 89 A lowering in one day absenteeism for employees attending one of the courses and A lowering of 3-day absenteeism for the subordinates of leaders who attend the 16week QWL-course At least 1% fewer bad health symptoms can follow from attending one of the courses. which is likely to result in 1% better performance as well as accompanied lowering in direct expenses to medical costs and insurance. the books mentioned in this document as well as the software on QOL. Denmark owns the intellectual rights and copyright on all the developmental tools and measuring instruments on QOL-QOW-Health. . The QOLRC supervise all measurements in companies and elsewhere with the QOL. QOW and Health that accompany these. is expected from participation in one of the courses. All new versions of the QWL-QOL-Health tool. APPENDIX C. A 1% improvement in personal efficiency if a person lowers his/her stress level by 3%. but as QWL development continues similar contingencies can be expected in the years to follow. New QWL-QOL-Health tools developed in prolongation of the old tools also belongs to the QOLRC. QWL and Health Questionnaires and preserve the data in order to protect the rights of individuals against misuse or identification by companies or the state. Right of Use Special permission (in writing) can be granted to individuals who want to use the questionnaires for research purposes on signing an agreement that the questionnaires will not be copied and or modified. Everybody who is trained and licensed to use the questionnaires or products owned by the QOLRC must sign the same agreement. It is suspected that improvements because of participating in interventions will last for 10 years.How to Improve Working-life Quality. this equals 1% of the salary of these individuals.

nature and the community and. The seminar is directed at people with bad health and a poor quality of life who want to realise their hidden potentials and help themselves to a better life. LIST OF MATERIAL AND COURSES The Material • • • QWL-Health Questionnaire QWL-Questionnaire PC Questionnaires: − QOL® Working-Life Quality . APPENDIX D. The seminar is for people who want to discover and surmount limits. our personal history and our feeling of being present in our own bodies. both personal and in relation to other people and the surrounding world. The purpose of the seminar is to point the participant in a new direction in life. work. working intensely with our philosophy of life. A Five-day Workshop. to re-discover and develop a greater correlation between our own inner self and our ego . It is for people who want to experience more connection and concord between intention and action.a Personal Profile − QOL® Working-Life Quality . Purpose • To provide the participants with the possibility of re-discovering and experiencing hidden resources for personal progress and strength. Introduction In the course of five days. friends. low on energy and burned out etc. All Rights Reserved Change your course in life and mobilise your hidden resources and you will improve your health and your quality of life. . and find out what we can do to help ourselves. Isack Kandel et al. Copenhagen. • To inspire the participants to become responsible for their own lives. their re¬lationship with themselves. the direction that is a consequence of taking responsibility for your own personal development.our inner world and the external reality we live in. their relationship with their partners. To identify bad attitudes and inappropriate behaviour and change these. most of all.90 Søren Ventegodt. tired. Niels Jørgen Andersen. • To enable the participants to discover life’s deeper meaning.a Company Profile Book: Working-Life Quality by S?ren Ventegodt Inspirational Brochure QWL-Tool: Working-Life Quality . Heal Yourself © QOLRC. we shall try to examine why we become ill.A tool for employees and leaders Tabelworks + graphs (Statistical and validation information) • • • • The Courses 1.

The Medicine Wheel About feeling and reason. feelings and mind. to find the essence of their own existence. Working with your Body To become present in your body and to like being there. What is the connection between body and feelings? What happens when we touch the body? How does the body remember events in life? How can we rid the body of bad memories. Working with your body. which bind the energy for life? The hidden source of the energy of life. Contents What is illness? Why do we get sick? What can we do ourselves to become well? What is illness? Feeling burned out? Decay of the body? What is quality of life? What is life? What are cells? How do cells communicate? What is the connection between body and mind? What is the placebo effect? How can we improve our health through our consciousness? A New Model for Understanding Illness From material to spirit through life. What are feelings? What is reason? What is action? What is personal growth? To Create Confidence and Openness: Your life just now.How to Improve Working-life Quality. Why does a bad quality of life disturb the body? About being present in the body and the importance of not being present. attitudes and action. Quality of Life and Health • 91 To provide the participants with the possibility of discovering their original source. to clarify own values and prioritise values and to develop agreement between values. What is material? What is spirit? What are your attitudes to life? Your personal philosophy of life? What do you do when life becomes painful? To close off life events with a lie to escape from the pain. About chronological and physiological age. Where are you now? . action and growth.

Isack Kandel et al. as well as joint discussions will provide the . to be. Ten (10) circles of presentations. your behaviour and your habits. your words and your actions? What is the basic cause of your limits. peace. What are your greatest talents? What are your greatest achievements? Where are you heading? What do you want? When have you tried being yourself? To Re-discover the Meaning of Life: Your soul. When do you let people limit you? Who limits you? What lies do you tell yourself in order to limit your own self-expression? Do you take responsibility for yourself. The combination of presentations by instructors and exercises both individually and in groups.92 Søren Ventegodt. The Change: To find the source of your existence and being. processing of personal history and working with the body in order to re-establish the inner connection. exercises and discussions. What is your life like just now? Do you get out of life what you want? Do you experience the world with all your senses? Do you thrive in all aspects of life? Why do you do what you do . desire and ignorance? ‘To become oneself’ means to grow wonderful. your values and attitudes to life and what you do. clearness and bodily comfort. fear of love. Who are you when you are you? The essence of life: love and strength. the coherence.and how do you do it? To Experience all Possibilities and Re-discover your Own Resources: Personal history. How do you want your life to be in the future? What will you do. Niels Jørgen Andersen. guilt. What is important to you? When will you live the life you want and deserve? What is holding you back? To Create Energy and Movement: Your future. continuity. dependency. The connection between your inner self. how will you think? How will you attain your new purpose? How will you become valuable to yourself and your surroundings? Methods: Dialogue between philosophy of life.

insight and change.00 09. health and personal responsibility for one's own future health.How to Improve Working-life Quality.00 09. Copenhagen. It starts Monday morning and finishes Friday afternoon. Attendance throughout the course is obligatory. A Two-day Seminar on Quality of Life. The seminar presupposes the willingness to change and personal commit¬ment. Contents: During the seminar we shall try to find answers to life's great questions. free. group work and general discussions.00 09. Results from The Quality-of-Life survey and other scientific surveys will be presented and discussed. Timetable: Monday: Tuesday: Wednesday: Thursday: Friday: 09.00 – approx. Quality of Life and Health 93 participant with a personal experience of attention. health and illness. 2. Participants must not expect adequate answers to all .00 – approx.00 09. exercises.00 – approx. During the seminar the participants will be presented with challenging and demanding exercises and tasks. The seminar illustrates the connection between quality of life. 24. Working Life Quality and Health © QOLRC.00 Other: The atmosphere during the seminar is happy. The seminar covers the Research Center's philosophy and theories on the good life.00 – approx. All Rights Reserved Purpose: The purpose of the seminar is to inspire participants to a more positive and optimistic philosophy of life as well as a more constructive way of living and working. 16.00 – approx. the good work. Use of medicine and other medical or psychological treatment must be reported prior to commencing the seminar. 24. supportive and confrontational and is one’s own responsibility. 24. What is quality of life? How do we improve our own quality of life? How do we form our own lives through our attitudes and behavior? How do we become really happy with our work? Why do we let our brain and consciousness fool us into believing things that are wrong and contrary to life? Why do we become ill? Can we cure ourselves by improving our quality of life? Form: The seminar will consist of lectures. Form: The seminar will be held over five days and includes accommodation. 24.

• • • .m. questions. i.94 Søren Ventegodt. Thus the seminar is first and foremost an inspiration to a better quality of life. working-life quality and health. the book) states that there are basically 4 important relations in the working-life: The relation to yourself The relation to the work process The relation to other people in the work group. According to this theory a good quality of life is not just about personal functioning or immediate subjective well-being. The theory (explained in Working Life Quality. This program is only meant as a guideline as the day will largely be based on the subjects brought up and the questions asked by the participants. other people and what you do for a living. Time Schedule: 9 a. Material: Lecture book 'Working-Life Quality' with loose-leaves of exercises and tasks regarding attitudes and behavior. sum up to the four keywords or basic concepts of the QWL theory: 1) QOL 2) Mastery 3) Fellowship and 4) Creation of real value. colleagues. Isack Kandel et al. Requirements: No professional requirements are necessary to participate in the seminar. managers and subordinates • The customer and the surrounding world These four relations that the QWL aims to improve. APPENDIX E. but basically about good relations to self. as the whole purpose of the seminar is to teach people to ask their own questions and supply their own answers. nature and culture are also of great importance. Openness to new ideas and personal courage and honesty would be an advantage. Relationships with the surrounding world. on both days Target group: The seminar is targeted at anyone interested in quality of life. -4 p. QWL-QUESTIONNAIRE® Basic Theory and Concepts The QWL-questionnaire was developed on basis of the integrative theory of QOL. The derived theory of working life says that a good QWL arises from good relations in the working situation. Niels Jørgen Andersen.m.e.

Development of mastery can only be achieved through challenge. but now that everybody is rich. This at least appears true for rich countries such as Denmark where material wealth has been striven for long. This is done through our understanding and behaviour. Fellowship Man as a social being has a deep-rooted need for being a part of a social whole. A working culture focusing on challenge and personal development can be of tremendous value to the employee personally and to the company. although most people who have not reflected deeply on this might think it is. leadership and personal responsibility in a group and so forth. It seems that human beings have a need for being useful and not for material wealth in itself. It is rather surprising when studies of happiness are done. For there is nothing as satisfying as personal development and there is nothing as valuable for a company as mastery among its employees and leaders. and not really about money. Creation of Real Value Work is about creating value. that happiness and life satisfaction are so closely related to being useful and only remotely connected to yearly income. As these social qualities are with us all the time as hidden resources. an accepted and appreciated member of the group. Inner conflicts and lack of knowledge and understanding of yourself make this difficult for a majority of mankind. This is the ideal but seldom achieved state of mastery.How to Improve Working-life Quality. co-operation. It is in the end about creating a better world and taking development and evolution a step further. which most people seem to avoid for safety and personal security. conflict solving. Mastery It is the purpose of human life to be active and to create value. But unfortunately. You can say that QOL is about expressing the basic qualities of life: Joy (pleasure-pain axis). Quality of Life and Health 95 QOL (Quality of Life) QOL refers to the person's state of living. knowledge (information-structure axis) and awareness (consciousness-unconsciousness axis) in your daily living. nobody seems to be happy. Personal and professional development leads to a state of being where ideas and intentions can be freely expressed in the work-process. The reason why mastery is seldom achieved is that most people stop in their personal development before they reach perfection. many people do not develop the social skills necessary for communication. processes that take them into use are of huge value for the individual as well as for the organisation. It is about fulfilling real needs for individuals and for society. It is about experiences. It is basically and surprisingly a function of the level of inner harmony and balance. Real value is about helping other people improve their lives. This does .

APPENDIX F. .The Quality of Working-life: Basic theory and concepts. not imply that we should not take care of things like clean water and basic standard of living. Isack Kandel et al. as well as industrial psychological experts. which gives a number for the calculated QWL as a mean of the rating of the four basic dimensions. has been validated when it comes to internal consistency (focus) by the Cronbach-alfa method. Validation of the QWL-Questionnaire The QWL-questionnaire. external validity (criteria validity) by its correlation to the self-evaluated QWL and some international questionnaires on health. the obtained level of information. Niels Jørgen Andersen. The criteria for the selection was that they together should show the broadest possible picture of the working-life situation. Development of the QWL-Questionnaire Based on the above theoretical foundation the QWL-questionnaire seems to be valid when it comes to its basic construction. redundancy should be minimised. 100 questions were selected. THE PERSONAL QWL-PROFILE AND ITS DIMENSIONS As discussed in appendix E .96 Søren Ventegodt. working-life quality can easily be divided into four main issues impacting strongly on people's experience of satisfaction with the process of work.e. MDs. namely • • • • Quality of life Mastery Fellowship Creating real value The hundred questions of the QWL-Questionnaire have been constructed to measure these four aspects of the work process by attending to important dimensions of each domain. Amongst 500 items originally proposed by a workgroup with professors. and they had to be meaningful and linguistically sound to maximise communication i. company directors. All of the parameters were found to be satisfactory compared to internationally accepted standards. but this in itself does not make people happy. These dimensions provide a practical and useful way to give feedback to the individual about his/her experience of their working-life and allow for easy identification of areas that can and should improved. Where this has been obtained people need more. its reliability has been tested through test-retest procedures and its sensitivity has been found through its statistical variation. PhD's in organisational theory development.

Quality of Working-Life: The Four Domains and their Dimensions © QOLRC. On the other hand there is nothing worse in life than a job you are unhappy with. quality and efficiency disappears into the blue. If you cannot see the point of what you are doing and you do not feel that you contribute with anything valuable – your work wears you out.000 Danes carried out by The Qualityof-Life Research Center in Copenhagen. Furthermore. It is difficult to feel happy when you do not really feel committed to your work.your joy of life may be shattered. only every third citizen who is working is happy in his or her job which is catastrophic for the society. Copenhagen. the customers and the environs in general. Work is such a vital part of a life – such a permanent companion – that if you do not feel at ease – when leaving for work in the morning . I am convinced that a uninspiring and detached working life is one of the main reasons people on average retire at . INSPIRATIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL RESOURCES Work can be one of the greatest pleasures in your life. Quality of Life and Health 97 Feedback is given in the form of a QWL-Personal Profile. but also shows how the personal profile compare to those of the other employees in the company. if you do not consider your work valuable the same will apply to your company. The dimensions covered within each domain of the questionnaire are provided in the table below. Without responsibility and commitment. but more like a prison with displeasing work – your life’s energy is being drained. All Rights Reserved Quality of Life: Relation to self Experience of life Satisfaction with life Needs fulfilment Mastery: Relation to your work Skills competence Character of work Influence re own work Experience of work Commitment to work Salary and status Personal development Fellowship: Relation to the Organisation Commitment to organisation Information flow Teamwork Working environment Management Interpersonal relations Influence Creating real value: Relation to environs Organisational mission Quality of products/service Efficiency Creating proper values APPENDIX G.How to Improve Working-life Quality. Personally. which gives a graphic picture of personal performance in respect of experience of working-life quality. According to ‘The Quality-of-Life’ survey of 10. That kind of work may kill you slowly – bit by bit. If your work is not a place where you can thrive and be happy. whilst an example of a profile can be found on the next page.

Niels Jørgen Andersen. Research shows that people who feel useful are the ones who are happy. too. It takes its toll because our health and well being are dependent on our ability to renew ourselves and develop new expressions of our personality in order to use life properly. Copenhagen: Quality Life Research Center. There seem to be four basic conditions.98 Søren Ventegodt. A tool for employees and leaders. It may sound easy. which resulted in a simple and useful kit of tools. Only few human beings can cope with leading a meaningless life – lives spent working in jobs that they do not really like. With your decision to make improvements. but as a matter of fact it requires an immense amount of self-discipline which only a very few possess at the outset. And that may also be the reason why people rate such a short average life as proven by several surveys and reports. This meaning of life we find in all dimensions of our life: Within the family. appendix I). Every human being is created to be active. 1996 . it is essential to be aware of your attitudes and your way of doing things.e. with friends in our spare time as well as on the job. which does not interfere with the delicate balance of the ecosystem. using his or her talents the best possible way to the benefit of oneself and others – this is what is meant by life. There is nothing more exhilarating than an exciting job because work is about being useful to the world as well as influencing and creating a world in accordance with our private dreams. It seems that we all have a dream of contributing something to this world – in our private as well as our professional lives. Isack Kandel et al. Employees and leaders who have gained more insight and a more profound sense of responsibility will in future encounter a more viable production. This book was written in connection with a project ’Working-Life Quality’. it can be thrilling – and at best – it is not experienced as mere work. The above mentioned tools will inspire you as well as support your selfdiscipline. Work can be exciting. At your company it should not be difficult to agree on commencing a project with the purpose of developing your working-life quality because an improvement of your job satisfaction will be in the interest of your company. Instead it becomes the challenge of our life – becomes what we dreamt of really doing. This requires alertness and your best efforts. which determine the quality of working life: 1) Personal quality of life 2) Mastery of the working process 3) Fellowship with colleagues and management 4) Genuine improvement for both customers and environment. the age of 61. Working life quality. easily applicable for developing working life quality ( i. Reference Ventegodt S. in private as well as professionally. miracles might be waiting around the corner. A closer look should be taken on personal development: How do you improve your life? What is it that makes it so difficult for us to develop? In order to develop and improve your life. Working life quality.

a Company Profile) is also available. At the moment reference values from six Danish companies and their employees are included in order to allow you to benchmark your rating. about excitement. Throughout the book attention is focused on positive attitudes and behaviour for this is what opens us up and give us access to our hidden resources. These must be developed analogously and brought in harmony with the life inside us. The Working-Life Quality tool was developed in order to help employees as well as leaders to acquire the inspiration and discipline required to develop the quality of their working life. Your relationship to those you work with and the organisation. The folder also contains a floppy disc with a programme: QOL® Working-Life Quality . which is about creating real value and obtaining proper values. This programme correlates the keyed answers from several Personal Profile disks and then provides a total profile of a company's or a department's working-life quality. which is about Quality of Life 2. Furthermore. which informs you of the basic ideas of QWL.How to Improve Working-life Quality. which is about Mastery 3. It also comprises an understanding of what is needed for people to develop and grow namely awareness and practice or change. mastery of the work process. namely quality of life. Finally it supplies the user with exercises to motivate discipline because only if you try new behaviour will you improve. It is about the feeling of being alive when working.a Personal Profile (Windows operating) showing the user his or her personal profile of working life quality. Quality of Life and Health APPENDIX I. a company PC analysis-programme (QOL® Working-Life Quality . a sense of community with colleagues and management and creating real value for the customer and environment. Your relation to yourself. helping them identify which particular aspects will require effort on their part in order to improve their personal quality of working life. THE QWL-TOOL: INTRODUCTION AND CONTENTS 99 Working-life quality is a new concept meaning 'The quality of life you experience at work. It attends to the four aspects of good work.' It is about job satisfaction. Your relationship to the customer and the environment. Supplementary to the individual folder. which is about Cooperation and 4.the working process. Description and Contents of Package The tool consists of a folder with a workbook of 160 coloured pages with exercises and examples that guides the user through a 16-week course to improve the four central issues of work namely: 1. enthusiasm and commitment at work. . Your relationship to the tasks you work with . it includes a 12-page questionnaire on quality of working life as well as an inspiring brochure. Eventually the program will allow you to benchmark your company to the best in your own country as well as in the world.

Overview of Program Contents and Form • Understanding the role and value of awareness and practise (exercise) in the forming and changing of attitudes and beliefs Module 1 . Experiencing work satisfaction and joy • • • • • • • Understand the function of your potential and challenge in becoming a master of your work Discover the role or your attitudes and personal beliefs in the experience of mastery Discover your boundless and unused potentials and resources Create energy Develop your skills and abilities Commit yourself to your work Grasp your challenges Module 10 – 13. whilst at the same time preserving the environment and adding value to the community • • • • • To be valuable to the customer and society Meeting the real needs of people Feeling useful in the world Developing valuable values Apprehension of the connection between attitude and perception in developing values and creating value . Isack Kandel et al.100 Søren Ventegodt. Quality of Life Living the life you deep down experience • • • Discover what quality of life means to you personally and how you can achieve it Develop an understanding of the relation between your attitudes towards life and being healthy Discover your own attitudes towards yourself and your life Module 6 .5.to lead and be lead Module 14 -15.9. Sense of Community within the Organisation The experience of teamwork and working together to obtain results for yourself and the organisation through joined effort and shared purpose • • • • Understanding community within the organisation The function of communication and the role of your attitudes and beliefs The art of co-operation and teamwork Leadership and co-operation . Mastery of the Work-process To become really good at your work and love it. Creating Real Value Producing products and providing services. Niels Jørgen Andersen.

2-Day group seminar 9. QWL and health.500 Danes from the Central Person Register (CPR) where mailed a QWL questionnaire with 500 items including questions on QOL. Individuals work on their own and in small groups for the next 5 weeks 8. 16 dimensions were chosen as core dimensions: • QOL • Mastery • Fellowship • Creating value • Estimated QWL (calculated as a mean of the former 4 dimensions) • Own rating of QWL • Own rating of psychological working condition • Immediate subjective well-being at work (“Feeling good at work”) • Own rating of physical working condition . APPENDIX J QWL Tables 2. Inform selected employees about aim of intervention and distribute inspiration brochure 2. Quality of Life and Health 101 Implementation of 16-week Program 1. Individuals work alone and in small groups trough the first 5 weeks 6. 700 persons returned the huge questionnaire in a usable form for the QOL-QWL-Health analysis. Distribute QWL-Workbook to participants and explain process to them 5. After 2-months: QWL-Health measurement 11. Report on results of intervention Teachers Trained psychologists of the QOLRC and assistants Reference Working Life Quality: A tool for employees and management.How to Improve Working-life Quality. Individuals complete rest of modules 10. Give feedback to all about their questionnaire results and invite participation in intervention 4. 2-Day group seminar 7. After 3-months: QWL-Health measurement 12. 1996. Copenhagen: QOLRC. Screen everybody with QWL-Health Questionnaire 3.

A very large connection between “being good at work” and amount of health problems (11) 4. Niels Jørgen Andersen. A very large connection between “stress” and “feeling good at work” (152) 10. A large connection between “being good at work” and commitment to your work (15) 7. These connections are not analysed according to causality. 2.102 • • • • • • Søren Ventegodt. This is the subject for the intervention study. but it is our research hypothesis that they will change dynamically according to their statistical connections. An intermediate connection between “being frustrated because work is to difficult” and “fellowship” (131) 9. A large connection between “being good at work compared to the best” and QOL (17) 8. A large connection between “being good at work” and QOL (1) A very large connection between “being good at work” and "own estimate of physical health (10) 3. 60 dimensions were then plotted against these 16 core dimensions to map the central statistical co-variations. Isack Kandel et al. Major Findings We will show some major findings and the results as documentation. An intermediate connection between “being good at work” and own estimate of physical working condition (14) 6. An large connection between “ability to influence the goal of the work” and the number of days off sick (171) . An intermediate connection between “being good at work” and "stress (13) 5. Stress factor Number of days off sick Own rating of psychological health status Own rating of physical health status The amount of health difficulties Own rating of own efficiency. The following categorisation of the size of the connections (according to prior test) are used in the descriptions below: 0-5%: 5-10%: 10-15%: 15-30%: 30%+: Very small connection Small connection Intermediate connection Large connection Very large connection We found the following statistical connections (selected findings): 1.

A very large connection between “feeling good at work” and “Number of days off sick” (OBS only two respondents in 5. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “Mastery” (210) 14. A large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “own estimate of psychological health" (250) 29. A very large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “feeling good at work” (248) 28. A very large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “commitment to your work" (255) 31. category) (219) 18. A large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “fellowship” (243) 26. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “fellowship” (211) 15.How to Improve Working-life Quality. A large connection between “interesting work” and “own estimate of psychological health" (266) 35. A large connection between “interesting work” and “creating value” (260) 34. A very large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “mastery” (242) 25. A very large connection between “feeling good at work” and “Estimated QWL” . A large connection between “doing what you like the best” and “commitment to your work" (239) 23. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “commitment to your work" (223) 22. Quality of Life and Health 103 11. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “stress" (221) 20. An intermediate connection between “time spent in flow” and “amount of health problems" (315) . A very large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “amount of health problems" (251) 30. A large connection between “interesting work” and “own estimate of physical working condition" (270) 37. A very large connection between “interesting work” and “commitment to your work" (271) 38. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “QOL” (209) 13. A large connection between “time spent in flow” and “mastery” (306) 39. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “Creating value” (212) 16. A large connection between “ability to influence how to do your work” and “the amount of health problems" (178) 12. A large connection between “interesting work” and “fellowship” (259) 33.a criteria validation (213) 17. A large connection between “interesting work” and “amount of health problems" (267) 36. A large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “creating value” (244) 27. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “number of days off sick" (220) 19. A large connection between “interesting work” and “mastery” (258) 32. A large connection between “experience of joy in work” and “QOL” (241) 24. A large connection between “feeling good at work” and “own estimate of psychological health" (222) 21.

A very large connection between “how well are your treated by the organisation” and “creating value” (452) 57. A large connection between “responsibility towards the organisation” and “creating value” (436) 54. An intermediate connection between “professional development” and “own estimate of physical working conditions" (398) 48. An intermediate connection between “challenges” and “amount of health problems” (379) 45. A large connection between “challenges” and “Own estimated QWL” (374) 43. An intermediate connection between “challenges” and “own estimate of psychological health" (378) 44. A large connection between “challenges” and “commitment to your work" (383) 46. A large connection between “ability to resolve conflicts” and “QOL” (529) 65. A large connection between “personal development” and “mastery” (418) 50. A large connection between “challenges” and “mastery” (370) 42. A large connection between “how well informed are your by the management” and “feeling good at work” (472) 61. A very large connection between “teamwork” and amount of health problems" (507) 63. Niels Jørgen Andersen. A very large connection between “ability to resolve conflicts” and “Own rating of QWL” (534) . A very large connection between “teamwork” and “own estimate of QWL” (502) 62. A large connection between “responsibility towards the organisation” and “commitment to your work" (447) 56. 40. A very large connection between “how well informed are your by the management” and “fellowship” (467) 59. An intermediate connection between “time spent in flow” and “commitment to your work" (315) 41. A large connection between “professional development” and “commitment to your work" (399) 49. A large connection between “how well are your treated by the organisation” and “amount of health problems" (459) 58. A large connection between “how well informed are you' by the management” and “own rating of psychological working conditions” (471) 60. A large connection between “personal development” and “creating value” (420) 51. A large connection between “personal development” and “commitment to your work" (431) 52. A large connection between “professional development” and “mastery” (386) 47. A large connection between “responsibility towards the organisation” and “fellowship” (435) 53. A large connection between “ability to resolve conflicts” and “fellowship” (531) 66. Isack Kandel et al. A intermediate connection between “responsibility towards the organisation” and “amount of health problems" (436) 55. A large connection between “teamwork” and “own estimate of physical working condition" (510) 64.104 Søren Ventegodt.

A large connection between “level of responsibility” and “fellowship” (563) 73. A very large connection between “ability to resolve conflicts” and “own estimate of psychological health" (538) 69. A large connection between “psychological working environment” and “QOL” (593) 77. A very large connection between “level of responsibility” and “commitment to work" (575) 76. A large connection between “ability to resolve conflicts” and “amount of health problems" (539) 70. A large connection between “possibilities of taken new initiatives” and “estimated QWL” (645) 91. A large connection between “how good is the management” and “own rating of QWL” (614) 81. A large connection between “how good is the management” and “feeling good at work” (616) 82. A large connection between “level of responsibility” and “QOL” (561) 72. A large connection between “how good is your boss” and “amount of health problems" (635) 89. A large connection between “how good is the management” and “amount of health problems" (619) 84. A very large connection between “how good is your boss” and “fellowship” (627) 86. A large connection between “how good is your boss” and “creating value” (628) 87. Quality of Life and Health 105 67. A large connection between “how good is your boss” and “feeling good at work” (632) 88. A large connection between “how good is your boss” and “own estimate of physical working condition" (638) 90. A large connection between “ability to resolve conflicts” and “feeling good at work” (536) 68. A large connection between “how good is the management” and “own estimate of physical working condition" (622) 85. A large connection between “how good is the management” and “own estimate of physical health" (617) 83. A large connection between “how good is the management” and “estimated QWL” (613) 80. A large connection between “psychological working environment” and “own estimate of physical working condition" (606) 78. A intermediate connection between “possibilities of taken new initiatives” and “amount of health problems" (651) . A large connection between “level of responsibility” and “own estimate of physical working condition" (574) 75. A large connection between “level of responsibility” and “own estimate of psychological health" (570) 74.How to Improve Working-life Quality. A large connection between “how good is the management” and “QOL” (609) 79. A large connection between “ability to resolve conflicts” and “number of sick days off" (540) 71.

A vary large connection between “possibilities of taken new initiatives” and “commitment to your work" (655) 93.336(8708):129–33.106 Søren Ventegodt. A very large connection between “thinking the organisation helps the development of society” and “own estimated QWL” (918) 108.2(8668):888–91. 92. A large connection between “ethical organisation” and “fellowship” (803) 97. A large connection between “thinking the organisation is a success” and “own estimate of psychological health" (858) 103. A very large connection between “thinking the organisation is a success” and “creating value” (852) 104. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Scherwitz LW. Ornish D. Lancet 1989. Results from a population survey. [Danish] . A large connection between “importance of the mission” and “own estimate of psychological health" (666) 95. A very large connection between “own estimated QWL” and “own estimate of psychological health (938) 109. Quality of life in Denmark. Ventegodt S. A very large connection between “thinking the organisation is a success” and “fellowship” (851) 101. Billings JH. Isack Kandel et al. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. A large connection between “being of value to the organisation” and “own estimate of psychological health" (826) 99. A very large connection between “thinking the organisation helps the development of society” and “estimated QWL” (917) 107. Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Brown SE. 1995. Gottheil E. A very large connection between “own estimated QWL” and “commitment to your work" (943) REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] Spiegel D. A large connection between “thinking the organisation improves the customers QOL” and “creating value” (868) 105. A large connection between “importance of the mission” and “amount of health problems" (667) 96. Bloom JR. A very large connection between “own estimated QWL” and “own estimate of physical working condition" (942) 110. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? Lancet 1990. A very large connection between “ethical organisation” and “creating value” (804) 98. A very large connection between “thinking the organisation is a success” and “creating value” (852) 102. Kraemer HC. A very large connection between “thinking the organisation helps the development of society” and “creating value” (916) 106. A very large connection between “importance of the mission” and “creating value” (660) 94. Armstrong WT et al. A large connection between “being of value to the organisation” and “amount of health problems" (827) 100.

[Danish] Frankl V. Research findings from Denmark 1991-2004. How people manage stress and stay well.3:1199-1209. birth and infancy. Ventegodt S. Results from a follow-up study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen 1959-61. . QOL philosophy IV: The brain and consciousness. Andersen NJ.3:1176-85. Andersen NJ. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Ventegodt S. Health. QOL philosophy II: What is a human being? ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Antonovsky A. [Danish] Ventegodt S.3: 1210-29. 1999. QOL philosophy I: Quality of life. I and thou. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Destructive emotions. Ventegodt S. 1985. New York: Harper Collins.How to Improve Working-life Quality. Andersen NJ. Nordenfelt L. London: Jossey-Bass. 2000. CA: New World Library. Quality of Life and Health [4] 107 [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] Ventegodt S. Merrick J. 1991. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. 1987. Quality of life and health. Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ. The art of loving. Morad M. 2nd ed. Goleman DL. New York: Harper Collins. Flow. 1985. Ventegodt S.71:87-122. Merrick J. Merrick J. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. New York: Mind Life Inst. Nielsen M. 2003. 1999. Ventegodt S. Measuring the quality of life. Merrick J. Merrick J. happiness. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. New York: Charles Scribner. Novato. [Swedish] Ventegodt S. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. The quality of life and major events in life. Flensborg-Madsen T. [Danish] Ventegodt S. The psychology of optimal experience. QOL philosophy III: Towards a new biology. Fromm E. Stockholm: Almqvist Wiksell. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Quality of life philosophy: when life sparkles or can we make wisdom a science? ScientificWorld Journal 2003. The quality of life and factors in pregnancy. 1996. Antonovsky A. Andersen NJ. and meaning of life. The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33 year-olds. Buber M. QOL philosophy V: Seizing the meaning of life and getting well again. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Soc Indicator Res 2005. 1996. Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ.3:1030-40. The power of now. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. Andersen NJ. QOL philosophy VI: The concepts. Tolle E.3:1230-40. Ventegodt S.3:1186-98.3:1164-75. Csikszentmihalyi M. The IQOL theory: An integrative theory of the global quality of life concept. 1970.3:1160-3. New York: Pocket Books. 2000. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Kromann M. Unravelling the mystery of health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Working life quality. From theory to practice. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Result from a study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen. stress and coping. Ventegodt S. Global quality of life (QOL). 1991. Man’s search for meaning. 1995. health and ability are primarily determined by our consciousness. Merrick J. Quality of life theory I.

Andersen NJ. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Andersen NJ.3:1050-7. Merrick J. Merrick J.108 Søren Ventegodt. Maslow revisited. [27] Ventegodt S. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Quality of life as the realization of life potential: A biological theory of human being. .3:1041-9. Quality of life theory II. [28] Ventegodt S. Isack Kandel et al. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Quality of life theory III.

PART II: RESEARCH IN QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE: IMPROVING VALUE BY MAKING YOUR PEOPLE HAPPY AT WORK .

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INTRODUCTION Thriving at work is statistically strongly associated to quality of life (QOL) [1. Inc.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. can be documented. T is the duration of the improvement and ΔQWL is the difference in quality of working life. enabling. created change in QWL. We found the following formula useful: ΔV total for a QWL project = N α S T ΔQWL. It seems that the new concept of quality of working life (QWL) could be a key concept in the description of the employee making. . This paper aims to find a simple formula by which the value for an improvement in QWL easily can be calculated. for the first time possible.2]. Chapter 9 WORKING LIFE QUALITY AND VALUE Søren Ventegodt. it is necessary to assess and quality assure the intervention of company consultants on the soft assets of a company. a simple way to determine the value or potential value to be realised under good leadership of an employee. selfassessed health. N is the number of participants. α is a psychobiological constant for human beings ˜ 10. By measuring with SEQWL before and after an intervention on employees. In addition to these statically findings. a number of projects have successfully been carried out in Denmark and Norway leading to the general conclusion that it is possible to improve both thriving at work. physical and physiological (measured by SEQOL [3]) and quality of working life (QWL) [4]. where ΔV is the potential additional value gained more for the company under good leadership. hereby enabling the documentation of the gain of value for the company by the intervention. general health and the quality of life of employees. S is the average salary. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick When job satisfaction and functional ability is to be measured and improved. as we present it in this paper and measured by SEQWL [5]. however for many years it was believed that the scenario of a common worker is far too complex and that factors that makes him or her valuable to a company could not be agreed upon. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Working-Life-Quality (QWL) is easily measured by the SEQWL questionnaire.

It is difficult to feel happy when you do not really feel committed to your work. that relations as QWL and wellbeing at work are fundamental to the qualitative and quantitative output of employees. such a permanent companion. If you cannot see the point in what you are doing and you do not feel that you contribute with anything valuable.2. your life energy is being drained. The difficulty is caused by the lack of credible numbers for QWL that could have been used as a basis for proper mathematical calculations of the profit. mastery. if you do not consider your work valuable the same will apply to your company. QOL and health. There seems to be a growing awareness of the concept of QOL in society and the business world has also seen the benefits. This article aims to render probable the benefit of an organisation by improving quality of working life for the employee and managers of the company. using his or her talents the best possible way to the benefit of self and others – this is what is meant by life. too the benefit to the employee and the organisation). Only few human beings can cope with leading a life as meaningless as ours – all our lives spent working in jobs that we do not really like. Without responsibility and commitment. but fells more like a prison.4]. That kind of work may kill you slowly. If your work is not a place.000 Danes carried out by the Quality of Life Research Centre in Copenhagen [1. Personally. when leaving for work in the morning. only every third Danish citizen was happy in his or her job. (i. because our health and well being are dependent on our ability to renew ourselves and develop new expressions of our personality in order to use life properly. your joy of life may be shattered. In order to meet such requirements. calculated on the individual employee. This concept of meaning of life we find in all stages of our life: within the family. your work wears you out.” Soft values such as the employee’s experience of his own thriving. quality and efficiency disappears into the blue. Work is such a vital part of a life. Furthermore.2]. just as difficult is it for organisations to value the benefit of soft values to hard numbers. we are convinced that the uninspiring and detached working life is one of the main reasons Danish people retire at the age of 61 years. the customers and the environment in general. bit by bit. with . such as “consumption of time and materials and production. that if you do not feel at ease.e. where you can thrive and be happy. On the basis of existing empiric data we will try to establish the formula for the connection between improved QWL and increased profit for the company. The arguments against an overly focus on the employee thriving on the job are often derived form an economic perspective and from the wish to secure efficiency through a certain degree of authority and control. According to the “Quality of Life” survey of 10. Calculations showing a positive outcome of interventions on QWL and prosperity are a precondition for the willingness of company leaders to prioritise projects meant to improve QWL. Every human being is created to be active. measurements have been limited to hard facts. It takes its toll. WHAT IS QUALITY OF WORKING LIFE (QWL)? Work can be one of the greatest pleasures in your life [1. which is catastrophic to Danish society. Niels Jørgen Andersen.112 Søren Ventegodt. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Just as evident as it seems to many modern managers. On the other hand there is nothing worse in life than a job you are unhappy with. sense of community and productivity have not previously been taken into consideration.

3. Bad employees get 55-65%.7 63.8% of the employees get 80-100% (very good) on average. because work is about being useful to the world as well as influencing and creating a world in accordance with our private dreams.5% between 60% and 40%. Good 3.1 69.Working Life Quality and Value 113 friends in our spare time as well as on the job. QWL 76. It seems that we all have a dream of contributing something to this world – in our private as well as our professional lives.e. and less than one percentage below 40% in measured QWL (see table 2). .5 15.5% said "good". There is nothing more exhilarating than an exciting job.4 69.9 Meas.9 3. 57. 15.2 0. make a selling exhibition or keep a tight budget and "subjective quality" . 72. Bad 5. in private as well as professionally.or her or in co-operation with colleagues and the leader and subordinates.5 When calculated from the 100 questions in the QWL-health questionnaire the distribution was narrowed and only 3. it can be thrilling – and at best – it is not experienced as mere work.9% scored between 80% and 60% in measured QWL. Or in other words the person’s influence on the surroundings in a positive or negative direction together with the ability to perform with efficiency and quality in the broadest sense of these two difficult concepts.the experience of the work.0 55. Selfassessed QWL in Denmark [1] Self-assessed QWL 1. In our studies of QWL we have noticed that there is a huge connection between "objective quality" (the concrete ability to function i. which determine the working life quality [4]: 1) 2) 3) 4) Personal quality of life Mastering of the working process Fellowship with colleagues and management Genuine improvement for both customers and environment. Very bad Total number of respondents. the score equal to the expression good on the above-mentioned five-point scale [6]. Most people score around 70%. There seem to be four basic conditions. Table 1. Overall average No 159 397 110 22 3 691 % 23. Instead it becomes the challenge of our life – becomes what we dreamt of really doing. QWL determines the quality and efficiency of both the employees and the leaders work in the company.4% said very bad (see table 1). 22. Terrible employees score below 55%.9% said neither nor.2% said bad and 0.2 42. Neither good nor bad 4. We found an average for the Danish companies of 70%. are the ones who are happy. who feel useful. From these numbers it seems fair to conclude that you cannot function in a job with a QWL below around 50%.0 57.0 69. Roughly speaking you can say that the value of an employee or leader for a company depends on his or her ability to create value by him. Our research showed that people. Very good 2. Work can be exciting. A survey of the selfassessed QWL for the Danish population showed the following distribution: 23% said their QWL was very good.

primarily seems to be of benefit to the employee himself. Table 1 also lists some of the features experientially needed in a good QWL-improvement project. stress. Table 1. ECONOMICAL INTEREST IN IMPROVED QWL Let us address the company’s direct and indirect economic interests in the employee’s QWL. QWL and health situation of individuals and the organisation as a whole Quick and user friendly measurements Accommodates all levels Independent of income. for example to the customers. thus implying some of the reasons why a low measured QWL is incompatible with working efficiently and happily. etc Establish a preventative health care approach Identify individuals who need treatment Pinpoint appropriate choice of intervention needed Equip employees and leaders with attitudes and skills to handle problems. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Average scores 65-75. The value of a worker can be negative if he or she significantly disturbs the work environment and destroys co-operation and other vital company relations. number of sick days and working environment. departments. where it was found that these benefits normally follow such a QWL improving intervention. culture. Expected benefits for the company Features Accurate. change. but also benefits the company. self-assessed mental health. A lot of very important factors seem to follow the measured QWL closely: Self-assessed physical health. personal and inter-personal relationships and crises Allow for comparison with other companies (benchmarking) as well as between branches.114 Søren Ventegodt. Improvement of QWL. Niels Jørgen Andersen. Methodologically and philosophically sound Benefits Direct Benefits • Lowered absenteeism • Improved health • Less stress • Better ability to solve conflicts • Improved personal development • Higher efficiency • Improved commitment to work • Better co-operation • Improved communication • Better leadership • Improved organisational image • Individual life and health management Indirect benefits • Lowered medical costs • Higher productivity • Healthier retirees and older workforce • Higher value to society • More innovation • Improved competitiveness • • • • • • • • • • . etc. age. It has been confirmed by a series of practical intervention examples conducted by Niels Jørgen Andersen. state of health. immediate analyses of QOL. Table 1 lists the expected benefits for the company. A good employee can inspire good work. Good employees score 75-85% and the extremely good (1:50) scores 85-100% in measured QWL (see table 2). A bad employee can easily destroy the value that equals one other worker. gender.

It is important for a company to keep employees in the company instead of constantly needing to recruit new employees.Working Life Quality and Value TO THRIVE BETTER 115 People who are not thriving in their job have a tendency to burn out and sooner or later become only of modest value for the company. Employees who are developing through their working life. however. The growth of this mastery in the work process is one of the main aims of the QWL project. when the employee masters his field of work. then the project will soon have proved profitable. visionary and willing to go all the way for his idea. When communication is improved. Presumably more engaged employees would also be less likely to report sick. Fewer Days Lost through Sickness Since there is a significant correspondence between QOL and the number of days lost through sickness. Expensive waste of time due to common confusion about the tasks to carry out.e. Better Innovation Development of quality products demands a large personal reserve of energy within the employee. . Different teams of the organization will become able to make a better and more coherent effort. is its importance to his general QOL and it seems that creating value is inherently the meaning of life [7-13]. i. an improved QWL most probably will also result in fewer days lost through sickness. who are vital for the company and driving its development. Higher Quality and Larger Efficiency Employees who are engaged and developing in their job will also be more efficient and deliver work of a better quality. If the project results in fewer days lost through sickness per employee per year. when he/she really masters it. then you need to make sure that they are thriving in their job. That personal surplus arises. the distance not only between employees and leaders is reduced. but also between colleagues on the same level and between employees and customers. The innovative employee must be courageous. Those employees who achieve real mastery within their field of work will become the experts. and unprofitable attempts to solve problems will be avoided. unproductive double work. The reason the job is important to the person. If you want to keep employees with the present labour market. will become of increasing value for the company. developing personally and professionally.

it is well known from the realm of psychology that people have different value to us. when conducting a project in order to improve QWL. exactly that ability to cooperate which comes from being a well integrated and generally liked part of a professional cooperative and exactly that real productivity that comes from broad point of view. which is determining the value – and price – of a commodity. However. and as such the human being must be respected and its integrity hold sacred. Establishing such a formula is connected with a lot of ethical thoughts. which is the formula for a straight line: V = k QWL + β . health and professional stability and the personal reserve of energy that are connected with a good QOL. it is a probable hypothesis – which of course is to be proven empirically – that the value of an employee corresponds directly with the four fundamental dimensions of QWL [4]. Even if the value of a human being cannot be completely settled and we are all equal before God. It is supply and demand. because a human being is certainly not a thing. ability to cooperate and width of view. which they support – and relations between QOL dimensions and other conditions of life. just as our own life differs in value at different times and states.15] and accordingly. you wish to see exactly those resources. which is able to take care of its employees thriving and health also will be able to make sound decisions on a larger scale. Presumably there are linear relations between the quality of the four fundamental human conditions and the productive functions of the company. we find the following simple relation. a subject. but it is perhaps just as important to make it public. general orientation towards and understanding of the totality on all levels.2]. Niels Jørgen Andersen. The first question is whether there is a simple and linear relation between productivity and QWL. even if they are not directly profitable.2. our QOL and joy of life is being improved and thus also the value we hold for others and ourselves. That makes it not only easier to keep valuable workers. but a person. such as sustainability. but also to attract attractive new manpower. FORMULA FOR QWL AND VALUE TO THE COMPANY How is it practically possible to measure the economical worth of an employee? The traditional way has been to look at manpower as a commodity you can buy on the market. commitment and personal development in the job. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick Environment-friendly Image There are many image related benefits. The importance of an environmental-friendly image to the still more numerous ”political consumers” cannot be underestimated. It seems logical that a company. due to their skills and experience. it is therefore in the context of a company reasonable to allow the perception that two employees in the same job function hold very different values for the company. like self estimated QWL are just linear [1. People with a high QOL and a large personal reserve of energy have better possibilities to consider external dimensions. Thus. the good spirit. In research we normally find those correspondences surprisingly linear within the normal range [1. When you as a leader are looking at the employee from the outside. It is very valuable for the company that the employees are thriving. life time cycles and more.116 Søren Ventegodt. exactly that mastery which comes from engagement. When we are improving our self-esteem and increasing our selfcare by being better towards ourselves.

If the score is around 70%. Accordingly it is possible to establish the following table (table 1) which shows that α must be around 10 and β be around 0. 50% QWL means that he is a considerable burden to the company.6. Using S for the average salary. Determination of α and β When an employee scores around 60% QWL (measured with SEQWL) we know from experience (compare the numbers above) that he often does not function well enough to keep his job.6) And ΔV = V (t2: QWL 2) . we have: V = S (α QWL + β) Where S is the average salary for a worker in this function. he is stable and a good working power. k is the slope (multiplied with a constant.Working Life Quality and Value 117 where QWL is measured with SEQWL [5] or a corresponding form based on the QWL theory.000 $ for his type of job will create the following value for his company (OBS: If you use the corrected formula below you will find a negative value): .V(t1: QWL 1) = S α (ΔQWL) = 10 S ΔQWL Table 2. Connection between value of the worker (expressed in the units of salary) for the company and measured QWL (rough estimate) QWL 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Close to 100% Value of employee to the company (s = average salary) not able to work not able to work not able to work not able to work severe strain -1s worthless 0s worth his salary (average/normal) 1s especially well functioning employee 2s best practice 3s unique genius 4-1000 s Example 1 An employee with a QWL measured to 65% and an average salary of 50. while 80% would mean that he is a fast advancing star worker. depending on the units) and b is the intersection point with the y axe that determines when an employee holds no or negative value to the company. We have: V = S (α QWL + β) = S (10 QWL – 0.

In that way.000$ x 10 x 0. because the QWL of the individual employee is varying considerably through time. which has been used in the high-tech business in the last two decades should be stopped and replaced by a more decent human resource philosophy.118 Søren Ventegodt. DISCUSSION When you see this formula and table 1. i.000 $ So his value of this employee to the company will be doubled. α ˜10 The value created trough time for a participant is α (ten) times the difference in quality of working life (mQWL) though time (t) times the average salary (S) For the QWL intervention project as a whole is the formula: ΔV total for QWL project = P ∫t2-t1ΔV = PαS ∫t2-t1ΔQWL. then as a leader you would spontaneously feel like firing all employees with a QWL ranging under 65%.000$ x 10 x 5% = 25. it is well known that the best worker of one month is not the one of the following month. The difference in productivity per employee at a certain time thus is: ΔV = 10 S ΔQWL where QWL is the QWL measured with SEQWL. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick V (QWL 65%) = V = S α (QWL + β) = 50. Such a change would also be of benefit for the companies themselves.6) = 50.000 $ If his QWL is raised only 5%. the company also makes a valuable contribution to society instead of just picking people from the top and just unethically wearing them down for final discard. The clever leader consequently supports the development of QWL within the company. improving their ability to keep workers and supporting them in their ongoing development instead of putting them under constantly higher pressure finally resulting in their burnout. the valuable thing by measuring QWL as a leadership tool is not the inhumane dismissal of people.e. α˜10 . which must be empirically conformed) will be: ΔV = V (t2: QWL 70%) . this is not enough to determine the value of a QWL intervention.05 = 25.65– 0. However.000$ x 10 x (0. Niels Jørgen Andersen.V(t1: QWL 65%) = S α (ΔQWL) = 50. This practice. because the crucial question is how the employee will do in the long run. thus contributing to the increasing value of all employees to themselves and each other. S is the salary and α is a constant (estimated α˜10). the value gained on a yearly basis (given α˜10. who are not thriving for the time being. However. It has to be integrated over a longer period: ΔV total for a participant = ∫t2-t1ΔV = α S ∫t2-t1ΔQWL.

e. which is the basis of the complete QWL theory. Thus. independent part of it). correctly applied in . both internally and externally. we can simplify the formula above as follows. Interestingly. B˜10years The value created trough time for a QWL intervention project is α (ten) times the number of participants (P) in the company/division times the difference in Quality of Working Life (QWL) though time (B) times the average salary (S) Example 2: Improving QWL in the Company Improving QWL 10 % in a company – which we some times see in QOL and QWL projects with 100 employees with an average QWL measured to 65% and an average salary of 50. where P= number of members in the organisation. It turns out to be of outmost importance that even after the closure of the project. B˜10 years.1 = 100 mill. the health of the employees in several of the projects we have participated in often undergo such a radical improvement that the days lost through sickness during the intervention period of 6-12 months decrease from 10 and 20% to only 23%. down-to-earth and existentially orientated development perspective.Working Life Quality and Value 119 The value created trough time for an intervention group is α (ten) times the number of participants (P) in the intervention times the difference in Quality of Working Life (mQWL) though time (t) times the average salary (S).000 $. when B is the number of years the QWL improvement lasts: ΔV total for QWL project = PBΔV = P α S B ΔQWL. when the project is well conducted in the whole company (or a well-defined. α˜10. even if some employees leave and new ones join the company. there continues to be setters and holders of perspective maintaining the vital. A lasting change has been created in the very culture of the company. That good QWL first of all is about having good relations. and it always seems like a miracle for the company. a QWL course or will the improvement only be temporary? The answer to this very important question is that it completely depends on how the QWL project is conducted and how well it is anchored within the organization. This has occurred many times. and thus also the QWL in the company as a whole. Will he continue to develop after i. S the average salary for that kind of work.000 $ x 10 x 0. The QWL concept thus seems to have such a great impact that it. large negative results can be turned into large positive results. α˜10. Do you succeed in involving all workers and leaders in the project and in anchoring this philosophy in the company? The experience from Niels Jørgen Andersens lifelong practice seems to show stable improvements within a time span of ten years. $ where P= number of members in the organisation. DISCUSSION When QWL projects are conducted successfully in companies. will in 10 years create the following value for its owners: ΔV total for QWL project = P α S B ΔQWL = 100 x 10 x 50.

That would imply the cooperation with a leader seeing him and his new. but about the actual productivity for which the leader is responsible. but for which it at the same time is very difficult to establish a formula. The importance of leadership for productivity and a formula for the leader’s productivity: A generalised formula for the value the leader can create for his company. based on his QWL. can restore not only the company’s own economy. but also the general health and economy of society. An investigation of QWL and the quality of leadership showed almost linear correspondence between these two factors. This reflection is about the leader as a limiting factor and the potentials of the employees must be exploited.120 Søren Ventegodt. Most workers are able to work much smarter and better. visible and not exploited resources. just as a bad leader makes his employees not thrive. which is the responsibility of the leader. is a simple expression of the empowerment of the leader function. N (including the leader). Under normal conditions and if he is not somehow completely unfit for his job and thus in one way or another predestined to ruin everything. This is a promising and rich perspective and it gives the leader a very large responsibility for the fate of his subordinates. The number of subordinates. released potentials and helping him to exploit them for the common good. Potentials can be visible or hidden. Actually. This implies that the problem of low productivity very much is a matter of bad leadership. Therefore. But in order to be meaningful you have to start at the highest level of leadership. The leader is of crucial importance for the effort and QWL of his subordinates. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick companies and society. since every employee also has to lead him. That perspective. Thus. namely the productivity of the leader. to which we will stick. Let us finish with turning our attention towards a fact that it is very important. If the employee improves his QWL. he is potentially increasing his value for the company. it is very common that people are working efficiently in their job and are holding large. the leader will create the following value: V (leader) = N S (α QWL + β) . just in the same way as excellent leadership makes the best of them. The leader has crucial importance for the possibilities of the employee to make the most of his potential in order to create value. a good leader is able to make people thrive. It seems to be reasonable to propose a formula showing the created value as a function of leadership quality and as a function of QWL. and that the leader has to manage them as he or she best can.or herself. The skilled management consultant or physician is delivering just that service to respectively his costumer or patient. means that bad leadership simply waste the resources of the employees. you should normally focus on the leader and the leadership. Niels Jørgen Andersen. if you want to improve the productivity of the company as a whole. The numbers we have seen in the calculated examples above implicitly implied optimal leadership. Because top leaders should let intermediate leaders flourish so that their employees in return use themselves optimally. but that does not necessarily mean that he actually creates more value. and it is evident that the good leader helps his employees to develop themselves by recognizing hidden potentials and talents and using them. As mentioned at the beginning. It is sufficiently general to embrace all members of an organization. this formula tells nothing about the potential productivity as the formulas above have done. A more common and neutral view upon leadership is that the employees hold merely those resources that are visible.

where V is the potential value the employees can create for the company under good leadership QWL is the measured Quality of Working Life (in percentage) calculated as a mean of the four dimension: "QOL". ΔV total for a QWL project in the company = ΔV total for a QWL project in the management = NTΔV = N α S T ΔQWL. "Fellowship" and "Creation of real value" according to the QWL-theory S is the average salary N is the number of participants in the project T is the duration of the created improvement CONCLUSIONS How can the gained value of a QWL-project be calculated when intervening on a group of employees in a company? We recommend the use of this simple formula: ΔV total for a QWL project = N α S T ΔQWL where ΔV is the potential value the employees can create more for the company under good leadership N is the number of participants in the project α is a psychobiological constant for human beings ˜ 10 S is the average salary T is the duration of the created improvement – often 10 years in good project ΔQWL is the difference in Quality of Working Life. which is a task is for continued scientific work. measured with SEQWL before and after the intervention FUTURE RESEARCH AND DIRECTIONS It is important to stress that the established formulas have to be proved empirically. that a skilled management department always would optimise the employment of the workers in the very same ways as a QWL project would.Working Life Quality and Value and ΔV total for a participant leader = N ∫t2-t1ΔV = N α S ∫t2-t1ΔQWL. The formulas are not likely to have found their final . The explanation is. α ˜10 121 The interesting thing is that the result turns out to be exactly the same. "Mastery". of course. whether you develop the management level or the whole organization.

instead of higher wages and other advantages. The development of QOL.3:412-21. The collective development of QWL in companies and society at large might be a very important issue in the future. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2003. In the future it will perhaps be relevant for trade unions to demand better conditions for the pleasure of work. Quesionnaire for working life quality (SEQWL). QWL and health is actually happening. Most of today’s consultants are not able to create large successes as seen in the best cases. Measurements and improvement of QWL have to be conducted by independent units in order to secure objectivity. Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick shape. Its simplicity and clarity and the large statistical background material from the QOL investigation of 10. The life mission theory: A theory for a consciousness-based medicine. Quality of life in Denmark. that they actually have delivered what they are promising. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] . Merrick J. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. 1999. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. The quality of life of 4500 31-33 year-olds. it will be for the benefit of not only our people and society. but for our whole global community. [Danish] Ventegodt S. The more conscious you get in your job the more QWL you will develop and the more power and potential success you will have. It is recommended to pick your consultants with outmost care and through good references secure. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag.3:1277-85.15] vouch for the value of the QWL concept. As QWL is so closely linked to QOL and health. Ventegodt S. 1996. Responsibility is the door to success in private life as in professional life and a company and society always needs employees and leaders that is responsible for being. Ventegodt S. Henneberg EW. 1996. Ventegodt S. The great challenge for industrial healthcare. From theory to practice. when an employee or leader takes responsibility for his own professional life and this is basically self-empowerment.122 Søren Ventegodt. To become valuable to yourself and your surroundings. Lindholt JS.2.15(1):89-91. doing and having – which is basically what QWL is all about. 1995. 1996. and trade unions is to make public and private organizations interested in focusing on the thriving of their employees. Expectation based on calculations with that formula has to be held with reservations. Results from a population survey. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Validation of two global and generic quality of life questionnaires for population screening: SCREENQOL and SEQOL. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. The life mission theory II: The structure of the life purpose and the ego. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. REFERENCES [1] [2] Ventegodt S. Result from a study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag.000 Danes [1. Measuring the quality of life. Andersen NJ. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. health politicians. Working life quality. Niels Jørgen Andersen. As a final remark it can be stated that development of QWL gives a person both external and internal empowerment. Merrick J.

ScientificWorld Journal 2003. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. The quality of life and major events in life. A theory of child development. Andersen NJ. The quality of life and factors in pregnancy. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. The life mission theory VI: A theory for the human character. The life mission theory III: Theory of talent. A theory of the antiself and explaining the evil side of man. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. The life mission theory IV. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Merrick J. Kromann M. Results from a follow-up study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen 1959-61. Andersen NJ. Andersen NJ. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Andersen NJ. birth and infancy.3:1302-13.4:859-80. 2000. [Danish] Ventegodt S.3:1294-1301. [Danish] .5:377-89. The life mission theory V. Merrick J. 1995.Working Life Quality and Value [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] 123 [14] [15] Ventegodt S. Flensborg-Madsen T. health and ability for use in holistic medicine. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Merrick J.3:1286-93. Life Mission Theory VII: Theory of existential (Antonovsky) coherence: a theory of quality of life. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Merrick J. Ventegodt S.

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e. to other members of the working team (fellowship). health and immediate subjective well-being at work. The SEQOL measure is an objective and valid measure. Inc. stress. fellowship and creation of real value. especially the integrated quality of life theory (the IQOL theory) with a focus on the quality of human relations. These dimensions arise from four fundamental relations at work: the relations to one self (quality of life). i. job-satisfaction and improve health and performance. Thus good quality of working life is about much more than job-satisfaction. the working environment. and to what extend the individual contributes to the surrounding world (creation of real value). which together with good leadership will determine companies of value. Chapter 10 WORKING LIFE QUALITY WITH THE SEQWL QUESTIONNAIRE Søren Ventegodt. The QWL-theory considers four fundamental domains of working life: quality of life. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick We have constructed a “self evaluation of working life quality” questionnaire (SEQWL). the relation to other people in the work group. The theory defines that these four domains are of equal importance to the perception of quality of . mastery. personal functioning. strongly inspired by recent quality of life theories. The theory of working life is based upon the idea that good QWL arises from good relations in the working situation [1]. colleagues. performance. although these factors are also covered by the QWL-concept. and measured by the SEQWL questionnaire. to the job function (mastery). It was developed on the basis of the philosophy and theory of quality of working life (QWL). INTRODUCTION The philosophy of QWL (quality of working life) aim to empower the leader or employee to improve his subjective QWL-dimensions like joy of work.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. the relation to the work process. The four relations each define its specific domain: 1) quality of life 2) mastery 3) fellowship and 4) creation of real value. managers and subordinates and the customer and surrounding world. The theory states that there are basically four important relations to the working life: The relation to yourself.

perfection of our talent and behaviour are essential elements of the achievement of mastery. knowledge (information vs. The reason for this is to be found in the personal search. This at least appears true for rich countries such as Denmark. when studies of happiness are done.3]. an accepted and appreciated member of the group. mankind has a deep-rooted need for being a part of a social whole. Most people stop in their personal development before they reach the state of transcendence and perfection. and only remotely connected to yearly income [4. pain). that happiness and life satisfaction are closely related to being useful. Fellowship As a social being. where ideas and intentions can be freely expressed in the work-process. co-operation. however seldom achieved. It is known that QOL is closely related to health [2. appearance) and awareness (consciousness vs. Inner conflicts and lack of knowledge and understanding of your self will make a good life difficult for the majority of mankind today. conflict solving. where material wealth has been . Development of mastery can only be achieved through on-going challenges. This is the ideal. or lack of such. leadership and personal responsibility in a group. As these social qualities exist as hidden resources. QOL has been investigated scientifically for two decades using the IQOL theory [4-8]. many people do not develop the social skills necessary for communication. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick work life. which most people seem to avoid in return for safety and personal security. state of mastery. Nowadays business consultants predict a working culture focusing on challenge and personal development as tremendous valuable to both the company and its employees.126 Søren Ventegodt. unconsciousness) in your daily living. which is a function of the level of inner harmony and balance. for self-actualisation.5]. However. processes that take them into use are of great value for the individual as well as for the organisation as a whole. so well described by Maslow [9]. QOL depends on basic qualities of life as joy (pleasure vs. Creation of Real Value It is rather surprising. Personal and professional development leads to a state of being. Quality of Life (QOL) QOL refers to the person's state of living. Mastery As it is the purpose of human life to be active and to create value. leaving QWL as an average of 1-4 (Find the scoring formula attached below the SEQWL questionnaire).

Real value is about helping other people improve their lives. Although consciousness and the very depths of human existence are difficult to reach by the quantitative methodology. The seven construct criteria have already been shown to be of value in practical use as demonstrated in [11. Subjective dimensions are best measured psychometrically by a questionnaire and the measurement must be generic and global [11]. Qualitative surveys rely on the respondent’s subjective judgment. a philosophy of working life. and of the population we want to benchmark against. The interpretation process of the collected data itself requires a deep understanding of the nature of human consciousness and must follow strict methodological criteria as outlined. It is about fulfilling real needs for individuals and for society in general. Work is about creating value. The criteria as they are when applied to the QWL are presented in table 1. it is very important to have some hard benchmarks to compare with during time and to measure our improvements.13]. Table 1. respondents and those who use the results (including criterion validity) • An appreciation of the aesthetic dimension . and it seems that human beings have a need for being useful and not for material wealth in itself [10]. We have constructed the self evaluation of working-life quality” questionnaire (SEQWL) according to the seven criteria. Material life has been attained. questionnaire-based research on the global quality of working life • A clear definition of the quality of working life • A philosophy of working life on which the definition of the quality of life is based • A theory that operationalize this philosophy by a) deducing questions that are unambiguous. however not many seems to be happy. Methodological requirements for quantitative. to the most factual. NOTHING IS AS PRACTICAL AS A GOOD THEORY Consciousness is tricky and it is very easy to fool one self.Working Life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 127 striven after for a long time. which was originally set up for the generic measuring of global QOL [11]. mutually exclusive and comprehensive as a whole and b) establishing the relative weights of each question. When we are striving to improve our state of being. might think it is. although most people who have not reflected deeply on this. citizens are wealthy. It is about experiences. To do this we need to measure though the period of intervention both of the group or person we want to evaluate. and not really about making money. we believe it to be a more feasible starting-point than the qualitative methodology. like 5 point Likert scales.ness (appropriate scale characteristics) • The survey must be meaningful to both researchers. • A number of response options that can be interpreted quantitatively on a fraction scale • Technical quality in terms of reproducibility. sensitivity and well-scaled.12. These criteria range from the most abstract.

Copenhagen. and QWL is score as an average of the domains) Quality of working-life: The four domains and their dimensions © QOLRC. Self-Assessed” is your self-assessed well being at work . The SEQWL questionnaire has three levels: level 1: Global QWL. We collected the hundred most popular questions in each domain and selected the 2030 that a working group found to be the most relevant. .128 Søren Ventegodt. Fellowship and Creation of value. The 20 sub-domains. All rights reserved. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick The SEQWL Questionnaire: The Domains and the Sub-domains and their Definitions To make the questionnaire it was important to create the correct number of sub-dimensions. most in accordance with the basic philosophy of QWL. Quality of Life: Fellowship: Relation to self Relation to the Organisation Experience of life Commitment to organisation Satisfaction with life Information flow Needs fulfilment Teamwork Working environment Mastery: Management Relation to your work Interpersonal relations Skills competence Influence Character of work Influence re own work Creating real value: Experience of work Relation to environs Commitment to work Organisational mission Salary and status Quality of products/service Personal development Efficiency Creating proper values Tabel 3. Table 3 states the chosen definitions of the sub-domains. Mastery. which have been chosen. Ideally a theory was made for each sub-domain if these were not given by the main theory. illustrate the complexity of the four domains (see table 2. We have not been able to do that in a convincing way and have chosen to be practical about it instead. Definitions of the QWL sub-domains • Level 1: QWL – Total “Working-Life Quality. level 2: the 4 QWL – domains. the principle for Scoring the QWL-questionnaire is also given here). “Working-Life Quality. and most helpful for the development of QWL in a company using information technology. Table 2. Estimated” is the calculated value of QWL as a mean of QOL. level 3: the 20 sub-domains (each domain is scored as an average of its sub-domains.a very important dimension of QOL. We use it as a control and compare it with the calculated QWL.

“Creating real value” indicates your present situation when it comes to contribute to the world through your job.how good are you at present compared to the best and to your own potential? “Character of work” is about variation. “Information” is about the richness and quality of the information flow to the employee from the organisation and vice versa. “Influence” (mastery) is about freedom to determine what to do and how to do it. i. Level 3 – the sub domains • Quality of Life (QOL) “Life experience” refers to your subjective QOL .and well being at your work.e. i. your satisfaction with life and your actual state of fulfilling your needs. solve conflicts and assume responsibility. your children and your society. “Teamwork” is about your present ability to cooperate. In this survey QOL indicates your experience of life. “Experience of working” is about joy and meaningfulness of .e.domains “Quality of Life” is a name for all the different ways life can be good and bad. “Satisfaction” means satisfaction with all your personal relations. • .and so it also reflects your hidden potentials. stress and workload and the influence of your work on your health.e. your passion for and interest in your organisation. • Mastery “Skills” is about your present state of professional development . Fellowship “Commitment” (fellowship) refers to your relation to your company. i. your physical and social needs and your need of self-realization. your friends.your rating of such factors as “life satisfaction”. “happiness” and “well-being at home”. “Fellowship” indicates your present state of fellowship with the organisation and everybody in it. “Needs” means fulfilment of your needs.Working Life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire • 129 • Level 2: the 4 QWL . “Commitment” (mastery) refers to your passion for and interest in your work as well as the priority it has in your life. “Salary and status” refers to yearly income as well as your status at work and in your society. “Development” is about your experience of personal and professional development as a result of your work. to your partner. “Mastery” indicates your present state of mastery in your work . “Working environment” is about your experience of your physical and psychological working environment. boredom.

Continued “Management” is about your experience of the quality of the leadership of the company at present. “Efficiency” is about how efficient the organisation uses its resources . Creating real value “The Mission” is about your understanding and personal support of the company mission i.e. in order to maximise communication. We believe though. which gives a number for the calculated QWL as a mean of the rating of the four basic dimensions.e. by taking a leading role in developing man and society. including the management skills of your manager and yourself. All of the investigated parameters are found to be satisfactory compared to internationally accepted standards. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Table 3.130 Søren Ventegodt. when it comes to internal consistency (focus) by the Cronbach-alfa method. risk of redundancy should be at a minimum and the questions should be meaningful and linguistically sound. 102 questions (+9 controls) were finally selected in total. physicians. VALIDATION OF THE SEQWL-QUESTIONNAIRE The QWL-questionnaire.human. • DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEQWL-QUESTIONNAIRE Amongst 500 items originally proposed by a workgroup with professors. “Ethics” reflects your judgement of the ethical standard of the organisation and the degree it pollutes its environment. “Relations” is about the quality of your relationships to your colleagues. “Creating real value” might be the most important dimension reflecting your value for the organisation and the surrounding world and your experience of the organisation as creator of value for its customers/users i. material and technological and the total impression of the efficiency of the organisation. about 25 from each domain. The selection criteria was the following: The questions should together show the broadest possible picture of the working-life situation. but its sensitivity has been found through its statistical variation. Its reliability has not been sufficiently tested through test-retest procedures. has not yet been sufficiently validated. However the external validity (criteria validity) has shown to be validated by its correlation to the self-evaluated QWL (see table 4) and SEQOL. “Quality” is about your pride of being part of the organisation and your judgement of the quality of its products. consultants in organisational development.13]. “Influence” (fellowship)is about your ability to influence the goals and decisions of your organisation. the major goals of your organisation. company directors. your boss and your subordinates. that SEQWL is valid as it is constructed and developed exactly like the validated SEQOL and QOL5 questionnaires [12. .

4 44. Total resp. The correlation coefficient is 0.1 ± 0.5014 ± 1.Table 4. Neither good nor bad 4. (n) Table of average Group average. WLQ ± 1.(r).(p).9 57. Good 3.7 ** 0. Very bad Total number of respondents Corr.0001 -12. total numbers 691 .69. External validation of the SEQWL questionnaires is defined by its correlation with self-assessed QWL and calculated QWL value. Neither good nor bad 4. -0.2 ±11.2 0.6 % 23.7 ** 0.1 ** 0. Very bad Overall average.6 ** 0. Resp.5 ± 0.5014 110 3.3 ± 2. we have an external validation of the SEQWL questionnaire How good is your quality of working life (as you understand it)? Table of frequency 1.0001 66. Bad 5. total numbers 691 Resp.5 Calc.0001 3.0 (p-value) 73. Signif. Bad 5.0001 0.1%. Neither good nor bad 4.2 49. As we find these numbers satisfactory. Very bad Overall average.3 ** 0. 159 397 110 22 3 691 Score 90 70 50 30 10 Calculated WLQ 10 30 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 3 6 56 73 21 2 158 0. Good 110 3. and the statically covariation is measured to 75.0%. Very good 2. using the method of modified regression (ref: measuring the QOL).0 57.0001 0. 159 397 15.0001 70 132 339 37 0 0 508 90 21 1 0 0 0 22 691 Deviation from survey average as a percentage thereof Test Calc.4 0. and calculated to 48. Number of respondents in group Test 1. Very good 2.9 22 3 100 66. Bad 5.5 No.6872 (p-value) WLQ 11.

05 ] . Continued VARIATION IN WORKING-LIFE QUALITY ACROSS THE MEASURING INTERVAL Total Variation Variation Uncertainty ±  44.9 Numbers in percent [Δ 1 is the measured max-min difference.1 3. by weighted linear regression. ±e being the measurement error at a=0. D2 is the variation calc.Table 4.3 37.

These dimensions provide a practical and useful way to give feedback to the individual about his/her experience of their working-life. Please apply for written permission for all commercial or non-scientific use to the Quality of Life Research Center. APPENDIX 1. that can and should be improved. Quality of working life (QWL). by attending to important dimensions of each domain. Feedback is given in the form of a personal QWL-profile. in order to measure the four domains of the work process. DK-2100 Copenhagen O. scientific use. . which 1) gives a graphic picture of subjective experience of working-life quality 2) shows how the personal profile compare to those of the other employees in other companies (the benchmark).Working Life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 90 133 80 70 60 50 You The company 40 30 20 10 0 Self-assessed QWL Working-Life Quality Quality of Life Mastery Fellowship Creation real value Figure 1. The Personal QWL-profile and its Dimensions The hundred questions of the QWL-Questionnaire have been constructed. and further allow for easy identification of areas. Denmark. This SEQWL questionnaire is hereby released for non-commercial. Classensgade 11C. 1th. Figure 1 illustrates an example of this. SELF-EVALUATION OF WORKING LIFE QUALITY QUESTIONNAIRE (SEQWL) © 2008 Quality-of-Life Research Center.

Furthermore. 4. We kindly ask you to state your opinion of the questionnaire in case a total of ”quality of work” is summed up for your company. Your concept of yourself: Which is about Quality of Life Your relation to your job: Which is about Mastery Your relation to the organization: Which concerns cooperation and community Public relations and the customer: Creating proper values The questionnaire is structured according to the above-mentioned four main domains.134 Søren Ventegodt. The inquiry form comprises about 100 questions that throw light on various aspects of working life. The concept ’Quality of working life’ comprises 4 main subjects: 1. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick About this Questionnaire You experience quality of work when your work life suits you well. at the back of this form please find a score sheet for your answers – in order to give you an overview of your quality of work. This questionnaire is a part of the product series ”Working-life Quality – A Tool for employees and managers”. How to Complete the Questionnaire? Please mark the answer you choose – with a circle: How do you feel at work? 1 2 3 4 5 Leave out questions that you cannot answer. How do you Feel about Your Life? Q1 1 2 3 4 5 How are you at the moment? Very good Good Neither good nor bad Bad Very bad . Very good Good Neither good nor bad Bad Very bad You Yourself: Quality of life. At the end of the questionnaire you will find a few questions concerning assessment. This questionnaire takes the pulse of the quality of working life. 3. 2.

Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire Q2 1 2 3 4 5 Q3 1 2 3 4 5 Q4 1 2 3 4 5 Q5 1 2 3 4 5 Q6 How happy are you with your life right now? Very content Content Neither content nor displeased Displeased Very displeased How happy are you at present? Very happy Happy Neither happy nor unhappy Unhappy Very unhappy How do you feel at home? Very good Good Neither good nor bad Bad Very bad How do you feel in your spare time? Very good Good Neither good nor bad Bad Very bad 135 How is your present quality of life (as you understand it) Very good Good Neither good nor bad Bad Very bad Satisfaction with Relationships Q7-16 How content are you at present with: (Please note. that it is possible to feel satisfied in spite of a poor health) Very content 1 1 Content 2 2 Neither nor 3 Displeased 3 Very displeased 4 5 4 5 Your health? Your material and economic conditions? . for instance.

clothes. private life and safety. Continued Very content Content Neither nor Displeased Very displeased 5 Your intimate relationship? Your parents? (Please answer even though your parents have passed away) Your situation concerning children? (Please answer even though you have no children) Your relationship with your friends? Your relationship with acquaintances? Society – your environment? Nature around you? Your work? 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 Needs Q 17 How well are your basic needs fulfilled at the moment? (This means physical needs such as food. temperature. sleep.136 Søren Ventegodt.) 1 Very well 2 Well 3 Neither very well nor well 4 Badly 5 Very badly 6 I do not have these needs . dwelling. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Table.

friendship and social togetherness.) 1 Very well 2 Well 3 Neither well nor badly 4 Badly 5 Very badly 6 I do not have this need The Job: Mastery Skills Q 22 How good are you at your work? 1 2 3 Very good Good Neither good nor bad .) 1 Very well 2 Well 3 Neither good nor bad 4 Badly 5 Very badly Q 19 How well realized is your need to prove useful – at present? (For instance a need to help others. recognition. in order to live in conformity with yourself – to a greater extent. a need to develop your insight and your drive.Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 137 Q 18 How well are your social needs fulfilled for the time being? (For instance your need for human warmth.) 1 Very well 2 Well 3 Neither well nor badly 4 Badly 5 Very badly 6 I do not have this need Q 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 How well realized is your need for an exciting and varied life – at present? Very well Well Neither well nor badly Badly Very badly I do not have such a need Q 21 How well realized is your need to unfold your true potential – at present? (For instance. to keep the world going or make it better.

compared to how good you could be? 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Neither good nor bad 4 Bad 5 Very bad Q 25 To which extent are you using all your skills? 1 2 3 4 5 To a very large extent Very much Average Below average Far below average The Character of your Work Q 26 How varied is your work? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 27 How many hours a week do you work? _________ Q 28 How many hours are you paid for weekly? _________ Q 29 How often are you bored. if you compare yourself with the best people? 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Neither good nor bad 4 Bad 5 Very bad Q 24 How good a professional are you. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Bad Very bad Q 23 How good are you within your field of activity.138 4 5 Søren Ventegodt. because there is too little to do? 1 2 3 4 5 Very varied Varied Neither varied nor monotonous Monotonous Very monotonous Very rarely Rarely Part of the time Most of the time Almost always .

physically? 1 It is very beneficial 2 It is beneficial 3 It is neither beneficial nor harmful 4 It is harmful 5 It is very harmful Q 35 How does work affect your mental well-being? 1 2 3 4 5 It is very beneficial It is beneficial It neither beneficial nor harmful It is harmful It is very harmful .Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire Q 30 How often are you frustrated about ‘too much to do’? 1 2 3 4 5 139 Very rarely Rarely Part of the time Most of the time Almost always Q 31 How often time are you bored because your work is too easy? 1 2 3 4 5 Very rarely Rarely Part of the time Most of the time Almost always Q 32 How much of the time are you frustrated about your work being too difficult? 1 Very rarely 2 Rarely 3 Part of the time 4 Most of the time 5 Almost always Q 33 How stressed are you at work? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all stressed Partly stressed A bit stressed Very stressed Almost ‘dying from stress’ Q 34 How is your work affecting your health.

140 Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Influence Q 36 How clear is the goal of your work? 1 2 3 4 5 Very clear Clear Neither clear nor unclear Unclear Very unclear Q 37 To which extent do you exert an influence on the goal of your work? (Do you make your own decisions as to what you want to do?) 1 To a very large extent 2 To a large extent 3 Average 4 Below average 5 Far below average Q 38 To which extent can you decide how to do your work? (freedom to accomplish your tasks the way you want it) 1 To a very large extent 2 To a large extent 3 Average 4 Below average 5 Far below average The Experience of Working Q 39 How are you at work? 1 2 3 4 5 Very good Good Neither good nor bad Bad Very bad Q 40 To which extent do you work with what you like best? 1 To a very large extent 2 To a large extent 3 Neither high nor low extent 4 Below average 5 Far below average Q 41 How much job satisfaction do you experience at work? 1 2 3 Very much Much Neither much nor little .

Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 4 5 Q 42 How much meaning do you experience at work? 1 Very much 2 Much 3 Neither much nor little 4 Little 5 Very little 141 Little Very little Commitment Q 43 How interesting is your work? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 44 How committed are you to your work? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 45 How much do your burn for your work? 1 2 3 4 5 Very interesting Interesting Neither interesting nor uninteresting Uninteresting Very uninteresting Very committed Committed Average Hardly any commitment No commitment at all I burn I am hot I am warm I am cold I am ice-cold Q 46 How much of your time spent at work are you in ‘flow’ (That’s to say that can you forget yourself and vanish into concentration)? 1 Almost always 2 Most of the time 3 Part of the time 4 Rarely 5 Very rarely Q 47 How is work prioritised in your life? 1 2 3 4 5 Work is the most important thing in my life Work is more important than my private life Work and private life are equally important Private life is most important Work is a necessary evil .

10.001 . a company of your own etc.20.001 . 30.142 Søren Ventegodt.001 .40.000 Euro Q 49 Which status do you have at work? 1 Very high status 2 High status 3 Neither high nor low status 4 Low status 5 Very low status Q 50 Which status have you acquired off work due to your position at work? 1 Very high status 2 High status 3 Neither high nor low status 4 Low status 5 Very low status Q 51 How sure are you to keep your job? 1 2 3 4 5 Very sure Sure Neither sure nor unsure Unsure Very unsure Q 52 How promising does your future at work appear to be? (Prospects of promotion.000 Euro. 0 – 10.30.000 Euro. 20.000 Euro.) 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Neither good nor bad 4 Bad 5 Very bad Professional and Personal Development Q 53 How many good challenges do you find at work – at present? 1 There is nothing but challenges 2 Many 3 A few 4 Few 5 None . Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Salary and Status Q 48 How much do you earn annually before tax? 1 2 3 4 5 More than 40. a good career.000 Euro.

) Attachment Q 57 How important is your person to the organization? 1 Very important 2 Important 3 Neither important nor unimportant 4 Unimportant 5 Very unimportant Q 58 How important is this particular organization to you? 1 Very important 2 Important 3 Neither important nor unimportant 4 Unimportant 5 Very unimportant .Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 143 Q 54 How much do you develop professionally? 1 I am developing tremendously 2 I do develop a lot 3 I develop a bit 4 I develop very little 5 I do not develop at all Q 55 What are the prospects for you as to further professional training on the job? 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Neither good nor bad 4 Bad 5 Very bad Q 56 How much do you develop as a human through your work? (your personal character) 1 I am in the midst of a tremendous development 2 I develop a lot 3 I develop a bit 4 I develop very little 5 I do not develop at all Organization: Fellowship (’Organization’ does not mean ’union’. but ’private or public enterprise’.

Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Q 59 How much responsability do you feel towards your organization? 1 2 3 4 5 Very much Much Average Little Very little Q 60 How well are you treated by the organization? 1 2 3 4 5 Very good Good Neither good nor badly Badly Very badly Information Q 61 How well are you informed by management as to what happens within the organization? 1 Very well informed 2 Well informed 3 Neither well nor badly informed 4 Badly informed 5 Very badly informed Q 62 How well do you keep up with events within the organization (except from gossip)? 1 Very well 2 Well 3 Neither well nor badly 4 Badly 5 Very badly Q 63 How good are you at informing management on what agitates you? 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Neither good nor bad 4 Bad 5 Very bad .144 Søren Ventegodt.

Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 145 Q 64 How is the reaction from management on your input?(for instance proposals for improvement. briefing on personal matters) 1 Very good 2 Good 3 Neither good nor bad 4 Bad 5 Very bad Cooperation Q 65 How are you at cooperating? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 66 How often are you praised for your work? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 67 How thoroughly is your work evaluated? 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad very often frequently neither often nor frequently not often very rarely very thoroughly thoroughly neither thoroughly nor superficially superficially very superficially Q 68 How are you at solving your own conflicts at work? 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad Q 69 Do you think your colleagues take enough responsibility when you cooperate? 1 very much 2 frequently 3 average 4 little 5 very little .

Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Q 70 Do you think you take enough responsibility when you cooperate? 1 2 3 4 5 very much frequently average little very little Working Environments Q 71 How is your physical working environments? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 72 How is your psychological working environment? 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad Management Q 73 As a whole.146 Søren Ventegodt. how is the management in your organization? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 74 How is your immediate superior as a manager? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 75 How are you at cooperating with your manager? 1 2 3 4 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad very good good neither good nor bad bad .

Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 5 Q 76 How are you at managing yourself. self-discipline? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 77 How are you at managing others? 1 2 3 4 5 147 very bad very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad Relations Q 78 How is your relationship with your colleagues? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 79 How is your relationship with your boss? (If you have one) 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad Q 80 How is your relationship with the organization’s executive management? 1 very good 2 good 3 neither good nor bad 4 bad 5 very bad Q 81 How is your relationship with your subordinates. i. if any? 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad .e.

) The Mission Q 85 How clear is the organization’s mission (by mission we are talking about ‘overall objective’)? 1 very clear 2 clear 3 neither clear nor unclear 4 unclear 5 very unclear Q 86 How well do you understand the organization’s mission? 1 2 3 4 very well well neither well nor badly badly . not artificial ones.148 Søren Ventegodt. Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Influence in the Organization Q 82 What are your possibilities of influencing the organization’s objectives? 1 very good 2 good 3 neither good nor bad 4 bad 5 very bad Q 83 What are your possibilities of influencing decisions in the organization before they are made? 1 very good 2 good 3 neither good nor bad 4 bad 5 very bad Q 84 What are your possibilities of taking new initiatives? 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad Customers/surroundings: Creating Proper Values (By ‘Creating proper values’ we mean producing values that cover real needs.

Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 5 149 very badly Q 87 How important do you think the organization’s mission is? 1 very important 2 important 3 neither important nor unimportant 4 unimportant 5 very unimportant Quality Q 88 How proud are you of being a member of this organization? 1 very proud 2 proud 3 neither proud nor embarrassed 4 embarrassed 5 very embarrassed Q 89 How do you rate the quality of the organization’s product/service? 1 very good 2 good 3 neither good nor bad 4 bad 5 very bad Efficiency Q 90 How efficient do you think your organization is? 1 2 3 4 5 very efficient efficient neither efficient nor inefficient inefficient very inefficient Q 91 How well does the organization utilize the new technology? 1 2 3 4 5 very well well neither well nor badly badly very badly .

Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Q 92 How well does the organization utilize its human resources (employees’ talents and abilities)? 1 very well 2 well 3 neither well nor badly 4 badly 5 very badly Q 93 How well does the organization utilize material resources (think of waste of time. packaging etc.)? 1 very well 2 well 3 neither well nor badly 4 badly 5 very badly Ethics Q 94 How much does the organization pollute the environment? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 95 How ethical do you think the organization is? 1 2 3 4 5 very little pollution a little pollution some pollution much pollution very much pollution very ethical ethical neither ethical nor unethical unethical very unethical Creating Proper Values Q 96 How valuable are you to the organization? 1 2 3 4 5 very valuable valuable neither valuable nor worthless rather worthless totally worthless Q 97 What is your relationship with customers/users/clients? 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad . materials.150 Søren Ventegodt.

Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 151 Q 98 To what extent do you think the organization is a success? 1 to a very great extent 2 to a great extent 3 to neither a great nor a small extent 4 to a small extent 5 to a very small extent Q 99 To what extent do you think that the organization’s product/service improves the customers’ quality of life? (maybe as a sub-contractor) 1 to a very great extent 2 to a great extent 3 to neither a great nor a small extent 4 to a small extent 5 to a very small extent Q 100 How useful is the organization to the community? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 101 How well is the organization doing economically? 1 2 3 4 5 indispensable very useful of some use not very useful useless very well well neither well nor badly badly very badly Q 102 In your opinion. to what extent is the organization helping to develop people and the community in a positive direction? 1 to a very great extent 2 to a great extent 3 neither to a great nor a small extent 4 to a small extent 5 to a very small extent Personal Evaluation of Quality of Working Life Q 103 How is your quality of working life (as you understand it)? 1 2 3 4 5 very good good neither good nor bad bad very bad .

Niels Jørgen Andersen and Joav Merrick Assessment and Critique of the Questionnaire (Q 1-103) Q 104 How easy was it to complete the questionnaire? 1 2 3 4 5 very easy easy neither easy nor difficult difficult very difficult Q 105 How long did it take you to complete the questionnaire? 1 less than a quarter of an hour 2 l/4 . creating proper values)? 1 very good 2 good 3 neither good nor bad 4 bad 5 very bad Q 107 How safe do you feel taking part in this survey? 1 2 3 4 5 Q 108 How honest were your answers? 1 2 3 4 5 very safe safe neither safe nor unsafe unsafe very unsafe very honest honest neither honest nor dishonest dishonest very dishonest .152 Søren Ventegodt.1 hour 4 1 . solidarity.1/2 hour 3 1/2 . mastery.2 hours 5 more than 2 hours Q 106 What do you think of dividing quality of working life into four main subjects (quality of life.

Result from a study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen]. birth and infancy. [Danish] Ventegodt S. [The quality of life of 4. [Quality of life in Denmark. 1995. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Working life quality. Results from a follow-up study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen 1959-61].2(8668):888-91. Ventegodt S. Bloom JR. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? Lancet 1990. Armstrong WT et al. [Danish] Ventegodt S. Scherwitz LW. Results from a population survey].336(8708):129-33. Copenhagen: Quality Life Researchy Center. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Lancet 1989. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer.Working life Quality with the SEQWL Questionnaire 153 Q 109 While answering did you find there were questions that would cause ethical problems at your place of work? 1 yes 2 doubtful 3 no Q 110 Do you think the questionnaire covers all relevant subjects necessary for your quality of working life? 1 yes 2 doubtful 3 no Q 111 If no or in doubt. [Danish] [6] [7] . [The quality of life and major events in life]. Brown SE. Ornish D. Gottheil E. [The quality of life and factors in pregnancy.500 31-33 year-olds. 2000. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Spiegel D. 1996. 1995. Billings JH. 1996. Kraemer HC. write the subjects missing: QWL Rating Scale (Please See Table 2 for the Principle of Scoring) SCORING of SEQWL: QWL= (QOL+ Mastery + Fellowship + Creation of real value):4= (((Q1+Q2+Q3+Q4+Q5+Q6):6 + (Q7+Q8+Q9+Q10+Q11+Q12+Q13+Q14+Q15):8 (Q17+Q18+Q19+Q20+Q21):5):3 + ((Q22+Q23+Q24+Q25):4 + (Q26+Q29+Q30+Q31+Q32+Q33+Q34+Q35):8 + (Q36+Q37+Q38):3 (Q40+Q41+Q42):3 + (Q43+Q44+Q45+Q46+Q47):5 + (Q48+Q49+Q50+Q51+Q52):5 (Q53+Q54+Q55+Q56):4 ):7 + ((Q57+Q58+Q59+Q60):4 + (Q61+Q62+Q63+Q64):4 + (Q65+Q66+Q67+Q68+Q69+Q70):6 (Q71+Q72):2 + (Q73+Q74+Q75+Q76+Q77):5 + (Q78+Q79+Q80+Q81):4 + (Q82+Q83+Q84)):7 + ((Q85+Q86+Q87):3 + (Q88+Q89):2 + (Q90+Q91+Q92+Q93):4 + (Q94+Q95):2 (Q96+Q97+Q98+Q99+Q100Q+10Q1+1Q02):7):5 ):4 CONTROL: Self-assessed QWL: (Q16+Q39+Q103):3 + + + + + REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Ventegodt S.

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Ventegodt S, Merrick J, Andersen NJ. Quality of life theory I. The IQOL theory: An integrative theory of the global quality of life concept. ScientificWorld Journal 2003;3:1030-40. Maslow AH. Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Nostrand, 1962. Frankl V. Man’s search for meaning. New York: Pocket Books, 1985. Ventegodt S. Measuring the quality of life. From theory to practice. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag, 1996. Lindholt JS, Ventegodt S, Henneberg EW. Development and validation of QoL5 for clinical databases. A short, global and generic questionnaire based on an integrated theory of the quality of life. Eur J Surg 2002;168(2):107-13. Ventegodt S, Merrick J. Long-term effects of maternal medication on global quality of life measured with SEQOL. Results from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 195961. ScientificWorld Journal 2003;3:707-13.

[9] [10] [11] [12]

[13]

In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick

ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 11

ANTONOVSKY SALUTOGENESIS RELATED TO WORK
Søren Ventegodt, Isack Kandel and Joav Merrick
40 patients with low or very low self-assessed working ability were treated with psychodynamic short time therapy complemented with body-work. They received in average 20 sessions at a prize of 1,600 EURO. The Body Work was inspired by Marion Rosen and helped the patients to confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma repressed to the body-mind. Results: 52.5% (95% CI: 36.1% - 68.5%) of patients recovered their self-assessed working ability (from 4.2 to 2.4 up the five point Likert scale (p<0.01)). From this we have NNT = 1.46-2.77. We estimate the Number Needed to Harm to be NNH>500. The responders improved their self-assessed physical health (from 3.3 to 2.6; 0.6 step up the five point Likert Scale, p=0.01), self-assessed mental health (from 3.8 to 2.5, p<0.01), self-esteem (from 3.4 to 2.5, p<0.01), self-assessed quality of life (QOL1) (from 3.7 to 2.4p<0.01), QOL measured by QOL5 (from 3.3 to 2.6p<0.01), the quality of relations (from 3.2 to 2.6p<0.01), general ability of functioning (from 3.5 to 2.5; p<0.01). Combining quality of life, health, and ability showed large improvements of the patient’s whole life (p<0.01). The simultaneous improvement in all aspects of life can be explained as caused by existential healing (Antonovsky salutogenesis). The patients of this study have been strongly motivated, and willing to endure the strong emotional pain provoked by the therapy.

INTRODUCTION The experience of having lost the ability to work is to many people a destiny worse than death; quite surprisingly we have found that this condition is often easily curable with psychodynamic short time therapy [1-6] complemented with bodywork. The key to recovery of working ability seems to be rehabilitation of the patients character [7] and purpose of life [8], as already Hippocrates knew [9]. The basic idea of the therapy is that what limits our performance is not knowing our own talents and not understanding the joy of using these gifts to create value for others. Modern psychodynamic theory states that the lack of personal power primarily is caused by a lack of insight in self, which originally was caused by the patient’s childhood traumas

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(“gestalts”) [10-12]. These traumas carry both painful emotions and negative life-denying, decisions, which materialize a negative philosophy of life, which again limits the patient’s self-confidents, self-esteem, sense of coherence, and willingness to accept life’s challenges. This becomes a major hindrance to the personal development, and shuts the patient’s life down. OUR STUDY In this study we included the 40 patients that entered our Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine 2004 and 2005, and before starting therapy rated their own ability to work as bad or very bad. In average these patients (from 20 to 60 years, both gender) had about 20 sessions of clinical holistic therapy [10-12] for 1,600 EURO. Most patient paid for their own treatment, indicating a strong motivation to receive the treatment. The clinic was build with financial support from the “IMK Almene” Foundation, which is a non-for profit organisation supporting research in complementary medicine. The patients approached the clinic themselves, mostly because of recommendation from former patients. The mission of the clinic is to improve psychodynamic short term therapy to make it more efficient and useful for patients with physical, mental, existential, sexual, and working-ability issues. The Body Work was inspired by Marion Rosen and helped the patients to confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma repressed to the body-mind[13], thus accelerating therapy, and making it less painful [11]. See Ventegodt et al 2006 [14] for more details on the study.

SOME OF OUR FINDINGS After the treatment we found that 21 patients (52.5%, 95%CI: 36.1% - 68.5% [15]) rated their working ability as “very good” (1 patients), “good”(11 patients), or “neither good nor bad” (9 patients); 7 completed the treatment but did not improve, and 12 patients dropped out of the study. Table 1 shows the results. We found that the 21 patients who improved their working ability (from 4.2 to 2.4; a radical improvement 1.8 step up the five point Likert scale (p<0.01)) also statistically and clinically significantly improved their self-assessed physical health (from 3.3 to 2.6; 0.6 step up the five point Likert Scale (p=0.01)), self-assessed mental health (from 3.8 to 2.5; 1.3 step up the five point Likert Scale (p<0.01)), self-esteem (from 3.4 to 2.5; 0.9 step up the five point Likert scale (p<0.01)), and their self-assessed quality of life (measured by QOL1[16]) (from 3.7 to 2.4; 1.3 step on the five point Likert Scale p<0.01)). We also found large improvements of QOL (measured by QOL5[16]) (from 3.3 to 2.6; 0.8 step on the five point Likert Scale (p<0.01)), the quality of relations (mean of relation to self, friends, and partner) (from 3.2 to 2.6; 0.7 step on the five point Likert Scale (p<0.01)), general ability of functioning (mean of ability to love, sexual ability, social ability and working ability) (from 3.5 to 2.5; 0.9 step on the five point Likert Scale p<0.01)). Combining quality of life, health, and ability in a measure called QOL10 showed large improvements of the patients whole life (from 3.4 to 2.6; 0.9 step on the five point Likert Scale p<0.01)) (see table 2). This over-all improvement is the indication of the phenomena of holistic healing that Antonovsky predicted and called “salutogenesis” – the inverse process of pathogenesis. A one-year follow up indicated the therapeutic benefits to be lasting [14].

Antonovsky Salutogenesis Related to Work
Table 1. Charateristics of sample
Before After treatment treatment 40 7 0

157

“Low” or “very low” self-assessed working ability Self-assessed working ability

Non-responders or dropouts “Low” or “very low” self-assessed working ability, non-responder or dropout

40

21; 21/40 = 52.5% (95%CI: 36.1% 68.5%) [15] Fully recovered (“good” or “very good”): 12 Improved (“neither good nor bad”): 9 12 19

Table 2. The 21 patient who improved working ability also improved QOL, relations, and ability in general (p<0.01). They also improved the whole life (QOL10, which is an average of QOL, self-assessed health, and self-assessed ability) Paired T-Test Paired Std. 95% interval of mean difference Lower Upper .1950 .228 1.041
.1865 .1618 .1493 .551 .444 .537 1.329 1.122 1.162

t

df

Mean

Std.

Significance (2 – tailed)

Relations before/after Ability beore/after QOL5 before/after QOL10 before/after

.634 .940 .783 .850

.8938 .8547 .7236 .6680

3.25 5.04 4.84 5.69

20 20 19 19

.00 .00 .00 .00

COMMENTS We have seen 21 patients of 40 recover self-assessed working ability though clinical holistic medicine. Quality of life, health and ability were regained at the same time. We suggest that this happened because the therapy healed the patient’s existence as a whole. Antonovsky predicted that this dramatic event of total recovery could happen, when sense of coherense was recovered, which is what we are noticing happening; he called this process of healing the patients total life for “salutogenesis” [17,18]. We find that the present study strongly indicates that Antonovsky’s concept of salutogenesis might be a key to solve one of the most important problems of our time: how to help people recover their working ability when this is lost to pour health, low self-confidence and self-esteem, and pour quality of life. The secret seems to be to find the patients inner resources and help him set these free.

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We were told that several of the patients actually got full-time work after the treatment, but unfortunately this “objective” side of the improvement was not well documented in the study, which primarily had an existential focus. Further research is needed to document that improved self-assessed working ability is also actually making the patient regain his job.

CONCLUSIONS Antonovsky predicted that man could heal his whole existence and called this salutogenesis. Clinical holistic medicine seems to be efficient in inducing salutogenesis, and lost working ability seems to be regained in 52.5% (36.1% - 68.5% of the patients, p=0.05). The patients are motivated for human development and engage in existential therapy in spite of this being highly emotionally painful at times where old trauma are confronted and integrated. The study was a non-controlled, non-blinded prospective intervention study. We found that the 21 patients who improved their working ability (from 4.2 to 2.4; a radical improvement 1.8 step up the five point Likert scale (p<0.01)) also statistically and clinically significantly improved their self-assessed physical health (from 3.3 to 2.6; 0.6 step up the five point Likert Scale (p=0.01)), self-assessed mental health (from 3.8 to 2.5; 1.3 step up the five point Likert Scale (p<0.01)), self-esteem (from 3.4 to 2.5; 0.9 step up the five point Likert scale (p<0.01)), and their self-assessed quality of life (measured by QOL1) (from 3.7 to 2.4; 1.3 step on the five point Likert Scale p<0.01)). We also found large improvements of QOL (measured by QOL5) (from 3.3 to 2.6; 0.8 step on the five point Likert Scale (p<0.01)), the quality of relations (mean of relation to self, friends, and partner) (from 3.2 to 2.6; 0.7 step on the five point Likert Scale (p<0.01)), general ability of functioning (mean of ability to love, sexual ability, social ability and working ability) (from 3.5 to 2.5; 0.9 step on the five point Likert Scale p<0.01)). Combining quality of life, health, and ability in a measure called QOL10 showed large improvements of the patient’s whole life (from 3.4 to 2.6; 0.9 step on the five point Likert Scale p<0.01). This over-all improvement is the indication of the phenomena of holistic healing that Antonovsky predicted and called “salutogenesis”[17,18] – the inverse process of pathogenesis.

REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] Anderson EM, Lambert MJ. Short term dynamically oriented psychotherapy: A review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 1995;15:503-14. Crits-Cristoph P. The efficacy of brief dynamic psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:151-8. Svartberg M, Stiles TC. Comparative effects of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991;59:704-14. Leichsenring F, Rabung S, Leibing E. The efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in specific psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61(12):1208-16

Kandel I. Ventegodt S. London. Merrick J. Health. .Theory. 2005. Henderson J. Thegler S. Hancock JT. Diem K.(4):CD004687. Kandel I. Quality of life and health. Bassaine L. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ. Philosophy behind quality of life. Struve F. Int J Psychoanal. Accessing the unconscious through touch. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2003. Kisely S. Are psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies effective?: A review of empirical data. Henneberg EW. Kandel I. 2005. The life mission theory VI: A theory for the human character. Lindholt JS. A clinical follow-up study of 109 Patients. BC: Trafford. Ventegodt S.Antonovsky Salutogenesis Related to Work [5] [6] 159 [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Leichsenring F.15(1): 89-91. global and generic questionnaire based on an integrated theory of the quality of life.168:103-7. 1962. Vol. 2005.4:859-80. Jones WHS. How people manage stress and stay well. Merrick J. Hippocrates. Merrick J. Rosen method bodywork. Brenner S. Andersen NJ. 1923-1931. London: Jossey-Bass. ScientificWorld Holistic 2006. Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders. A short. Torp M. ed. stress and coping. 1985. Antonovsky A. Ventegodt S. The life mission theory: A theory for a consciousness-based medicine. Principles of holistic medicine. Antonovsky A. Rosen M. Andreasen T. Clinical holistic medicine: Psychodynamic short-time therapy complemented with bodywork. Victoria. research and methodology. Development and validation of QoL5 clinical databases. Merrick J. San Franscisco: Jossey-Bass. Ventegodt S. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ.6:2220-38. I–IV. Enevoldsen L. London: William Heinemann. 1987. Principles of holistic medicine. Documenta Geigy. Scientific tables. 2005. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006. Eur J Surg 2002. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.86(Pt 3):841-68 Abbass AA. Unravelling the mystery of health. Global quality of life. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Ventegodt S. Basel: Geigy. Principles of holistic medicine. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. 2003. Ventegodt S.

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In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick

ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Chapter 12

MOOD DISORDERS AND SUICIDE
Jong-Min Woo and Teodor T. Postolache
This chapter reviews the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment (ROI) results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make employees more accessible to the quality care being offered. In addition, further outcomes data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum.

INTRODUCTION Work and love are two major domains of our lives from which most people get satisfaction and find meaning; at the same time these can act as life-threatening stressors. Rapid economic change is one of the most significant aspects of our times. Behind the curtain of world economy globalization, the occupational environment is delivering increasing stress, such as job insecurity, increasing workload, and the burden of lifelong learning. Larger proportion of

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employees became involved in service- and knowledge-based industries which require heavy technological preparedness and mental stress. If the pace of change exceeds the capacity of the workers to cope, negative stress reactions can occur. These include psychosomatic reactions (e.g. depression, insomnia) as well as vocational consequences (e.g. job dissatisfaction, decreased organizational commitment, reduced job performance, and absenteeism) [1]. Negative stress reactions are not limited to the individual worker, but also the worker’s family, and the community in which they live. More attention is required to psychosocial impact of psychosocial work environment than to physical impact of physical environment. It is well-known that mood disorders cause the largest disease burden in general population and loss of work productivity in working population [2]. It seems that at least 5 % of the workers are affected by mood disorders. Using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, Kessler and coworkers [3] reported that 1.1% of the workers met criteria for bipolar disorder (I or II) and 6.4% for major depressive disorder (MDD). A study of 24,000 working Canadians also reported that 4.6 % met criteria for major depressive episode (MDE) in the past year [4]. The Office of Applied Studies (OAS) of Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) also reported that an annual average of 7.0 % (10.1% for female vs. 4.7% for male) of full-time adult workers experienced a MDE in the past year [5]. Some researchers propose that increasing work stress can be associated with the increasing prevalence of depressive disorder and suicide [6-8], but whether it is just a coincidence or any causal relationship has yet to be defined. Therefore, while the effect of depression on functioning has received substantial attention, we have to obtain a greater understanding of the impact of the work environment on mood disorders in order to prevent significant losses to both the individual and society. How many social resources have to be invested in this area? Who has to take care of these problems? In what areas do we have to intervene first? Given the multiple potential variables proposed to be related in this matter, we would like to clarify the terms and concepts to answer to those questions.

CLARIFICATION OF THE DIAGNOSIS Most of the past researches have focused on psychological distress symptoms (depression, dysphoria, and burn-out) showing elevated rates in workers with higher job stress [9-11]. Yet solid studies on clinically significant psychiatric disorders have not performed until very recently [5,7,12]. There are some important differences between subclinical symptoms and clinically significant psychiatric disorders. On the individual level, differences between psychological symptoms and clinical conditions seem to be marked by symptomatic constellations, duration of symptoms and functional impact. As subclinical mood symptoms are by far the common in everyday lives of workers, it is reasonable to use those concepts in occupational research. However, the severity and impact on health care system and productivity are much more detrimental in mood disorders compared to symptoms. Furthermore, if we try to manage these problems, medical implications are quite different. Subject population has to be clearly categorized to define the amount of loss from direct medical cost and to compare it with other conditions. Thus, using definite diagnostic categories like such as those from the Diagnostic

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and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) [13], although having their own imperfections, are preferable in performing health economics studies, such as costeffectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis, and the return-on-investment (ROI) analysis. These studies are essential to decide how much investment is required to address a certain problem and who has to take care of this new social epidemic. The community knows that work can be stressful and cause distresses including a few depressive symptoms. Based on this empirical knowledge, we can easily decide to put public revenue into management of depressive symptoms. However, what about clinically significant depressive disorders? Can the working environment directly cause a depressive disorder which requires intensive clinical attention and cost a lot of money? If then, the risk is placed on the employers. However, if the work environment can only trigger the onset or aggravate mood disorder of a vulnerable worker who is destined to get it, it is more likely that the burden should belong to an individual employee. This may potentially result in huge political and economic ramifications. In this article, we will put more importance on mood “disorders” rather than “symptoms” based on their unique health outcome and medical concerns. Depression can be re-classified into three forms - MDE, depressive syndrome, and dysphoria – and examined their differential association with occupational variables [6]. Depressive syndrome (which is equivalent to a subsyndromal major depression) shows some symptoms of DSM-? MDE criteria A, but does not fulfill all criteria for MDE. Dysphoria signifies having feelings of sadness or unhappiness. We differentiated previous studies according to the diagnostic methods which were used (see table 1).

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND MOOD DISORDERS In general, there is a consensus that acute and chronic life stressors can lead to psychological and physical responses. Workplace can also make manifest latent mood disorders, destabilize, and aggravate symptoms and courses of mood disorders among workers. The relationship between occupational environment and mood disorders seems to be reciprocal, creating vicious cycles in many cases (see figure 1). For example, depressive episodes resulting from work-related stress can impact vocational performance by ‘presenteeism’ (reduced work productivity while present at work) due to decreased concentration, reduced motivation, and decision errors, as well as ‘absenteeism’ (lost productivity from absence, e.g. non-attendant workdays, arriving late or leaving earlier than usual). Negative feedback from the organization, decreased self-esteem, and reduced salary may follow and add on the stress level of depressed workers. If these impacts persist or get worse, more serious mental health outcomes, such as chronic disability and suicide attempt, as well as vocational consequences including repeated job loss can threaten the identity as a working people. Unemployment and job loss have been consistently reported to raise the risk for depression and suicide attempt, especially in young workers [14,15]. Depressive workers may perceive their environment more desperate and frustrating, so they can lose motivation for problem solving and have a tendency to rely on unhealthy habits. These can lead to more frustration in real life, making them more depressed. Methodological limitations can cause controversies in assessing the relationship between work stress and mood disorders. Self-report method can influence a reporting bias, as

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common perceptual set influences the reporting of both the ‘causal’ and ‘outcome’ variables. In addition to acute loss of income and overall socioeconomic status, overwhelming financial stress, inability to support oneself and one’s dependants, narcissistic frustration to unwanted change in career can contribute to the association between job loss, or being demoted, and depression [16]. The effects of low occupational status can be confounding variables intermingled with the effects of work stress [11]. Childhood depression can increase the risk for psychiatric disorders in adulthood which can lead to more stressful jobs [17]. Moreover, having a personality disorder comorbid with mood disorders may increase troubles at work, which could elevate work stress. As randomized studies are not feasible in this domain, large scale longitudinal cohort studies are necessary to understand the direction of causality. However, we can keep in mind that workplace can function as a secure base for promoting mental health. It is desirable to focus on how to get rid of any potential risk rather than who is more responsible to it. Most of the workers spend more time at work than at home when they are awake. Therefore, it is quite reasonable to manage their health problems at the workplace, regardless of the cause. Table 1. Diagnostic methods for three levels of conditions related with mood disorder
Psychological Well-Being Self-rating scale Symptoms Self-rating scale Disorder Clinical Diagnosis with/without structured interview • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) • National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) • Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) • The World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)

• General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)

• The Center for Epidemiological StudiesDepression (CES-D) • Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) • Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) • The Profile of Mood States (POMS) • Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDS)

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Figure 1. A mModel of oOccupational stressors and mood disorder. Absenteeism: sickness absence, early leaving, late arrival; Presenteeism: reduced performance while present at work; MDD: Major Depressive Disorder; PTSD: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder; CVD: Cardiovascular Disorder

ARE CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS MORE DANGEROUS? From the public health perspective, it is very important to define the risk for mood disorders by occupational categories. This is also important in regard to workers’ mental health claims and compensation issues. We have to explore and target the “dangerous trades” to establish priorities in policy making and to set up an effective primary intervention system [18]. Many studies have established a connection between occupations and depressive symptoms [5,8,19]. Some professions and their occupational characteristics are suggested to have association with diagnosable mood disorders and suicide. Employment in human service occupations (e.g. health care, education, and social work) is consistently reported to display high risk for mood disorders [20]. Some occupations (e.g. lawyers, dentists, artists, machinists, auto mechanics, and carpenters) are suggested to have higher risk for suicide, while others (e.g. clerks, elementary school teachers, and cooks) are reported to have lower risk [8]. SAMHSA’s recent report [5] also demonstrates that the rate of depression varies by occupation and industry. Among the 21 major occupational categories, the personal care and service occupations (10.8 %) followed by the food preparation and serving related occupations (10.3 %) recorded the highest. Engineering, architecture and surveying (4.3%), life, physical, and social science (4.4%), and installation, maintenance, and repair (4.4%) recorded the lowest rates of the past year MDE. It is not yet clear whether the alleged risk of certain occupations is due to the occupational stressors associated with them or due to the sociodemographic factors of the workers in those occupations [21]. However, poor work conditions (e.g. physico-chemical environment, shift work, jet lag, and long working hours) and high job stress (e.g. high demand with low control, insufficient reward) are suggested to be the common cause of risk in some occupations in many studies [7,12,22]. For example, excessive exposure to

However long-term health effect to long-term low-level exposure is not clear. sleep disturbance. Some researchers report probable association between chronic low dose exposure and depression [31]. Exposure to organic solvents has been consistently reported to be associated with depression [35. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders is significantly higher among workers who used organic solvents [22]. Rayon manufacturing workers can suffer depression as well as other neurological disturbances due to chronic exposure to carbon disulfide [37]. as well as inadequate lighting can contribute to the poor response to treatment of and exacerbation of psychiatric conditions. 95% confidence interval (CI) 0. exposure to pleasant odors elevate mood both in healthy adults [39] and in depressed patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) winter type [40]. irritants. limb pains.26.32]. Olfactory neurons . including mood disorders. and irritability [29. Acute and moderate OP poisoning has been reported to induce depression.91-1. Specifically. odors. who have been reported to have a greater olfactory acuity than control subjects [41].166 Jong-Min Woo and Teodor T Postolache occupational toxicants. They also reported the increased odds of having depression (odds ratio (OR) = 3. while aversive odors can make depressive patients more depressed. poor concentration. Anecdotally. Neurotoxic levels of organic mercury also contribute to high prevalence of depression and anxiety among chemical workers after acute exposure as well as chronic exposure to high levels [27. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used in agriculture. extremely hot or cold temperature.33]. Odors can also alter mood. They are rapidly absorbed and exert their toxic effects. Sheep dip is a kind of OP compounds which is used to protect sheep from external infestation. use of sheep dip has been linked with flu-like syndrome. nonspecific. Some kinds of odors can elevate the level of mood and activity. but others suggest that this relation is only temporary.34].31) in the presence of a history of pesticide poisoning among farm women who are not themselves applicators [31.28]. One study has found that even low levels of lead exposure can overstimulate protein kinase C [26] which is involved in dysregulation of affect and behavior. which involve mood symptoms and syndromes [38].36]. fatigability. and involves psychological mechanism rather than physical [33. Beseler and his colleagues reported nearly six times risk for depression after OP pesticides poisoning among farmer applicators. Chronic exposure to low-to-moderate dose can cause anxiety and mood disturbances [23]. so called “idiopathic environmental intolerance” or “multiple chemical sensitivity” (MCS).25]. anxiety. CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT Acute and toxic exposure can definitely lead to organic brain damage with cognitive and behavioral impairment. and behavior. such as headache. and severe noise. mood change and suicidal thoughts [31. In United Kingdom.30]. Chronic low-level exposure to substances in modern ordinary environment can also cause mood disturbances with many somatic complaints. which can be a feature of many psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder. lead exposure with increased blood lead level can contribute to depression and anxiety [24. cognition. For example. there have been social debates on the effects of sheep dip on farmers’ depression and suicide. Exposure to lead can give more impact to people who are genetically predisposed to mood disorders.

On the other hand. Especially for. Positive environmental interventions using odors to improve mood are difficult. In general. We strongly believe that affecting even a few negatively to affect many positively is not an ethically acceptable approach for an occupational environmental consultant. and behavioral effects vary. . Bright light might be also beneficial for mood in healthy people [49]. In the absence of a window. People who are more sensitive to odorants than others can suffer from MCS [43]. the treatment should be supervised by a qualified professional. as it has demonstrated its effectiveness not only for SAD but also as an adjunct in MDD or dysthymia with seasonal exacerbations. such that they may feel gloomy during long stretches of cloudy winter days and experience mood improvement on sunny summer days. a one hour walk outside each day for one week significantly reduced depressive symptoms. except in relatively confined work spaces which allow individualized approaches. which is known to be a part of the neuronal circuitry of anxiety and depression. for those individuals. It is important to note that some chemicals may cause irritation at levels below which their odor can be detected. a location near a window would be strongly recommended for individuals with SAD. sleeping patterns. Obviously. being exposed to morning light during winter. Bright light and the deprivation of it can affect the internal biological clock. workers in the swine industry or at slaughter houses can be exposed to extreme pungent odors for a long period. modulate the release of serotonin [46]. excessive odors of any hedonic valence can be difficult to bear and fragrances can also act as irritants when present in very intense concentration. Sensitive individuals may notice changes in their mood associated with the doses of sunlight exposure. With a consideration for a personalized space.Mood Disorders and Suicide 167 are only two synapses away from the amygdala. For example. with no significant relapse after withdrawal. Poor lighting conditions at work represent a factor that may be conducive to depression. this population. setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for odorous or irritating chemicals is needed to promote safety at work [44]. increasing outdoor activities on weekends. shifts the circadian rhythms according to a phase response curve [47] and is necessary to synchronize circadian rhythms in humans [48]. it is important to mention that in one study of patients with SAD. The response rate of 65% was similar to the results of previous studies with bright light treatment by the same group [52]. which together reach 15% to 20% prevalence at temperate latitudes [50]. Light also suppresses melatonin secretion [45]. workers with SAD should be encouraged to use a light treatment device close to their workspace during the fall and winter. Prolonged reduction of exposure to light in winter can affect the mood status of an individual vulnerable to seasonal changes or who already has spent too much time indoors. and can be activated by olfactory aversive stimuli [42]. Workers can be exposed to various levels of odors. and energy levels [49]. bright lighting at workplace can improve mood status of workers. especially in patients with syndromal or subsyndromal SAD. as people’s individual sensitivities. and taking outdoor breaks can be recommended to workers. Therefore. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT In humans. but not confined to. Beyond usage of an artificial light treatment device. Bright light therapy is supported by the American Psychiatric Association for the treatment of patients with major depression [51]. light has potent biological and therapeutic effects. aromas and irritants at workplace. preferences.

In Romania. infectious agents. which shows depression during the summer and spontaneous remission in the fall [54]. and train and airport operators work many night hours. huge tractor trailers are driving mainly at night to avoid roadblocks related to rush hours. grocery stores and many others work on a 24 hours schedule. Doctors. efforts to reduce exposure to viruses. Sleep impairment can be a common factor in mood disorders which could be aggravated by work environments either as sacrificed duration of sleep to catch up with work or as a consequence of mood disorders. Changes in allergic symptom severity correlate with changes in depression symptom severity in patients with mood disorders exposed to environmental peaks in aeroallergens [59]. emergency services. and weather and individual mood may be related [53]. . gasoline stations. rather than lower. which is an individual trait quite stable over time and may predict depression [57]. Additionally induction of inflammation in the upper airway results in increased cytokine gene expression in the brain and depression-like behaviors in laboratory animals [60]. Let’s look around us. we will mention that.62]. and aeroallergens are commonly encountered. and bacteria cannot be overemphasized. anxiety. rate of summer SAD [55]. but recent research failed to confirm this hypothesis. somatic complaints. Exposure to heat was suggested to be a triggering mechanism in vulnerable individuals of summer SAD. Exposure to noise can be a particular stressor and predict irritability.168 Jong-Min Woo and Teodor T Postolache The temperature conditions. pharmacies. and depression [56]. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS The discussion of occupational parasitic and bacterial infections is beyond the scope of this article. which greatly affect thermoregulation. of outdoor and indoor work are also important for patients with mood disorders. even mild or intermittent noise may affect certain vulnerable subjects with “noise annoyance” (the emotional reaction to noise at exposure). nurses. and increased toxicity risks from psychotropic medications used in mood disorders. the timing of sleep and activity is essential for both performance and well being. However. While intense noise is difficult to bear for practically anyone. police. This would suggest that air conditioning may be an important preventive intervention for these individuals. Modern society is by and large sleep-deprived. allergens. those who possess an air conditioner have a higher. dehydration. SHIFT WORK AND JET LAG Sleep disturbance is a very important risk factor for depression. In addition to impaired sleep. pollutants which contain endotoxin of bacterial origin. Therefore. and suicidality [61. Hot temperatures can also be associated with increased perspiration. as thermoregulatory neurotransmitter and neurotransmitters of mood regulation overlap. Noise annoyance is associated with “noise sensitivity” (the physiological reaction to noise). a country with hot summers and relatively few microenvironments with air conditioners. in a routine working environment. allergies have a very high prevalence [58]. as well as humidity and air flow. On interstate highways. pollutants. bipolar disorder. As upper respiratory infections have a very high incidence.

and sleep promoting or wake promoting pharmacological agents. Factors to promote sleep and wake at adverse timing includes bright light. Institutional intervention includes the shift protocol and the occasional medication focusing on circadian rhythm sleep disorder. and wake promoting agents in more severe or refractory cases. High incidence of MDD was observed during and after shift work experience and this risk is associated with the duration of exposure [64]. However. In addition. several longitudinal studies reported the important role of work stress in developing clinically diagnosable mood disorders. induce job strain that can predict a broad range of health and behavioral outcomes [69]. high job demands (excessive workload. 95% CI 1. rather than the perception of an individual worker. Some researchers deny direct effect of night shift on mood disorders and suggest that job characteristics or other organizational factors are related to the association between them [65. or at risk for suicide. having a chronic pain condition [68]. the Demand-Control (DC) model by Karasek and the EffortReward Imbalance (ERI) model by Siegrist [69. Further examination of these issues is needed with improved research designs including consideration of particular shift work rotation schedules. This model characterizes the job according to the combination of two basic dimensions: job demand and control. The DC model is based on the very simplified assumption that the characteristics of the job itself. The in depth discussion of these interventions is beyond the scope of this article. Treatment and prevention of jet lag includes elaborated schedules of light exposure and avoidance. or . creating “portable microclimates” to promote sleep in adverse conditions.1%) and work stress was significantly associated with the risk for MDE in multivariate analysis (OR = 2. bipolar I disorder). e.70]. shift work and jet lag should always be a consideration for clinicians treating patients with recurrent mood disorders. jet leg type.54-3. work and scheduling sleep and wake. Recently. Workers presenting scores of work stress above the 75th percentile had an elevated risk for MDE (7. the physician should advocate medical leave or even vocational change. However.Mood Disorders and Suicide 169 Shift work is suggested to increase the risk of developing or aggravating mood disorders at least in vulnerable individuals [63]. Control. In certain cases of high risk (e.g.35. extreme time pressures) increased the risk for MDD or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) twofold and were associated with the onset of new MDD and GAD in previously healthy young workers [7]. Micro-environmental intervention includes the lighting and rest/nap schedule at work.77). avoidance of light. and individual approaches. An epidemiological study revealed that work stress can be an independent risk factor for the development of MDE [67]. Individual approach includes informed allocation of time and timing for personal needs vs. Some studies have reported that ERI and low control at work are both associated with depressive symptoms [71]. Use of bright light to alleviate mood disturbances associated with shift work needs extensive empirical testing [63]. Two models have long been proposed to explain the job characteristics and health implications of work stress.66]. timed administration of melatonin. work stress may only play an additive role in the manifestation of a preexistent condition among vulnerable individuals. micro-environmental.g. PSYCHOLOGICAL WORK ENVIRONMENT AND MOOD DISORDERS There are established correlations between high level of occupational stress and a wide range of mental health problems [7]. Treatment of shift work sleep disorders involves institutional.

On the other hand. In addition. occupational status control) compared to workers’ effort (demands and obligations) can lead to adverse health effects.a combination of high demand and low control .80]. Violence. Interpersonal conflicts at work predicted an increased risk for psychiatric morbidity. whether or not these are supportive. The components of “justice at work” are consistent and sufficient information from the line manager. a group of European researchers raised the concept of “justice at work” to represent the organizational climate and social relations [79. bullying. as well as medical outcomes. The level of social support can modulate the effect of work stress on depression [72]. which can eventually lead to chronic disease. As these two models examine broader societal and economic outcomes. as well as the absence of unfair criticism. “high strain” .73]. Overall. including work role. On the other hand. Most of the studies using Siegrist's ERI questionnaire suggest a positive relationship between ERI and depression [71. Employment in occupations involving exposure to work-related threats and violence is a strong risk factor for depression and stress-related disorders in both genders [78]. an increase in fair treatment reduces the risk of mental health problems [80]. the line manager’s listening to problems about work and praise. in particular.low-reward situation had a significantly elevated risk for psychosomatic symptoms including depression [75]. the proportion of variance in depression explained by job strain factors varies from approximately 10% to 50%. Lack of control. The relevant research suggests that employees who perceive that they are treated unfairly by their supervisors are at increased risk of poor mental health. includes the two factors of skill use and decision authority. due to the difference in measures used [11]. However. . a series of recent reports have demonstrated that these models can be validly applied to clinically diagnosed mood disorders [4. too much interaction with others can be also troublesome [77]. A “socially isolated” status means neither supportive co-workers nor supervisors present. is a relatively consistent predictor of depression [72.170 Jong-Min Woo and Teodor T Postolache decision latitude.74]. esteem. including depression [34]. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AT WORK Every worker has relationships with others.at work will lead to psychological stress. The social environment at work can predict the prevalence and severity of depression in most occupational groups. and sexual harassment can be some of the most severe cases of stress from other workers. threatening. neutral. An extensive review of the ERI model concludes that employees working in a higheffort. workplace bullying is a significant risk factor for incident depression in employees. most of the studies using these models have discussed only general symptoms rather than clinical disorders. This model proposes that insufficient reward (income. or full of conflicts. Karasek’s DC model is extended to include the degree of social support and thus becomes the Demand-Control-Support model [76]. The ERI model is based on the broader concept of the job. Recently. and reflects the individual worker’s emotional needs and characteristics.6]. with a wide percentage margin. According to this model.

High job demands and lack of decision latitude implies an inability to influence one’s own condition and may induce feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. insomnia. It is well known that depression and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women. including physical symptoms. one very likely explanation for an increased absenteeism in women is their poorer health. and depression [88]. Many biological. stronger relationships. can lead to mood disorders [76]. but there is very limited explanation as to why this is so [85]. psychological. prefrontocortical and hippocampal volumes were not changed. The fact that women are absent from work more often than men is a very often reported finding [84]. As such. An often suggested explanation is that women’s high rates of absence are related to them bearing the majority of the load in childcare and family responsibilities. Any intense of sustained stress elevates corticosteroids. a recent Canadian survey showed that men with high strain jobs and women with low decision authority had elevated odds of incident depression. women with multiple roles have better health. Work stress can result in psychosomatic symptoms. This result may reflect the difference in the types of jobs held. despite the face validity of this “double burden” (childcare and work) hypothesis. If this continues for a long time. and persistently elevated corticosteroids can directly affect brain structure [81] and can induce down-regulation of the glucocorticoid receptors. an individual can be conditioned to “learned helplessness”. having more children is a factor reducing rather than increasing absenteeism in women [86]. In fact. and concentration difficulty. In fact. which is a well known psychological cause and manifestation of depression. and behavioral mechanisms contribute to the influence of work stress on the risk for of mood disorders. such as fatigue. psychological and social factors have been proposed to explain this difference in prevalence. Finally. However. behavioral difficulties. However. This contrasts to what has been described in MDD and suggests the difference between endogenous depression and reactive depression due to environmental change. psychosomatic. Also. such as inability to engage in leisure activities and to maintain strong social networks. while lack of social support was related to depression in both gender. Rydmark [83] reported that the cortisol response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) showed significantly dampened response in patients with job-stress related depression. as many women tend to take less-strained jobs to balance work and family [4]. we focus here only on the effects of social and psychological factors associated with work. it is not supported empirically [85]. thereby impairing affect regulation [82]. While the effects of the discussed physico-chemical factors pertinent to the work environment have multiple mechanisms which would require a discussion with a length which will surpass the scope of this article. migraine headaches. it appears that there is no difference between absenteeism for childcare reasons between men and women. Among occupational factors which could add to a potential increased vulnerability of women .Mood Disorders and Suicide POTENTIAL MECHANISMS 171 We can assume biological. For example. sleep disturbance. GENDER IMPLICATIONS Certain work related risk factors and triggers for mood disorders and suicide are different in men and women. and less depression [87]. more recently. all of which can be both symptoms and risk factors for mood disorders.

are responsible for the greater rate of suicide completion in women than in men in China as compared to the rest of the world [89. on-the-job suicide). it is well known that women attempt suicide more often. it signifies detrimental loss to the victim and his/her family members. which otherwise would result only in suicide attempt. as well as accessibility and knowledgeable use of poisons increases the risk of overdose suicide in medical personnel [91]. In the hands of doctors and nurses. some jobs might be as bad for mental health as no job at all. “karo jisatsu” . means of self-poisoning. And “bad” jobs with combined psychosocial stressors were as bad for one’s health as having no job [14]. or professional knowledge to use them to lethal ends. but poor quality jobs (i.suicide from overwork) or just takes place at the victim’s workplace (e. certain occupational considerations may increase the risk of completed suicide in women. and uncertainty about the future. JOB INSECURITY AND UNEMPLOYMENT There is no guarantee that high-caliber professionals or the most profitable company of this year will survive some years later in this era of globalization. The data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) indicated the highest relative risk (RR) of on-the-job suicide among police and detectives in public service (RR 6. Suicide risk is strongly associated with unemployment. and sickness-related absence from work especially in male subjects [94. those featuring high job insecurity. result in suicide completions because of professional knowledge to use them “more effectively” and increased access to lethal doses [91]. For instance. and abrupt lay-offs can cause negative affect.e. lack of job security.93]. colleagues. Total number of workplace suicide victims was the highest in . and workplace as a whole. such as feelings of insecurity. being trapped in worries of another job loss. older generation pesticides. Tougher competition. WORK-RELATED SUICIDE Workplace suicide is the most severe outcome of mental health problems at the workplace. and daily work. more difficult promotion. and an increased risk to be bullied or harassed.39) [97]. but that men commit suicide more often.g. were shown to lead to increased depression and suicidal ideation [96]. Access to lethal weapons can be an occupation-specific risk factor for suicide in the police and military personnel [98]. Whether it is associated with work-related stress (e. and high job strain) were also associated with worse health when compared to jobs with fewer or no stressors. Job loss and unemployment can trigger the chain of adversity: financial and relational strain. low marketability.90]. often with overdoses. In regard to suicide. However. inferiority. we mention implicit and explicit work discrimination. such as part-time work.99) and workers in military occupation (RR 5. Nonstandard employment. Some occupations have more suicide risk than others. such as lower salaries. organizational restructuring.g. such as availability of lethal poisons. and loss of personal control.172 Jong-Min Woo and Teodor T Postolache to depressogenic factors.95]. Job loss can damage one’s self-esteem and cause feelings of helplessness which can continue for some years. and these can lead to depression and even suicide [92. On the other hand. temporary work. more lethal in overdose. The unemployed reported worse health when compared to all employees.

none of them had a psychiatric consultation and effective treatment of job stress or depression. Stress reduction programs. such as teaching effective coping skills and relaxation techniques. A prospective study investigated the association between psychosocial job characteristics and the risk for completed suicide among Japanese male workers. An extensive review reported a moderate effect from cognitive-behavioral interventions and multimodal interventions. such as recent hire. because they usually will not change the root cause. It is very difficult to tell which specific occupational factors contribute to the development and/or worsening of mood . and work flows which encourage human contact and reporting concerns to a supervisor immediately might be beneficial. and a small effect from relaxation techniques [102]. Reducing access to suicide means. and offering free counseling may also represent positive steps. being laidoff. This result calls for appropriate countermeasures. Listing telephone numbers with suicide crisis hotlines in every directory. The result showed that low control at work increased the suicidal risk more than fourfold [99]. The organizational approach focuses on an assessment of hazardous work conditions and a mobilization of organizational resources to support workers’ mental health. Pharmacotherapy with psychiatric quality care to the clinical population has consistently proven the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit to both employers and employees [103. some investigators are quite skeptical towards the long-term benefits of these individual approaches. such as cognitivebehavioral treatment and pharmacotherapy. and regular monitoring for high-risk populations are also in urgent need. such as high places from where one can jump. the feasibility requires testing. interventions can be devised at multiple levels of approaches. A psychological autopsy also showed that most of the suicide victims had suffered from low social support. Even though half of them saw a general practitioner because of unspecified somatic complaints. high psychological demand. may help workers to manage work stress better and reduce their risk of depression [101]. ceilings fixtures which would not be able to support a human body in case of hanging. low decision latitude. Though this could be theoretically ideal. HEALTHIER. Systemic interventions to increase awareness and destigmatize mental health.94]. but this result can be applied to devise suicide prevention strategies for professions at risk. especially when combined with individual characteristics and poor social support [15. On-the-job suicide may not be related to work-related issues or exposures. being transferred. Individual approaches can include traditional psychiatric/psychological interventions in a clinical setting. being demoted or promoted. AND MORE PRODUCTIVE WORKPLACE As the occupational factors involved in mood disorders are various and complicated. TOWARD THE HAPPIER. Identifying temporal windows of possible increased risk. including job redesign aimed at increasing worker’s control and psychiatric quality care to treat workers under stress. firearm policies.104]. with confidential telephone calls and also availability of referral networks are expected to also contribute to a reduction of work related suicides. Severe work stress can be an important risk factor for suicide. and long working hours [100].Mood Disorders and Suicide 173 managerial and professional specialty occupations. Interventions can be classified into individual approaches and organizational approaches. However.

Preventing and managing mood disorders among workers is the ultimate issue. Only a few reports showed the efficacy of the organizational approach towards general symptoms [105]. more and more executives are affected by stress from an unpredictable economy. If some executives have a vulnerability of or already suffer from mood disorders. If a worker in the service industry is not happy by any means. Adequate interventions may significantly improve employment outcomes and reduce workplace conflicts in depressed employed persons [107]. Rather. For example. happier. It is beneficial both for the individual and the organization to develop a more accessible system which can provide practical solutions with timely referral to professional care. and pressure to keep up profitability. Significant numbers of new cases of depression can be attributable to work stress and younger workers with depression are suffering from even more severe absenteeism [106]. it is quite clear that unstable executives had better to take a few weeks leave of either personal or medical. . We should not wait until the workers become aged and suffer from chronic problems.174 Jong-Min Woo and Teodor T Postolache disorders. Emotionally unstable executives can cause disturbances in the company and make an irrevocable loss to the whole organization. work stress may wreak more havoc on his or her mental health over time. The irony that some workers can do even more harm to the organization while present at work suggests the need of more active intervention at the organizational level. In those cases. If a researcher in the information technology industry is emotionally neither healthy nor stable. Organizational concern and effort can save money while creating a healthier. can ruin the relationship with them. At some point of treatment. make more personal time. he or she cannot smile at the customers. The authors could not find such a report on clinically diagnosed psychiatric disorders. and take proper evaluation and management in order to get back to normal performance level. psychiatrists and other health professionals can recommend the worker to take leave of absence. and cannot keep the sales record as a result. and more productive workplace. long-term interventions must be started from young adulthood or even adolescence. Educational efforts need to take place at the level of the organization to help the management keep in mind the greater negative effects of presenteeism as compared to absenteeism on the organization as a whole. he or she cannot generate creative and feasible ideas and thus cannot be productive. It is also more difficult for an individual worker to change the nature of his workplace and occupation. increasing responsibility. cannot be kind enough.

more comprehensive professional consultation service. is an ideal work environment for the workers with mood and anxiety disorders? We summarize the requirements for the optimal “mood-friendly”. Considering the enormous impact of mood status on the performance level. and organizational knowledge and experience.Mood Disorders and Suicide 175 What. psychological. is urgently needed. requiring medical. This . and thus more productive. workplace in table 2. in our opinion.

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PART III: TRAVELLING AND INSPIRATION FOR DEVELOPMENT AS LEADER

had little in the way of artificial illumination and traveled at the speed of the march. short acting hypnotics. and alertness promoting beverages and pharmacological agents.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. sometimes. representations of day and night which govern our abilities to fall asleep. and. is now a common experience. Rapid transmeridian travel. We may travel faster these days. the horse and the sail. Jet lag . further research and more effective treatments are needed. Treatment options include simple measures involving bright light exposure and avoidance. and prior vulnerability to jet lag should determine if and how to treat jet lag. Both jet lag and shift work are highly prevalent in industrialized countries and have health and safety implications for both the individuals involved and for the public. Inc. characterized as it is by microclimates with artificial light and temperature control. timed meals. is the result of many factors. Postolache Jet lag. INTRODUCTION “The past is a foreign country. Given the longterm health implications of circadian rhythm sleep disorder. unknown 100 years ago. Chapter 13 TRAVEL AND SHIFT WORK Tatiana Menick and Teodor T. a circadian rhythm sleep disorder associated with transmeridian travel. They spent more time outdoors than we do. and exercise. melatonin. with a round-the-clock economy with shift work and frequent jet travel. but equally true of our more distant forebears. but our physiologies are rooted in our ancestors’ world. and their impact on individuals and society. The demands and the duration of the trip. and between the social demands at the place of destination and internal. they do things differently there. bright light treatment. as well as the direction and number of time zones crossed. described the folkways of rural England at the turn of 20th century. Most of the time. Our contemporary environment. the most important ones being misalignments between the light-dark cycles of origin and of destination. sleep deprivation compounds the misalignment effects. has its price. stay alert and perform. is a novelty in human experience. and we have learned that living in a 24-hour society.” The words of novelist Leslie Poles Hartley (1895-1972). biological.

THE CIRCADIAN SYSTEM Circadian Rhythms Biological rhythms having a period of approximately 24 hours are called circadian (from the Latin words circa. via multisynaptic pathways. Downstream from the SCN. Cortisol and testosterone are highest in the morning. setting electrophysiological neuronal activity and hormonal rhythms. These. The pineal gland. circadian rhythms are consistent and have a period slightly longer than 24 hours. receptors. the transcription/translation of “clock genes” and the complex feedback from their protein products generate a rhythm with a period of approximately. but not equal to. The overall clinical presentation is influenced by a combination of physiological. prolactin. located in the hypothalamus above the optic chiasm.” the SCN serves as pacemaker. and renin are highest in the early evening. and environmental factors. Growth hormone. in turn. and peaks and troughs of alertness and mental performance. information about internal day (rapid firing) or internal night (slow firing) is transmitted to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Melatonin closes the feedback loop. and retinohypothalamic tract also influence the circadian rhythm [2]. while insulin. so-called “slave. via blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). meaning “day”). and melatonin are at their highest at night [1]. meaning “about. or transmitters to the rhythmically transcribed genes [3]. Many human health parameters show a circadian variation: body temperature has an evening maximum and late night-early morning minimum. The blood levels of hormones can also change. gastrin.” or synchronization of the SCN-generated . The most important aspect of this external synchronization is the “entrainment. with the result that certain physiological and behavioral rhythms occur at a later clock time each day. Then. are generators of normal circadian rhythmicity and are known as the circadian or biological clock. The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The circadian rhythm in gene transcription/translation is converted into a rhythm in neuronal firing by tying the levels of ion channels. depending on the time of day. The human circadian system orchestrates rhythmicity in the human body and drives normal sleep-wake and rest-activity phases. and almost every bodily function has been shown to exhibit a circadian rhythm. In each of the SCN neurons. Under constant conditions. activating. difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. jet lag are not widely recognized. in particular.” and dies. Postolache syndrome and shift work sleep disorder are circadian rhythm sleep disorders resulting in a constellation of symptoms such as sleepiness. the SCN inhibits the melatonin secretion in the pineal gland via a ßadrenergic receptor. all of which become out of sync with the environmental demands. 24 hours. Is circadian rhythmicity produced by the SCN neurons or the network of those neurons? Strong evidence supports the former. send information to peripheral. The long-term health implications of shift work and. Zeitgebers or “Time Givers” The SCN also times circadian rhythms to the environment. its receptors in the SCN.” oscillators in the organism. retina. Circadian rhythms are part of normal human physiology and behavior.186 Tatiana Menick and Teodor T. Also known as the “master oscillator. behavioral.

the reader is directed to the review by Postolache and Oren [4]. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF JET LAG Acute jet lag. depend on the individual. and posture on circadian rhythms. and the number of time zones crossed. Light as a circadian phase shifting agent. secreted by the pineal gland. which. and their severity and duration. In majority of entrained individuals. For more detailed information on PRC. day-night cycle. environmental light-dark. Melatonin. . and gastrointestinal disturbance. loss of motivation. The exact symptoms of jet lag. Melanopsin. Symptoms may include sleep impairment. In a room with dim light. general malaise. Jet lag is caused by a misalignment between the circadian clock’s internal timing and the new external. the point of minimum body temperature occurs at 45am. food and water intake. or feeding. The relationship between the time of light exposure and the direction of magnitude of phase shift can be quantified and analyzed by deriving a phase response curve (PRC). irritability. Environmental factors that influence the SCN are known as zeitgebers or “time givers”. present in the majority of retinal ganglion cells. appears to have stronger circadian effects [7]. the direction of travel. Melanopsin photosensitive to short-wavelength or blue light. Light-dark cycles are the most important environmental entraining agents for circadian rhythms because they are the most consistent from day to day. the subject is kept awake in half supine position for as long as 50 hours. such as temperature. poor mental concentration. Bright light prior to the minimum body temperature phase delays circadian rhythms and after the minimum of body temperature minimum phase advances circadian rhythms [6]. LIGHT IS THE MAIN ZEITGEBER Various rhythmic environmental stimuli are known to entrain circadian clocks [4]. which connect via the retinohypothalamic tract to the SCN. closes the feedback loop by acting on melatonin receptors in the SCN. according to several studies. For PRC studies. is an important novel circadian photoreceptor. and under the direction of an attending technician. Human circadian clocks adjust internal time to the external time primarily by way of light input through the retina [5]. water and any medications are given day and night at short even intervals. The neural pathway that extends from the SCN to the pineal gland involves a multisynaptic link via the superior cervical ganglion (SCG). may also play important roles for entrainment. Input for entrainment comes primarily through specialized retinal ganglion cell photoreceptors. The effect of light on the human circadian clock depends on the time at which it is presented. Melanopsin and blue light. and increased incidence of headache. other environmental stimuli. a demanding protocol called “constant routine” is necessary to minimize the masking effects of sleep.Travel and Shift Work 187 rhythms to the 24-hour period of rotation of the Earth. However. physical activity. Food.

are exposed chronically to changes in meridian time. eliminate jet lag. theoretically. with intermittent morning bright light exposures (one-half hour of approximately 5000 lux and one-half hour of less than 60 lux) for 3. Since the circadian clock has a period slightly longer than 24 hours [9]. . Postolache Sleep impairment usually manifests itself as an inability to fall asleep or maintain sleep at the destination’s local nighttime. Temporal lobe atrophy and spatial cognitive deficits have been associated with a short recovery period after transmeridian flights in flight attendants [11]. and phaseadvanced after a westward flight [1]. Visual spatial memory tests identified impairments in hippocampus-dependent memory. In addition.188 Tatiana Menick and Teodor T. which involve a lot of variability due to the heterogeneity of travel-related behavior. the volume of the temporal lobe and hippocampus-dependent memory deficits were compared in two flight attendant groups (each composed of 10 healthy. accelerates adaptation to the new time zone [12]. cortisol. Many people. it has a natural tendency to phase delay. or temperature rhythms. such as pilots and flight attendants. a large-enough phase advance before flight. circadian rhythms were advanced at home by light exposure before an eastward flight as a strategy to prevent or reduce jet lag. one hypothesis of jet lag is based not on the desynchronization between the SCN and the external light-dark cycle. the peripheral oscillators take a significantly longer time. circadian markers monitored. The sleep schedule of 26 young healthy adults was gradually advanced one or two hours per day for three days. phase delays proceed easier and more rapidly than phase advances and this is one important reason why it is more difficult to adjust for eastward travel. already present due to misalignment. One group had recovery periods of fewer than five days. and treatment interventions tested. In a recent laboratory study by Eastman et al [14]. LIGHT AND JET LAG TREATMENT Compared to naturalistic models. The unadjusted rhythm is phase-delayed relative to local time after an eastward flight. 22-to-28-yearold women with five years in service). while the central oscillators are adjusting somewhat faster to the timing of the destination using local zeitgebers. an appropriately timed light exposure. Thus. Sleep impairment adds another component to daytime sleepiness. while the other was given 14 days or more to recover. but on the desynchronization between central and peripheral oscillators [10]. Jet lag is typically worse when traveling east than when traveling west [8].5 hours. As the body contains multiple oscillators. Specifically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the group with the short recovery period (fewer than five days) had smaller right temporal lobe structures. where the sudden change in light exposure can be easily simulated. In the lab. . In a study of 15 healthy young men in a laboratory simulation of a trip from Montreal to London (an eastward flight across five time zones). close to the number of time zones to be crossed can. light exposures scheduled during the advancing portion of the PRC were effective in synchronizing the biological night and day to the sleepwake rhythms in the new destination [13]. According to this proactive approach. This might explain why the symptoms of jet lag often persist beyond the duration necessary for the entrainment of common circadian markers such as melatonin. combined with light avoidance or melatonin administration. jet lag is much easier to study in the laboratory. In other words. Chronic jet lag. the reduction in the right temporal lobe volumes was associated with higher cortisol levels [11].

the traveler would arrive with circadian rhythms already set to the new zone. After that period. Exposure and avoidance of light. If these symptoms are moderate or severe. this is the region of maximum phase delays. Now we know that even room light has shifting potential especially with extended exposure. Field studies of light exposure after flights are few and inconclusive. Artificial light treatment. and nausea. Mini light boxes. knowing when to avoid light at certain times is important to prevent worsening of the jet lag. window shades. However. is to advance circadian rhythms as much as possible. if someone travels from New York to Paris and arrives at 8 AM in Paris. or sunglasses [4]. The sunglasses should be dark (but not so dark as to make driving more dangerous) and should filter out or reflect blue light. which are small and portable. feeling “wired”. one can remember that bright light should be avoided before Tmin with eastern travel and after Tmin with Western travel and then estimate the temperature minimum on the first day at the new destination (Tmin2) as Eastward travelTmin2=Tmin (of origin) +number of time zones crossed Westward travelTmin2=Tmin (of origin) -number of time zones crossed. which can cause skin cancer and cataracts. Bright light treatment is considered as generally effective and a safe intervention. short-wavelength blue-green and blue light devices provide more potent melatonin suppression and circadian shifting and shorter periods of exposure compared to the more traditional light boxes. Light boxes. bright light exposure is highly recommended and it will cause circadian phase-advance. that can be useful. one can experience an eight-hour jet lag instead of a six-hour jet lag. In fact. use light-emitting diodes (LEDs). and blue wavelengths. and face masks have all been used to treat jet lag. One common mistake transmeridian travelers make is to get indiscriminate exposure to light at the destination in order to adapt to the new time zone rapidly. If one is exposed to bright light at 8 AM in Paris.Travel and Shift Work 189 Instead. To avoid this. Currently. The most commonly reported side effects are headache. Natural light. light exposure should be avoided or minimized before the temperature minimum (between 10 AM and 11 AM Paris time). Light can be avoided by the use of eyeshades. which can cause retinal damage. that light is not a stimulus for the SCN at 8 AM (Paris time) but rather at 2 AM (the internal time). According to the light PRC. it was believed that only bright light could shift circadian rhythms in humans. Thus. there is a six-hour lag between the internal biological clock and the external clock time in Paris. For simplicity. Both light exposure and light avoidance are effective circadian shifters. sunrise clocks. discontinuation is recommended. light visors. Initially. dawn simulators. the traveler should be mindful of the potential detrimental exposure to room light at the . and persist after decreased duration of light exposure. which is the most potent stimulating spectral band of melanopsin receptors. and now. for the great majority of us. eyestrain. For more complete schedules one can consult Postolache et al [10]. although the schedules are often difficult to apply in general conditions. For instance. which produce white cool or full spectrum light. such preflight gradual adjustment is not practical. eastbound or westbound. Hazards include ultraviolet radiation. The goal of the preflight schedule. Natural sunlight contains the blue-green wavelengths that may be optimal for the chronotherapeutic effects of light. There is a schedule of recommended times for avoidance of and exposure to bright light when crossing time zones. Appropriately timed light exposure and light avoidance are crucial in the treatment and prevention of jet lag. then. while keeping them aligned with the advancing sleep schedule. narrow-spectrum.

it shows maximal phase delays of the circadian clock. Smaller doses (0. Smaller doses (0. one should brighten the room when the exposure to brighter light is adequate. For improved alertness. it is considered the body’s chronological pacemaker. Melatonin has a role in diverse physiological functions: it is centrally involved in sleep regulation. The most common symptoms patients complain of are insomnia and daytime sleepiness. entrainment was almost complete. In a laboratory study by Revell and Eastman [16]. it phase-advances the circadian clock. The recommended regime was 5 mg melatonin taken in the evening three days before traveling and upon arriving using the same dose taken at local bedtime for four days after a flight [15]. The most common mistakes made in melatonin utilization include consuming it at the wrong time and using higher doses. preflight melatonin and light administration were shown to phase-advance circadian rhythm by 2. as in most vertebrates.190 Tatiana Menick and Teodor T. As a chronobiotic molecule. oncostatic. when melatonin is given during the evening. and it has potential antioxidant. since doses of 3 mg resulted in increased sleepiness. compared to placebo. additional interventions target symptomatic improvement. in a review of 10 years of studies using melatonin. when administered during the sleep period or in the morning. including jet lag or shift-work sleep disorder. Entrainment by phase advancing was seen in all subjects under a regime of 3 mg melatonin for three days after the flights. melatonin has shown to be valuable in treating various circadian rhythm sleep disorders. As mentioned earlier. and short-acting hypnotics at regular doses are often used. Arendt et al [15]. SYMPTOMATIC INTERVENTIONS In addition to the interventions specifically targeting the pathophysiology of jet lag. synthetic melatonin receptor agonists (which are awaiting clinical studies for jet lag).5 hours. more adequate for sleep induction rather than circadian shifting. melatonin. as beverage or pill. MELATONIN FOR JET LAG In humans. Five days after the flights. It is often called the “hormone of darkness” since it is secreted during the “internal” nighttime. The timing of melatonin administration is critical for the optimal treatment of jet lag. For insomnia. melatonin is synthesized primarily from serotonin in the pineal gland. and immunomodulatory properties. One study by Waterhouse et al [12] proposed a schedule for use of melatonin on the first day after time-zone transitions. . In contrast. Melatonin is sold and marketed as a dietary supplement in the United States and it is not approved for the treatment of any disorder by the US Food and Drug Administration. and modafinil are interventions that are sometimes recommended. caffeine. Postolache place of destination. it can cause circadian shifts in an unwanted direction.5 mg) were recommended.5-1 mg) are recommended and sufficient for phase shifting in jet lag. Takahashi et al [17] studied six subjects who took eight-hour eastward flights from Tokyo to Los Angeles. found that subjective assessments of jet lag symptoms declined by half with melatonin treatment. If melatonin is taken indiscriminately as a sleep inducer.

in patients with bipolar disorder. and subjects who took SRC woke up earlier. or eszopiclone (3 mg at bedtime). a naturally occurring methylxantine most commonly found in coffee. In a recent study. have effects on various physiologic systems. we often recommend zaleplon. In a recent study by Beaumont et al. and a reduced number of awakenings compared to placebo. we recommend to not use eszopiclone or zolpidem extended release. In addition. tea. The actions of caffeine. even if alertness deficits and other jet lag symptoms persist after treatment with hypnotics. slept less.” increased cycling. non-extended release zolpidem. and shift-work. such as trazodone (Desyrel). cognitive side effects represent areas of concern. cola. one night of sleep loss represents a major potential trigger for an “upward switch. a very important consideration is to think about the expected duration of sleep. or those like older generation antihistamines (diphenhydramine) which could affect cognitive functioning. It is important to keep in mind that all hypnotics can have adverse effects and are recommended only for short-term symptomatic treatment. We discourage the use of hypnotics with longer duration of action for the treatment of jet lag. If the remaining duration of sleep is less than 8 hours. and the individual response of a particular patient needs to be determined prior to prescribing these agents to be self administered for jet lag in a remote location. this alerting effect of SRC seemed to have residual effects on recovery sleep: feeling of sleepiness and sleep latencies were higher than in baseline conditions. with no side effects. but the regular. Caffeine is often consumed at different times of day and night to alleviate the consequences of sleep deprivation. considering its very short half time. zaleplon (10 mg at bedtime).Travel and Shift Work 191 Hypnotics For the majority of patients the inability to fall asleep at the adequate time when traveling eastward is the most salient symptom of jet lag. the most bothersome and the one for which they seek treatment. The effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian rhythm are most likely mediated through the antagonism of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors [19]. Caffeine Caffeine is one of the most frequently used psychostimulant drug worldwide and has been reported to improve subjective alertness and alleviate the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation. jet lag. Other hypnotics that are not expected to work beyond 8 hours of sleep include temazepam (15 mg at bedtime). [20]. starting with the first nighttime sleep after travel. In addition. at a dosage of 300 mg twice a day. travelers crossing five to nine time zones during transatlantic flights were given 10 mg of zolpidem (non-benzodiazepine hypnotic) or placebo for three consecutive nights. The most common side effects were headaches [18]. For the induction of very short sleep of several hours and for sleep maintenance difficulties after eastward travel. and loss of therapeutic control. and experienced more awakenings compared to subjects who took melatonin during the . Nevertheless. longer total sleep time. Zolpidem resulted in improved sleep quality. a new slow-release formulation of caffeine (SRC). and chocolate. With the newer generations of hypnotics. A successful restoration of the ability to sleep equates for those patients a successful treatment of jet lag. was shown to maintain performance and alertness during 32-hour sleep loss after rapid eastward transmeridian travel.

200. Participants received a single oral modafinil dose (0. locomotor agitation. especially confirmed for phase delay. Reported side effects of caffeine include increased anxiety. There have been no reports on treating jet lag with modafinil. specific kind and duration of exercise. Another laboratory study examined modafinil’s effects on sleep. while the larger dose administered during day-shift work caused sleep disruptions. rather than phase advance. patients treated with modafinil continued to show evidence of excessive sleepiness and consequently impaired performance during the night shift. Therapeutic doses of modafinil showed an attenuation of mood and cognitive performance impairments during night shift. Further studies on jet lag and administration of SRC will be required to elucidate its effects on recovery sleep. melatonin. there is convincing evidence to suggest a phase shifting effect of exercise. and mood during simulated shift work [22]. as well as interaction between exercise and light. However. for three days. The use of the new slow-release formulation of caffeine can reduce these adverse effects. Exercise It is not exactly known if and how exercise can cause chronobiological effects in humans. and one hour after waking following a night shift. diuresis. In one recent study. c) using melatonin receptor antagonists and wake promoting agents for jet leg. and as an add-on in obstructive sleep apnea. that is. The shifts were alternated three times. cognitive performance. b) studying light of different wavelengths for jet leg. Modafinil is a forbidden medication for competitive athletes due to its performance enhancing properties. or 400 mg) one hour after waking following a day shift. Factors such as the intensity. and light avoidance in naturalistic paradigms. and tachycardia. . However. Headaches were the most common side effect. have to be studied in order to provide any evidence-based approach or recommendation to travelers [23]. d) understanding interaction between multiple pace makers in creating jet lag. allowing exposure to smaller intensities of light. treatment with 200 mg modafinil resulted in a decrease in extreme sleepiness and a modest improvement in sustained-attention performance in patients with shift-work disorder [21]. Postolache first night. These findings may have some significance in possible treatments of individuals in occupations where abrupt changes in work shifts are common. and also filtering certain wavelengths using adequate sunglasses. and e) understanding vulnerability to jet lag. why some people report a lot of symptoms and others very few. Modafinil (Provigil) Modafinil is currently FDA approved for excessive daytime sleepiness secondary to shift work.192 Tatiana Menick and Teodor T. DISCUSSION Research directions may include a) testing light.

as the treatment of jet lag awaits larger and more definitive trials. the schedule at the destination flexible and the performance upon return essential. In most cases. which is well-deserved considering the increasing number of individuals exposed to transmeridian travel. Alerting medications may be useful in patients with a severe mismatch between occupational demands and alerting resources. the treatment of jet lag starts on the day of departure. in the direction of the desired adjustment. as well as his/her history of prior response to transmeridian travel. avoidance of bright light in the early morning upon awakening for several days. Patients with bipolar disorder. In . All these interventions are off-label. especially those with rapid cycling and poor therapeutic control.Travel and Shift Work 193 Patients with mood disorders: are particularly vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss. If frequent travel is currently an occupational imperative for those patients. When adjusting rest activity to local time is imperative or impossible to avoid. i. Consulting for jet lag in patients for mood disorders. shifting light-dark exposure. which may exacerbate symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. however. avoiding alcohol and caffeinated beverages.e. and rest-activity by one hour per day before the trip is recommended. Short acting hypnotics are useful for sleep induction for eastward travel. will do well traveling eastward. while those with a phase delay will adjust better when traveling west. drinking plenty of fluids. At destination. and ultrashort acting hypnotics may be useful for sleep maintenance with westward travel. filtering blue light) and alternation of bright light are recommended to avoid adjusting to the new time zone. many patients with mood disorders have preexisting circadian abnormalities [24] that can compound the effects of jet lag. A written recommendation for the employer to assist the employee with minimize transmeridian travel is a first step. having eye shades available. Traveling west. Individuals with a tendency to phase advance. All alerting medications may add to the potential mania inducing capacity of sleep deprivation in patients with bipolar disorder. when anticipating transmeridian travel in a patient with preexisting psychiatric illness the context is very important. sleepwake. If the planned stay is short. To fast-start entrainment in the majority of patients who are neither phase delayed or advanced (thus having their temperature minimum between 4 and 5 AM) traveling east. at the location of destination. are at increased risk. we recommend bright light in the afternoon of departure (4-5 PM departure time) and. and precipitate episodes of major mood disorders. Also.5-1 mg in the afternoon of the departure (4-6 PM time of departure). Window shades and/or sunglasses (dark or orange. walking for 10 minutes every 90 minutes. and may include caffeine and modafinil. 30-minute exposure to bright light is useful for eastward travel upon awakening and for westward travel in the late afternoon or evening. and moving legs for three minutes every 15 minutes when awake. Bipolar patients and those with recurrent major depression should be counseled against becoming flight attendants. a recommendation for change in job or profession may be required. and the trip itself very important. Independent of crossing meridians. We recommend purposeful timing for exercise and meals. we recommend melatonin 0. and obviously against becoming commercial pilots. investing in a noise reduction headset. then moving the time separating light avoidance and exposure earlier every day. when feasible. we strongly recommend bright light avoidance before (4 AM + number of time zones crossed AM) and bright light exposure after (4 AM + number of time zones crossed). increase mood lability and cycling. trying to keep the schedule of activity and of dark and light exposure of the place of origin is desirable. on the first day. For that purpose. general air travel advice includes: wearing loose clothes and shoes.

Atkinson G. Oren DA.1:3344. Duffy JF. Chronic 'jet lag' produces temporal lobe atrophy and spatial cognitive deficits. and to put needed medications in carry-on luggage. Nat Neurosci 2001. VII. J Biol Rhythms 1995. Burgess HJ. Eastman CI. Stiller JW. Czeisler CA. Boulos Z. Patients are reminded not to forget their medications. Sports chronobiology consultation: from the lab to the arena. Photochem Photobiol 1981. Terman M. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] . Weitzman ED. in order to avoid an obstructive sleep impairment factor secondary to cabin environment. Postolache TT. Ko CH.66 Suppl 9:3-9. Molecular components of the mammalian circadian clock. Clin Sports Med 2005. Campbell SS. and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker. J Biol Rhythms 2002. MA: Sinauer. Eastman CI. Stability. Soriano JJ. Sleep 2005. Zimmerman JC.284(5423):2177-81. Boivin DB. Reilly T.24(2):381-413. Waterhouse J. Skene DJ.10(2):167-76. Efficacy of melatonin treatment in jet lag.17(3):266-76.12(6):604-17. Lewy AJ. Phototransduction for human melatonin suppression. Khalsa SB. Shanahan TL et al. Hung TM.15(2):R271-7. Richardson GS. A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects. Bullough JD. Sunderland. Richardson GS. Lancet 1997. Montes F. Crowley SJ. Czeisler CA. Rea MS.24(2):415-56. Jet-lag. anticipating possible time windows of contact. Moore-Ede MC. J Pineal Res 2002. Czeisler CA. 549(Pt 3):945-52. 2005. Advancing circadian rhythm before eastward flight: a strategy to prevent or reduce jet lag. Jewett ME. Arendt J. Cajochen C. Finally. shift work. Dijk DJ. Gazda CJ. Fogg LF. Clin Sports Med 2005. Rosenthal RN. J Clin Psychiatry. as well as clearly discussing the patient concrete situations when the patient will have to seek local professional attention. Hum Mol Genet 2006. Cho K.34(2):239-47. we would advise traveling patients with mood disorders to reduce tasks and expectations during the first several days of the trip and using a decongestant if symptoms of rhinitis are present prior to travel. Circadian phase shifting. alerting. we recommend that the treating psychiatrist be available for brief phone consultations. and antidepressant effects of bright light treatment. Lockley SW.4(6):567-8.194 Tatiana Menick and Teodor T. Science 1999. Light treatment for sleep disorders: consensus report. Deacon S. in case flight schedules are altered. Postolache addition. 350(9091):1611-6. Jet lag. Phase-dependent effect of room light exposure in a 5-h advance of the sleep-wake cycle: implications for jet lag. James FO. Bipolar patients should be advised to not sacrifice sleep duration under any circumstance and use short-term hypnotics more readily to secure the regular duration of sleep. Figueiro MG. The human circadian system in normal and disordered sleep.42-3. and blindness. Postolache TT. Middleton B. Entrainment of human circadian rhythms by light-dark cycles: a reassessment. Loros JJ. J Physiol 2003.32(4):209-13. xiv. DeCoursey PJ. Takahashi JS. 2004. precision. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Dunlap JC. J Biol Rhythms 1997. Chronobiology: Biological timekeeping. xii.

Modafinil attenuates disruptions in cognitive performance during simulated night-shift work. Reilly T. Comer SD. 99(4):331-41. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999. Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use.Travel and Shift Work 195 [16] Revell VL.51(1):83-133. 2007. Sasaki M. Waterhouse J. N Engl J Med 2005. J Appl Physiol 2004. [20] Beaumont M. Pierard C et al. Caffeine or melatonin effects on sleep and sleepiness after rapid eastward transmeridian travel. Davis JR. Exercise as a synchroniser of human circadian rhythms: an update and discussion of the methodological problems.20(4):353-65. Zvartau EE. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006. Rosenberg RS. Walsh JK. Foltin RW. [22] Hart CL. J Biol Rhythms 2005. Holmen J. Eastman CI. Nehlig A. [23] Atkinson G. . Pharmacol Rev 1999. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007. [19] Fredholm BB. Walsh JK. Jamison KR. Modafinil for excessive sleepiness associated with shift-work sleep disorder. Vosburg SK. Zammit GK. [24] Goodwin FK. 2(5):423-30. Roth T et al. Gunderson E. 2nd Ed. Batejat D. Manic-Depressive Illness: Bipolar disorders and recurrent depression. Battig K.353(5):476-86. Edwards B. [21] Czeisler CA. 31(7):1526-36.96(1):50-8. New York: Oxford Univ Press. Itoh H et al. [17] Takahashi T.53(2):257-60. Sleep Med 2001. Haney M. [18] Jamieson AO. Re-entrainment of circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin on an 8-h eastward flight. Zolpidem reduces the sleep disturbance of jet lag. How to trick mother nature into letting you fly around or stay up all night.

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I believe that personal development with a holistic approach will allow us to increase the strength and quality of our impact. I have very often thought about what quality and competency makes a great leader. strongly inspired by the holistic concepts of spiritual leadership. when I have been relaxed and coming from my authenticity and heart. INTRODUCTION During the plast 15 years I have developed my own personal style of leadership. where my leadership was welcomed. Problem of Method The problem of method concerned intuition is that it is very hard to define. quite authoritarian. and the philosophy of kindness as expressed by the Dalai Lama [3]. After many years of reflection I have finally set my mind on the capacity of intuition. but through a personal development process turned into a much more contemporary. very much inspired by the concepts of emotional intelligence as formulated by Daniel Goleman [1. I have had the great blessing to be involved in many different circumstances. It is very personal and not rational in the intellectual understanding of the word. democratic leader. I have noticed that the organizations. scientific and human development projects always have succeeded the best. Intuition is much more connected to the concept of “common sense” in the original meaning of “sensis communis” – . Chapter 14 REFLECTIONS Lars Enevoldsen I would like to describe in short my personal development as a leader or manager. as expressed by Dalai Lama and Deepac Chopra. In this development my interest changed to leadership in science and research projects instead of business.2]. Ten years ago I was the classical.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. leader of a private company with 20 employees. the native Americans. Inc.

Intuitive Leadership of People in Personal Development I was thrown into the deep waters of existential despair. Once again. Intuition comes from within . not the internal much more limited representation of reality.198 Lars Enevoldsen the faculty of intelligence resting behind the words that makes the world as we know is from our own creative consciousness and source of life.of course we are connected to the world – but we contain all the wisdom within our self. After succeeding as a businessman. because how can you put words to things you just know for no reason at all? Another problem I have had is my own appreciation of this gift. it grew completely over my head. I have often noticed a certain laziness of people depending much on their minds in their living. there is something that must be done in order for healing to take place and lift the person in question to a better version of him. This will reduce it to just the expected. Not everybody is connected to this deep and subtle dimension of existence. not living in the known and using all the information and resources available to create the unique and extraordinary. I have often wondered from where my own gift of intuitive leadership has come. in every situation.or . Here I became strongly inspired by the book “The seven spiritual laws of success” [5] and broke through to a new level of intuitive leadership. It has been a second nature. I therefore started my training as a holistic therapist mastering both bodywork and psychodynamic therapy. I learned that only by insisting on doing good for myself and other people I was able to move forward in a constructive way. People advised me to go to business school. then what is it worth? But people around me have always appreciated my gift of taking control. In the intuitive approach is an orientation towards the surrounding world. I found myself in the middle of a spiritual learning crisis and caught by holy madness. a kind of lack of spiritual sharpness and presence. when I as a young man was working in my own sandwich shop. I have observed too much dependency on the past and already learned knowledge and principles that gives a strong alienation and mechanical attitude to the world. but for some reason I resisted. I chose an education based on experiential learning and this turned out the natural frame using my intuitive leadership related to people. This new field of exploring human consciousness was so overwhelming. but on a hidden level. As Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) said [4]: “Everything is present in our collective unconscious”. I had good fortune with my business– it grew and grew over the years and at last. because when it has not been expressed and not been strived for. when everything were chaotic and intuitive leadership most definitely creates order and fine result. I went to the library. that I was in no way able to cope with it only by using the rational mind. I longed for new challenges. I employed at that time 14 people without any formal training in management and leadership. I was forced to turn inwards in order to find answers. I learned that. Intuitive Leadership of Organizations I had my first experience with intuitive leadership. which has given me very severe difficulties in expressing it to my world.

109 patients were treated by holistic therapy in the aim of inducing salutogenesis [8-12].Reflections 199 herself. And inspired by the doubtful rooming. 1996. And so it will be for millennia to come. New York: Mind Life Inst. Goleman DL. Goleman D. The seven spiritual laws of success: A practical guide to the fulfillment. The excellent beer helped us to find and grow fellowship among team members. . San Francisco. It did not take me long to find our favorite bar. Antonovsky A. Anchor Press. First. London. In composing the crew. 1995. Jossey-Bass. The key to this turned out to be the patient recovering his own sense of coherence. many valuable scientific discussions took place here. New York: Bantam. and health. Antonovsky A. Dozens of complex leadership tasks were shouldered by me using intuitive leadership. Boston: Mind Life Inst. Health. Know thyself have been the keywords for success for all human endeavors since the Oracle of Delphi in ancient Greece. CONCLUSIONS Very often in this complex world decisions must be made on the basis of limited information. Chopra D. but merely that I supported the person in developing trust in his or her intuitive truth. Through my work with people I slowly realized that what was important was not what I did. Man and his symbols. How people manage stress and stay well. 2003. The work of Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) on salutogenesis finally shed light and made me understand [6. stress and coping. Intuitive Leadership of Scientific Projects According to these experiences and learning it was a natural step for me to take over the responsibility for the research projects in the center where I was being trained.7]. New York: Bantam. human qualifications and real competency were more important than formal education and academic degrees. but if we dare to look deeper into ourselves for the answers we can actually foretell the future destiny of organizations. Healing emotions: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on the mindfulness. 1997. During the two years of the research project we produced several scientific papers that finally were published in a peer reviewed international journal [8-12]. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Goleman DL. 1985. Unravelling the mystery of health. Destructive emotions. 1964. projects and people. Jung CG. Our rational mind can only make a guess. Jossey-Bass. emotions. 1987. Emotional intelligence. New York. I took care of the team spirit by researching the local bars.

and ability by induction of Antonovsky-salutogenesis. Merrick J. Enevoldsen L. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) improves quality of life. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful. Thegler S. Ventegodt S. Andreasen T. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced physical illness and chronic pain. Merrick J. Intervention and follow-up in a clinical setting. [9] [10] [11] [12] . ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Enevoldsen L. Thegler S. Ventegodt S. Thegler S. Self-reported low self-esteem. Ventegodt S. Torp M. Thegler S. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Bassaine L. Struve F. Enevoldsen L. Torp M.7:317-23. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Struve F. Merrick J.7:306-9. Andreasen T. Enevoldsen L. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful.7:310-6. Thegler S. Ventegodt S. Andreasen T. Andreasen T. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced impaired sexual functioning.7:299-305.7:324-9. Torp M. Andreasen T. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Merrick J. Bassaine L. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Bassaine L. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced mental illness. health. Torp M. Bassaine L. Enevoldsen L. Merrick J. Struve F. Torp M. Bassaine L. Struve F. Struve F.200 [8] Lars Enevoldsen Ventegodt S.

PART IV: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .

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QOL Questionnaires are the questionnaires used in the Quality of Life Survey Study and later studies (see also chapters 15 and 17 in this book). Chapter 15 PUBLICATIONS ON QUALITY OF LIFE 1994-2008 FROM AN INTERNATIONAL GROUP OF COLLABORATORS Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick INTRODUCTION Our research over the past years has taken the form of several books. This is publications describing the philosophy on which the entire project is based. QOL Theory covers the related life and human points of view described theoretically. The research papers have been arranged according to several systematic categories according to the following headlines and topics: • QOL Methodology describes the method used to measure quality of life used with the Quality of Life Survey Study at the University Hospital (Rigshospitalet) in Copenhagen. Theories of Existence are new theories on quality of life and the human nature described coherently and concisely. QOL Results are results from the Quality of Life Survey Study. Quality of life as medicine” (1999).org). To seize the meaning of life and get well again” (1995). Denmark.livskvalitet. Inc. book chapters and peerreviewed scientific papers (see also the website: www. • • • • • . “Life philosophy that heals. QOL Philosophy describes the philosophy behind our work with quality of life presented in the books “Quality of life. “Consciousness-based medicine” (2003) and “Principles of Holistic Medicine.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. Philosophy behind quality of life” (2005).

[Danish] . Quality of Life. By uncovering a new holistic biological paradigm that introduces an energetic-informational interpretation of reality as a new way to experience biology. [Danish and English] 4. First of all. Measuring the quality of life. Ventegodt S. alcoholism and Whiplash Associated Disorders. Copenhagen: Forskningscenterets Forlag. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. to the function of the human brain and “adult human metamorphosis”. birth and infancy. Sense of coherence papers where we have used the concept of salutogenesis developed by Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) to help people heal. Results from a follow-up study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen 1959-61. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Measuring the quality of life. 1996. Discussion papers or shorter reviews in the public debate. 1996. like chronic pains. Results from a population survey. 1996. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. We believe it is important to participate in the public debate from the point of view of holistic health and medicine and have therefore used the opportunity to join in the debate. Human development is a series of papers to address a number of unsolved problems in biology today. Ventegodt S. Research summary papers for the scientific community to present and discuss our work over a longer time period. Working-life Quality. Ventegodt S. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. 1996. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. [Danish and English] 2. [Danish and English] 3. [Danish and English] 5. [Danish] 7. Ventegodt S. Result from a study of the Prospective Pediatric Cohort of persons born at the University Hospital in Copenhagen. the unsolved enigma concerning how the differentiation from a single zygote to an adult individual happens has been object for severe research through decades. Quality of life in Denmark. QOL as Medicine describes results from the treatment of patients suffering from various chronic diseases. 1995. The quality of life of 4500 31-33 year-olds. To seize the meaning of life and become well again. To become valuable to yourself and your surroundings. Ventegodt S. From theory to practice. 6. 1995. Clinical holistic medicine describes how to deal with the variety of problems presented by the patients in the medical clinic using holistic medicine. these papers try to solve the problems connected with the events of biological ontogenesis from a single cell involvement in the fractal hierarchy. whenever the occasion arise. 1995. The quality of life and factors in pregnancy. • • • • • • Books Published 1. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag.204 • Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick Holistic Medicine describes our research program for the holistic-medical project ? a new research paradigm for researching alternative and holistic medicine and a theory for process of holistic healing.

ed. Merrick J. In: Merrick J. 2005. In: Prescott AP. Morad M. Copenhagen: Forskningscenterets Forlag. Kandel I. The concept of self in medicine and health care. 2006:163-71. Concept of self in holistic medicine: Coming from love. Global quality of life. [Danish] 13. 4. Flensborg-Madsen T. Merrick J. . Research findings from Denmark 1991-2004. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ. Victoria. Ventegodt S. 3. eds. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. freeing the soul. London. Kandel I. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Tel Aviv. Health Services in the 21th Century. Positive youth development. [Danish] 10. 2003. BC: Trafford. 228 pages. 2005:9-17. Principles of holistic medicine. 259 pages. 1994:81-3 2. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. Copenhagen: Forskningscenterets Forlag. Consciousness-based medicine. [Danish and English] 11. eds. In: Shek DTL. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Shek DTL. 1999. Ventegodt S. 1999. Tel Aviv: Freund. New York: Nova Sci Publ. Philosophy of life that heals. 2005. 19. 372 pages. Positive youth development program in Hong Kong. 262 pages. 14. Aging and disability.Publications on Quality of Life 1994-2008 … 205 8. Kandel I. New York: Hippocrates Sci Publ. Principles of holistic medicine. Merrick J. Netherlands: Springer. Merrick J. An international perspective. Copenhagen: Forskningscenterets Forlag. Quality of life reearch in Chinese. 9. eds. 15. Ventegodt S. Philosophy behind quality of life. 2007. Chapters in Books 1. Philosophy of life and suicide. Nielsen M. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. 2006. Quality of life and health. 441 pages. 2006. Merrick J. Copenhagen: Forskningscentrets Forlag. 2005:87-122. Ma HK. Shek DTL. 400 pages. Lee PSN. Chan YK. Suicidal behavior in adolescence. the ego and the physical self. Committee Health Information. Zalsman G. 16. research and methodology. 2000. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Research and clinical perspectives. [Danish] 12. 2005. Suicidal behavior in adolescence. Merrick J. BC: Int Acad Press. 2007. The quality of life and major events in life. The need for a new medical model. Freund. Victoria. Dordrecht. Western and global contexts. A tool for employees and leaders. Copenhagen. Kandel I. Principles of holistic medicine. Ventegodt S. health and ability are primarily determined by our consciousness. Quality of life as medicine. 18. Working-life Quality. London/Tel Aviv: Freund. 17. An international perspectice. In: Lund AB. 378 pages. Ventegodt S. ed. 2001. Zalsman G. London. Theory. Global quality of life (QOL). Ventegodt S. Development of a pioneering program in a Chinese context. eds. Schofield P. Quality of life and disease. London/Tel Aviv: Freund.

Andersen NJ. QOL Philosophy 1. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. . Measurement of quality of life I: A methodological framework. Merrick J. Merrick J. BC: Int Acad Press. Andersen NJ.3:1020-29.3:962-71.3:1164-75. QOL5.livskvalitet. Merrick J. Andersen NJ. Andersen NJ. Quality of life philosophy I. What is a good death? In: Kandel I. Ventegodt S.3:1117-27. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Measurement of quality of life II: From the philosophy of life to science. The square curve paradigm for research in alternative. 5. complementary and holistic medicine: A cost-effectice. Ventegodt S. 6. Measurement of quality of life VII: Statistical covariation and global quality of life data. Measurement of quality of life V: How to use the SEQOL. Merrick J.206 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick 5. Merrick J. New York: Nova Sci Publ. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. 2. In: Kandel I. 8. Quality of life. Schofield P. BC: Int Acad Press.org) Quality of Life (QOL) Methodology 1. Merrick J. Schofield P.3:1160-3. Merrick J. Merrick J. Merrick J. 2007:259-68. Aging and disability. Ventegodt S.3:1015-9. Measurement of quality of life III: From the IQOL theory to the global. QOL5. Andersen NJ. easy and scientifically valid design for evidence-based medicine and quality improvement. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Quality of life philosophy: when life sparkles or can we make wisdom a science? ScientificWorld Journal 2003. 3. 7. Measurement of quality of life IV: Use of the SEQOL. Victoria. Ventegodt S. generic SEQOL questioinnaire. Andersen NJ. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. 2007:241-52.3:992-1001. Ventegodt S. QOL1 and other and generic questionnaires for research. QOL1 and other global and generic questioinnaires. The method of weight-modified liniar regression. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Andersen NJ.3:1002-14. 2. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Research and clinical perspectives. Ventegodt S.3:972-91. Andersen NJ. Victoria. Focus on lifestyle and health research. ed. Merrick J. Measurement of quality of life VI: Qualityadjusted life years (QALY) is an unfortunate use of quality of life concept. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. 7. happiness and meaning in life. 2005:1-22. 6. Merrick J. Peer-reviewed Scientific Papers (See also www. Research and clinical perspectives. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Hilden J. 4. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2003. Ventegodt S. Aging and disability. Suicide in holistic medicine. What is the most efficient way to improve health: Changing your lifestyle or improving your quality of life? In: Kinger LV.3:950-61.

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(CHM-3) 5. Kandel I. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Merrick J. and cranio sacral herapy did not help in Chronic WhiplashAssociated Disorders (WAD). Ventegodt S.4:34761. Clinical holistic medicine: Prevention through healthy lifestyle and quality of life. A combination of gestalt therapy. Ventegodt S. Morad M. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Morad M.4:295-306. (CHM-13) . Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: Classic art of healing or the therapeutic touch.4:571-80. Ventegodt S. Morad M. Morad M. Results of a randomized clinical trial. Hyam E. The multiparadigmatic physician and the medical record.210 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick with existential holistic group therapy or a quality of life course as a modern rite of passage. Merrick J. (CHM-12) 14. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. (CHM-11) 13.4:1055-68.2(Suppl 1):239-45. M.4:124-33. (CHM-10) 12. (CHM-4) 6. Morad M. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Ventegodt S. (CHM-1 in our terminology) 3.4:562-70. 9CHM-7) 9. Kandel I. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: Applied consciousness-based medicine. Bendix T. Clinical holistic medicine: Problems in sex and living together. Vardi G.4:273-85. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Merrick J. (CHM-6) 8. ScientificWorld Journal 2004.4:333-46.4:96-9. Ventegodt S.4:716-24. ScientificWorld Journal 2004.4:14858. Merrick J. (CHM-9) 11. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Merrick J. Clinical holistic medicine: The “new medicine”.4:581-8. (CHM-2) 4. Morad M. Clinical holistic medicine: Holistic treatment of children. Merrick J. Morad M. Morad M. Morad M. Merrick J. Hyam E.4:134-47. Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Clinical holistic medicine: Use and limitations of the biomedical paradigm. Andersen NJ. Oral Health Prev Dent 2004. Morad M. 2. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. (CHM-5) 7. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Morad M. Clinical holistic medicine: When biomedicine is inadequate. Clinical holistic medicine: Holistic sewxology and treatment of vulvodynia through existential therapy and acceptance through touch. Clinical Holistic Medicine 1. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Andersen NJ. Merrick J. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2004.4:286-94. examplified by hypertention and tinnitus. Clinical holistic medicine: Holistic pelvic examination and holistic treatment of infertility. 4. Ventegodt S. Clinical holistic medicine: Treatment of physical health problems without a known cause. (CHM-8) 10. Clinical holistic medicine: A psychological theory of dependency to improve quality of life. Clinical holistic medicine: Social problems disguised as illness. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Hyam E. Clinical holistic medicine: Tools for a medical science based on consciousness. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Morad M. ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Merrick J. Morad.4:638-48. Rosen body work.

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Flensborg-Madsen T. Nielsen ML.6:1434-40. Merrick J. Rald E. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. First do no harm. Human development IX: A model of the wholeness of man. 2. ScientificWorld Journal 2006.6:747-59. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Flensborg-Madsen T. Hermansen TD. Rald E. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Merrick J. 4. Clausen B. Clinical holistic medicine: Factors influencing the therapeutic decision-making. Merrick J. Kandel I. Hermansen TD.6:767-76. The living cell has information-directed selforganization. We need an integrated theory for matter.6:1424-33. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Merrick J.6:1359-67.6:760-6. Human development VII: A spiral fractal model of fine structure of physical energy could explain central aspects of biological information. Nielsen ML. Flensborg-Madsen T. Human development II.6:1132-8. Rald E. 5. Merrick J.7:1932-49. Nielsen ML. Biomedicine or holistic medicine for treating mentally ill patients? A philosophical and economical analysis. From academic knowledge to emotional intelligence and spiritual “crazy” wisdom. Flensborg-Madsen T. poly-ray) cosmology. Clausen B. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Nielsen M. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Merrick J. Human development V: Biochemistry unable to explain the emergence of biological form (morphogenesis) and therefore a new principle as source of biological information is needed. Itroduction to “deep” (fractal. Human development VI: Supracellular morphogenesis. Clausen B. Merrick J. biological organization and biological creativity. 1. Ventegodt S.6:1441-53. Ventegodt S. Clausen B. Hermansen TD. 8. Nielsen ML. Kandel I. his consciousness and collective consciousness. Ventegodt S. Nielsen ML.7:1978-1986. Human development I. The origin of biological and cellular order. 9. Merrick J. Hermansen TD. Bridging brain-mind and body-mind. 9. Flensborg-Madsen T. 6. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Hermansen TD. (CHM-45) 47. Flensborg-Madsen T. Flensborg-Madsen T. Clausen B. medicine and neuropsychology related to biological information. Human development III. Hermansen TD.6:1454-9. Hermansen TD. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Hermansen TD. An analysis of the risk aspects and side effects of clinical holistic medicine compared with standard psychiatric biomedical treatment. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Merrick J. Nielsen ML. 7. Rald E. 3. Nielsen ML. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. (CHM-46) 48. Human development VIII: A theory of “deep” quantum chemistry and cell consciousness: Quantum chemistry controls genes and biochemistry to give cells and higher organisms consciousness and complex behavior. Nielsen ML. Human development IV. life and consciousness to understand life and healing. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Rald E. (CHM-47) Human Development 1.Publications on Quality of Life 1994-2008 … 213 46. Twenty fundamental problems of biology. Ventegodt S.7:1810-20. Ventegodt S. . Hermansen TD.

Copenhagen. 1991-2007. Research findings from Denmark 1991-2004. Merrick J. (ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Andreasen T. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Merrick J.1:183-93. Sense of coherence and physical health. 4. Flensborg-Madsen T.7:317-23. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Flensborg-Madsen T. Sense of coherence and physical health.214 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick 10. A review of previous findings. Struve F. Sense of coherence and physical health. Bassaine L. Ventegodt S. health and ability for use in holistic medicine. 7. Merrick J. TSW Holistic Health Med 2006.6:2133-9). (ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Quality of life and philosophy of life determines physical and mental health: Status over research findings from the Quality of Life Research Center. Testing Antonovsky’s theory.1:248-55. Thegler S. (ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Torp M. The life mission theory VII. Ventegodt S. Flensborg-Madsen T. 5. short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) improves quality of life. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2007. Kandel I. Ventegodt S.5:767-76. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. A cross-sectional study using a new scale (SOC II). Nielsen M. Flensborg-Madsen T. Flensborg-Madsen T. Research Summary Papers 1. TSW Holistic Health Med 2006. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful. Ventegodt S. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. ScientificWorld Journal 2006. 8. The origin of metamorphosis. Flensborg-Madsen T.71:87-122. Sense of coherence and physical health. Theory of existential (Antonovsky) coherence: A theory of quality of life. Andersen NJ. health and ability are primarily determined by our consciousness.5:377-89. Merrick J. Merrick J. The construction of an amendment to Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale (SOC II). Sense of Coherence Papers 1. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. 2. Human development X: Explanation of macroevolution — top-down evolution materializes consciousness. Mohammed M.6:2200-11). Ventegodt S. TSW-Holistic Health Med 2006. Merrick J. Social Indicator Research 2005.7:1743-51. 6. Flensborg-Madsen T. Merrick J. Flensborg-Madsen T. Enevoldsen L. Ventegodt S.6:1656-66. Sense of coherence and health. TSW-Holistic Health Med 2006. Ventegodt S. . The emotional sense of coherence (SOC-E) was found to be the best-known predictor of physical health. Ventegodt S. Andersen NJ. Global quality of life (QOL).5:665-73. health and ability by induction of Antonovsky-Salutogenesis.1:236-47.6:2147-57). (ScientificWorld Journal 2006. Merrick J.6:2212-9).1:169-75. Hermansen TD. 2. 3. Why is Antonovsly’s sense of coherence not correlated to physical health? Analysing Antonovsky’s 29-item sense of coherence scale (SOC-29).

bmjjournals. BMJ 2004 Jul 23 on-line at http://bmj. Chronic illness.4:483-9.bmjjournals. Kandel I. Spiritual health. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in residential care centers for people with intellectual disability. Merrick J. Merrick J. Merrick J.bmjjournals. Morad M. Merrick J. Medicine has gone astray – we must reverse the alienation now. Philosophy of science: How to identify the potential research for the day after tomorrow? ScientificWorld Journal 2004. Kandel I. Ventegodt S.com/cgi/eletters/328/7446/1016-a#57718 4. Morad M. People with intellectual disability.com/cgi/eletters/330/7492/657#100776 . Ventegodt S.bmjjournals. Ventegodt S. A different academic training is needed. BMJ 2004 Aug 20 on-line at http://bmj. BMJ 2005 Mar 10 on-line at http://bmj.Publications on Quality of Life 1994-2008 … Short Reviews in the Public Debate 215 1. com/cgi/eletters/329/7463/414#71560 8. health needs and policy. Merrick J. stop it.com/cgi/eletters/329/7473/987#85053 12. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S.bmjjournals. 13. BMJ 2004 Sept 15 on-line at http://bmj. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. BMJ 2005 Jan 15 online at http://bmj. BMJ 2004 Jul 30 on-line at http://bmj. Challenge of chronic disease is the challenge of understanding life.com/cgi/eletters/329/7472/927#80636 11. Vardi G.bmjjournals. Flensborg-Madsen T. Medicine and the past. Morad M. Merrick J. Merrick J. the patient and the holistic medical toolbox. Academic medicine must deliver skilled physicians. Merrick J. Kandel I. Merrick J. Ventegodt S. Kandel I. Morad M.bmjjournals.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/328/7437/0-g#50997 3. Ventegodt S.com/ cgi/eletters/329/7460/250#69316 7. Kandel I. What is a good death ? To use death as a mirror and find the quality of life. Merrick J. intellectual disability and health care.bmjjournals. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. BMJ 2004 Oct 22 on-line at http://bmj. The social medicine of our time. BMJ 2004 February 20 online at http://bmj. Merrick J. Placebo explained: Consciousness causal to health. BMJ 2004 Jul 16 on-line at http://bmj. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Ventegodt S.com/cgi/eletters/329/7469/0-g#77606 10.com/cgi/eletters/330/7483/107#92872 14.com/cgi/eletters/329/7459/204#68360 6.com/cgi/ eletters/330/7490/515#99806 15. bmjjournals. Merrick J. Merrick J.com/ cgi/eletters/329/7466/582#74372 9. Holistic adolescent sexology: How to counsel and treat young people to alleviate and prevent sexual problems. BMJ 2005 Mar 18 on-line at http://bmj. Ventegodt S. Maternal smoking and quality of life more than thirty years later.bmjjournals. Morad M. Morad M. BMJ 2003 October 31 online at http://bmj. Evidence based medicine in favor of biomedicine and it seems that holistic medicine has been forgotten? BMJ 2004 Nov 11 on-line at http://bmj. BMJ 2004 Oct 09 on-line at http://bmj. Lesson to learn about the pelvic examination and its sexuality suppressive procedure. Morad M.com/ cgi/eletters/329/7458/123#67434 5.com/ cgi/eletters/327/7406/66#39303 2. Ventegodt S. If it doesn’t work. Do something else! BMJ 2004 Apr 26 online at Http://bmj.

BMJ 2005 November 24 on-line: http://bmj. Merrick J. Merrick J.1:13-20.216 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick 16. (ScientificWorld Journal 2006. CAM is tested unfairly against placebo – CAM is offering highly efficient placebo cures that should be tested with respect for its nature.bmjjournals. Ventegodt S.bmjjournals. Merrick J. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. South Med J 2005.com/cgi/ eletters/331/7526/0-d#122164 17. Psychosomatic reasons for chronic pain. Merrick J.com/cgi/eletters/332/7536/0-f#127464 23. Kandel I. 22. BMJ 2007 Oct 14 On-line: http://www. Ventegodt S. Merrick J. Omar H.bmj. 20. Suicide from a holistic point of view. Ital J Pediatr 2005.5:759-66.98(11):1063. Merrick E. 21. Ventegodt S. 18. The consensus paradigm for qualitative research in holistic medicine. Morad M.com/cgi/eletters/335/ 7623/743#178119 . The problem of consciousness. Merrick J.5:93-102.31:284-7. ScientificWorld Journal 2005. Ventegodt S.6:1977-84). TSW Holistic Health Med 2006. Holistic adolescent medicine. Ventegodt S. 19. Merrick J. BMJ 2006 February 03 on-line at: http://bmj. Clinical holistic medicine: The Dean Ornish Program (“Opening the Heart”) in cardiovascular disease. Ventegodt S. Rationality and irrationality in Ryke Geerd Hammer’s system for holistic treatment of metastatic cancer. Andersen NJ. Ventegodt S. Ventegodt S. Merrick J.

The cohort was during 1980-1989 directed by the pediatrician Joav Merrick. Chapter 16 ABOUT THE QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH CENTER IN COPENHAGEN INTRODUCTION The Quality of Life Research Center in Copenhagen was established in 1989. if a substantial part of diseases are caused by a low quality of life. MD. if we make a . An interdisciplinary “Working group for the quality of life in Copenhagen” was established and when funds were raised in 1991 the University Hospital of Copenhagen (Rigshospitalet) opened its doors for the project. PhD. deliverty and early childhood. PhD and the late Bengt Zachau-Christiansen. when the physician Søren Ventegodt succeeded in getting a collaboration started with the Department of Social Medicine at the University of Copenhagen in response to the project “Quality of life and causes of disease”. This Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort was established by the a gynecologist and a pediatrician. MD. who had made intensive studies during pregnancy. QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER The Quality of Life Center at the University Hospital generated grants. The focus was to study quality of life related to socio-economic status and health in order to compare with the data collected during pregnancy. the work was organized into a statistics group. a software group that developed the computer programs for use in the data entry and a group responsible for analysis of the data. However. DMSc.006 pregnancies and the children delivered during 1959-61. early childhood and young adulthood. the late Aage Villumsen. until he moved to Israel. It is obvious that a single person cannot do much about his/her own disease. publicity with research and discussions among the professionals leading to the claim that quality of life was significant for health and disease. MD. Inc. we can all prevent a lot of disease and operate as our own physicians.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. The project continued to grow and later in 1993. The main task was a comprehensive follow-up of 9. if it is caused by chemical defects in the body or outside chemicalphysical influences.

However there is more to Western culture and lifestyle than these factors and if we only focus on them we can risk overlooking others. Thus increasing time and effort is spent on developing public health strategies to promote “healthy” lifestyles. the lack of regular exercise and a high fat. QUALITY OF LIFE OF 10. This view of the role of personal responsibility for illness and health would naturally lead to a radical re-consideration of the role of the physician and also influence our society. which have used the competence of the reseach center and its tools on quality of life and quality of working life. it is not a simple task to identify and dispel the negative and unhealthy parts of our modern lifestyle even with numerous behavioural factors that can be readily highlighted harmful. the number of full-time employees have grown. Another a project about quality of life after apoplectic attacks at one of the major hospitals in Copenhagen and the Danish Agency for Industry granted funds for a project about the quality of work life.218 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick personal effort and work to improve our quality of life. A series of investigations showed that this was indeed possible. The data is now also an important part of Veenhoven’s Database on Happiness at Rotterdam University in the Netherlands. include IBM. micro-organisms. INDEPENDENT QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH CENTER In 1994. which have been published and received extended public coverage and public impact in Denmark and Scandinavia. Lego. low fibre diet. along with more than 300 public and private companies. One was a project that aimed to prevent illness and social problems among the elderly in one of the municipalities by inspiring the elderly to improve their quality of life themselves. infection or genetic defects) are lifestyle related and as such. It started in Denmark. from theory to practice over several projects on the quality of life in Denmark.000 DANES There is a general consensus that many of the diseases that plague the Western world (which are not the result of external factors such as starvation. such as lectures. The companies. municipalities. courses. several ministries. We refer to other large parts of our life. The National Defense Center for Leadership and many other management training institutions. a number of counties. The center’s research on the quality of life have been through several phases from measurement of quality of life. However. The Research Center is still expanding and several companies and numerous institutions make use of the resources. use of tobacco. The Quality of Life Research Center became an independent institution located in the center of the old Copenhagen. NEW RESEARCH Since The Quality-of-Life Research Center became independent a number of new research projects were launched. several banks. preventable through lifestyle changes. Today. for . like the use of alcohol. consulting or contract research. but has expanded to involve the whole Scandinavian area.

was about mapping the medical systems of the pre-modern cultures of the world.2. their nature. The subsequent result may show a significant. our perception of reality and our quality of life) and the degree of happiness we experience through the different dimensions of our existence. The results showed that health had a stronger correlation to quality of life (r= 0. This model was later further developed and represented in the integrative QOL theories and a number of publications. the clinician or researcher.5. be isolated and examined. discussed the dimension. A simple. and the QOL philosophy.0001). In order to investigate this multifactorial dimension a cross-sectional survey examining close to 10. “sense of coherence”.501 persons between the ages 18-88 years and 4. shangomas and spiritual leaders noticing most surprisingly similarities. one-dimensional hypothesis is then postulated. allowing him together with about 20 colleagues at the QOL Study Group at the University of Copenhagen. like a change of diet. who developed the salutogenic model of health and illness. as perhaps the deepest and most important dimension of quality of life. The questionnaire was mailed in February 1993 to 2. . manipulated and ensuing changes to circulatory function monitored.0% and 64. The multi-factorial dimension is therefore often overlooked.1% respectively). The medical sociologist Aaron Antonovsky (1923-1994) from the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben Gurion University in Beer-Sheva. sides with only one of the possible dimensions stated above. randomly selected from the CPR (Danish Central Register) and 7.000 Danes was undertaken in order to investigate the connection between lifestyle. like for instance that cholesterol is harmful to circulation. quality of life and health status by way of a questionnaire based survey. and the most recent theories of existence. A total of 1. though small connection.0001). their location in human existence and the way to approach them through human consciousness. which supports the initial hypothesis and in turn becomes the basis for implementing preventive measures. Based on this philosophical breakthrough the Quality of Life Research Center was established at the University hospital.460 persons aged between 18-88. p<0. Søren Ventegodt visited several countries around the globe in the late 1980s and analysed about 10 pre-modern medical systems and a dozen of shamans.222 persons from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61. Cholesterol levels are then measured. 1980-1990. to some degree. Typically. that is closely related to the dimension of “life meaning”. A huge task seemingly successfully accomplished in the Quality of Life (QOL) theories.Publications on Quality of Life 1994-2008 … 219 instance the way we think about and perceive life (our life attitudes. The first phase. to model the connection between QOL and health. COLLABORATIONS ACROSS BORDERS The project has been developed during several phases. than it had to lifestyle (r=0. It was concluded that preventable diseases could be more effectively handled through a concentrated effort to improve quality of life rather than through n approach that focus solely on the factors that are traditionally seen to reflect an unhealthy life style. when attempting to reveal a connection between health and a certain factor. understanding their philosophies and practices and merging this knowledge with western biomedicine. explaining the human nature. p< 0. and especially the hidden resources of man.626 persons between the ages 31-33 years returned the questionnaire (response rates 61. These factors or dimensions can now.

Around the year 2000 an international scientific network started to take form with an intense collaboration with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in Israel. 1 sal. MSc Quality of Life Research Center. holistic medicine). For the next 10 years the difficult task of integrating bio-medicine and the traditional medicine went on and Søren Ventegodt again visited several centers and scientists at the Universities of New York. Dalai Lama and many other leading persons in the field of holistic medicine and spirituality. rich or poor. MMedSci. What is extremely interesting is that most diseases can be alleviated with all three sets of medical tools. the bio-medicine (with drugs and pharmacology) and the consciousness-based medicine (scientific. Dean Ornish.org . Stanford and other institutions. DK-2100 Copenhagen O. Denmark E-mail: ventegodt@livskvalitet. which has now developed the concept of “Holistic Medicine”. The physician. Louise Hay. We believe that the trained physician today has three medical toolboxes: the manual medicine (traditional). A QOL conference in 1993 with more than 100 scientific participants discussed the connection between QOL and the development of disease and its prevention. Classensgade 11C.220 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick Here a brood cooperation took place with many interested physicians and nurses from the hospital.livskvalitet. Berkeley. but only the bio-medical toolset is highly expensive. CONTACT PERSON Director Søren Ventegodt. using his hands and his consciousness to improve the health of the patient by mobilising hidden resources in the patient can use his skills in any cultural setting. MD. He also met people like David Spiegel.org Website: http://www. Four physicians collaborated on the QOL population survey 1993.

politicians. intellectual disability and related aspects of human development. rehabilitation. teaching. In 1998 the National Council for Child Health and Pediatrics. public health. Ministry of Health and in 1999 the Director General and Deputy Director General of the Ministry of Health endorsed the establishment of the NICHD. Ministry of Social Affairs in order to function as the research arm for the Office of the Medical Director. clinical work. the general public and the media concerned with the care of children. the disabled and the intellectually disabled in our society.In: Health and Happiness from Meaningful Work Editors: Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick ISBN 978-1-60692-820-2 © 2009 Nova Science Publishers. welfare. MISSION The mission of a National Institute for Child Health and Human Development in Israel is to provide an academic focal point for the scholarly interdisciplinary study of child life. SERVICE AND ACADFEMIC ACTIVITIES Over the years many activities became focused in the south of Israel due to collaboration with various professionals at the Faculty of Health Sciences (FOHS) at the Ben Gurion University of the Negev (BGU). information and public service activities in the field of child health and human development. This mission includes research. but also as a national research and policy institute on child health and human development. health. disability. Inc. Since 2000 an affiliation with the Zusman Child Development Center at the Pediatric Division of Soroka University Medical Center has resulted in collaboration . Chapter 17 ABOUT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN ISRAEL INTRODUCTION The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in Israel was established in 1998 as a virtual institute under the auspicies of the Medical Director. The Institute should eventually be the obvious resource to turn to for professionals.

Ben Gurion University of the Negev. Center for Pediatric Chronic Illness. From 2002 a full course on “Disability” was established at the Recanati School for Allied Professions in the Community. FOHS. New York). From 2005 collaboration was started with the Primary Care Unit of the faculty and disability became part of the master of public health course on “children and society”. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health and the Journal of Pain Management all published by Nova Science. Tel HaShomer. NATIONAL COLLABORATIONS Nationally the NICHD works in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences. From the academic year 2005-2006 a one semester course on “aging with disability” was started as part of the master of science program in gerontology in collaboration with the Center for Multidisciplinary Research in Aging. Sackler School of Medicine. Department of Physical Therapy. National Rett and PKU Centers at Chaim Sheba Medical Center. College of Judea and Samaria in Ariel and recently also collaborations has been established with the Division of Pediatrics at Hadassah.000 publications since 1998).222 Søren Ventegodt and Joav Merrick around the establishment of the Down Syndrome Clinic at that center. Haifa University. BGU and twice a year seminars for specialists in family medicine. Autism Center. Academic activity has also taken place within the Ministry of Social Affairs for medical and allied health professionals in collaborations with most universities in Israel and relevant academic colleges. in 2006 the TSW-Holistic Health and Medicine of the Scientific World Journal (New York and Kirkkonummi. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES The affiliated (volunteer) staff has over the years published work from projects and research activities in this national and international collaboration (about 1. Ramat Gan. In 2007 a collaboration with the Center for Women’s Health Studies and Promotion was started around the issue of home visitation for young pregnant mothers and their children. in the year 2003 the TSW-Child Health and Human Development. Tel Aviv University. In the year 2000 the International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health and in 2005 the International Journal on Disability and Human development of Freund Publishing House (London and Tel Aviv). Bar Ilan University. Department of Education. Faculty of Social Sciences and Health Sciences. Department of Physiotherapy. Har HaZofim in Jerusalem. This collaboration with seven international journals has resulted in further projects worldwide and the possibility to publish the research in special peer-reviewed issues or other publications. all peer-reviewed international journals have been affiliated with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. . Assaf HaRofeh Medical Center. Finland) and in 2008 the International Journal of Child Health and Human Development.

International Centre for the Study of Occupational and Mental Health. University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. Division of Neuroscience. Columbia University. Texas. University of Albany. Strong Center for Developmental Disabilities. CONTACT PERSON Joav Merrick. Office of the Medical Director. College of Applied Health Sciences. Nordic School of Public Health. Boston. Germany. Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Research Center. Chinese University.com . MMedSci. Ottawa. Division for Mental Retardation. Centre for Advanced Studies in Nursing. Aberdeen. University of Aberdeen. Department Psychiatry. Sweden. Section of Adolescent Medicine. Children's Hospital at Westmead. Department of General Practice and Primary Care. IL-91012 Jerusalem. Israel.About the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel 223 INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIONS Internationally with the Department of Disability and Human Development. New York. Centre on Intellectual Disabilities. Child Health and Adolescent Medicine. New York. Houston. POB 1260. Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control. Department of Psychiatry. MD. University of Kentucky. Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services. Hong Kong. Health Canada.il.United Kingdom. Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong. Department of Paediatrics. Children’s Hospital Boston. Lexington. Scandinavian Institute of Quality of Working Life. New York. Copenhagen. Gottenburg. University of Illinois at Chicago. Website: www. Oslo. Norway. Westmead. Dusseldorf. Atlanta. Centre for Quality of Life of the Hong Kong Institue of Asia-Pacific Studies and School of Social Work. E-mail: jmerrick@internet-zahav. Kentucky Children’s Hospital. Chandler Medical Center and Children’s Hospital.nichd-israel. Quality of Life Research Center.net. Center for Autism and Related Disorders. Institute for the Study of Disadvantage and Disability. Baylor College of Medicine. DMSc. Australia. Denmark.

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Denmark. MD 21201 United States.woo@gmail. Friisebrygga 2. MA. E-mail: jmerrick@internetzahav. DMSc. University of Kentucky. Postolache. Ariel and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Norwegian School of Management. E-mail: niels. 2700 Martin Luther King Junior Ave SE. Israel. Quality of Life Research Center. Jung-gu. 1 sal.com Joav Merrick. Ariel University Center of Samaria. MSc. Website: www. Lexington.il.asp?n=Kandel_I Tatiana Menick.com . IL-91012 Jerusalem.no/ users/fgl93013/ Lars Enevoldsen. IL44852.net. 1 sal.il/ba/Faculty. ariel. MD. E-mail tmenick@yahoo. Division for Mental Retardation. Professor. MMedSci. DK-2100 Copenhagen O. Faculty of Social Sciences. Address: Maaleh Shomron. Associate Professor and Director. Department of Behavioral Sciences.andersen@bi. 20032 United States. MMedSci. MD. POBox 1260. E-mail: larsenevoldsen2@msn. Baltimore. Professor of Pediatrics.ABOUT THE AUTHORS Niels Jørgen Andersen.no. Office of the Medical Director. 685 West Baltimore Street.nichd-israel. St.bi.livskvalitet. Director. 501. Israel. Website: www. PhD. Washington DC.ac. Email: tpostolache@psych. MD.org. N-3921 Porsgrunn. St. Classensgade 11C. Jerusalem and Kentucky Children’s Hospital. Department of Psychiatry. PhD. MSTF Building Room 502. Norway. Korea 100-032. Denmark.com Isack Kandel. Senior lecturer. Department of Innovation and Economic Organization. Ministry of Social Affairs. Israel. Address: Medical director. Barton Hall. Website: http://www. Classensgade 11C.com/home Søren Ventegodt.com. MD.j. Seoul Paik Hospital.net. MD. DK-2100 Copenhagen O. United States. Department of Psychiatry. Ministry of Social Affairs. googlepages. E-mail: ventegodt@ livskvalitet. University of Maryland School of Medicine. Quality of Life Research Center. Email: jongmin. Elizabeths Hospital Psychiatry Residency Training. Seoul. Inje University College of Medicine.edu Jong-Min Woo. E-mail: kandelii@zahav. Elizabeths Hospital. Jerusalem. Lev Shomron. Home-page: http://jmerrick50. 85 Jurdong-2-ga. Website: http://www. EU-MSc. Mood and Anxiety Program (MAP). National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.umaryland. Psychiatrist.org Teodor T.

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quality of life and prevention. E-Mail: ventegodt@livskvalitet.il Website: www. intellectual disability. MD. welfare. child health and human development affiliated with Kentucky Children’s Hospital. MD. EU-MSc in Complementary. He is also responsible for a Clinical Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen and used as a popular speaker throughout Scandinavia. the very short QOL5 questionnaire. quality of life and quality of working life. rehabilitation. and the ongoing Danish Quality of Life Research Survey.org Website: www. Israel. Psychosocial and Integrated Health Sciences is the director of the Nordic School of Holistic Health and Quality of Life Research Center in Copenhagen. abuse. E-Mail: jmerrick@internet-zahav. His most important scientific contributions are the comprehensive SEQOL questionnaire. MMedSci. is professor of pediatrics.org Joav Merrick. Lexington. Soroka University Medical Center. Division of Pediatrics. Ben Gurion University. Ministry of Social Affairs. Beer-Sheva. United States and the Zusman Child Development Center.ABOUT THE EDITORS Søren Ventegodt. Received the Peter Sabroe Child Award for outstanding work on behalf of Danish Children in 1985 and the International LEGO-Prize (“The Children’s Nobel Prize”) for an extraordinary contribution towards improvement in child welfare and well-being in 1987. Jerusalem.com . Bengt ZachauChristiansen. 1991-94 in cooperation with the University Hospital of Copenhagen and the late professor of pediatrics. the founder and director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.nichd-israel. disability. Denmark. child health and human development. the holistic process theory. MD.livskvalitet. advocacy.net. Numerous publications in the field of pediatrics. health. the life mission theory. DMSc. University of Kentucky. He has published numerous scientific or popular articles and a number of books on holistic medicine. the integrated QOL theory. PhD. MMedSci. the medical director of the Division for Mental Retardation.

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98. 120. 178 American Psychiatric Association (APA). 199. 177. 29. 175. 209 alertness. 63. 63. 193 aging. 177 assets. 171 autoimmune. 178. 204. 206. 171. 191 adjustment. 173. 49 achievement. 177. 52. 39. 30 arthritis. 37. 179 animals. 161. 185 assessment. 194 administration. 213. 18. 51. 218 attention. 80. 168. 227 affective disorder. 77. 178 afternoon. 194 alcohol. 45. 38. 168. 97. 98. 177. 179 American Psychological Association. 29. 197 authority. 204. 174. 194. 193 academic. 93. 73 accommodation.INDEX A abnormalities. 192 atmosphere. 54. 74. 168. 112. 27 appendix. 88. 27. 167. 37. 211 atherosclerosis. 211 alternative. 86. 98. 169. 187 agents. 218 authenticity. 217 adults. 194 antihistamines. 56. 44 adolescence. 37. 178 agriculture. 67. 28. 168 allergy. 166 AIDS. 162. 188. 166. 211 air. 148. 80. 70. 66. 174. 81. 58. 211 . 176 accessibility. 222 agricultural. 173. 79. 85. 164. 161. 21 alcoholism. 218 alcoholics. 170. 192 administrative. 72. 181. 112. 208 adulthood. 176 affirmative action. 164. 167. 193 age. 188 advocacy. 198. 114 agent. 64. 69. 93 atrophy. 189. 190 anxiety. 6. 172 accidents. 190. 77 African-American. 169. 72. 209 alternatives. 57. 178 adaptation. 162. 166. 68. 99. 78. 51. 81. 32. 72. 72. 175 apathy. 60. 192 anxiety disorder. 161. 62. 163. 67. 98. 96. 92. 13. 98 argument. 186. 63 artificial. 5. 221. 92 accounting. 176. 72. 222 access. 78 athletes. 166. 181 amygdala. 193 antidepressant. 62. 194 attacks. 188 adenosine. 81. 6. 204. 171. 194 attitudes. 177. 91. 191 alienation. 205 adult. 185. 62. 163. 188. 167. 24. 57. 134. 191 antagonists. 168. 62. 91. 126 activation. 176. 194 air travel. 215 allergens. 16. 215. 168 antagonism. 114. 100. 73. 37. 83. 90. 92. 191 antioxidant. 82. 82. 54. 111 asthma. 54. 187. 167. 94. 190. 69. 166. 86. 92. 192. 63. 47. 185. 180 allergic. 191. 179 acute. 225. 14 alters.

65. 193 bipolar disorder. 47. 166. 186. 64. 65. 161. 50. 166 brain structure. 208 blame. 39 Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). 200. 186. 32. 195. 31. 188. 126. 178. 68. 212. 177. 194 circadian. 168. 133 benchmarking. 167. 74. 213 biological. 211. 187. 163 biochemistry. 217. 15. 99. 55. 164 cell. 207. 49. 215 chronic diseases. 189. 71 blaming. 63. 24. 191 beverages. 62. 171. 187 bone. 73. 192. 26. 216 chronic stress. 83. 211 autoimmune diseases. 185. 176 capacity. 189. 187. 53 child development. 213 behavioral difficulties. 80. 106. 186. 204 chronic illness. 200. 54. 155. 98. 34. 6. 31. 207. 123. 39. 179. 185. 162. 127 benefits. 123. 53. 173. 83 causal relationship. 58. 67. 194 B bacteria. 129. 172. 53 beating. 112. 204. 212. 169. 39. 32. 213 chemotherapy. 47. 173. 78. 171. 186 cervical. 193 awareness. 211 business. 162 burnout. 180. 180 body temperature. 83 cancer. 136 batteries. 52. 20. 94. 176. 114 benchmarks. 173. 107. 179. 166. 198 chemical. 195 caliber. 167 chemistry. 41. 211. 87. 217 chemicals. 153. 169. 187. 194 bias. 215. 190. 169. 219 chronic. 171 childhood. 213 bipolar. 12. 213 census. 213 biomedical. 161. 216 cast. 211 candidates. 78. 63. 212 children. 204. 169. 141. 185. 216 campaigns. 129 brain. 21. 204. 1. 83. 211 autopsy. 94. 204. 31. 172 CAM. 112. 53. 41. 50. 166. 162. 217 childhood sexual abuse. 179.230 autoimmune disease. 86. 166. 16. 53. 153 . 44. 205. 222 Chinese. 114. 213 brain damage. 37. 153 bullying. 209 child welfare. 195 blood. 63. 93. 127. 116. 70. 186 blood lead levels. 87. 21 chronic pain. 191 cholesterol. 171. 56. 99. 193. 208. 180. 34. 192. 100 benchmark. 223 chocolate. 195 circadian clock. 112. 179. 15. 193 birth. 178. 52. 204. 19. 51. 197. 16. 101. 166. 136. 190. 21. 63. 85. 187 CES. 32. 165. 60. 207. 71. 181 availability. 93. 32. 162. 209. 70. 164 beer. 60. 170 burn. 221. 178 blue-collar workers. 212. 32. 193. 176. 216 chronic disease. 168 banks. 188. 171 breast. 191. 179. 58. 69 barriers. 107. 188. 99. 58. 213 biology. 118. 168. 176 Index breast cancer. 167 beliefs. 169. 34. 204. 197 carbon. 210. 162 causality. 188. 194. 106. 218 barrier. 126. 28. 191. 161. 205. 63 basic needs. 52. 227 childcare. 70. 170. 164 chaotic. 198 butter. 204. 166. 107. 178 boredom. 199 behavior. 21. 25. 193. 70 C caffeine. 170. 106. 166. 211. 168. 83. 23 blindness. 213 biological form. 53. 44. 186. 52. 168 bacterial infection. 163. 166. 53. 185. 190. 118. 191. 191. 176 avoidance. 20. 173. 174. 179. 58. 188. 171. 180. 52. 58. 49 chronobiology. 178 cardiovascular. 210. 216 cardiovascular disease. 41. vii. 156. 182 benzodiazepine. 59. 172 cerebrospinal fluid. 167. 171 behavioral effects. 115.

187. 90. 191. 171 cortisol. 46. 45 community. 131 correlations. 198 controlled. 161. 156. 72. 126. 188. 190 communication. 194 cognitive function. 168 confidence. 194. 173. 218 construction. 181. 90. 199. 167. 186. 88. 216. 195 circulation. 207. 171 corticotropin. 163. 212. 150 clinical. 171. 46.Index circadian rhythm. 30. 194. 126. 210 clinical trials. 181. 86. 173. 219 clinicians. 81. 54 commodity. 188. 70. 96. 190 circadian rhythmicity. 122. 86. 134. 166 conflict. 213. 219 cohesiveness. 52. 72. 112. 217 collaboration. 177. 193. 15. 206. 162. 170. 27. 32. 216. 92 control. 20. 186. 43. 172 competitiveness. 57. 131. 159. 165. 21. 66. 95. 47. 188. 153 correlation. 48. 195 cognitive deficit. 194. 91. 85. 77. 213 CRH. 48. 210. 116 consumption. 93. 179 coverage. 80. 97. 197 classified. 214. 17. 173 coupling. 39. 14 clients. 219. 50. 222 collective unconscious. 116 common symptoms. 57 coronary heart disease. 52. 194 compounds. 215 counseling. 114. 186 circadian rhythms. 161. 16 confusion. 190. 161. 85. 178 corticosteroids. 31. 26. 112. 88 continuity. 66. 219 citizens. 167. 186 clinical trial. 169 cortical. 13. 163. 161 cohort. 130 consulting. 70. 31. 188. 166. 29. 192. 38. 182 conformity. 64. 198. 51. 221 clinical disorders. 123. 166. 210. 84. 14. 86. 45 commercial. 179. 220. 26. 194. 81 concentration. 181. 173 cleaning. 59. 126. 70. 182 conviction. 163 clinician. 43. 198 colleges. 166. 170. 180. 133. 185. 173. 57. 205. 95. 26. 37. 92. 114 competitor. 130. 73. 219 creative process. 191. 29. 130 communities. 128 components. 137 confounding variables. 220 consensus. 13 creativity. 166 cognitive. 16. 186. 141. 189. 28. 207. 179. 179. 180. 161 clinically significant. 54 consumers. 159. 158. 32. 106. 114. 1. 163. 163 cost-effective. 169. 156. 128. 1. 122. 170. 156. 164 confrontation. 176 countermeasures. 165 competence. 24. 46. 127. 15. 83. 1. 195 coherence. 178. 95. 154. 46. 185 computer. 115. 10. 151. 16. 195 circadian rhythm sleep disorders. 115 consciousness. 119 coffee. 188 cost-benefit analysis. 54. 58. 186. 112 continuing. 191 cognition. 54. 10. 107. vii. 69. 167. 74. 190. 50. 63. 161. 205. 29. 157. 11. 193 commercials. 45. 177. 158. vii. 218 consumer goods. 88. 47. 189. 21. 16. 101. 128. 206. 182 counsel. 191 cognitive performance. 217 computers. vii. 218 competency. 20. 89. 173. 122. 187 conception. 41. 204. 197. 200. 18. 187. 44 complementary. 171 . 199 competition. 169 closure. 127 classical. 214 consultants. 218 CPR. 217. 98. 182. 185. 2. 162. 221. 41. 163. 170 clinical presentation. 96. 48. 209. 47. 111. 173. 222 combat. 209 costs. 163. 18. 100. 19. 84. 53. 78. 126. 56. 214. 171. 80. 82. 21. 83 conditioning. 209. 13. 209 231 complexity. 100. 162. 164. 166. 192. 166 confidence interval. 19. 163 compensation. 182. 34. 169. 219 correlation coefficient. 213. 191. 156.

56. 113 disulfide. 116. 55. 168 delays. 46 dissatisfaction. 113. vii. 19. 40. 161. 107. 165. 195 disputes. 188 detection. 67. ix. 220 duration. 167. 163 economy. 167. 162. 162. 206. 221. 133. 111. 219 dietary. 94. 112. 177 depressive symptomatology. 81. 121. 217 deficits. 72. 119 eating. 113 drinking. 163. 97. 70. 51. 70. 190 differentiation. 167 criticism. 81. 130. 155. 86. 179. 218. 177. 165 cycles. 140. 54 depressed. 194 defects. 95. 114. 12. 217 economic change. 63. 221 discipline. 26. 187. 115. 157 drug abuse. 179. 39. 171. 77 culture. 114. 27. 178. 6. 95. 69. 172. 61. 1 dysphoria. 181 division. 190 delivery. 1. 77 dream. 19. 179 diagnostic. 173. 223. 106. 176. 181. 191 definition. 11. 19. 98. 83. 169. 177 depressive symptoms. 220 disorder. 190. 185. 48. 40. 14. 78 decisions. 77. 119 doctors. 148. 169. 79. 79. 225. 135. 9. 54. 163. 219 cross-sectional study. 166 dysthymia. 189. 43. 220 cultural differences. 168. 222 deposits. 172 diseases. 181. 194 cycling. 170. 177. 168. 188. 215 death sentence. 97. 6. 81. 98 discrimination. 26. 174. 204. 29 ecological. 172 dominance. 205. 173. 191 disability. 203. 71. 36. 116. 88. 181 deprivation. 130. 46. 64. 163. 27 dynamic environment. 193. 67. 53 diet. 13. 63. 54. 206. 89. 177 drugs. 59. 168 D daily living.232 Index desynchronization. 219 dehydration. 192. 113. 176. 227 disabled. 17. 74. 165. 112. 59. 11. 39. 193 cytokine. 180. 120. 176. 150. 177. 194 dropouts. 191. 19. 63 demographic. 33. 182. 92 E earth. 52. 49. 27. 166 diversity. vii. 161 economic status. 212. 217. 177. 214 CSF. 52. 35. 193. 119. 130. 72. 174. 43. 56. 155 curiosity. 208 demand. 219. 85. 208. 126. 182 Denmark. 170. 111. 47 doors. 170 cross-sectional. 163. 16. 169. 187. 208. 6. 46. 48. 71. 222. 161. 163. 54. 218. 81. 185. 161. 180. 170. 112. 163. 182 desire. 174. 26. 114. 191 down-regulation. 162. 188. 204 diphenhydramine. 182. 227 dentists. 214. 165 Department of Education. 182. 187. 15. 162. 71. 45. 5. 77. 70 death. 171 downsizing. 71. 217 dosage. 21. 71 decay. 165. 186. 74. 220. 166. 174 CVD. 185. 217 economics. 166. 181 curable. 49 distress. 163 dysregulation. 177 dementia. 126 dairy. 5. DSM-IV). 34. 185 . 162. 169. 192. 218. 5. 77. 153. 161. 94. 186 cultural. 122. 167. 179 distribution. 20. 35. 27. 163. 81. 60. 163 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. 151. 80. 195 depressive disorder. 161. 122. 38. 27 dissociation. 78. 205. 106. 212 diesel. 164. 163. 54. 163. 176 economic. 156. 178 depression. 191. 199 decongestant. 80. 67 customers. 189. 28. 176. 62. 18. 89. 38. 116. 214. 194 dust. 18. 126. 19. 215. 182. 13. 127 degree. 164.

116. 37 enterprise. 15. 6. 95. 123. 5. 197. 39. 123. 99. 194 environmental. 47. 41. 91. 166. 53. 98 excuse. 96. 99. 40. 168. 176. 162. 55. 18. 112. 83. 193. 67. 218 existentialism. 72. 163. 163. 190. 49. 187. 172. 169. 161. 114. 70 flight. 5. 73. 174. 18 expert. 87. 6. 59. 86. 114. 51. 162. 49. 198 EEG. 85. 141. 64 European. 26. 205. 52. 122. 169. 118. 166. 141. 209 evolution. 190. 38. 55. 88. 90. 185. 100. 57. 61. 57. 122 endangered. 194. 98. 84 electrophysiological. 176. 15. 99. 115 explosive. 197. 98 environment. 97. 47. 178 endocrine system. 185. 5. 190. 15. vii. 1. 101. 161. 205. 176. 166. 178. 25 family medicine. 28. 153 Euro. 63 evening. 222 family history. 29 exercise. 103. 171. 161. 211 faults. 14. 181 Europeans. 96. 28. 70. 179. 15 experts. 129. 73. 158. 105. 155. 63 family. 181. 71. 194 F face validity. 47. 79. 171. 180. 46. 40. 193. 116. 178 efficacy. 116. 163. 81. 82. 49. 209 evil. 55. 180 family life. 57 exposure. 192. 84. 70. 165. 178 farmers. 53. 16. 169. 172. 83. 97. 177. 130. 115. 161. 174. 208 employees. 171 environmental conditions. 41. 96. 170. 120. 107. 56. 98. 180. 57. 171. 192. 90. 43. 111. 176. 53. 24. 166. 59. 168. 218 employers. 2. 12 firearm. 97. 56. 12 endocrine. 121. 161. 176. 186. 112. 130. 186. 170. 90. 83. 187 epidemic. 19. 134. 25. 100. 186. 26. 193 evidence.Index ecosystem. 31. 113. iv elementary school. 187 feelings. 186. 150. 128. 185. 71. 222 family members. 11. 98 eczema. 170. 12. 163 epidemiological. 176 environmental factors. 16. 44. 82. 122. 116. 192 forgetfulness. 85. 96. 12. vii. 169 food. 6. 72. 17. 168. 172 farm. 50. 46. 176. 213 engagement. 209 elderly. 54. 57. 26. 172. 129. 83. 140 . 178. 150. 71. 133. 120. 26. 188. 113. 181. 12. 116 engineering. 54. 179 estimating. 28 enthusiasm. 81. 167. 173. 176 ego. 119. 166. 178. 129. 54. 18. 24. 168. 50. 165. 161. 92 feedback. 37. 186. 218 electrical. 95. 136. 121. 43. 167. 167. 29. 219 failure. 23. 156. 112. 45. 18. 62. 182 empowerment. 24. 95. 25. 83. 187 Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 161 ethical. 180 electronic. 31. 143 entertainment. 14. 27. 126. 104. 178 endogenous. 156 fire. 126. 16. 5. 29. 178 fatalistic. 128. 142 233 Europe. 70 faith. 171. 187 feeding. 81. 136. 16. 91. 173. 34 fear. 65. 214 excitement. 115. 213 emotions. 54. 168 focusing. 105. 131 external validity. 100. 146. 192. 177. 177. 189. 211 financial support. 206. 214 emotional intelligence. 194. 213. 130 eye. 194 external validation. 78. 49. 84. 66. 197. 29. 159. 83. 48. 11. 133. 125. 171 factorial. 12 formal education. 46. 1. 165. 211 education. 95. 171 endogenous depression. 199 freedom. 141. 186 environmental stimuli. 112. 63. 171 energy. 156. 187 environmental change. 100. 39. 182 employment. 60. 165 emotional. 163. 186 electrostatic. 21. 28 fatigue. 199. 70. 77. 30. 195 flow. 170. 173 flexibility. 172 fibromyalgia. 165. 149. 188. 177.

200. 37. 221. 210 group work. 172 heterogeneity. 93 groups. 199 funds. 187. 204. 158. 27. 21. 187 gender. 74. 159. 75. 218 host. 80. 155. 43. 158. 159. 79. 58. 1 health problems. 58. 206. 13. 165. 104. 197. 114. 41. 216. 156. 186 genes.234 Freud. 216. 2. 10. 158. 81. 50. 212. 188 growth. 217. 215 helplessness. 168. 187 glass. 205. 95. 123. 163. ix. 107. 219 harmony. 164 general practitioner. 74. 162. 9. 73 guiding principles. 169 generation. 58. 39. 118 hippocampal. 80. 162 health effects. 57. 71. 205. 77. 207. 84. 77 human condition. 220. 49 gifts. 92 gynecologist. 36. 198. 17. 211. 156. 10. 115 guidance. 181 gene. 220. 61. 206. 23. 136 frustration. 167 height. 215. 54 globalization. 204 human capital. 58. 190 hormones. vii. 157. 40. 63. 18. 31. ix. 222 gestalt. 86. 139. 36. 32. 84. 197 holistic medicine. 74. 45. 78. 47. 50. 11. 168 hedonic. 74. 213. 100. 172. 173 high-tech. 18. 227 honesty. 204. 157. 171. 37. 49. 227 holistic approach. 46. 219 harm. 174. 186 hospital. 210. 40. 213. 198. 170 health status. 44. 86. 213 . 214. 34. 171. 35. 46. 217 group therapy. 187 garbage. 129. 31. 155 gland. 85. 14. 220 hanging. 74. 218 gerontology. 208. 171 goals. 94. 211 holistic. 25. 185 G ganglion. 213 health care. 26. 210 gift. 12. 79 housing. 166. 31. 114. 44. 171 hippocampus. 78. 218 Index harmful. 10. 91. 39. 75. 31. 105. 21. 216 heart attack. 126 head. 186. 94 hopelessness. 53. 219 hospitals. 23. 173 high-risk populations. 227 human experience. 126. 214. 130 God. 198 headache. 30. 52. 70 hands. 188 Hippocrates. 17 Helicobacter pylori. 79 friendship. 186. 122 heart. 92. 98. 27. 123. 210. 116 human development. 27. 56. 186 gene expression. 170. 72. 209. 215. 71. 186 gastrointestinal. 176 hormone. 215 health care system. 78. 49. 25. 169. 211. 168 gastrin. 79. 67. 82 global resources. 205. 73. 26. 73 heat. 52. 198 gifted. 164. 34. 206. 200. 218 high-risk. 205. 217 H handling. 31. 204. 88. 28. 191 generators. 50. 78. 13. 72. 41. 75. 102. 36. 158. 13. 59. 84. 213 genetic defect. 197. 53. 52. 144 grants. 197. 172 glucocorticoid receptor. 171. 168 General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). 126. 41. 210. 30. 209. 32. 116 gossip. 212. 173 generalized anxiety disorder. 98. 212 HIV. 171. 159. 157. 57. 10. 161. 84. 155. 180 health insurance. 188 high fat. 74. 45. 165. 73. 53. 219 healthcare. 172. 209. 218. 26 human brain. 79 household. 199. 15 gasoline. 156. 94. 189 healing. 164 fulfillment. 173 happiness. 103. 88. 26 guilt. 11. 62. 64. 87. 21. 25. 209.

101. 193. 83. 192. 56. 26. 127. 130 internal time. 37. 191 hypothalamus. 189. 225 Illinois. 121. 83. 133 identity. 83 incest. 167. 211 infectious. 80. 54 injustice. 173 individual characteristics. 69 hypertension. 167 J jet lag. 16. 168 interval. 48. 193. 218 ice. 218 infections. 122 industrialized countries. 172 infertility. 158. 172 independence. 225. 9. 168. 169. 172. 219 235 I IBM. 97. 163 idiopathic. 70. 45. 87. 179. 190 impairments. 127 . 18. 208 infection. 189. 168 humorous. 57. 187 income. 79. 100. 15. 77. 126. 84. 57 humans. 161. 210 inflammation. 188. 186 hypothesis. 190 inspiration. 84. 223 illumination. 190. 58. 191. 212. 220 instructors. 101. 205. 168. 77. 149 human subjects. 190 induction. 171. 70. 161. 88. 98. 182 job performance. 114. 95. 181 innovation. 81. 32. 188. 187 irritation. 177 judgment. 164. 116 intelligence. 12. 82. 100 institutions. 48. 72. 86. 58. 20. 89 integrity. 168 inferiority. 47 indication. 178. 6. 98. 59. 95. 225 inorganic. 173 inducer. 96. 221 internal biological clock. 70. 140 jobless. 71. 80. 199. 10. 158 individual character. 32. 111. 119. 223. 112. 71. 98. 186 iron. 95. 182. 5. 203. 181. 178. 189. 204 interstate. 72. 162. 195 job dissatisfaction. 192 implementation. 155 insomnia. 162 job insecurity. 218. 32. 174 inefficiency. 165. 192 intentions. 178 IL-4. 126 interaction. 71. 60. 53. 178 insecurity. 180. 192 humidity. 185. 18. 9. 165. 32. 18. 174. 172. 115. 51. 172 insight. 187. 169. 96. 13. 222 internet. 120. 199. 168. 219 Human Resource Management. 137. 193 interdisciplinary. 170. 197 investment. 88 intimacy. 165. 189 internal consistency. 64. 118. 21. 181 interpretation. 128. 21. 161. 200. 64. 23. 171. 190. 30. 56. 164 interviews. 216 irritability. 167. 85. 92. 86. 17. 185 imaging. 176 ion channels. 70 infancy. 189 international. 16. 220. 164. 17. 14. 17. 190. 185 industry. 59. 25. 12 jobs. 166. 123. 116. 30. 156. 157 intervention. 106. 58 hypnotic. 60. 49. 177. 227 interpersonal conflict. 188 immunomodulatory. 191. 170 increased access. 162 job satisfaction. 168 information technology. 87. 188. 39 identification. 37 irrationality. 204. 114 Innovation. 181. 209 interview. 92 instruments. 85. 167. 129. 114. 81. 93. 127. 208 intensity. 37. 194 humanity. 215. 211 incidence. 181 human resources.Index human nature. 111. 141 id. 172 job loss. 186 insurance. 174 inherited. 168. 171. 161. 163. 77. 96. 166. 86. 192. 163. 169. 89. 214 industrial. 21. 168. 164. 187. 29. 217. 13 intuition. 89 insulin. 194. 198. 153. 87. 181. 179.

170. 86. 19. 169. 98. 56 lifelong learning. 73. 48. 122. 18. 30. 218 measures. 165 media. 156. 106. 81 maintenance. 132. 37. 198. 83. 41. 13. 120. 79. 164. 219 life-cycle. 33. 100. 78. 126. 14. 125. 127. 182 listening. 174. 166. 146. 127. 60. 56. vii. 73. 70. 38. 38 kinase. vii. 81. 43. 167 long work. 171 liberation. 194 lying. 153 life satisfaction. 129. 34. 193 major depression. 126. 181. 74. 162. 171. 152 material resources. 85. 205 lover. 144. 179. 182. 79. 185. 63. 132 linear regression. 98.236 justice. 198. 194 . 15. 81. 118. 61 laws. 88. 1 manpower. 16. 5 K killing. 19 licensing. 55. 88. 173 M machines. 59. 208 mathematical. 170 location. 48. 57. 70. 81. 161 lifetime. 79. 130. 218. 96. 121. 46. 125. 88. 73. 221 medication. 208 losses. 41 leisure. 94. 198. 120. 191. 126. 210. 163. 60. 43. 95. 103. 17. 84. 62 light-emitting diodes. 86. 47 linguistically. 19. 112 MCS. 115 lack of confidence. 71. 167. 95. 113. 39. 73. 114. 161 lifestyle. 88. 26. 219 market. 170 Index longitudinal studies. 187 males. 26 low-level. 171 learning. 177 malaise. 73. 73. 15. 70. 177. 50. 77. 54. 155. 80. 1. 106. 65. 66 masking. 116. 38. 198. 77. 61 marriage. 35. 57. 133. 54. 218 life-threatening. 193. 52. 127. 116. 208 maternal smoking. 10. vii. 154. 60. 74. 121. 79. 187. 182. 165. 98. 27. 95. 20. 49. 61. 79. 194 measurement. 59. 54 maternal. 71. 25. 70. 218 lifestyles. 104. 30. 173. 29. 112. 162. 46. 106. 26. 132 linguistic. 64. 36. 40. 5. 206. 193. 150 materialism. 163. 74. 19. 24. 167 meals. 5 life stressors. 154. 44. 36. 161. 26. 189 Likert scale. 166. 83. 116 market value. 198 mechanics. 87. 47 language. 53. 47. 174. 219 mechanical. 43. 191. 72. 66. 43. 54 marketability. 99. 36. 28. 130 linkage. 153. 219 lifestyle changes. 6. 30 luggage. 166. 165. 158 limitations. 163. 199 lawyers. 74. 166. 87. 161. 147. 169 long-term. 176 love. 132 life quality. 49. 82. 208 medications. 37. 51. 82. 64. 178. 67. 105. 192. 178 management. 161 learned helplessness. 9. 45. 111. 72. 100. 46. 165 lead. 125. 120. 40. 199 learning process. 210 linear. 153. 62. vii. 115 labour market. 170. 16. 85. 167. 172. 186. 15. 114. 44. 101. 20. 199 leadership style. 43. 130. 193 manipulation. 163. 13. 100. 71. 6. 23. 197. 96. 37. 13. 1. 185. 116 manufacturing. 172 marketing. 218 leadership. 9. 56. 72. 115. 156. 185. 59. 163 life style. 120. 55. 39. 1. 27. 69. 218 mania. 26. 83. 80. 51. 178 L labour. 49. 178 mapping. 99. 158. 113. 68. 187 mastery. 46. 48. 92. 193 major depressive disorder. 219 long period. 166 LSD. 73. 88 LIFE. 129 life span. 26. 51. 82 laughing. 36.

52. 64. 83. 168 micro-organisms. vii. 14 obstructive sleep apnea. 164. 171. 32. 10. 164 natural. 216 metastatic cancer. 216 ontogenesis. 11. 182. 21 Modafinil. vii. 14. 166. 166 odorants. 192 occupational. 179. 170. 164. 1. 167. 169. 211. 57 old age. 216 microenvironments. 172 Millennium. 95. 168. 122. 178 oil. 15. 155. 172. 120. 54. 222 motivation. 19. 18. 193 occupational groups. 176. 158. 187. 169. 192. 178. 173. 158. 178. 54 natural science. 170. 28. 9. 27 morning. 166. 211 mental health. 170 occupational health. 194 normal conditions. 24. 170. 166. 30. 58. 80 multivariate. 166 mood disorder. 214 metastatic. 215. 194 morale. 193. 166. 116. 169. 120 novelty. 220 O OAS. 165. 213 mortgage. 175. 55. 73. 215. 186. 192. 194. 179. 55 obligations. 93. 177. 206. 159. 10. 20. 21 online. 174 mood. 170. 170. 194 normal. 77. 5. 162. 199 natural resources. 178. 181 neurons. 43. 52. 100 money. 165. 203. 166. 163. 153. 188. 166. 204. 51. 26. 49. 16 metamorphosis. 167. 169. 176. 78 olfaction. 161. 176. 169 237 N N-acety. 187 motives. 163. 16. 155 Nobel Prize. 188. 15 mothers. 212 mercury. 179 olfactory. 1. 10 nausea. 169. 166. 46. 58. 163. 161. 179. 164. 24 nervous system. 106. 114. 177. 178. 127. 213. 163. 156. 54. 172. 161. 185 nurses. 63 MRI. 122 obligation. 198. 97. 83 nerve. 193 morphogenesis. 44. 186. 173. 209. 84. 167. 162 objectivity. 161 melatonin. 51. 171. 163. 204. 182 military occupation. 195 models. 185. 192. 47. 82. 78 negativity. 178 meridian. 80. 188 men. 179 oncology. 174. 193. 227 noise. 174. 195 melatonin receptor agonists. 172. 10. 176. 200. 49. 171 migraine headache. 170. 188. 171. 171. 11. 156. 205. 190 memory. 92. 107 NNT. 186 neuropsychology. 178 network. 190.Index medicine. 87 multi-ethnic. 214 mental illness. 168. 188. 165. 172. 168. 41. 179 narcissistic. 194 mood change. 26 mirror. 168. 168 neurotransmitters. 215 MIT. 43. 112. 31. 117. 29. 161. 218 middle-aged. 190. 173. 172. 79. 188 messages. 204 . 181 obsolete. 21. 167. 212 memory deficits. 50. 180. 168. 18. 167 odors. 159. 16. 60. 216. 186. 165. 186. 163. 171 military. 174. 164. 181. 73. 178 migraine. 188 modules. 162. 213 neurotransmitter. 79. 179. 189 negative attitudes. 188 multicultural. 174. 173. 84 meta-analysis. 80 minority. 162. 156. 53. 159 metabolism. 176. 220 neuroendocrinology. 13. 161 odds ratio. 44. 179. 181 midlife. 210. 168 New World. 169. 182 mental disorder. 24. 220 Medline. 167. 26. 21. 181. 80. 193. 189. 64.

66. 156. 29. 174. 55. 45. 30. 27. 72. 35. 197. 218 personal values. 197. 91. 116. 194 photoreceptor. 91. 36 personal relations. 187 pleasure. 187 physical environment. 83. 156. 63. 172 police. 21. 155. 165. 166. 21. 213 organizations. 20. 37. 206. 53. 115. 133. 155. 40. 96. 71 personal. 97. 193 periodic. 166. 210. 181. 77. 115. 1. 90. 186. 186 organization. 11. 212. 186 parents. 126. 168. 50. 178 poisons. 214. 11. 125. 102. 167. 91. 40. 216 plague. 127. 191. 187. 66 paraventricular. 199. 86. 52. 214 physicians. 62. 36. 44 plants. 173 philosophical. 126. 32. 156. 79. 37. 25. 112. 190. 186. 51. 153. 218 perceptions. 195 play. 16 P pacemaker. 111. 1. 89 percentile. 172. 55. 190 pathways. 119. 48. 92. 128. 73. 68. 158. 84. 190 physiology. 114 personal responsibility. 29. 192 organic. 186 patients. 126. 57 personality. 192. 52. 209. 118. 84. 178 organic solvents. 14. 14. 178. 11 personal life. 15. 179 oscillator. 94. 32. 61. 176. 156. 122. 93. 169 perception. 50. 130. 39. 187 photoreceptors. 64. 210. 49. 65 personal control. 62. 78. 178. 90. 10. 180. 92 personal identity. 151. 64. 114. 19. 18. 168. 182 personal history. 59. 165. 74. 58. 129. 88. 220 pharmacotherapy. 190 pineal gland. 95. 187 physical activity. 91. 56. 166. 172. 178 organic solvent. 164 personality traits. 165 openness. 215 pensions. 164. 169. 187. 72. 17. 83. 53 parameter. 15. 166. 178 pharmacies. 168. 44. 125. 72 opposition. 150 pain. 172. 38. 130. 10. 129 personal relationship. 10. 144. 51. 147. 52. 190. 27. 192. 143. 49. 172 policy making. 33. 50. 209. 46. 45. 204. 155. 54. 179. 60. 144. 55. 179. 217 peer. 114. 155. 52. 177 pesticide. 199. 220 physiological. 185 pharmacology. 13. 47 peripheral oscillators. 45. 146. 166. 82. 193. 177. 169. 116. 94. 66 performance. 58. 40. 31. 56. 186 paraventricular nucleus. 10. . 65. 56. 182. 125. 213 pediatrician. 116. 156. 193 pineal. 169. 74. 179. 169. 79. 212. 67. 57. 13. 148. 85. 87. 9. 62. 172. 186 pilot study. 89. 13. 101. 61 oxygen. 211 pilots. 217. 174. 95. 219 philosophy. 125. 106. 52. 100. 217 personal achievements. 30. 171. 90. 85 personal meaningfulness. 175. 136 pathogenesis. 157. 222 peer review. 43. 80. 65. 79. 88. 21. 122. 54 plasma. 99. 177 personality disorder. 186. 80. 218 planning. 213. 186 optimal performance. 105. 98. 18. 85. 177 organism. 51. 121. 149. 199 pelvic. 212. 78 operating system. 168 pharmacological. 198 oscillations. 62. 169. 163. 94. 86. 188. 28. 81. 96. 219 phone. 93. 91. 190 placebo. 176. 56. 33 personal qualities. 46 optic chiasm. 178 pesticides. 53. 191. 107. 179. 188 perseverance. 86. 186. 39. 126 poisoning. 186. 92. 103. 194. 158 pathophysiology. 155. 41. 207. 93. 119. 177. 64. 158. 43. 162 physical health. 166. 6. 197. 20. 62. 191. 203. 19. 211 paints. 9. 120. 203. 199 orientation. 150. 1. 215. 19. 194 packaging. 114. 166. 38. 60. 33. 143. 186 overtime. 174. 35. 168. 100. 2.238 Index 70. 50 oral. 49. 34. 5. 134. 190. 209.

20. 170. 227 preventive. 57. 93. 173. 169. 170. 162. 122. 170 positive relationship. 84. 19. 103. 2. 79 psychological. 165 public. 122. 174 psychiatric illness. 72. 222 prolactin. 23. 171 Psychosomatic. 39. 220 poor health. 212. 168. 171. 88. 206. 165. 204. 58. 153. 87. 21 psychophysiological. 168 pollution. 122. 146. 16. 222 public relations. 40. 106. 172. 116. 193. 205. 208. 130 production. 116. 161. 43. 173. 116. 62. 45. 207. 101. 54. 53. 53. 55. 29. 111. 57. 164. 161. 112. 107. 61. 134 pulses. 194 psychiatrists. 220. 158. 97. 105. 99. 186 protein kinase C. 98 positive relation. 162. 156. 179 psychological health. 70. 54. 46. 79. 39 priorities. 54. 78. 170 psychologists. 101. 44 public service. 6. 181 psychosocial stress. 199 qualitative research. 208. 18. 57 positive attitudes. 176. 222 pregnant women. 164. 12 population. 175. 177 Profile of Mood States (POMS). 176. 165. 57. 122. 218 proactive. 182. 155 predictors. 36. 143. 102. 40 professions. 158. 87. 59. 79. 21 QOL. 77. 187 provocation. 159. 81. 162 pressure. 21. 204. 65 program. 217 pregnant. 173. 127. 129. 153. 102. 83. 72. 166. 90. 178 psychology. 204. 162. 19. 164 profit. 56. 220. 163. 67. 46. 53. 210 psychological distress. 71. 87. 178. 166 protocol. 181 psychiatrist. 178. 207. 28. 165 preparedness. 162. 107. 181 profession. 51. 176. 35. 117. 26. 116. 186 239 promote. 78. 112 productivity. 165. 81. 84. 162. 126. 55. 135. 32. 157. 35. 94. 47 pregnancy. 204. 102. 179. 37. 105. 129 professional growth. 122. 219. 181 preference. 39. 203. 106. 48. 106. 165 private. 114. 197. 173. 221 pollutants. 12. 116. 37. 156 profitability. 221. 70. 205. 86. 101. 176. 55. 216 psychotherapy. 163 procedures. 194 Q QLQ-C30. 121. 59. 20. 80. 101. 214 psychotic. 208 preparation. 46. 35. 37. 219 primary care. 54. 103. 212 psychotropic medications. 56. 221. 119. 50 professionalism. 99. 179 psychosocial. 79. 174. 98. 128. 6. 6. 83. 118. 114. 159. 67. 31. 88. 105. 103. 206 . 9. 141. 153. 150 poor. 166. 181. 104.Index political. 81. 113. 167. 10. 95. 185. 218 prosperity. 172 psychosomatic. 153. 214. 103. 173. 26. 64. 28 professional development. 163 politicians. 115. 200. 166. 78. 74. 221 pulse. 88. vii. 193 psychiatric morbidity. 162. 162. 77. 208. 166. 72. 135. 162. 159. 33. 83 psychiatric disorder. 193 professional careers. 163. 222 public health. 131. 94. 167. 174 psychoanalysis. 182. 123. 11. 187. 90. 188 problem solving. 120. 170. 209. 180. 86. 113. 26. 154 psychometric properties. 106. 168 PTSD. 118. 68. 177. 174 prestige. 65. 187 power. 1. 16. 84. 218. 38. 155. 143. 82. 104. 173. 107. 95. 10. 72 quality improvement. 165. 104. 227 qualifications. 129. 85. 9. 96. 169. 126. 112 protein. 41. 122. 46. 182 primary school. 54. 216 quality assurance. 106. 170. 169. 70. 220 population growth. 33. 170 posture. 179 psychiatric disorders. 166. 30. 34. 218. 44. 56. 40. 172. 69. 77. 136. 182 poor performance. 177. 189. 112. 16. 47. 112. 172. 43. 174 prognosis. 44. 14 prevention. 89. 30. 163. 35. 106 psychological stress. 172. 204. 127. 35.

187 retinohypothalamic tract. 219 receptors. 90. 73. 82. 77. 24 resistance. 95. 24. 198. 178. 171 restoration. 167. 62 research. 113. 63. 49 relapse. 167. 78. 10. 39. 169. 187. 162. 165. 57. 47. 190. 32. 74 rural. 119. 158. 83. 159. 100. 170. 187. 53. 16. 152. 77. 214. 43. 213. 173. 211 reduction. 81. 167 relationship. 12. 19. 176. 80. 194 redundancy. 111. 130. 131. 163 routines. 215 resilience. 162. 188. 89. 157. 154. 130. 126. 213 questionnaire. 1. 185 quality of service. 173. 16. 19 risk factors. 37 reality. 90. 130. 131. 70. 39. 177. 82. 151. 218 risk behaviors. 182. 169. 121. 125. 39. 159. 167. 130 refining. 53. 166. 10. 153. 1. 164 raw materials. 12. 2. 153. 122. 65. 96. 176. 75. 219. 111. 211 renin. 61. 10. 165 repetitions. 96. 88 resources. 65. 12. 100. 95. 84. 12. 89. 98. 178. 186. 86. 2. 120. 206 regular. 118. 176. 33. 170. 171 relaxation. 206. 101. 26. 80. 88. 206. 197 refractory. 127. 26. 87. 52. 117. 176. 181 reliability. 170. 88. 127. 111. 147. 6. 170 reservation. 203. 209. 163 reward conditions. viii. 130 religion. 185. 173. 207. 30. 96. 63. 204. 31. 66. 199. 186. 15. 20. 191. 27. 176 sadness. 12. 164. 81. 171. 118. 130. 136. 126. 112. 96. 98. 78. 73 retirement age. 134. 62. 174. 45. 171. 95. viii. 127. 131. 190 rehabilitation. 128. 27. 197. 126. 207. 10. 182. 163 sales. 156. 87. 161. 130. 116. 88 quality of working life. 180. 198. 23. viii. 163. 27 reflection. 182. 26. 119. 168. 217. 180. S sacred.240 Index 156. 71. 94. 28. 219. 1. 194 SAD. 218. 158. 227 rejection. 15. 169 rape. 60. 134. 169 researchers. 72. 63. 70. 73 revenue. 20. 186 repair. 136 reconstruction. 72. 176. 189. 207 R race. 47. 215. 166. 211 rating scale. 101. 64. 191 recognition. 218. 38. 127. 181. 113. 77. 221. 37. 80. 173. 81. 188 rhythmicity. 176 roadblocks. 172 retina. 84. 194. 167. 81 remission. 166. 120. 83 resolution. 18. 47. 69. 218 range. 116 sacrifice. 21. 131. 218. 185. 213 quantum chemistry. 221. 173 relevance. 89. 182 sand. 155. 163. 205. 62 residential. 56. 72. 21. 9. 114 retirement. 209. 54. vii. 116. 127. 220 responsibilities. 53 . 168. 88 resin. 155. 174 sample. 168. 188 rigidity. 207. 158. 57 reading. 77. 170. 10. 125. 182 risks. 72. 2. 84. 79. 82. 203. 34. 186. 83. 136. 186. 77. 187 retirees. 172. 180 rhinitis. 193. 84. 181. 168 ROI. 185 salaries. 204. 218 regulation. 58. 99. 57 radiation. 133. 152. 177. 186. 227 quantum. 40. 191 restructuring. 172 salary. 191. 168. 62 risk. 181 recovery. 188. 211. vii. 83. 63. 168. 163 safety. vii. 157. 171. 169. 58. 99. 193. 74. 222 research design. 83. 99. 45. 17. 187 relationships. 189 radical. 116. 150. 227 questionnaires. 90. 186 rhythms. 169 regression. 168. 52. 161. 194 rhythm.

204. 156. 171. 77. 191. 114. 15. 14. 185. 89 signalling. 77. 46. 1. 80. 88. 125. 155. 107. 163. 15. 158. 9. 163. 179 series. 176. 82. vii. 83. 79. 49. 166. viii. 192. 191. 158 secretion. 220 SCN. 68. 170 society. 81.Index satisfaction. 32. 87. 71. 168. 29 simulation. 53. 1. 114. 26. 219 spirituality. 187. 180. 185. 173 social work. 220 spouse. 9. 99. 33. 44. 210. 81. 222 scientific. 15. 171 social obligations. 212. 179 shape. 212 self-care. 92 self-help. 40. 30. 178 short-term. 129. 165. 118. 18. 190 services. 19. 130. 82. 194. 1. 170. 195 sleep deprivation. 194 smoking. 49 social network. 82. 82. 188. 189 241 sleep. 170. 96. 170. 161. 173 sounds. 19. 146 self-empowerment. 37. 188. 166. 100. 83. 53 solidarity. 39. 116. 88 self-management. 96. 198. 82. 166. 193 sleep disorders. 80. 197. 54. 20. 97. 86. 6. 207. 164. 221. 40. 188 skills. 1. 220 skin. 180. 16. 82. 166. 136. 10. 23. 174 solvents. 18. 78. 217 serotonin. 55. 28. 204. vii. 186 secrets. 25. 195 sleep-wake cycle. 73. 49. 166. 167. 166. 126. 165 socially. 126. 10. 36 self. 64. 36. 192. 85. 130. 219 sociologists. 156. 213 sign. 194 sleep disturbance. 162. 54. 168 severity. 187 sex. 95. 106. 163. 154 searches. 1. vii. 126 social status. 81 software. 6. 170 social resources. 62. 95. 84. 130. vii. 173. 98. 100. 222 spectrum. 218. 138. 189 speed. 34. 200. 58. 116. 37. 194. 47. 31. 162 social sciences. 74. 166. 122 sheep. 11. 57. 73. 185. 217 soil. 212 self-expression. 133. 56. 186. 152 solutions. 179. 114. 116 . 57. 168. 36. 218 social benefits. 171. 158 self-discipline. 189 scores. 74. 51. 26. 38. 158. 188. 158. 171. 14 social environment. 153. 223 social skills. 165. 215. 162. 215 SH. 100. 164 sociologist. 48. 26. 18. 38. 190. 129. 208. 15 social support. 129. 16. 161 scheduling. vii. 70. 13. 162. 172. 30. 189. 178 somatic complaints. 168. 37. 173. 191. 32. 120. 203. 52. 191. 10. 214 social. 200. 16. 170 sexuality. 215. 114. 15. 185 spiritual. 197. 93. 227 scientific community. 134. 180. 89. 215 SOC. 71. 80. 169 schizophrenia. 19. 167. 83. 55. 60. 12. 136. 128. 204 scientists. 48. 2. 49. 117. 1. 206. 179. 133. 41. 179 secret. ix. 66. 213. 79. 46. 52. 95. 29. 63. 53. 9. 166. 127. 197. 114. 168. 77. 57. 50 solar. 58. 36. 168. 37. 161. 213 sensitivity. 16. 63 social problems. 193. 1 social services. 199. 82. 222 socioeconomic status. 51. 210 sexual harassment. 171 social life. 185. vii. 9. 188 specialists. 122. 157. 186. 70. 220. 170. 79. 12. 122 self-esteem. 32. 54. 55 stability. 194 spatial memory. 77. 187. 61. 113. 176. 65. 218 social relations. 53. 212 science. 53 solar cells. 14. 32. 126. 112. 170 social events. 171. 29. 86. 78 self-organization. 53 social factors. 116 self-confidence. 169 search. 52. 5. 199. 127. 49. 78. 95. 88. 159. 200. 189 skin cancer. 32. 59. 172 seeds. 47. 51. 63 spatial. 161 seasonal affective disorder. 52. 29. 106. 122. 24 security. 11. 12. 214 side effects. 169. 35. 169.

67. 64 testosterone. 64 summer. 170 supply. 122. 191. 123. 66. 176. 172. 51. 86. 182. 20. 173. 173 suicidal ideation. 10. 186 synthetic. 89. 206. 169. 199 symmetry. 83. 133 subjective well-being. 194 . 174. 214. 199. 186 theoretical. 7. 84. 12. 161. 78. 204 sugar. 107. 34. 163 stress reactions. 106 threatened. 24. 187. 77. 161. 21. 78. 177. 167 synchronization. 173. 50. 188. 182. 180 threatening. 87. 210. 191 symptoms. 157. 30. 113. 61. 31. 126. 62. 178. 64. 58. 179 television. 162. 19. 136. 27. 60. 180. 29 strategies. 89. 77. 173. 56. 71. 117. 11. 173 supervisors. 169 timing. 29. 80. 139. 169. 29 temperature. 171. 209. 212 thinking. 191 teachers. 186. 182 strategic. 191. 169. 129. 36 survival. viii. 191 symptomatic treatment. 52. 41. 90. 39 taste. 25. 82 tea. 222 telephone. 193. 171. 94. 188. 128. 39. 166. 208. 186 syndrome. 155. 180 suicide rate. 95. 19. 163. 68. 23. 11. 84. 161 starvation. 194 suprachiasmatic. 192 talent. 54. 31. 77. 82. 178. 190 systematic. 116 suppression. 74. 54. 189. 130. 74. 161. 21. 199 technician. 119. 58. 53 surplus. 11. 81. 58. 53. 6. 172. 162. 158. 173. 116 sweat. 179. 187 technological. 36. 167. 187. 169. 102. 191. 49. 218 strength. 115 surprise. 31. 106. 54. vii. 79. 218 statistics. 162. 79. 23. 194 terminally ill. 149 Tel Aviv.242 Index symbols. 101. 170. 194 synapses. 57. 48 symptom. 167. 121. 193 temporal. 125. 166. 204. 2. 39. 49 T tachycardia. 130. 50. 179 subjective. 163. 156. 117. 163. 95 theory. 81 standard of living. 179 time pressure. 57. 127. 106. 58. 88 supervisor. 79. 13. 163. 18. 173. 198. 210. 70. 161 stimulus. 129. 166. 82. 56. 12. 176. 101. 77. 16. 125. 156. 34. 203 systems. 161. 181. 205. 177. 112 standard deviation. 167. 11. 166. 179 sunlight. 64 strain. 194 temporal lobe. 186 suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). 13. 30. 47. 133. 187. 32. 189 supervision. 159. 156 therapy. 171. 168. 159. 189 stomach. 170 students. 181 thresholds. 154. 96. 82. 106. 159. 209 tangible. 173. 209. 81. 53. vii. 188. 125 substances. 221 team members. 30. 170. 64. 84. 219 stages. 21. 93. 211 stress level. 23. 186 suprachiasmatic nuclei. 174. 30. 190. 172 suicide. 162 stressors. 218. 213 therapeutic benefits. 125. 162 technology. 181. 167. 205 suicide attempters. 81. 180. 114. 181. 190. 207. 57. 188. 16 suicidal. 47. 168. 197 stress. 57 switching. 168. 180. 199. 188. 185. 122. 123. 165. 56. 49. 213. 168. 165 teaching. 94. 105. 161. 127. 165. 126. 88. 210. 166 suffering. 88. 189. 47 sympathy. 41. 47 targets. 190. 189. 227 therapeutic. 153 sustainability. 1. 94. 193. 170. 155. 171. 172. 96. 186 surgery. 95 standards. 174. 166. 21. 16. 83. 61. 170 threats. 28. 1. 172 stress-related. 165. 191 subjective experience. 217 stigma. 92. 60.

163. 132. 176. 34 vouchers. 159. 176 working women. 180 variables. 227 western culture. 78. 43. 186 transformation. 176. 176. 178. 54 transition. 174. 199 turnover. 186 trauma. 148. 130. 63. 150 water. 189. 152 vapor. 80. 163 voice. 193. 112. 174. 26 vulnerability. 29. 58. 54. 192 walking. 9 workload. 171. 28. 207 validity. 167. 70 trial. 162. 53. 10. 57. 13 workers. 167. 182 unfolded. 190 translation. 88 training. 29. 122 waking. 163. 69. 107. 187. 190 vessels. 120 vision. 128. 54. 167 validation. 11. 51. 12 well-being. 162. 25. 156. 95. 104 working hours. 129. 59. 55. 74. 28. 120. 37. 81. 194. 19. 222 upper respiratory infection. 28 winter. 119. 126 transcription. 185. 213 withdrawal. 27. 178 variability. 188 wood. 177 workability. 52. 116.Index tinnitus. 168. 1. 28. 166. 181. 175. 92. 90. 53. 112. 83. 162. 103. 172 wear. 47. 85. 114. 120. 64. 178. 163. 179 wisdom. 57. 172. 188. 70. 192 wealth. 90. 211 traumatic events. 193 vulvodynia. 49. 169 vocational performance. 166. 194 winning. 182 triggers. 163 unions. 122 trade union. 129. 221. 28. 172. 214 toxic effect. 173 Victoria. 82. 168 trade. 46. vii. 45. 129. 60. 80 traits. 212 valence. 170. 102. 16. 15. 99. 215. 186 vertebrates. 169 U ultraviolet. 167 women. 172. 46. 162. 164. 63. 53. 194 waste. 71. 19. 161. 154. 78 victims. 185. 122 universe. 44 variance. 48. 218 windows. 56. 70. 86. 195 trend. 70 trust. 210 tobacco. 177. 178 working population. 170. 10. 68 transatlantic flights. 72. 87. 67. 81 universities. 191 transcendence. 218 top-down. 51. 121. 172. 150. 38 work environment. 32. 12. 198. 122 trainees. 180 workforce. 205. 37. 79. 171. 172 unemployment. 188 variable. 177 worklife. 134. 168 visible. 173. 32. 41. 83. 143. 225 V vaginal. 189. 54 transitions. 191. 52. 115. 33. 29. 169. 54. 31. 161. 95. 17. 170 variation. 206 violence. 20. 206. 61 welfare. 96. 118. 165. 208 travel. 164 . 64. 218 training programs. 175. 173. 5. 79. 53. 114 working conditions. 155. 15. 88. 97. 116. 80. 21. 163. 130 values. 100. 73. 166 toxicity. 83. 161. 58. 158. 39. 26. 130. 161. 58. 65. 13. 161. 187 wavelengths. 25. 74. 139. 210 243 W wages. 96. 171 troubleshooting. 166. 31. 127. 20. 131. 176 working memory. 168 users. 127 weapons. 198. 71. 181 viruses. 60. 61. 126. 171. 29. 227 wellbeing. 159. 48 vocational. 16. 56. 88. 162. 35 unhappiness. 189 uncertainty.

37. 89 Index Y young men. 174.244 workplace. 172. 167. 164. 170. 15. 182 work-related stress. 167 World Health Organization. 175. 49. 172. 182 workspace. 163. 161. 188 Z zygote. 204 . 79 writing. 164 worry.