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S. Massachusetts .8 University Press Cambridge. GIEDION architecture you and me The diary of a development Harvard iy.

1958 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College Distributed in Great Britain by Oxford University Press. London Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 58-6578 .

the basic situation remains at a rather low level. The prolific scale- . and the outlook for both architecture and town planning has undoubtedly improved since the last century. Books concerned with research into past events have to be planned and written consistently from beginning to end to clarify relationships between events and developments. No such method is possible in the case of this book. by checking backward. But let us not deceive ourselves! Despite all. Evidences are set forth of the tragic conflict between the general public and the really creative artists. This book cannot be more than a diary of a development is concerned the diary of a contemporary observer. the smear of the press and the attitude of the public destroyed any new architectonic beginning. much has changed during the last among the painters have attained a certain influence. Only later. decades. The development forms and reforms as new problems appear on the horizon. architects. only a few signs can occasionally be traced or noted. when. and planners that has existed for more than a century. Some indications are then given of the ways in which this When insofar as architecture conflict is which the rifts becoming resolved. can one judge whether truly constituent facts had been recognized or where the argument had gone astray. Creative spirits In the realm of the architect.FOREWORD This book is not based upon organized research. as snails destroy a fresh green sprout. or healed: some means by can be spanned. as in that of the painter. one is standing in the midst of an evolving period.

it is only those gifted with imagination who find solutions to the problems facing us today. economic considerations have been Biological. There are few glimpses of light. in general there are only further chaos and stillborn buildings. and a lish texts and translation of material from German or French has been done by Jaqueline Tyrwhitt VI . Margjindia providing continuity have been added between certain sections. Once this link has been established. "I like greater than is generally this and I don't like that. perhaps in most. social. was first published in German Architecture. The statement. Here we shall lay the main emphasis sufficiently influence of upon a greatly undervalued factor: the direct aesthetic values upon the shaping of reality. The revision of Eng- form of articles. 1956) and our thanks are due to the Rowohlt publishing house for their permission to bring out this enlarged version of the book in English. This is far realized. Most of the material first appeared in the list of the sources is provided at the liberty has been taken of making the end. 18 of the Rowohlts Deutsche Enzyklopaedie under Me the title Architektur und Gemeinschaft (Hamburg. more decisive than first costs. Here. the search naturally follows for the most creative designers. Today's problem is to bridge the fatal gulf between the greatly developed powers of thinking and greatly retarded powers of feeling of those in authority. You and as vol. no matter to what category they may belong. and stressed. in the field of the sciences just as much as in architecture and town can planning. Occasionally cuts or insertions." is in many cases.less banal architecture of sprawl of urban growth and the rebuilt inner areas bequeath a heavy burden to posterity.

Conflict 1936. ON THE RULING TASTE tag? 2 6 10 11 1937 Art as the Key to Reality 1937 Marginalia Do We Need Artists? The Tragic Part 2. ON THE COOPERATION OF ARCHITECT. AND SCULPTOR 64 67 Marginalia On the Force of Aesthetic Values 1947 70 72 79 91 Marginalia Architects' Attitudes Toward Architects and Politics: Aesthetics 1947 an East-West Discussion 1949 Marginalia Aesthetics and the 93 Human Habitat 1953 * vn . by Femand Liger Nine Points on Monumentality Some Words on Femand Leger 1943 1955 56 57 Marginalia On the Space-Emanating Power of Contemporary Sculpture 1949 Part 3. 1955 ON MONUMENTAUTY 22 Marginalia 25 The Need for a New Monumentality 1944 1943 40 48 52 On Monumentally and Color.CONTENTS Parti. PAINTER.

Part 4- ON THE FORMATION OF THE ARCHITECT 100 102 105 106 Marginalia On the Education of the Architect 1947 Marginalia History and the Architect Part 5. 1951. 1952 ON THE DEMAND FOR IMAGINATION 154 157 178 202 Marginalia Social Imagination 1954. 1955 ON THE RENEWAL OF THE HUMAN HABITAT 122 Marginalia 125 138 The Humanization of Urban Life The New Regionalism 1 9 54 Part 6. 1956 Finale 207 213 215 220 viii Developments in Urban Design since 1850 Acknowledgments Index of Names Subject Index . 1956 Spatial Imagination 1954.

Part i ON THE RULING TASTE Do We Need Artists? Art as the Key to Reality The Tragic Conflict .

Movies. Either he has the to be a salesman on or he needs far-reaching patronage. We love modern civilization. he conforms to another widely held opinion. Every- . photography. We A long time ago man lost the key to the inner meaning of technics. It cannot be denied that the artist of today usually lives a dog's life. that an artist has to starve to be creative! (This ethical alibi is today falser than ever. because art official art lost all contact with the life that has grown out from this civilization. It is a part of us. of the daily round of his life. a serious artist can no longer come absorbed taken its With make a living from his art. It is one of the few honest expressions of our being today.) Another opinion certainly do not recommend a return to a primitive way of life. tron of former times has become half a dozen smaller ones. His inner feelings became disassociated from these. Art? Feeling? Means of expression are needed with no other apparent purpose than to serve as containers for our feelings. the whole gamut of modern civilization has place. in doing so. radio. The great paside. and.1937 DO WE NEED A widespread opinion that art has television ARTISTS? Life today has become so rich in means of expression more or less lost its earlier purpose. So what is the use of artists? a few exceptions. of traffic. No civilization can develop without those high notes that we call art. But it is not the whole. it has beinto life itself.

These always arise when the true situation. man The artist has lost contact with the public That contact has been lost between the artist and the general public needs no discussion. When? With the dissolution of 3 . A slight historical correction It is possible to establish quite accurately just when contact ceased to exist between the artist and the general the craftsmen's public. As a result mechanization becomes rampant and life brutalized. They needs some outlet for his feelings. of life. that are thrust aside in the daily round finds no inner assurance. There is no political platform and no community movement that has not some such symbol. for reasons of convenience. So each man longs for an environment that is the symbol or mirror of his inner desires. a sigh. The consequences are clear: For those matters which arise newly from the innermost depths of a period. Whose fault is this? The artist's or the public's? is When tact this statement made became lost when artists it usually means that conturned away from naturalistic representations. The artist has it thrown up to him that his vocabulary of forms is no longer generally understandable. since it does not banish the feeling^. The history of the nineteenth century is a history of pseudo-symbols. Everyone longs for a prolonged desires satisfaction of these inner some more ardently. no guiding voice. There are also pseudo-symbols. The outlet can be a frown. or a voluptuous gasp. others more contentedly. is concealed behind a false fagade. They remain. The frown is no help. But it is another matter to ask whose fault this is.

of officialdom. so loud that utterly fallacious. of the gold medals. Simultaneously with artist lost his freedom the former natural contact detriment occurred with the community. eventually proved itself to be of the utmost insignificance. who could see nothing and who had no wish to see anything. according to the critics appointed by the general public. more shameless than anything previously history. had to face the question: how shall I secure for myself the greatest possible sales? The consequence: an art was born that catered to the known in public. of the Prix de Rome. though befuddling effect was of long endurance. this art industry its which took on veritable industrial dimensions.guilds. proved The general public lost contact -with art scale. 4 . produced on an enormous painters. This was This monstrous apparatus. noblemen. made by skillful craftsmen. 1791. on the other the work of half a dozen upon whose shoulders lay all tasks of research and On the one hand there was this public art. poisonous and it The voice of the majority. The general public in the most general sense of this term. drowned all others. March The the choice of a trade profession creative left abolition of all legal restraints upon everyone free to select whatever this (seemingly) he pleased. with the proclamation de la liberti du travail on 17. Middle-income groups raised their tone by hanging engravings on their walls. industrialists and financiers had the originals. In the field of art Artists itself artistic a rift now developed. of the academies of art. whether rich or poor swallowed it whole. art. for which they paid their fa- vorites as much as a thousand francs per square centimeter. This was the art of the Salons. Industrial development and simultaneously.

which is expected by every normal individual. As the artist came to glance less and less in the direction of the public. and the art collections. the critics. . The moment it is disturbed sound judgment disappears. was almost always denied to such artists throughout the last century and even today. As a result a type of artist evolved whose work was more and more that of a pioneer.They knewright through the entire century that their position rendered all hope of success or approbation quite impossible. For the moment. Outwardly these people lived their lives in creative isolation. that there continued to be men who were to create their prepared invention. and when feeling cannot find a suitable outlet. he came nearer to the possibilities of making Do we need artists? In a period in which the artist seems to have lost all rights and privileges. of an inventor. The right to have his work recognized. should we not say: Artists can more easily exist without the general public than the general public without the artists! Why? Because mechanization runs amuck when there is no line of direction. which takes on different forms in different periods. they were obliged to withdraw their work more and more from the popular taste of the general public. This interchange between reality and the symbols of feeling is as delicately balanced as the influence of our unconscious upon our conscious behavior. is part of the nature of heroism. of a research worker. contact with those underlying sources that provide the nourishment for our period. work at the cost of their lives. That these phenomena did not die out.

ART AS THE KEY TO REALITY Why is our age so sick? Every creative art has the task of creating its own approach to the world its own key to the universe. TTie starts when inventions are put into produc- machine produces as much as man desires it should. The problem tion. the product reacts upon the general organization of society that we call its culture. Inventions are important. and in the domain of man's emotions. its Everyone knows the reason why our period cannot find equilibrium. When this is not done it is a sign that that period has lost contact with its own inner self. humanly. 6 . It can neither control nor organize the possibilities that produced. and which has the power (through the means at its disposal) to develop indefinitely. It has been shown that these consequences have always been undeterminable. The machine and its products confront something that can be interpreted in many different ways and yet never wholly grasped: Man! The operation starts with'the producer. In a century and a half industrialization has created no new reality to encompass our life cycle. socially. and ends (but not in every case) with the consumer. continues with the distributor. finally. There is no other way by which we can ensure a higher it has itself is There standard of living for all. This depends upon the way in which. since they are the means whereby these possibilities may find a final inner freedom. Its task lies within the realm of irrationality: to give an expression to the emotional feeling of a period. nothing more disturbing to the balance of our inner vigor than production which becomes an end in itself.

The rise of the public art of the the standard of taste of the genthe exhibitions. No man can exist without emotion: he finds his expression for this where he can obtain it most easily. Art as a substitute The rift between the newly created reality and emotional feeling started with the industrial revolution: ungoverned machines outcast feeling. half demoniac. In short. have not mastered the social consequences any better than the human ones. we have not found the key to reality. which lies hidden in our emotion. And what is more comfortable than to escape from the world. the press: the art that had real power and that came to govern the emotional world of the general public proved to be merely a drug. art of Today. This is the matter which we must We We We discuss here. the situation remains the same. a narcotic. ourselves to this civilization. a safe historical distance away. mentary of this situation was that the greatest The One need only thumb through the journals of 1830 consequence . production as an end This dichotomy explains the last century. for our culture lacks an adapt adequate balance between physical and mental tension. the public the nineteenth century quite often has the charm of a mask half banal. It can be likened to some pleasthat gives the organism a moant-tasting medicinal powder lift before the poison begins its fell work. to shut one's eyes and make believe that one is living in an idyllic period? to 1900 to see this in operation. have not been able to cope with the new reality. which eral public. the officially accepted art of is still academies. as then. for we have created a civilization which do not know how to lacks any desire for tranquillity.Today. in itself escape into romanticism.

do not present realistic representations of and personal experiences. art has recovered its power to exert an immediate influence upon the present-day reality. To not representations but symbols of the contemporary reality. the world These artists create which we ourselves have fashioned. unlike those of the last the world century. This is the function pursued by Cubism. so that even several decades later they are still effective and do not grow outdated. Production as an end in itself and in the domain of the emotions escape into romanticism. Art approaches life Since Cubism assembled the possibilities created by the and then found new ones. Impressionists up to the Fauves. This organically growing art works like a biological medicine.continues painters of this period. by presenting us immediately with the very essence of a form. for it has to act on the organism from within. slowly and quietly. monolith to a tangle of wire cable in the from the stone tin From age 8 . from the annual rings of a tree to the furthest form of life that the microscope can disclose. were forced to capitulate to the situation to unimportance. can to iron construction. from organic movement to machine precision. and all other movements which. the only ones whose to survive today. they suddenly give us the power of spatial penetration to acquire a completely new approach to the world around us. This means that. the eye of the naturalistically oriented observer the abstract forms or the organic fragments they create have no connection whatsoever with reality. Constructivism. go hand in hand work and become doomed throughout this period. But it turns out that these paintings have the power to radiate a marvelous strength. But this cannot come about at once.

utilitarian objects can suddenly be transformed into vehicles of feeling. far- It has taught us to find an approach to ourselves. . when their inner nature is expressed by a painter. but it has opened the way for us to find anew the key both to ourselves and to cosmic forces.bed of a stream wherever we look. Thanks to these paintings the loathing of ugliness and banality has been removed from that reality which exists because of and as part of us. It has shown us that what appear at first sight to be merely banal. this seemingly removed art has widened our experience. and. nondescript. This is only the beginning. which any true culture. thus. It has shown us the links that exist between the machine and the organism and the machine. to create once again a unity between feeling and reis essential for the start of ality.

of both great and small administrators. yet had no more of it than the doll Olympia in the "Tales of Hoffman"? The pictures of the famous painters of that period now molder in the cellars of art galleries. There are exceptions but the overwhelming mass of the public are taste. of elected politicians. in this way false idyls and sentimental images of the past century live today. or Berlin. or the reconstruction of StaIt is lingrad. The whole production of the period had little connection with real art. It is still a favorite Sunday amusement to ridi- cule an art that has sprung from the heart of our period. and of government officials. Each of these believes himself. Paul's aged Cathedral in London. to be a competent art critic.Marginalia Why was it that an art filled with the spirit of the period could not win through? Why was it possible that. to the tiny city of Saint-Did Everywhere we see taste: mirrored the characteristics of the ruling sham facades before the realities of life. Within it lie the roots of that tragic feeling rift between retarded emotional and highly developed thinking which cuts through our period. the painters and sculptors who determined the emotional make-up of the masses made a pretense of having life. its influence is still strong in the emotional standpoint of the general public. to erect 10 . Even so it should not be ignored. be- cause of his position. for over a century. Though the art of the ruling taste of the last century has now disappeared. still at the emotional level of the former ruling enough to glance at postwar reconstruction of damurban areas from the bombed area around St. Their names have be- come meaningless.

This approach. It is of course true that to evaluate the real meaning of public opinion. of the nineteenth nineteenth century witnessed a greater expansion of material goods than had ever been known before. These phrases indicate the tragic conflict. It floundered between one extreme and another. Its emotions stumbled down false tracks leading toward substitute and second-rate values. When Heinrich Heine. rift. was in connection 11 . because it could not find the key to its inner self. was well known before the middle of the century. 1955 THE TRAGIC CONFLICT Do we need artists? Art as the key to reality. At the same time the nineteenth century lived in a fog of inarticulate feelings. the German poet. it is necessary to regard it from some distance in time. Man needs only to press the button labeled research laboratory and the desired product will be delivered. In this field procedures have now been developed to such a degree that almost anything that is desired can be produced. The statement that only posterity can estimate the true values of a period is one of those thin excuses behind which we shelter to escape our responsibilities. Its thinking was concentrated upon obtaining a rational mastery over all the world. paid his first visit to Paris in 1831. It remained eternally uncertain. eternally doubtful. especially with everything to do with technical development. All this. caused by the particular predicament of the period. as expressed in the daily press. the tragic century. But any person with real judgment can recognize tie main predicaments of a period while in the midst of its problems. reaching out blindly in all directions. which had begun with the The now taken to extreme lengths.1936. he wrote at length about the Salon of Renaissance. just as well as any later comer. It sought its release by escape into the past.

12 . "Doubt. Jonathan Mayne (London. and whose ravages are now Doubt begat Eclecticism/' greater than ever before And a little later in his chapter. Therefore. trans. intermediary * without/' "is a divine privilege which almost all are No period is entirely without depth. and ed. The art which at that time was heaped with glory and success is now stacked in heaps in the cellars of all museums and art galleries. who found the most tender spot when he published his booklet on the Salon of 1846. his estimate was "The art of today is in distasteful contrast to the actual scene/' But it was Charles Baudelaire. The Mirror of Art. naivete. Though it was packed with pictures depicting historic events. But real art has one thing in common with the voice of conscience: both utter the truth which cannot. 103. Naivete" a vice peculiar to this age the capacity to approach things directly without . It has become materially valueless. but the really great those who never lost the gift of "naivet" were without influence at that time. . The strength of the ruling taste overpowered them.that year. their works unknown and inaccessible. . and the nineteenth century too had its great artists. "Doubt. Here he placed his finger upon the bound up with eclecticism: doubt. . 1 Charles Baudelaire. which had a special claim to interest as it immediately followed the revolution of 1830. or the absence of faith and of evil that is inevitably . which today is the principal cause of all morbid affections in the moral world. 1955). the French poet. between the highly developed powers of thinking of the nineteenth century and its debased powers of feeling debased through the acceptance of substitute outlack of appreciation in their lifetime. "On schools and journeymen. 124. In its place hang masterpieces of these misunderstood artists such as Edouard Manet all who suffered severely from and sometimes even destroyed their work in consequence. is which is ." he says. be silenced. pp. in the long run.

These too were unable to interlock thinking with feeling. and Goethe. Time and Architecture. laid the cornerstone of a Kesonanzgeschichte (history of the recep2 Sigfried Giedion. Without this inner connection between meth- letsa ods of thinking and methods of feeling it is impossible to have a positive way of life or genuine culture. (Cambridge 1954). those with sufficient imagination to distill the essence of the period and give it form. . But these achievements were regarded as emotionally neutral. But the nine- In all know of no teenth-century situation is exceptional. as follows: have behind us a period in which thinking and feeling were separated. . Shakespeare. p. The real spirit of the age came out in these researches in the realm of thinking. 13. . Eliot and others have recognized the same phenomenon among the poets who were then the darlings of the ruling taste.tragic rift opened ever wider. We Franz Roh." 2 satisfied certain instincts of periods there have been artists who have pleasantly the people it was so in the times of Sophocles. In my introductory chapter to Space. Time and Architecture under the title. other period in which genuine artists. S. T. The split personality as a psychopathic case does not concern us here. "History a part of life/* I sought to express this disastrous conflict. Feeling could not keep up with the swift advances made in science and the techniques. in "Studies of History and the Theory of Cultural Misunderstandings. debarred from contact with the masses. were. we are speaking of the inner disharmony which is found in the structure of the normal personality of this period. that is. in such great measure. Space. who lacked inner equilibrium: split personalities. as having no relation to the realm of feeling. . This schism produced individuals "We whose inner development was uneven. jrd ed." included in his book Der verkannte Kiinstler (The unappreciated artist). which alone can prepare the way for an emotional absorption of mental achievement.

at least to make a study of one typical example. 4 S. But we still lack a badly needed history of the ruling taste of the nineteenth centuiy. through the power of the same ruling taste. he stressed the delay that occurs before the echo of the event reaches the 8 public. This would not be a history of the reception of the works of creative artists and their disastrous elimination. 41 Some fragments of this earlier material may help to clarify the picture for only through a careful study and documentation of a typical case can one gain insight into the degree to which the ruling taste paralyzed the capacity for Franz Rob. was misused in a way somewhat similar to art. Der verkannte Kunstler (Munich. Mechanisation Takes Command (New York.tion of ideas) in which. but rather a study of the ruling taste of the period rary scene. but a very great deal to do with the psyche of the nineteenth century. which. 14 . Then it was put aside. unused. and its immediate effect upon the contempo- Today it requires a certain courage to drag past favorites of the public from their forgotten graves. 1948) . I once thought that I myself would write such a history and started to assemble some preliminary material. among other things. and with the lack of instinct the misguided instincts which still plague us today. Gicdion. 1948). In connection with an appointment in America it seemed to me more urgent to make some studies of the effect of mechanization upon our daily lives. Since that time my interests have become more concerned with the continuity of human experience through the ages than with the events of the period immediately preceding our own time. The material for this was gathered during the summer of 1936 in the Bibliothque Nationale in Paris. These forgotten works have little to do with art. It is a somewhat ghostly undertaking as they can no longer stand the light of day. This I tried to do in Mechanization Takes Command.

and rank the Louvre Museum." and so "Who has not seen an engraving or Widow?" asks L.typical popular artist. The King of Belgium. whose officials were naturally 5 L. He became drawing master to the family of the Due d'Orleans. later to be King Louis Philippe. mother a miniature painter: "at her knee the child learnt to read Goethe and Dante in their native tongues/' An infant prodigy: when twelve years old Ary Scheffer exhibited a picture in Amsterdam which caused a sensation. 5 Sales. success. "Orphans at their Moth- a lithograph of excellent The Soldier's work on Ary Scheffer. such as "The er's Soldier's Widow" on. During the summer of 1936 I did my best to understand the phenomenon of Ary Scheffer. Vitet. Today his name is quite unknown. Fellow students were G&icault. Scheffer hesitates over the direction he should take. a Dutch painter (1795-1857). the top in the first aristocracy of England. The same year Scheffer made his debut in the Paris Salon with a picture of a religious subject. and the following is a shorthand version of the situation which produced him. Milieu: thoroughly imbued with literature and art. It was Baudelaire's criticism of his work in the Salon of 1846 that brought him to my notice. but at that time he bewitched great and small. Eugene Delacroix. France. Vitet in his (1819). the railway king P&eire. The thirties marked the high point of his career. but soon finds it: sentimental genre pictures after the English style. who by 1830 had won judgment the heart of the great public. and Poland. rich and A poor. the banker Achflle Fould. Literary representations of Gretchens and Mignons. . Queen Victoria of England. Grave. countless commissions: soon he had a riding horse in the stable. Born 1795 in Dordrecht. He made an unsuccessful attempt at historical pictures. He entered the Paris atelier of the classicist Gu6rin. In 1812 the family moved to Paris. Peintres modernes de la France: Aiy Scheffer (Paris. tie most famous studio of the time. Madame de Rothschild. Father a portrait painter. was Ary Scheffer. 1858). the Queen of France. in the then French Batavian Republic.

From the start. He was at once given permission to return it. one of the first to make art criticism his chief profession. but perhaps it was because. 4). in this year. One need only thumb through the pages of the Magasin Pittoresque. or the Illustrated London News and Illustration. and right on through the whole century. Perhaps this was because he had a large enough private clientele. The technique was similar. In the forties Scheffer leaned more and more toward religious themes. Some found this picture more beautiful than a Raphael. they were the servitors of the ruling taste. p. but preferred to keep it. Augustine and his Mother Monica" {fig.also representatives of the ruling taste: all these were purchasers of originals or of copies of his work. Planche. 106. or the German family journals of the second half of the century. which was started in 1831 at ten centimes a copy. and then found that he had re- ceived a copy. both of which were begun shortly after. Mirror of Art. Around 1830 the mass production of illustrated journals started. and Baudelaire said saucily that the work of Aiy Scheffer was for "those aesthetic ladies who revenge themselves on the curse of their sex by 6 indulging in religious music. The middle classes hung lithographs or engravings in their parlors or bedrooms. We had reached the period of mechanization. The subject was "St. Scheffer per- mitted many copies to be made in his atelier of the favorite pictures of his clients. the twenty-five-year-old Charles Baudelaire in his "Salon de 1846" and Gustave Planche in the Revue des Deux Mondes both saw his work for what it was. l6 . was of a different opinion in his article in the Revue des Deux Mondes." It was not the pictures that hung in exclusive mansions that had the greatest effect upon the representatives of the ruling taste. to understand readily how it was that readers in all counties lost their inevitably * judg- Baudelaire. as was the delight with which they were greeted. In 1846 he showed for the last time in the Paris Salon. In 1856 the Earl of Ellesmere paid 1100 guineas for a picture.

a favorite of Queen Victoria. the public liked "art and poetry that let them relax before misty images and daydreams.ment of quality."* 8 A Polish Count Krasinski found that his ideal of Raphael was overshadowed by Acy Scheffer. public found that Ary Scheffer's sentimental mistiness should not subjects be selected from the work of great poets or from religious events? It all depends upon the way in which the subject is handled. 2). Portraits Contemporary (Paris. Mayer. devotes the final essay of his famous Studies of Religious History to the discussion of a religious picture by the Acy Scheffer. Renan speaks of him as this "eminent artist who 10 has best sought in our times to find the way to the heart." Hofstede de Groot. 1867). merely E'cture return to her earthy abode. Gesehichte den Modern Franzosichen Mttterei sett 1789 (Leipzig. Raphael was a mere materialist. Scheffer's skillful to ng paintbrush enables us to sense her yearnings for her celestial fatherland. 431. 9 Hofetede de Groot. "He is. p. 1874). p. 1893)." purchased by Louvre. as in Goethe. Studies of Religious History (London. Crutrdderistik Ary Scheffers (1870). Even the great skeptic and theological critic. both nobler and greater. all were nourished by the same emotional material. wrote a book on Ary Scheffer in 1870 in which he stated that he greatly preferred the work of Scheffer to the poems of Goethe. professor of theology at the University of Groningen. Although a few years later he was Th6oph3e Julius Gautier. in comparison. The contemporary Why the public does not appreciate either the line of Ingres nor the color of Delacroix" remarked Gautier in Theophfle Portraits ContempordnsJ As another author stated in 1867." His "Mignon" (fig. P- 33- . Ernest Renan. 'The Search for Christ. By comparison. "does not." The lish twenty-year-old ferule Zola came to Paris to estabhimself as a writer. 8 10 Ernest 7 Renan. 245.

Not one of their number has doubts of his monarchy and it is in this unshakable conviction that their glory resides." Here Baudelaire was referring more to specialists than to Ingres. An eclectic is a ship which tries to sail before all winds at once.defender of fidouard Manet. for he is a man with neither star nor compass . . but kept to the most sublime and moving sub11 jects/' These examples indicate how far this emotional fog had penetrated into the lungs of all layers of society. tory has since judged it. that painter of genius who died last year: in Paris it would be a crime to say you didn't. Scheffer all his was a passionate lover of the ideal. 103. in a highly perceptive manner. Delacroix. He was types a poet in the full meaning of the word. wit. 18 . Lettres de jeunesse (Paris. are pure and light almost diaphanous. he excepts from the eclectics. an eclectic is but a feeble man.. twoway facing. 1907). 12 Baudelaire. In his chapter on eclecticism he writes of the truly great that "each of them has a banner to his crown and the words inscribed on that banner are clear for all the world to read. and judge it even in 1846 as his- The poet Baudelaire was the only one to pass ment upon a final judg- his century: he alone recognized its Janus." The nature of an eclec. could recognize the model of the ruling taste. in 1860 Paris and wrote to his boyhood's friend Paul Cezanne: "I don't know if you knew Ary Scheffer. Mirror of Art.. but in the provinces it can be put down to fearless to become a he absorbed the current atmosphere of crass ignorance. the encroachment of one art upon another. like Baudelaire." 12 11 fimfle Zola. face. 104. . whom. pp. 202-204. the importation of poetry. Correspondence. "Experiment with contradictory means. and Daumier. and sentiment into painting all these tic is further elaborated: modern miseries are vices peculiar to the eclectics. There were very few observers who. of whom he says: "No matter how clever he may be. scarcely ever painted reality. pp.

Mayer. "the eel-smooth Architecture in general lay outside the realm of public Buildings were there to provide shelter." Even earlier Baudelaire has described Scheffer as a painter who "befouls" his canvas." " And what about architecture? interest. seeking escape in past history and Baudelaire and mobile world of the present slips between the fingers. Ary Scheffer and the apes of sentiment. self-deception. for it lies in the spectator's soul. But one must beware of taking everything too seriously. . Geschichte der Franzosichen Malerei. as twenty years after an art historian expressed it. and more: "To make a deliberate point of looking for poetry during the conception of a picture is the surest means of not finding it . Poetry is the result of the art of painting itself. traditional techniques and modes of expression were adopted in a vain attempt to discover a means of interpreting the essence of the period. and the architect became a decorator whose job it was to adorn them. p. 105. This species is followed by a diatribe on the whole which can be accepted for the entire century. "On Mr.And then Baudelaire starts his chapter entitled. Ary Scheffer. The period exhausted all possibilities to no result. Mirror of Art. Again and again. throughout the century and later. is to bring out those values which are worthy of necessary forming a part of the history of the development of archi- A tecture. Again and again it was quickly discovered that these methods failed. Painting is only interesting in virtue of 13 color and form.. it wandered always in circles." Again and again. because. as has sometimes hapsedulously careful selection of buildings pened recently. and it is the mark of genius to awaken it there. In many interiors there is no lack of warmth and a subtle use of architectonic effects. eyes turned backward. 18 14 Baudelaire." with the words: "A disastrous example of this method if an absence of method can be so called is Mr..

as with the art of the ruling taste "the eel-smooth and mobile world of the present slips between the fingers/' .it is clear that the power of the was so strong and dominant that its dictatorship completely inhibited the development of architectural When taken as a whole. In architecture. ruling taste imagination.

Part a ON MONUMENTALITY for The Need a New Monumentality On Monumentality and Color by Fernand Leger Nine Points on Monumentality Some Words on Fernand On the Space-Emanating Power of Contemporary Sculpture .

in the collection of papers. ed. upon the subject. It was certainly dangerous to revive a term that had become so debased. which are here printed for the first time. especially at a time monumenwhen most people do not even grasp the most elementaiy requirements for a functional building. Lewis Mumford. We decided The publication of the American Abstract Artists never materialized. took up a defensive position. each approaching it from the point sion. *944)> PP- . New MonuNew and City Planning. Harvard One day in discovered that each University). it we thought of view of his own field of activity: the painter. entitled "The mentality. and the historian." der nine heads. After discus- We would be more interesting if we all discussed the same topic. 1 New 22 Architecture find City Planning. and also. later. They were right. Fernand L6ger the Luis Serf the architect and town planner (later painter. Pad Zucker (New York. of us had been invited to write an article for a publication to be prepared by the American Abstract Artists. the architect. and I met together. But we cannot close our eyes. 1 Many friends whose opinion I value shook their heads at the use of so dangerous a term." appeared later. in 1943. Architecture All of us are perfectly aware of the fact that tality is a dangerous thing. Jose to become Dean of the Graduate School of Design. on the other side of the Atlantic.Mar&ndia New York. and one to which the ruling taste had given so banal a meaning. I lectured on this topic in many places in the United States. My contribution. Despite these warnings. in a New Yorker article. "A New and finally assembled our joint views unMonumentality.

. "Monumentalism. ." he adds." 2 2 tural Lewis Mumford. we are now left. and myself. in their issue of September 1948. p. Alfred Roth (Zurich). momentarily. with but a single symbol of almost universal validity: that of the machine day is . An age that has deflated its values and lost sight of its purposes will not produce convincing monu- ments. All that could then be done was to point out gers and some of the possibilities. have dethroned symbolism. still lies the problem of monumentality before us as the task of the immediate future. and where they thought it fitted into the twentieth-century architectural picture." in the Architectural Review. . the Architectural Review (London) decided "to take the matter a furchitects. Style. Sweden). Walter Gropius (then at Harvard).. What we are beginning to witness toa reaction against this distorted picture of modern civilization. Heniy-Russell Hitchcock (Smith College. Contributions came from Gregor Paulsson (Uppsala." "The monument. "is a declaration of love and admiration attached to the higher purposes men hold in common. on September 26. 179. some of the dan- stage ther" and. Symbolism age has not merely abandoned a great many historic symbols.. but has likewise made an effort to deflate the symbol itself . One can willingly ord's plaint: "Now we live in an which agree with and Mumf ." ArchitecReview (April 1949). Lucio Costa (Rio de Janeiro). Because we by denying the values which it represents . Lewis Mumford followed this up with an essay. 1946. Sir William Holford (London). Symbolism and Style. some of the world's leading architects and architectural writers defined Following a lecture in the Royal Institute of British ArLondon. what monumentality meant to them. United States).Whether we want it or not. . "Monumentalism.

Naum These all work placed on the public Gabo. is certainty true for the monuments of the ruling tive but is not just when speaking of the work of the creaartists of our time such as Brancusi. Up to now. or in parks in the midst of the people. desire nothing more ardently than to see then- streets. the administrators and leaders of the ruling taste have banished almost tions. Hans Arp. or squares. Antoine Pevsner. and kept them there behind and . all their products to museums and bolts to private collecbars. however. Alberto Giacometti. or Picasso.This taste.

and the exquisite scale of eighteenth-century squares The were all in existence. They had become temporarily frozen in the icy atmosphere created by those architects and their patrons who. These were used indiscriminately everywhere. only by professional eclectics. with a strong artistic vision leading to new results. In this way the great monumental heritages of mankind became poisonous to everybody who touched them. the sensitive construction of Gothic cathedrals. buildings of perennial power such as the Acropolis. There was an undirected helplessness and. a routine use of shapes from bygone periods. But they could not help. Behind every great building of the past leered the faces of misusers. had misused eternal names by pilfering from history. Because they had lost their inner significance they had become devaluated. Thus the creative spirit had to be banished wherever public taste was being formed. The greater part of the nineteenth century belongs to it Its models of the past were not imbued. Cliches cannot be used by creative artists. for any kind of building. Tradition mercilessly misused by the representatives of the ruling academic taste in all fields concerned with emotional expression. its This was the period of pseudomonumentality. . For the moment they were dead. Those obedient servants of the ruling taste have now devaluated and undermined the taste and the emotions of the public and brought about the extreme banalization which still exists today. in order to compensate for their own kck of expressive force. the geometric phantasy of Renaissance churches. mere cliches without emotional justification. at the same time.1944 THE NEED FOR A NEW MONUMENTAUTY Modern architecture had to had been take the hard way. as in the Renaissance.

As with painting and sculpture. They found them in market halls. The masterly discrimination and discipline of the Greeks in this respect is one of the reasons for their lasting influence. It could not return to Greece. architecture has to provide an adequate frame for man's intimate surroundings. In certain crises man must live in seclusion. which had been nourished by handicraft and a long tradition. to be comforted by their experience. or to the Baroque. because of its inherent character. can be employed but rarely. Contemporary architecture takes the hard way Contemporary architecture had to take the hard way. Three steps of contemporary architecture Architecture is not concerned exclusively with construction. the Eiffel Tower. in factories. the life of the community. They were naked and rough. but they were honest. were aware that monumentally.Periods which are dear to our memory. Individual houses as well as 26 . In ancient Greece monumentally was used a certain sparingly. to Rome. This was the situation for all the arts around 1910. 1889. to extent. and then only to serve the gods. or in the only real monument of this period. or. to become aware of his own inner feelings and thoughts. Architects found traces of the undisguised expression of their period in structures far removed from monumental edifices. it had to begin anew. There was no denying that these lacked the splendor of buildings of bygone periods. in the bold vaults of the great exhibition buildings. Nothing else could have served as the point of departure for a language of our time. First. whose structures and work rose beyond their mere temporal existence. and then only for the highest purposes. It had to reconquer the most primitive things. as if nothing had ever been done before.

which to the last century had seemed beneath the talents and attention of the artist. the city. and from the architectonic view as well. From the is not part of the contemporary building scene. cere- They want these bufldings to 27 . to the neighborhood. at the same time. and to the economy of means. with the smallest unit. from the right height of a kitchen sink to the layout of a region. The third step lies ahead. Modern architecture had to begin with the single cell. This is the reconquest of monu- mental expression. for it seemed then senseless to push ahead before first trying to find new solu- tions for this task. But. The 1920'$ and 1930*5 saw a resurgence of research in this direction. But it was housing for the lower-income classes that taught the architects the exactitude of planning which had been lost in the nineteenth century. the city. a new space conception could be carried out. Thus it can greatest be said that the second phase of modern architecture was concentrated on urbanism. houses and blocks are not isolated units. it is the most dangerous and the most difficult step. An architect who is not interested in the whole scope of planning. and community life. social. The second step: From a human point of view. The main impetus lay in the fact that this problem also involved social and human orientation. houses were built for the middle or upper classes where. looking back. People desire buildings that represent their monial. They are incorporated in urban settlements and these are parts of a greater entity. we can see that an architecture which had to begin anew found here a problem where the utmost care had to be given to exact organization within the smallest space.the urban community have to be planned from the human point of view. tion of the whole region is one direct sequence. the low-cost dwelling. In view of what had happened in the last century and because of the way modern architecture had come into being. for the first time. Of course. and the organizasingle cell.

factories. In countries where modem architecture are moving has been recently called upon for solutions of museums. It will find an outlet at all costs." things to be transmitted to later generations. where modern architecture has ex- and had up to now been more because it has (1944) a rather limited influence or less confined to single-family dwellings. it has been forced to seek the monumental expression which lies be- yond functional fulfillment. be suppressed. in the long run. For the present it continues the habits of the last century and follows in the tracks of pseudomonumentality. But things early fast. and office buildings. there is one 28 . hous- seem too it may perhaps ing projects. for excitement. whether the most progressive or the most reactionary. If it cannot meet this demand. and for their social con- Every period has the impulse to create symbols in the form of monuments. No matter how different they may be in their political and economic orientations. Pseudomonumentdity Our period is no more than a functional fulfillment They seek the for joy pression of their aspirations in monumentality. churches. the whole development will be in mortal danger of a new escape into academicism. This demand for monumentality cannot. In the United States. theatres. MommentaKtyan eternal need Monumentality springs from the eternal need of people to create symbols for their activities and for their fate or destiny. according to the Latin meaning are "things that remind. for their religious beliefs victions. to speak about these problems. which. universities. No special political or economic system is to blame for this. or concert halls.

a. at Munich (fig. 11). at Pittsburgh (fig. His lectures are forgotten today. It came into being within the orbit of Napoleonic society which imitated the manner of a former ruling class. niiinitni Jean Nicolas L. but the buildings which resulted from their study are still standing and new ones have been added in a continuous stream for 140 years. Greek. The formula is always the same: take a curtain of columns and place it before any structure. Durand (1760-1834). from the Hall of German Art. Napoleon represents the model that gave the nineteenth century its form: the self- made man who became inwardly uncertain. regardless of whether it serves any purpose or of whatever consequences may follow upon the decision. 1937. A A prototype is the scheme for a museum by J. 1937.point where the governments of all countries meet: in theij conception of monumentality. illustrated in his lectures Precis de legons & architecture (1801-1805) which were many times translated and reprinted and were used by architects of every country (fig. erected in recent years. One could compile an immense square of "monumental edifices" of the whole world. The origin of pseudomonumental buildings can be found in the paper architecture and lifeless schemes that later be- came reality everywhere. N. 10) or the Mellon Institute. a). L. The recipe is always the same: take some curtains of columns its building. 18011805. Durand's architectural propositions and teaching examples retain their influence in countless government offices. typical example of paper architecture. whatever and put them in front of any purpose and whatever the conse- quences. or any other style or tradition. Pseudomonumentality has nothing to do with Roman. Durand (1760-1854): Design for a Museum. to recent .

but in their emotional or artistic training. Is it. any wonder that most official artistic judgments are disastrous. The moral cowardice reflected in its architecture seems to have an almost prophetic affinity to the failure of the League itself. plagued as he is by the rift between his methods of thinking and 1935) is methods of feeling. but the emotional background has not his caught up with it. The palace of the League of Nations at Geneva (finished perhaps the most distinguished example of internationally brewed eclecticism. 30 . and public b. It is still imbued with the pseudo-ideals of the nineteenth century. then.museums in Washington. Osbert Lancaster: "Monumental?' architecture in Nazi Germany. or that the decisions made for urban planning. 193$. How can this be explained? Those who govern and administer may be the most brilliant men in their fields. or similar buildings in Moscow. they reflect the average man of our period. monuments. The thinking may be developed to a very high level.

has proved itself incapable of creating anything to be compared with these institutions. fulfill this purpose. 31 . forum. to now. Osbert Lancaster: "Monument*?' architecture in Soviet Has**. many monuments. up the community centers? Neither radio nor television can replace the personal contact which alone can develop com- munity life. c. 1938. They were able to build up their community centers (agora. There are monuments.buildings are without contact with the real spirit of the period? The lost sense of monumentality Periods of real cultural life had always he capacity to project creatively their own image of society. is but accusations alone do have to ask: what can be done? not help. The question of how to keep the people from going furAll this We easily recognizable. but where are medieval square) to Our period.

will profit by the client on the other. many private and public casso. and others. Only complete frankness be of any use.will ther astray cannot easily be solved. 3* . Why? Because all three have been banished from the great public tasks. written in 1954 and 1956. of those who have to re-create the those lost sense for it. Didn't the new architects tend to ignore the higher as- pirations of the people? That this danger still exists cannot be denied. and ? We outlined the reasons why architecture had to cut self off it- and why architects had to concentrate on functional problems and to reeducate themselves through them. This had its consequences. and not as the medium to shape the emotional life in the broadest sense. and The ccmanunity's emotional life The situation of toda/s modern painter differs in many respects from that of the avant-gardists of the late nineteenth century. frankness on both sides. Picasso's "Guer- This was writtea in 1944. 8 "Something" is an inspired architectural imagination able What is more. Today. collections are filled with the paintings of PiLger. Only in exceptional * cases (for example. In countries where modern architecture has won the battle and been entrusted with monumental tasks in- volving more than functional problems. Modern art is re- garded as a sure investment and America owns the most important collections. But in one respect the situation remains unchanged: art is still regarded as luxury. compare Part 6. Paul Cezanne was proud when he could sell one of his pictures for 100 francs. to satisfy the demand for monumentality. There is no collaboration. one cannot but observe that something is lacking in the buildings executed. from the past. They have lost contact with each other. painters tomed to working together. Miro. who of the artist monumentality and on one hand. have become unaccusarchitects. sculptors. Bracque.

The same situation easts today. and governments. Is the artist estranged from life? There are several reasons to believe that he is not. were always wrong in their taste and judgment. poor and rich. and that all the official art of that period appears so ridiculous today that the museums no longer show it to the public. reveal the creative spirit which permeated the nineteenth century. Precious artistic linger forces. the masses. Nothing has changed in this respect I have seen in painting. architecture. Remember to munity. where they can form the people and the people can form them. who had been driven into seclusion. sculpture. capable of providing the symbols for our period. known artists today no no this only know that argument those who govern and administer public taste are without the necessary emotional understanding. the best offered to paint free of charge murals depicton the walls of the City HalL no sell well. a long row of artistic leaders (by this I mean those who shape our emotional life) living their isolated existence. on the other hand. Those artists. far from the public and the understanding of those who could have brought them in touch with the comthat. How is it possible to develop an art "satisfying" forces are the people when those who personify the creative not allowed to work upon the living body of our period? 33 . We We There are reasons to right. touch the great public. but there are where their talents can walls. under the domination of the press. believe that the modern artists are throughout the whole nineteenth century. But the artist has been unable to do anything about it because he has been artificially expelled from direct contact with the community. and poetry. is absolutely correct.nica" in 1937) have creative contemporary artists been allowed to participate in a community task. places. unused as in the nineteenth century when Edouard Manet vainly ing the real fife of Paris Yes. academy. buildings. Again and again it has been reiterated that modern art are not sure that cannot be understood by the public.

Not the imitator, only the imaginative creator is fitted to build our absent centers of social life which can awake the
public once more to their old love for festivals, and incorporate movement, color, new materials, and our abundant else could utilize these means technical possibilities.


open up new ways for invigorating community life? I am not aware of any period but our own which, to such a frightening extent, has wasted its few available creative

The demand for a decent social life for all has finally been
recognized, after
is still

more than

a century's fight.

The demand for shaping the



of the masses

unrecognized. Regarded mostly in the hand of speculators.

as inessential this


Painting points the -way Painting, the most sentient of the visual arts, has often forecast things to come. It was painting which first realized the spatial conception of our period and discovered methods of representing it. Later, in the thirties, by these same artistic means, the horror of the war to come was foreshadowed many years

came, when, for instance, Picasso around 1930

painted his figures with strange abbreviations and sometimes terrifying lines which most of us did not understand until
these forms
trate this

and expression were verified by later

events. His


Wood," 1930




serve to illus-

phenomenon. It is a sketch for a modern sculpture of enormous scale. Picasso did not specify for what purpose these 1930 studies for a monument were meant. But it is now clear that these sketches forecast the reality and the inherent significance of
the symbol did not reveal
itself until later.

symbolizes our attitude toward the war (of 19391945). It does not glorify war in a heroic gesture, as the


Napoleonic Arc de Triomphe on the Place de FEtoile. stands as a memorial to the horror of this period and of
tragic conflict: the not the way to solve


knowledge that mechanized killing is human problems, but that nevertheless

has to be done.


frightening. It tells the truth. It has the terribilita for his contemporaries emanated from Michelan-

gelo's late sculptures, a terrifying threat translates into present-day

which Picasso


at a

moment when we

language. are living in blood


horror, painting announces another period. This birth of the lost sense of


trend can be observed in recent years, common to of the leading painters. nearly Together with the urge for larger canvases, brighter colors have appeared, full of inherent hope. At the same time there is an impulse toward simplification. This has occurred after a development of three decades during which modern painting has become ripe for great tasks. Great and unresolved complexes have had to be expressed in the shortest, most direct way. What began as necessary structural abbreviations now emerge as symbols. The work of Arp, Mir6, Leger, and many others is moving



in this direction.

have created these symbols out of the anonymous Nobody asked for them, have just appeared. They have no factual content, no they significance at the moment other than emotional response. They are not for those whose emotional life is still imbued with the last century's official taste. But children can understand them, because these figurations are as close to primitive life as they are to our complicated civilization. For the first time in centuries artists have returned to the


forces of our period.

simplicity which is the hallmark of any kind of symbolic expression. They have shown that the elements indispensable for monumentality are available. They have acquired

the rare power of a mural language.


Once more
cast a



forecast the next
in architecture;


in architecture.

But not only



newly integrated tating idolatry of production. Great changes are necessary in
plish this


removed from the devas-


spheres to accom-


tecture should

painting, sculpture, and archicome together on a basis of common percepaided by all the technical means which our period has

demand; and not the moment when

least in the

emotional domain.

to offer.

planted for the winter. Wars have been prepared in peace. should not peace be prepared in war? The means for a more dignified life must be prepared before the





Will these means be utilized?

Technical and emotional means

an enormous backlog of new means and unpossibilities held in reserve by engineers and inventors of all lands. At the same time there exists a tragic inability to use these treasures and to merge them into our human emotional needs. No period has had so many means and


such a lack of ability to use them. In one of his essays, T. S. Eliot says the seventeenthcentury poets, "possessed a mechanism of sensibility which could devour any kind of experience." * Their emotional and their mental apparatus functioned like communicating tubes. Technical and scientific experiences inevitably found their emotional counterpart, as is revealed in the artistic creations of that period. This is just what we lack. Today this direct contact, this coherence between feeling and has vanished. thinking, Now, after the great horrors of our period, age-old, perennial

S. Eliot,

arise again.

We have banned


expression for joy


from life the Both have to be

'The Metaphysical

Poets," Selected Essays

1932), p. 247.


incorporated into human existence and are as necessary for our equilibrium as food and housing. That we have become incapable of creating monuments and festivals and that we

have lost all feeling for the dignity of urban centers is tied up with the fact that our emotional life has been regarded as unessential and as a purely private affair. Behold the patterns of present-day cities!

Urban centers and spectacles Urban centers will originate when cities are not regarded as mere agglomerations of jobs and traffic lights. They will arise when men become aware of the isolation in which they live in the midst of a turbulent crowd, and when the demand for a fuller life which means community life becomes irresistible. Community life is closely connected
with an understanding of relaxation, with the urge for another vitalizing influence besides the job and the family an influence capable of expanding men's narrow private


great civilization has existed which has not fulfilled irrepressible longing for institutions where such


can develop. In different periods these instihad different aims, but, whether called the Greek gymnasium or agora, the Roman thermae or forum, the medieval cathedrals or market places, all have contributed to the development of human values. These institutions were never conceived of as financial investments. Their function was not to produce money or to bolster up a
tutions have



center of the coming period wfll never be a to slums. It should not be financed by bond issues neighbor on the basis that its cost will be self-liquidating within a

The urban

period of years.

The means must come from the community.

Community centers? What has the economist to say about the large expenditures involved in their building? The hope of our period is that diverse groups are moving

unconsciously in parallel directions. The liberal economists, such as John Maynard Keynes, are stressing the fact that economic equilibrium can only be obtained by a surplus production not destined for daily use. Goods must be produced which cannot be conceived of in terms of profit or



supply and demand. Keynes does not speak of urban he deals with the theory of employment and money. observes that today the necessary large-scale expendi-

nonconsumable goods are only admissible in the case of catastrophes such as earthquakes, war, or "digging holes in the ground known as which adds nothtures for


ing to the real wealth of the world. The education of our statesmen on the principles of classical economics stands in

Why not keep the economic machinery going by creating urban centers? The problem ahead of us focuses on the question: Can the emotional apparatus of the average man be reached? Is he susceptible only to football games and horse races? do not believe it. There are forces inherent in man, which


way of anything



come to the surface when one evokes them. The average man, with a century of falsified emotional education behind him, may not be won over suddenly by the contemporary symbol in painting and sculpture. But his inherent, though unconscious, feeling may slowly be awakened by the original expression of a new community life. This can be done within a framework of urban centers and in great
spectacles capable of fascinating the people. Anyone who had occasion during the Paris Exhibition of 1937 to observe the hundreds of thousands lined in

the the

evenings along the banks of the Seine and on Trpcadero bridge, quietly waiting for the spectacles of



fountains, light, sound, and fireworks, knows that the persistent predisposition for dramatic representation, even in

the form of abstract elements, has not been


difference in this respect

lost. There is between Europe and America.

*, /; KfP?' The Genetd Theory of Employment Money (New York and London, 1936), p. 129.



In 1939. 39 . Not haphazard world's fairs. light. ception. and where a unity of the architectural background. which in their present form have lost their old significance. and fireworks were thrown into the sky. when aerial plays of water. must be reincorporated within urban centers centers which our mechanized civilization has always very Everybody regarded as inessential. is susceptible to symbols. will be achieved. at the New York World's Fair. and the symbols conveyed by the spectacles. a sudden spontaneous applause arose. sound. Our period is no exBut those who govern must know that spectacles. where the people play as important a role as the spectacle itself. which will lead the people back to a neglected community those life. but newly created urban centers should be the site for collective emotional events. the people.

world. Color is a raw material indispensable to life. At every era of his existence and of his history. They can give A life to the wall or destroy it. it has imposed itself upon the whole So color and its dynamic or static function. Modem A main preoccupation. A stained.1943 ON MONUMENTALITY AND COLOR (Written by Fernand L6ger) Colored space. How has color been set free? Until the pictorial realization by the painters of the last 40 . colored wall becomes a living element. is the reason for this study. which are destroydecorative life is born out of this ing the landscape. hats. It is color which remains the chief is multiple. publicity has taken possession of color and roads are framed with violent-colored posters. the human being has associated color with his pleasures. Dresses. joys. and his The flowers come into the home: the most usual objects cover themselves with color. its decorative or destructive possibilities in architecture. Its action long. anonymous surface/ It will come alive only with the help of objects and color. they should be utilized. Inside and outside. his actions. 7 bare wall is a "dead. color imposes itself vic- toriously everywhere. The transformation of the wall by color will be one of the most thrilling problems of modem architecture of this present or the coming time. The craving for color is a natural necessity just as for water and fire. Possibilities for a new orientation in mural painting exist. For the undertaking of this modern mural transformation. color has been set free. make-up all these things call for decorative attention the whole day interest.

and this all too young woman is likened to the cicada which makes no provision for the coming winter. 2. La Cigalo (The Cicada).- angelic guilelessness." said the theologian Hofstedc dc the nineteenth Groot in 1870. wno wo'rkcd 1 1 artists of the ruling taste during the first half of century. Many of his were exported to America. A very almost a child is shown clothed in feel the ambiance of Rome. 1766. "Schcffcr's skillful paint brush enables us to sense her yearning for her celestial fatherland. ancient garments. This was the formula employed in representations of the female over a century by artists of the ruling taste. where Hamilton (1723-1798) lived and worked. This highly successful Dutch painter (1795in Paris. A. The girl's modest gestures and innocent look seem i.S'^6. 3. 1872. friendly maiden has now become . The innocent pictures a nude. ) Scheffcr: Mignou envisioning the Heavens. i.RULING TASTK: KROTIC MODE Hamilton: Innocentia. Gdvm young girl We to convey the idea that female nature is synony- mous with an fo. is typical of the 18157). Jules Lefevre: Lcfcvrc (1830-1912) was another famous representative painter of the ruling taste.

. . iHH^. lie typifies the official art of the second half of the nineteenth century. Several copies of it were made in the artist's studio. are behaving like street singers. The opinion the first of Count I "Monica upon the terday for sea coast Krasinsky: Yes. . The original was obtained by Queen Amelie and the Louvre could secure only a copy. The angels. In my opinion this far overshadows the art of time Raphael. Raphael is a mere materialist. experienced the true meaning of painting.6. 18^. which quite overpowered the creative artists of the period such as Scurat and Cezanne." This picture induced Baudelaire to write of the "Apes of Sen- timent. By comparison." it as "the RULING TASTE: RELIGIOUS MODE 5. . Adolphe William Bougiuiretiu: 'Ihc Virgin with Angela. I hits Ary Scheffer: Saint Augustine and motlier Monica. This was the last picture that Ary Schcffer exhibited at the Paris Salon." and he categorixcd height of absurdity. This picture reaches a high-water mark of banality. or night club entertainers to fiddle at the table of who come up the client. Bouguereau (1825-1905) was king among the artists of the ruling taste: member of the French Academy and President of the French Association of Artists. with their provocative swans' wings.



Ary Scheffer: Vaunt and Marguerite, i&j6. of the most successful pictures from a

series of illustrations of Faust. Its
tally veiled lasciviousncss

comes out in the lines of the figures. ''What a cry from the soul!" exclaimed the Revue de Deux Mon1860 wrote: "Schcfc/<2,v, and fimile Zola in fer was a passionate lover of the ideal



lie scarcely ever painted reality, but kept to

the most sublime and moving subjects."



Gmtav Adolf

Vigeland: Sculpture group

in Frogner Park, Oslo, about 1930. The ruling taste and official art still live on, though
is somewhat changed. In the "Drive to Beautify the City/' both the city of Oslo and the Norwegian government

the outward form

worked together to achieve the assembly


gigantic sculptures of Vigcland (1869-1943) in Frogner Park.


Custav Adolf Vigdand: Mono-

park, 'I'liis twcnty-onc-foot monolith marks the center point of the park and is surlith in

rounded by
It is

thirty-six figure groups.






In contrast to the art of

Munch, it was these productions that won the hearts of the general public. The sculptor was built a
studio costing two and a quarter mil-

no Renaissance had ever possessed. Similar examples though on a less exagcan still be found gerated scale
lion kronen, such as

anywhere today.





Gustav Adolf Vig/eland: Detail from one of the

thirty-nix sculpture



The Hall




Munich, 1957. This, created

as a manifestation
taste of the

of the pure

but another 'product of the ruling nineteenth century, inaugurated by the French academicians.
spirit, is



The Mellon Research

onnade should he undisturbed, the

Institute, Pittsburgh, 1957. In order that the colresearch laboratories are banished seven

12. Georges Seurat (1859-1891): Sunday Afternoon on the Grande Jatte, 1884-1886. Parallel to the official art of the ruling taste, really creative artists were working throughout the entire nineteenth century. One of the finest of these was the young Georges Seurat, who died prematurely. His traits: forms reduced to their simplest nature, sharply modeled and at the same time in-

tangible. Only their fashionable period costumes limit their timelessness. In Scurat's painting the forceful process of elimination was established long before it was grasped by architecture, and before it was to




the dwelling house back to health.

13. George Seurat: Study Grande Jatte.


the nurse in the

Sunday Afternoon on the







is 14. Pablo Picasso (bom 1881): Monument in Wood, 1930. This painting a sketch for a sculpture of enormous dimensions. Picasso never named the

which he designed this terrifying head in 1930. But today (1943) meaning becomes slowly evident. It declared what was to come. This sickle-shaped head-like form, with its cavities and spikes, is both monstrous and human, and symbolizes our attitude toward war. It does not glorify war, like the Napoleonic Arc dc Triomphc on the Place dc 1'Etoile. This sketch in oils is a projection of the horrors of our period and its tragic conflict: to know that committing mechanized murder can solve no human problems, and yet be obliged to do it. This monument is terrifying. Its symbolism shows war for what it is, ten the same terribilita that years before the actual events. Its form emanates his sculptures. A fearful warning, "Michelangelo's contemporaries sensed from which Picasso sets forth in a modern idiom.
situation for


In maglli f. in approaching the simplicity real sense of things" (Brancnsi) . to lunge directly upward and claim possession of all space: "Bird created to penetrate the heavenly vault" in the words of Bird in Space. but one arrives at Bmncjm (1876-1956): Kent simplicity this clastic vertical seems ' 15. It required thirty years of labor before this' sculpture came to its final form Simplicity is not an end in art.. 1922-194. Corfrtm spite of oneself.

whose color changes with the angle of light. Antoine Pevsner (bom 1886): La Colonne Dcveloppable de la Vietoire. . A column of victor}' developed from the wartime sign of "V for Vic- tory." Its hollowing out of space is achieved by the juxtaposition of small straight steel rods.16. 1946.

Christ before Pilate is gta windows for the church at symlioli/cd by a lamb and si pair of bloocl- bcspnttcrccl hniids being washed in a basin. 18. 1950. .17. Fernand Leger (1881-1955): Stained Audincourt. Detail.

20. tent of the Eiffel artistic expression The emotional conTower was first given two decades later in the work of the poets Apollinairc and Blaisc Cendrars. 1910. Robert Eiffel Delaunay (1885-1941): The Tower. . The Eiffel Tower. The simultaneity of inner and outer space and the cvcrchanging point of view had never been perceived so strongly before.19. and the painter Delaunay. All unconsciously the forms of the engineers' constructions of the nineteenth century gave rise to a wider space conception than the work of cither architects or painters. 1889: view from the spiral stairway.

3915. The and even engineers. the new Clarinet. 1950. employed the plane surface possibilities of expression. .21. archias a means of presenting 22. Piet Mandrian (1872-1944): Composition. Georges Brctque (born 1882}: tects. Collage. Painters.

THE SLAB AS A CONSTITUENT ELEMENT 23. . All parts of Maillart's bridges. even the pavements. Robert Maillart (1872-19^0). are active elements of the construction system that is based upon the flat plane or slab. 1933. Bridge over the River Thur near Saint-Gall.

Le Corbufiier (born 1887): Construction system of House.24. T/teo van Doesburg (1883-1931): Space study. the Domino 25. about 1920. . This construction system consists of three reinforced concrete slabs with separating supports. This house was conceived as a transparent relationship between horizontal and vertical planes. 1915.

The advancing and recedplanes of cubist pictures. Rockefeller Center. interpenetrating. and completely transparent. .26. 1914. 2j. stand in the greatest contrast to the converging lines of perspective. are all functionally organized around the peripheries. The slab-like 1951-1939. New York City. ing often floating. George Braque: The Violin. forms of the various tall elements that make up the Rockefeller Center betoken a revolt against the old The offices solid skyscraper tower.

1943. the gesture artist extracts and immortalizes the or a situation. . 1927). like Scurat (Fig. Lcgcr In it into an "object." changes secret eternal content of a other words. This picture is one of a long series of "bathers" and "divers" which Fcrnand Lcgcr painted during his time in New York.:8. 12) or Picasso takes a banal daily event the "subject" and (Dnwrd bathers. In these. Fenwmd Leger: The Bathers.

It was about 1910. landscape. It could be static or dynamic. with Delaunay. trying to avoid so sible much as pos- complementary relations and to develop the strength of pure local colors. had the task of wearing color. with "La Ville. and transformed the landscape! Mysterious abstract signals made of yellow triangles. that I personally beto liberate pure color in space. Then color had to be got out. the wall had first to be freed to become an experimental field. fifty years. its possibilities inside and outside the building. extricated. keeping the relations of pure complementary colors (it was really the continuation on a larger and more abstract scale of the New Impressionists). were fast A it In order that architecture should be able to make use of without any reservations. to a dress. Color had be- come It a new reality." pure color. In 1919. I got some pure blue and pure red rectangles into the picture ("Femme en bleu. a human being. color set free. blue curves. a flower. In 1912. I was seeking out a path of my own in an absolutely opposite sense. a plastic activity without being bound to any modern publicity which at first understood the importance of this new value: the pure tone ran away out from the paintings. gan Delaunay developed an experience of his own. and isolated from the objects in which it had been kept prisoner.bound to an object. took possession of the roads. written in a geometrical drawing. a representative form. but the most important thing was to have isolated a color so that it had a plastic activity of its own. was about color-object had been discovered. red rectangles spread around the motorist to guide object. color or tone. ." 1912). It was him on his way. Color was the new object. this time that architecture in turn understood utilize this free color (color set The how it would be possible to free). found itself realized at its maximum.

we are coming into a new domain which is absolutely free. arrangement was given to our within the stiffness of the symmetric order.Decorative papers began to disappear from the walls. A black wall advances. One obstacle: its limitations. From a fixed dead condition in which no play." The A light blue wall draws back. able to reduce the "habitable rectangle" to half dimensions. Our visual education has been symmetrical. is going to change into a boundless "colored ' C7 O O JT space. that I shall call the to be transformed. A black piano. The white naked wall appeared all of a sudden. will appear even the pieces of furniture in an asymmetriyou put stronger cal organization. The "habitable rectangle" becomes an "elastic rectangle. imagination all have been educated in this symmetrical tradition. I liked to place them always in an asymmetrical 42 . going limited space. anecdote can bring out the strength of this habit of mind. I had in my room an old. of a bounded. Modem scenery can be absolutely new if we employ The visual if and decorative revolution asymmetry. "habitable rectangle'' is space. Experience will be able to lead toward the colored space. Three selected colors laid out in dynamic contrasts can destroy the wall. creates a visual shock. Living in the Parisian suburbs. a yellow wall disappears. It is very strong as most middle-class people are still bound possibility of interior No We An to this traditional order. for instance. before a light yellow wall. no fancy can be allowed." Destruction of a -wall The new which its is possibilities are numerous. large chest of drawers. The feeling of a jail. on which I put some personal artistic objects.

I spent my furloughs in I had met Trotsky and we often spoke city! problem of a colored He wanted me and to go to Moscow because of the prospect of a blue street a yellow street had raised some enthusiasm in him. its sensitive weight. When I came back in the evening.way: the most important object on the others in the middle and on the right. Perhaps a round house would be the place to study this. its of the colors adopted. a girl of the people. because she thought my objects were placed in a disorderly fashion. The urban center. An artificially in- creased space needs to be given to the people in these areas. there thrilling World War. These are vital needs: necessities. but he can become interested in the realization of a colored is bound up with his inner space. The man. The exterior volume of an architecture. who cleaned room every day. that the need for polychromy is most evident." The angle has a geometrical resistant strength which is only destroyed with difficulty. not undertake the polychrome organization of a distance. always found my objects symmetrically arranged: the most important in the center and the others symmetrically placed on each side. No serious attempt has been made as yet in this direction. but a very long fight. in the same way as the interior wall. Because this colored space needs for light and color. Color set free is indispensable to urban centers. It was a silent battle between the maid and me. The "exterior block" can be attacked. or the poor family. 43 . It would be the best way to perceive "the spatial and visual destruction of the wall. can be reduced or increased as a result Why street and of a During the about the city? First Montparnasse. cannot find a space of poor liberation through the help of a masterpiece upon his wall. I left side and the this par- ticular I had a maid. I think that it is in the urbanism of middle-class housing. the habitations where the workers are dwelling.

interior and exterior: a shaded view of static fagades leading. with the most powerful projectors in the world. bright many-colored (some airplanes would have been able to cooperate 44 . while became neat and leaving it to grow rationally. for instance. To create a white. to an attractive central place. The new one was bright colored: transparent. wholly to change a society. possibilities of change (at- tractive. Tower. they proposed: Paris all white! I asked for 300. 1937. lights upon those white and receptive houses. The psychological influences. within them. The example of a modern factory in Rotterdam is conclusive. light and color. Without any remark to the personnel. of exact volume of weight! This man is no more a shadow. Its action is not only external. They felt that an important event had just happened around them. are very important. conscious or unconscious. Liberated color will play its part in blending new modern materials and light will be employed to make an orchestra- tion of everything.Polychrome problem. The moral emancipation of a man becoming ber of Paris Exhibition. as an orchestral conductor. giving it the same importance as the form of the church that Catholicism has so well succeeded in imposing upon every village. At this place I bright monument with some conceive a spectacular. bright city! In the the Eiffel I evening. a spectacular effect. It is possible. which in their minds would bribe the visitors to keep the fete in went back memory when home. working mechanically behind a machine. job. The organizers summoned a numartists to try to find an attractive sensational effect. would diffuse along these streets. Then something happened. conscious of three dimensions. powerful means). Color and light had succeeded in creating this new evolution. mobile. More neat and tidy. the clothes of the workers tidy. of these factors. The and old factory was dark and sad. He is a new human being before a transformed daily This is tomorrow's problem.000 unemployed persons to clean and scrape all the fagades.

The polychrome clinic. sometimes it lightly enfolds things and objects within a zone of good taste. But the majority of the people like shaded colors Color is a strength with two sharp knives. some others painted yellow and red. of the sentimental ruins: the taste for ramshackle houses. stimulating and nutritious for depressed and anemic people. how difficult it is to use truth. a flower on a coffee itself its eternal humdrum Color keeps within magic which. Pure color is more true in the realistic sense than shaded color. resides in a balanced The work of art is a perfect balance between a real fact and an imaginary fact. Color in social life has indeed a great role to fill. stirring remembrance. project was thrown back. known domain beginning the color cure. allows truth to be wrapped around. but so picturesque. A A decorative life. Color tries to cover over up. dark and dirty. which is called "la vie decora." Expressive strength verity. . tive. did not permit my project the opportunity of realization. world . like truth. My The toric. are they not? The secular dust which covers the his. daily routines. cult of the old patinas." The future will certainly belong to the effective collaboration between the three major arts: architecture. . It dresses them objects use it as a concealment of their bird on a this new fairy scene) Loud speakers would have diffused a melodious music in connection with this new colored . without are scarce. which 45 . Sometimes when it has broken loose it attacks and destroys without any restraint. cup. was a to thrill new un- young doctors: some green and blue wards for nervous and sick people. was a time sculpture. . painting. like music. Since the Italian Renaissance. Creators in all domains know any retouching. The humblest real purpose. how it becomes dangerous to be too "true. who like to think of living with The men who it raw.

should be accepted by all three parties. materials. which shelter for the anonymous crowd during their enervating day with its hurried rhythm. music. a discipline. The successive liberations which. which is our cadence. by means of the major arts: color. of works of Daily we hear the word "beautiful": the beautiful bridge. the beautiful automobile. have allowed modern artists to escape from the old constraints (subject. a magnificent place to repose. which mark and express those passed civilizations. since Impressionism. heaping up should be avoided: they are making the art of the Renaissance into a confusion without example. This feeling of beauty which is awarded to useful constructions is a proof of the enormous need which men feel within them for an escape through art. copy of the human form) allow us to realize a wholly different architectural unity. There is then a common beauty.of fullness for these three arts. Everything is set free! Let us think of former times. A measure. that modern architecture must impose It is New itself as the orchestral conductor of this collaboration. The present sickening profusion. the liberty of invention are able to transform the problem and to create new spaces. with the use of the new liberties. a rule. especially in the measuring of quantities. this art. why not manufacture the monument of beauty? Useful for nothing. liberated color. It would be unbelievable that ours should not achieve would be a 46 . It is for us to undertake this problem other aspect. perspective. It is possible to realize it. term between natural beauty and manufactured Then why not make. The same term is used for a lovely sunset. in a conscientious rationalism. This should be the basis of any collective work. the acceptance of constraints. no epoch has been able to though under an- keep this artistic collectivity alive. form. when so many magnificent temples were built.

Tohis joy in this elevation. Man press to exenthusiastically lifts his arms above his head To make high and free. Architecture can be aggressive or welcoming. a dazzling point. It dominates the view and fixes the gaze. The new temple must foresee an answer to a natural need tant as this is as impor- Imagine light steeples. In every case it is "ready for use" for us in a freer sense than ever before.its popular temples.000 spectators watching a football game is not the climax but the end of civilization. has been the means of plastic expression most sensitive to the people: the most visual. in which the feeling of bright. 47 . religious or utilitarian. for verticality. morrow's work. in every time. for a great sports show. high trees religion. The exaltation of 80. Architecture. the most grandiose. the need and factory chimneys would come to be unified and blended.

for their aims. Aupres de ma blonde Qu'il fait bon. people for translation of their collective force are those which express the feel- ing and thinking of this collective forcethe people.1943 NINE POINTS ON MONUMENTALITY (Written by J. Monuments are. and constitute heritage As such. S. (From an old French song. This does not mean that there is any lack of formal monuments or architectural examples . a real cultural life (3) Every bygone period which shaped had the power and the capacity to create these symbols. Que Pour "Aupres de ma blonde") which men have (1) Monuments are human landmarks created as symbols for their ideals. fait bon. L. Leger. only possible in periods in which a unifying consciousness and unifying culture exists. fait bon. They are intended to outlive the period which tions. they form a link between the past and the future. Periods which exist for the moment have been unable to create lasting monuments. and for their actions. They have to satisfy the eternal demand of the The most vital monuments into symbols. of man's highest cul(2) Monuments are the expression tural needs. therefore. Sert. F. for future generaa originated them. (4) The last hundred years have witnessed the devalua- tion of monumentality. Giedion) donneriez vous ma belle revoir votre man? Je donnerai Versailles. Paris et Saint Denis Les tours de Notre Dame Et le clocher de mon pays.

with the new means of expression at hand. housing. (5 ) Modern had to architecture. They want their aspiration for monumentality. like start modern painting and sculp- the hard way. Cobetween them is necessary. The following conditions are essential for it: A monument being the integration of the work of the planner. and landscapist demands close collaboration between all of them. (6) A new step lies ahead. schools. just as there are relation no frontiers between the city and the region. sculptor. Postwar changes in the whole economic structure of nations may bring with them the organization of community life in the city which has been practically neglected up to date. They in no way represent the spirit or the collective feeling of modern times. hospitals. pride and excitement to be satisfied. office buildings. Monuments should constitute the most powerful accents in these vast schemes. but the so-called monuments of recent date have. become empty shells. with rare exceptions. This decline and misuse of monumentality is the prinreason why modem architects have deliberately disrecipal garded the monument and revolted against it. The fulfillment of this demand can be accomplished. that they have to be incorporated into the vaster urban schemes. Today modern architects know that buildings cannot be conceived as isolated units. the more utilitarian buildings like low-rent pler problems. though it is no easy task. painter. It began by tackling the simture. Most modern architects have not (7) social 49 .pretending to serve this purpose. This collaboration has failed in the last hundred years. joy. The people want the buildings that represent their and community life to give more than functional fulfillment. and similar structures. architect. There are no frontiers between architecture and town planning.

and sizes. As a rule. These mobile elements. The govern and administer the countries is untrained and still imbued with the pseudo-ideals of the nineteenth century. This is the reason why they are not able to recognize the creative forces of our period. which alone could build the monuments or public buildings that should be integrated into new urban centers which can form a true expression of our epoch. laminated wooden arches. Monumental tasks have not been entrusted to them. represent the average man this average of our period in their artistic judgments. In these open spaces. color and forms can be projected on vast surfaces. monumental architecture will find its appropriate setting which now does not exist. changing positions and casting different shadows when acted upon by wind or machinery. monumental buildings cannot be crowded in upon any odd lot in any district. those who govern and administer a people. This will be once replanning is undertaken on a large scale possible which will create vast open spaces in the now decaying areas of our cities. for. brilliant as they may be in their special fields. light elements like ceilings which can be suspended from big trusses coverunlimited spans. colors. they experience a split between their their methods of thinking and feeling of those methods of feeling. who monuments must be planned. During night hours. curved. light panels of different textures. ing practically Mobile elements can constantly vary the aspect of the buildings. Only when this space is achieved can the new urban to life. Monumental buildings will then be able to stand in (8) Sites for space. like trees or plants. can be the source of new architectural effects. centers come Modern materials and new techniques are at hand: metal structures. Such displays could be projected upon build(9) 50 . Like man.been trained for this kind of integrated work.

plants. This could be contemplated not only during a rapid flight but also from a helicopter stopping in mid-air. landscapes would be correlated with nature's and all elements combined in terms of the new landscapes and vast fagade. such as those that have begun to be felt in the last decades in the fields of painting. the new materials which belong to our times.ings for purposes of publicity or propaganda. Monumental architecture will be something more than In strictly functional. . such as trees. music. Man-made such monumental layouts. sculpture. would complete the picture. and poetry. architecture and city planning could attain a new freedom and develop new creative possibilities. These buildings would have large plane surfaces planned for this pur- which are nonexistent today. Such big animated surfaces with the use of color and movement in a new spirit would offer unexplored fields to mural painters and sculptors. surfaces gotten. Elements of nature. We could group all these elements in architectural ensembles: the stones which have always been used. which has been revealed to us by the air view. It will have regained its lyrical value. sometimes extending for many miles. and water. and color in all its intensity which has long been forpose.

After inserting his own contribution to our discussion on monumentality. with small chamon the upper floor. His undiminished right up till the news came vitality appeared of his sudden death. whose freshness was undimmed by Fernand L6ger time. Our period would have been far richer if it had only known how to use the strength and simplicity of Fernand his power to translate subjects into objects. permit me to include the lines that I was impelled to write when I received this bad news on a brilliant August morning in the Engadine. and the last one would have expected tuagenarians to do so. There he stood." as he said. He had only recently found an old country house in Gif sur Yvette. about fifteen miles from bers Abutting it was a former dance hall. "La Ville" (1919). surrounded by the large forms Paris. in his customary blue smock. liked to say. . He had had everything cleared out and the place made into a lofty studio. as he Lger. his capacity to juxtapose pure colors. the symbol of the mechanized town was This painting is more displayed by signs and fragments. rough-boned vigor. one would have expected him to have a goodly amount of life at his disposal. in all his marvelous. In one of his first large paintings. This was the period during which he produced some of his finest was a foremost example of a painter who wanted to work together with the architect: urgently Donnez-moi des murs! This interest was evident from the paintings. a workman's cap on his head.1955 SOME WORDS ON FERNAND LEGER During the Second World War the French painter Fernand L6ger (1881-1955) lived in the United States. "for gallant purposes. Seeing him in his country place. an early example of a contemporary mural than an easel painting destined for a museum. and is the first of the great generation of septo fall. L6ger time of his early work.

for Lger was a first-class cook. He was also." only fragments of the tragic One of them depicts "Christ before There is no Christ. expounding plans and commenting circle of friends. This fragment was sufficient to peasants and workers as a of Audincourt. What he was seeking is shown in the stained glass windows of the church of Audincourt near Belfort: the simplification of things till they can display their symbolic content (fig. but he never paraded this before the world. a most excellent companion. no people at all. for he had. studio Here he invited his friends. with a small which included the sculptor Calder and the town planner Jos6 Luis Sert." streaks (fig. He lived then in New York. as no other. Some female creature was always around the place. which encircle the architecturally medieval church like a magic something completely girdle. no henchmen. no Pilate. I first got to know him well during a period of close contact in Amer- ica 1942-1945. and. For him the problems of his work rested on a completely different level. with all the necessary reverence a good meal deserves. in contrast to many great men. he exerted an immense influ- ence on poster painting. A table was pushed into the and spread in the midst of the paintings. At one side is the Lamb of God and in the center two hands are being washedgigantic hands. 53 . In these windows. the ability to extract from the complexity of appearances their ultimate simplicity.of his pictures just as grim and independent as the unfaltering outlines of his paintings. It was in no way related to short-lived publicity. Pilate. move the The fragment stands Chevreuse Valley serve symbol of our time. created there a kind of Parisian atmosphere. 18). L6ger rebuilt his country place without an architect. He thought in the it would him for a long time. but in his own art he was seeking different. It is true that. through this. like those of L6ger himself in a basin: blood flows over them in broad story of the Passion. 17). One ate here with delight. there are no "figures.

Rouses Point. During the summers of 1944 and 1945 we daily strolled between these two points. falling. without results. I stood in the studio with Moholy-Nagy and asked. he rented a cottage. I lived on the lake shore working on Mechanization Takes Command. This tension. on Lake Champlain. "Why have red and blue patches been His studio in laid over the lineal structure of the bathers?" I this among Lager's best work. Sundays. was near Fifth Avenue on 4oth Street. The whole district is French-speakthe last stages of ing. but he didn't reject it in a defeatist manner as did so many Europeans. but Moholy-Nagy gave the answer: "Don't you see that L6ger must get even with those things out there?" and he pointed to the skyscrapers. L6ger superimposed less space (fig. Leger knew how to smell out the food he needed for his painting. wide bands of clear colors." Above all. Skyscrapers overshadowed it. Never before had I realized how much more the eye of the 54 . Here. New York knew that was related to the play of contrasts that Lger always emphasized. on several occasions. The upon the American paintings doubt. we went by bus out to La Guardia airport to look at the comings and goings of the planes from the gallery that encircles the buildthe day ing and to observe their movements. could not accept America tel quel. Fernand L6ger was which posed working then on his great series of "Divers" a simple black outline hoverthe problem of depicting with and transparent figures in a weighting.scene. interlocking As he often did. Ldger knew well what he needed in America for his artisnourishment. in from the lake. There is nothing for the painter to add. He resisted it in the sense that he opposed it with his work. with his Norman ancestry. Each time ended in a lament. Near the Canadian border is a village. as in the case of other creative natures. as he pointed to the glistening metal tic birds. Defense by creative reaction. produced marvelous of his American period are. 28). "They are already too perfect. Leger.

would be placed upon canvas. the barn full of rusted machinery already overgrown with weeds. He had the abilmural painter. He discovered a de- serted farm.painter sees than other people and affected how much deeper it is by appearances. But watercolor sketches or wash drawings accumulated one upon the other and. to find the places for which they had been destined in advance." he with architecture. 55 . And the deserted farm also aroused the imagination of the painter and provided the basis for the last pictures of his American period. This aroused the Norman who had been brought up to be frugal with everything. He never painted during the summer. "Donnez-moi des and again. But the period did not ity to be a great relation cried ever permit his creations. Now it is too late. they were never granted to him. and his ever friendly face those and radiating confidence will always be lacking among who had walked with him a step of the way. which ended in 1945. With the exception of an unsuccessful attempt in the United Nations building in New York. The important thing about Rouses Point was that here artistic L6ger could find nourishment. fifteen minutes' walk from his cottage: the house deserted. in fall and winter. Fernand L6ger was one of the few painters who have an instinctive murs. in which simplicity merges into monumental greatness. apples hanging unpicked upon the trees.

one of Pevsner's most impressive sculptures. 60 feet high.Marginalia Our century has quite a different attitude toward monumental sculpture than earlier periods had. at the same time. or the absorbing power of Antoine Pevsner's creations. in order to bring his art nearer to the general public. the space-emanating strength of Alberto Giacometti's figures. So it is tors of this age has understandable that the work of the greatest sculpbeen banned from the townscape and the public view. before the administration we building of this complex. architect of General Motors Technical Center at Detroit. 16). any sensitive approach to the really creative spirits of our time was lost. 56 . have the sublime purity of Constantin Bran- the organic vigor of Hans Arp's configurations. This attitude is both tied to the art of eras of long-ago. At that time did not think it likely that this sculpture on which we focused our interest would be erected in something approaching the size for which it was conceived. which was displayed in the exhibition in model form. We chose. whether their sculptures cusi. on the occasion of the opening of an exhibition of the worJc of Antoine Pevsner. which drugged the natural instincts of the people for so long. But recently Eero Saarinen. dialogue follows which toot place over the Zurich A Radio in 1949. and is concealed behind the doors of museums or private collections. The case is the same. as the subject of our dialogue. and. "La Colonne Developpable de la Victoire" (fig. Through the official art of the ruling taste. turned away from methods which form the basis of contemporary possibilities of artistic construction. had the courage to select the Colonne as the sculpture to stand.

1949 ON THE SPACE-EMANATING POWER OF CONTEMPORARY SCULPTURE (A Radio Dialogue) SIGFRIED GIEDION: Mr. I longer sweeps through. have more and more lowered their taste and their natural sensitivity to sculpture. somewhat strange. ANTOINE PEVSNER: In that manifesto of 1920 we made a new of sculpture. it is not surprising that the find your sculptures. with all its differences of means and materials. By this means it is not possible to develop an expres- make freely created. I have in front of me the beautiful brochure of your last exhibition. whose art is so different from your own and yet. their mark. a mathematically contrived shape than an expression of artistic emotion. Light and 57 . which has been brought out by the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Galerie Drouin in Paris. you wrote with your brother Naum Gab6. attempts to solve the same problems that concern like more you. as everyone today will own. Instead of tightly shut-in masses. dynamic elements. It contains the manifesto which. The air is no wrapped up. Things lite this leave So it is not surprising that the general public find your in quite a work. creating space. Pevsner. For a century and a half the public have come into daily contact with sculpture in the form of monuments which. it sion of space and time. Up till opposition to the popular conception then only carved masses were accepted as constituting sculpture. or "constructions" as general public you yourself call them. which conveys contemporary experience different way. thirty years ago. Here you both state in a wonderfully succinct way. what you have since uninterruptedly carried through.

light and shadow contain the elements of color. GIEDION: Who carries out your sculptures? PEVSNER: I do not let any craftsman touch my sculptures. In their ing totality they constitute the spatial curves which my imagination imposes upon them. carefully welded to one another and thrustout into space in continuously changing angles. thin. But how do you express time? What sculptural means do you use to give a threedimensional form to time? PEVSNER: This is achieved by planes which are conceived as in continuous development. GDEDION: I can see how you develop space between your plane surfaces. I call them surfaces developpables. I try to create perpetual continuous change the kinetic action by movement and means of these surfaces d&veloppables. They are composed of straight. seems to means. without any direct application of color. metal rods. which in its careful craftsmanship reminds one of the tradition of the Middle Ages. In sculptures there are no massive accumula- my tions of material. Through refraction the surfaces developpables change in color with changes in the intensity of light. Every rod has been laboriously welded in place by me. This is a similar phenomenon to the forming of a rainbow. eUments integrants. PEVSNER: The surfaces d6veloppables give one the possibility to accumulate both light and shadow and. Perhaps here lies much of the your Everywhere they approach the and give an extraordinary impetus to the play of organic light. color. also me an artistic secret of creations. These seem to suck the space in Us appellent Vespace. as Le Corbusier said.shadow become sculptural media. We 58 . at the same all know that time. GIEDION: This procedure. in my work. I don't know of any other sculptures which are able to absorb and to model the light with such intensity.

Undoubtedly your sculptures are most serious works of art which radiate out into the cosmos. in a wider expansion? PEVSNER: I have always had the desire to see my sculptures standing amid the GIEDION: collective life of a great city." GIEDION: This "Colonne Developpable de la Victoire" seemed to me. Pevsner. Take for instance the "Colonne D^veloppable de la Victoire" as I call it. Whoever must senses the pulsing life in your metal feel that they are not just carefully consculptures. From this grew the form of the The impulse "Colonne Dlveloppable de la Victoire. So you don't force a single color to remain always in a single place. but from curved planes made up of variously arranged strands of light metal. The streets were crowded with an enraptured throng. Don't you somehow see it in the open air. Your planes that extend freely into space are not formed of heavily bent sheets of flat metal. but give life to your work by using the perpetually changing refraction freely contributed by the power of light. How did it originate? to make this sculpture was given to me by the moving experience of the entry of the Liberation Army into Paris in the early morning. much the same methods to release color as you do to form your sculpture. Finally one more question. The soldiers too showed their delight by stretching up their arms in the air in the magic sign of the "V" for victory.GIEDION: You use. to be somehow a prisoner. in principle. Mr. Women threw themselves in ecstasy upon the ground. in the exhibition hall. At this moment I was seized with the desire to find a symbol for this magic sign. Are they also in any way connected with your personal experiences? PEVSNER: All my work relates to human experience. the people wept from happiness. sidered constructions but far more creative projections of 59 .

large enough to be called a lake. in the place for which it was designed in the midst of the America was the first people. a large bronze sculpture by Pevsner stands in Caracas. Here Alexander Calder has re- 60 . ander Calder. Villenueva. major public this undertaking. among others. and in full light in some public place. Villenueva asked me what modern sculptors he should invite to take part in me named. experimental workshops. This invitation from South commission that Pevsner ever received. with the that no artificial ever-changing nuances of natural light can reproduce. To reveal ever-changing light to the phenomenon their full intensity they need a free atmosphere. in the spring of 1953. as is well known. for General built a spreading complex of low buildings Motors Corporation: research laboratories. in a wide-stretching open landhas scape. Eero Saarinen. employing large plane surfaces of glass. It is an uncommonly clear and most carefully worked out project. with eternally dynamic happenings of birth. brick. Today. In front of the main administration building and the experimental workshops is a rectangular basin of water. Fernand L6ger brought together with the Venezuelan architect. who built the new University at Caracas. the Finnish-American architect. administration buildings. Hans Arp. Alexand Antoine Pevsner.from the organic life. and strong-colored ce- ramic tiles. I Postscript 1957 Not far from Detroit. Postscript 1955 In Paris. lighting I hope that we shall still see the beating wings of your "Colonne Dveloppable de la Victoire" this symbol of never resting nature freeing herself from the embrace of death standing in full size.

"La Colonne Dveloppable de la Victoire. But what the artist originally wanted to convey was the direct transmutation of an emo7 tional outburst We are moving toward an age in which many symbols are about to be reborn. the "Flight of the Bird/ The title variedthe inner sense remained the same. The bronze casting was built up in Paris between May 1955 and March 1956 and went without a hitch despite the great difficulties presented by the perpetual interlocking of inner and outer planes inherent in its enclosure of space." will be the one accepted by history.vived the long neglected dynamics of the play of water." Indeed. Victory into a symbolic sculptural form. General Motors gave this hovering column a new name. But. Antoine Pevsner's sculpture the subject of this dialoguenow stands in the sunlight for the first time at almost its full height. before the main building. they are lines even straight lines in motion. in Powerful sculptures. Recently the title seems again to have been changed this time to "Lines in Motion. like all symbols. We should hold onto the artist's intention. can be interpreted many ways. and I sincerely hope that the original title. 61 .


AND SCULPTOR Vdues Aesthetics On the Force of Aesthetic Architects' Attitudes Toward Architects and Politics: an East-West Discussion Habitat Aesthetics and the Human .Part 3 ON THE COOPERATION OF PAINTER. ARCHITECT.

each participant was permitted to speak for twelve address was on the "Force of Aesthetic Values. its theticsthe force of aesthetic bicentenary. Thomas H." minutes. which was prepared by Thomas Creighton." Among them was a conference on "Planning Man's PhysiEnvironment. The reason for fugue. Mies van der Rohe. ed. this 1 absence of synthesis was that the regulations laid down "Building for Modern Man.Marginalia The leads at question of whether or not we need artists today once to the wider question of the influence of aesvalues. psychologists such as Adelbert Ames. and many others. one perhaps experiences a certain disappointment that no attempt is made to score the individual voices of the participants as a choral For the conference was attended by almost all the masters of contemporary architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright. and historians such as Talbot Hamlin. whether this entailed a ticket from nearby New 1947. such as To celebrate "The Future of Atomic Physics/' "The Chemistiy and Physiology of Growth/' and "Far Eastern Culture and Society. Walter Gropius. editor of Progressive Architecture. 64 . expenses. Columbia. Princeton. Severud. including engineers such as Frederick N." It was a brilliant group of people who were invited to be the guests of Princeton University in cal March The conditions of acceptance were somewhat each participant was compensated for his travel original. Richard Neutra. Building 1 for Modem Mem. Princeton University held a series of fifteen conferences on various subjects. Alvar Aalto. My On leafing through the book of the conference. Creighton (Princeton. Jose Luis Sert. York or from Europe (I received the invitation when in Zurich) . Yale. also the Deans of Harvard.

most architects. Immediately after the Princeton conference. Despite this. they have become accustomed to work in complete isolation. painter. encumbered with organizational detail. due to the conditions imposed and architects by the nineteenth upon painters. We have repeated tacts with Princeton University for these conferences forbade the formulation of any resolutions or propositions and confined the sessions to an exchange of opinions. not self-sufficient. think of the artist only when all else is finished. As a result hardly any like to have working conthat. century. sculptors. I struggled hard with this question and determined to introduce it at the seventh CIAM congress to be held that fall. and sculptor. there is no doubt that the speeches made there have had their influence upon subsequent thought and action. And it parallels utterly the unfortunate attitude that many clients still display to- This underrating of the is tion 65 . It will lead nowhere. one that is somewhat delicate and that bears upon the contactsand the cooperationthat can The architect closely allied finest often combining all talents in between architect. another question arises. In this instance the artists were certainly chosen from the But they were not called in was already fixed: Here is your place. until everything are the measure- ments/ artist's role in an integrated creaabsurd. The moment one touches on the question of the impact of aesthetics. Even a leftover space in the case of the UNESCO building in Paris this same obsolete procedure was followed. in earlier times he was with both the painter and the sculptor the exist is one person. and an empty spot becomes available. The problem today is that there is no cooperative work from the very start of a project. these best available. Most painters consider a building merely a necessary shelter for their work.

understanding 66 . sculptor. which appears in their use of a common outlook upon the shaping of space a common space conception. after equilibrium has first been achieved in the emotional some common basis of sphere: in other words. and engineer. This condition is only possible modern art. each has an inner connection with the other. If this common ground be quite hopeless to work for a closer cooperation for an organized teamwork between architect. not until has been established between the arts. This incumbent upon us to break down the partition walls which creative artists in the different fields. does not mean that coplanner. In spite of this separate outward separation. regarding them as mere confiseurs whose usefulness consists in "embellishing" the work of the struc- tural engineer. There are a few exceptions to this rule. but unfortunately is it is why it is now typical of the normal situation. painter. though this all painters is possible. This common outlook has been developing unconsciously along did not exist it would parallel lines.ward architects. operation between all architects and At the present state of development no truly creative ar- chitect or planner can exist who has not passed through the needle's eye of Civilization develops only when or unconsciously establishes an emotional man consciously and intellectual equilibrium.

of our human environment. have their roots in the depth of the soul. somewhat as odors do from food or from flowers. he will react immethe slightest deviation diately. Aesthetic values are inherent in things. He will reject most violently from his aesthetic standards.1947 ON THE FORCE OF AESTHETIC VALUES There can be no doubt that the purpose of this Symposium is to look beyond the utilitarian and functional values of the human environment and to assume the existence of aesthetic and spiritual values. into the shaping of things of daily usecars. his emotional con- An Switzerland the case of Robert Maillart. the bridge-builder who died without the opportunity to erect in any of our cities an arch in the pure forms which We have in example 67 . Evading our rational strongholds they directly attack our emotions and are therefore out of our control. as I would prefer to express it. indeed. they provoke friendly or hostile reactions. To be begin with. This means aesthetic values are no simple trimmings but. bridges and. He will do everything in his power to shape things according to victions. Aesthetic impacts influence us at all moments. if man's emotional needs are not satisfied. Their imthe most practical pact on man's decisions reach even to problems. above all. or in most cases subconsciously. Consciously. If man's aesthetic or. Like intangible perfumes they determine our sensitive or emotional reaction. we don't believe that aesthetic values can arbitrarily added to or subtracted from an object. They emanate from them.

as present-day atom physicists are by the government. thus annihilating his own elegance. "We have had enough of this puff pastry. who detested their rhythmic power. The officials preferred massive bridges. In our period. we meet the strongest resistance. but as soon as we approach the emotional. The result is that aes- 68 . Eliot once said the nineteenth century lingers on in the twentieth. Man is able to invent nearly everything he wants in science and in all kinds of gadgets. One can admire the officials concerned with building parks and highway systems for the courage of their conceptions. His bridges were permitted only in remote mountain valleys because they were cheap and. the aesthetic sphere. It satisfied their emotional needs. Artists like Michelangelo.he was able to master as no one else has done. in every country. where Maillart's bridges had to span the river he was forced to disguise them completely (fig. then see them clinging anxiously to nineteenthcentury habits. or. The whole dis- Aare We this divergence. because nobody would see them. if you prefer. or emotional needs. but the moment they approach architecture their courage vanishes. This was not always so. It made no difference whatsoever that this massiveness was very costly. in spite of their bold and revolutionary inventions. feeling seems to be much more difficult than thinking. S." In Berne. 23). It was often the reverse. But scientific thinkers like Galileo were condemned and outlawed day we creative artists for their discoveries. above all. still aster of nineteenth-century architecture derives largely from T. The emotional training of the average man lags far behind the advanced nature of his thinking. with heavy granite stonework. This is a world-wide official disease. Today we can observe this astonishing dictatorship of aesthetic values. were conscripted by the Pope. just as tofield exclude the inventors in the emotional the from public activity. Why? Their extreme lightness and elegance offended the taste of the laymen and the specialists. Said one.

Look at the aesthetic uncertainty on the drawing boards the moment a larger synthesis is But what happens today? Building techniques. the peak. . ments and their synthesis. as in civic centers! Yet we must at the beginning and at the end. or even at So it was in the thirteenth century with its frantic founding of cities. when com- work simultaneously there is required. This is the revolt of the humiliated hu- man instincts. Humanity versus technology Today the immediate impact of aesthetic or emotional values has become of the utmost importance. For a revolt in the making. of an era. The task ahead of us seems nearly impossible. a revolt which can be no longer suppressed.thetic values born out of the spirit of our period remain ignored. we know that human needs must dominate the problems of production. Town planning. and yet we must simultaneously shape the elemust accomplish it. are lagging behind. the highest expression of architectural synthesis and not only in respect We to the field of architecture normally comes to its height at the end. So it was in Greece. How should people be housed? Apartments? Single houses? The very existence of the city itself is questioned. Why? Suddenly we have become aware of our predicament. Suddenly and unavoidably. And so it was in the late eighteenth century when urbanism of the highest spatial order was within the reach of every speculator. pared with other techniques.

such as the relation of volumes of high and low buildings in a settlement. and especially to architecture. at the present moment. /. summed up the problem in a simple question: Need the architect conconsciousness? cern himself with the reactions of the man in the street? He queried: those qualities in buildings that have. London. Richards. a symbolic or emotional significance for ordinaiy people. according to one's own editor of the Architectural Review. England. The main center of interest was divided and grouped around two different aspects. others considered aesthetic problems to be a purely personal matter. It can be easily understood that this was not done in the present-day situation without hesitation. still others thought that one could only discuss aesthetic questions if restricted exclusively to architecture and in connection with a particular problem.Marginalia In September 1947. the subject of aesthetic problems was introduced into the discussions of CIAM 7. The MARS Group (England) was especially interested in one aspect of the problem the emotional reactions of the common man to modern art. or ruling How how far should one go ahead as any research worker does M. in the small town of Bridgwater in Somerset. the first postwar Congress (International Congresses for Modern Architecture). This led to the formation of the far should one follow the prevalent pivotal question: taste to satisfy the desires of the common man. so that architecture shall remain an art in whose adventures they can share? "What can the architects do to take into account The Russians have tried to solve this problem by reverting to a completely 70 eclectic idiom such as . To some it seemed that we would lose our footing.

architects even fortress builders." The second aspect was concerned with the fact that close contact between the architect and planner. This is a thorny problem today. We know that we shall never be able to satisfy fully the aspirations that slumber unconsciously in the common man unless we can again reach an integration of the arts. painters. the sculptor and poet. Is it possible that they will ever again be able to work together from the outset. M. the whole Congress. and /. . painter and sculptor.we associate with the predominance of the bourgeoisie in the nineteenth century. chitect can say to himself that he has some direct part to play in preventing a new architecture from being frightening because it commits the public to the unknown." When summing up I tried to set down how we stand today in our relation to the problems of aesthetics. . has been lost for a century and a half. Richards brought it excited out the two alternative attitudes of the architect toward the discussion As the man in the street: "He can produce what he . for his own reasons believes to be good architecture and hope that peoAlternatively the arple will come to like it by habit. on aesthetics developed in Bridgwater. . and so Hans Arp. and I set about drawing up a kind of questionnaire which laid less emphasis upon the techniques of cooperation than upon the fact that for cooperation to succeed a certain humility was demanded from all participants. as was usual in other periods: in the Middle Ages due to an all embracing spiritual unity: in the Renaissance for the simple reason that the best artists were simultaneously the best sculptors.

This means that we are within the ambit of and that we have begun two periods. as also of aesthetic values. And Herbert Read. experiments and experimenter science are regarded as interdependent. TOWARD Bridgwater. It was Descartes who first divorced science from philosophy. In 1928 it was the industrializaemerging tion of building methods. But twenty years ago. emo- It may not be unwise to repeat that it is often said that aesthetic values are not suited to theoretical or public dis- cussion. This divorce It split cogitating mind which recognizes only personal experiencesas in the case of Descartes is restricted to a pri- The vate world of morals: of ethical and. on the other independent matter.1947 ARCHITECTS' ATTITUDES AESTHETICS (CIAM 7. 1947) is concerned with those problems that are just over the horizon. nature. then the development of contemporary town planning. in one of his essays. and mind independent of In modern physics. the world in two: on the one side the cogitating mind. Now we consciously take another step. to realize that rationalism has wid- . Alfred North Whitehead the great scientist and far-sighted philosopher showed us the fallacy of a belief that aesthetic values exist only within the personal and private sphere. a step toward a rather intangible CIAM subject: aesthetic problems or. After that philosophy assumed charge of the cogitating mind and science took charge of the materialistic was the start of one-sided rationalism. Modern objects objects. no longer recognizes the split between independent of mind. Whitehead stresses. points again to Whitehead's arguments which show that this erroneous belief can be traced back to Descartes. then standardization. as I prefer to say. tional expression.

There is no doubt that most of the contemporary architects and most of the modern painters and sculptors have lost the capacity or even the will to work together. the in themselves. but not its solution. then the more intangible methods of expression will reconquer equal rights with the world of logic. The problem is clear. Carbis Bay September loth. I should like to quote her fine letter which. or what the tools produced. Barbara Hepworth Chyan Kerns. and we will no longer be afraid of losing our footing when touching on the impact of aesthetics. and how the tools. with a few words. If we really agree with the right of the emotional world to exist in this sphere. Architecture can no longer be divorced from painting and sculpture. A short time ago.ened the gap between the cogitating mind and the whole sphere of emotional expressions to such an extent that it has become insupportable. but I 73 . If this is so. and as it still is today. 1947 your short what you had to say during was left with a very sad feelthat the gulf between architects and sculptors is a very large ing one and that it can only be bridged by a change of heart in the interested in visit Dear Giedion. as it has been throughout a century and a half. period of We nearing its end. I was immensely the otiber day. or continue the fallacy of is rationalism the nineteenth century that aesthetic values are a strictly personal matter. in Cornwall. then architecture and town planning can no longer be isolated from their sister arts. I gave the CIAM questionnaire to Barbara Hepworth to get the point of view of a sculptor. illuminates the whole situation and hits the nail on the head. have become master and an end are on the turning point. Proof? We have all experienced how rationalism merged into mechanization.

I find I it so difficult to find words at Bridg- when am I carving. of the part that sculpture plays in except among the architects. a unity of purpose which will give heart to the nature of our own living. as the co-ordinating part of our culture. ever. as a sculptor that we have said what we have to say and played our part and that architecture. or chattered about new materials. has failed so far. are all of us. During my last exhibition I found there was a keen sense. I We up to the architects. I cannot say in anything new of great importance the answers are all there. the history of architecture. among life. Without this unity we cannot achieve a robust culture. will hope great things come out of your meeting water. This letter mirrors the present situation: the architects with their backs turned to the sculptor. and the only possible solution of the whole problem is expressed in the few words "Why do the architects and sculptors not collaborate from the beginning?" 74 . It is then. all kinds of people. working for a spontaneous sense of life. chattering about new materials.architects. They all stood with their backs to the sculpture and bewailed their lot. New conditions. to unite (and even to understand!) the work that has been done in our time by painters and sculptors. new materials cannot alter the basic prin ciples. I was shocked by this attitude because we are working. Barbara Hepworth. I felt that the questions to be asked should not be "should the architect and sculptor collaborate from the beginning?" but "why do the architects and sculptors not collaborate from the beginning!" To all the questions relating to sculpture and painting I felt that the answers lay implicitly in the work done during the last I feel twenty-five or thirty years by the sculptors and painters. could not write before. for something much greater than planning.

at hand an unlimited that is absent. an honor. ever since I started upon my serious work. and consequently dictates our program of work. of But there is no reason to despair. The whole can become renewed by these molecular efforts. Associations which bring prea desired form cise objects and precise concepts into context in Here is the not foggy notions and unformulated. Poetry which only Poetry! The word needs to exists in the context of associations. not had even have not had the time. Let it blaze forth. nor had is the important word the idea to regard it .Le Corbusier Le Corbusier replied: It has given me great pleasure to hear Giedion art in the forefront of our preoccupations. infinitely multiplied. and beliefs: a matters that delicate taste in art and philosophy. the participation of each in the creation of the whole. over for today. it break through. Everywhere disa smile. These exact objects 75 . in face of the immense changes around us. because we supply of means. all the conabsence of delight.. private endeavor. After our hard work during all the week. "I think therefore I am!" For each of us.. the important thing. an unspeakable ugliness. inand objectives become assembled tentions. It is only harmony the inclination. ethics and intellect. or unformulatable. structive elements are still available. Personal experience. we see that blossoms are unfolding. is the re-making of individual consciousness. the thing that must happen. I have been convinced that. a lack of grace. Yesterday I ask us to place had the our president. the thing at issue. As a poetic phenomenon! collective enterprise! be proclaimed. within each consciousintrinsic light that ness. this means to realize the quality of that illumines our actions. For twenty years. reveal certain pleasure of hearing he keeps in the depths of his heart. Responthe individual. sibility rests with The first era of mechanization spread chaos a disaster on the debit side of a prodigious and magnificent century of conquests in the fields of science. van Eesteren. Put everything in harmony! Let harmony reign HARMONY all! To do Let this.

those who. in the end. bearer and transmitter of human emotion. who are waiting. This man addresses himself to strangers. 76 . who stand there. The individual stands there. van Eyck. astonishing. For what general public? For the simple people. at the moment of its birth. It is concerned with the relation between man and man. of collective ento save the world terprise designed to bring security. unthoughta miracle! A MIRACLE of precise associations appears before our eyes. may well be those in These important positions. by their decisions and administration. people here and there in control of parts of the essential machinery of the state. Harmony can consciousness. At living this time of great industrial undertakings. lies with each of us individually. result from a re-fashioning of the individual The young Dutch asked CIAM two architect. way that a marvel springs bility. I repeat: for the simple people. Some among them cannot help but be susceptible to poetry. our efforts can produce such miracles! For whom is the miracle? For the general public. But to strangers and for whom EMOTION and ART and water. despite the common problems which have brought us together through twenty years in a productive and friendly gathering. a result of mathematically exact such a upunexpected. My friends. responsibility. For communal endeavor. and abundance and a delight in from imbecile catastrophe at this time of indescribable possibilities of transforming into harmony the puerile dishonor which now plagues us the individual assumes an immense importance. A. in our modern society. who exist. can guide the country toward a future that is ugly or beautiful. It is the speech of an individual to his brothers. are just as necessary as bread strangers. I say to you that. decisive questions: Amsterdam. is held between the hands of the one who takes responsiof.

three hundred found expression in Descartes' philosophy Giedion has just mentioned its sad implicationsis at last losing ground. Yes. beginning to totter. Imagination remains the only common denominator of man and nature. ultimately its ning to stimu- 77 . that the collective idea which brought us to far. CIAM refuses to overhaul outworn values that belong to an outworn world by giving them a new dress straight from the laundry of common sense. still Bridgwater from so sciousness.Does CIAM intend to guide a rational and mechanistic conception of human progress toward an "improvement" of human environment. the firm CIAM. CIAM is first and foremost an affirmation of this new The achievement of men like Le Corbusier. Moncompels us to believe. the deplorable hierarchy of artificial values upon which final stage. Although in general answers very tangible functions. No rational justification of CIAM can therefore satisfy us. It belief of its is nature. it desires late a universal revaluation toward the elementary. van Eyck ended its old struggle between imagination and common sense tragically in favor of the latter. is the seed of a new outlook. surely. criticizing this attitude. But the scales are turning: CIAM knows that the tyranny of common sense has reached The the same attitude which. and thus of significant prophecy. already transforming man's mind. that we are inera. to evolve a transformed language to express what is being analogously transformed. a few ranging from poet to During architect. that years ago. It architecture planis the prime detector of change. consciousness. a new con- latent today. On the contrary. drian. or Brancusi deed approaching a brighter in life as it is one in which grace is expressed in art. but awaiting general recognition tomorrow. from biologist to astronomer have actually succeeded rest is contemporary existence has come to A new consciousness is in giving comprehensible shape to various aspects of They have tuned our senses to a new dimension. the only faculty capable of registering spiritual transformation simultaneously. or does CIAM. intend to help transform the background against which it projects its activity? A. the last fifty years or so.

is no more than a necessary The question thus arises whether CIAM. It is up to us to continue. that is. Does CIAM intend to "guide" a rational and mechanistic conception of progress toward an preliminary. after all. But this. Its rhythm has already been detected. improvement of human environment? Or does it intend to this conception? Can there be any doubt as to the answer? A new civilization is being born. change .object differs in no way from that of any other creative activity. to express through man and for man the natural flow of existence. The more tangible functions those implied by the word "functionalism" are only relevant in so far as they help to adjust man's environment more accurately to his elementary requirements. should nevertheless adopt a critical attitude toward it and act accordingly. accepting the contemporary situation as an inevitable background for practical realization. its outline partly traced.

It became clear that aesthetic problems are not just personal affairs but that the world. faces across the piazza to a palatial library partly by Vincenzo Scamozzi. and 2. I had to open it. of the GraduZurich. London. It was a fitting place to debate questions of the impact of aesthetic forces. the crown of a hill overlooking the river Po. Alfred Roth. and proposed that we should confine ourselves to the main points that had emerged from the ques- into tionnaire of 1947: 1. Jos6 Luis Sert. what? sculptor. 1949. with its two great is situated on buildings linked by simple private structures. how? Is "common man" able to appreciate the results of such a synthesis? the discussion. surrealist painter. its use going back to the twelfth century. On the hot afternoon of July discussion 29. among them Eighteen people took part in Roland Penrose. the within the city hall also became heated as two different attitudes toward art made themselves evident. The Palazzo Vecchio achieved its present form as a result of centuries of growth. to a period when in built other cities the Town Council still assembled within the church. which is raised on arches. if so. This piazza. is 8. and that they are part of our attitude toward politics.1949 ARCHITECTS AND POLITICS: AN EAST-WEST DISCUSSION (CIAM Bergamo Milan. Bergamo. and the the and if so. they merge sometimes tragically Some fragments of the discussion are here recorded. Is the architect. It is said to be the oldest town hall of Italy. New York (now Dean 79 . the city hall. the cooperation possible between painter. 3. 1949) The a small medieval city in Italy not far from Palazzo Vecchio. Are there direct connections between the plastic arts.

that my friends stripped their walls of all pictures. where these things have always been seen together. It would be quite possible to use the same techniques to render buildings more beauthis tiful. Harvard University). sculptor. van Eesteren. remember in the early days of CIAM. Le Corbusier. Roland Penrose: Collaboration between the major is arts essential for the life of the arts. 80 . The importance of the economic aspect should not be The architect is in a position to make a living is available to the artist. on the other hand. C. then Director of the Museum of Modern Art. Isamu Noguchi. Perhaps because I come from a Mediterranean country. Amsterdam. Helena Syrkus. I have never been able to separate I them. In London now two schools in which artists and architects cooperate in work on the same projects. James Johnston Sweeney. painters did a lot of research into the effects of colors and textures for the purposes of camouflage of rendering buildings invisible. The question is only how can be achieved. In India. New York. is We Jose Luis Sert: I want to begin by saying that I have always believed in the possibility of cooperation between painter and architect and sculptor.Paris. Milan. ate School of Design. An important obstacle to new work in the Western world our complex about the value of permanence. there are The roots of all collaboration are in education. Zurich. decorated walls are often whitewashed over every year and then redecorated with mural paintings by local artists. Ernesto Rogers. Max Bill. when I was associated with what one might call the group of extreme purists. overlooked. During the war. New York. need ourselves to create works which shall be destroyed when their time has come. Warsaw. for the architect nearer to the means of production.

These two examples of modern art by two great creative artists ing the lar one another but both expressquite different from of our own time made a very great impresspirit sion. who were of another way of to painting. discussed by everyone. was the greatest product of conart. Miro. and other painters and sculptors who were then with us. I always believed in the possibility and against this of a close liaison between architect and painter. I was even then attitude. and form an indispensable complethat. I remember discussions at the time with some people. Picasso's "Guernica. I was also of Mercury that was given us to exhibit. I have often had the honor of working with some of our most famous painters and sculptogether In 1937 I worked with my friend the architect Lucio Acosta on the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris Exhibition. in these places. tors.except perhaps a photograph of the Alps. This was an extremely interesting experience and resulted in the production of "Guernica. and commented been exhibited throughout everyone. but which was in form and conception for the situaquite impossible both the authorities and suggested that we tion. There we invited the cooperation of Picasso. desirability and. Calder's "Fountain of Mercury" was extremely popuand was understood by everyone. Alberto. It has since upon by It the world and continues to deliver its message. was when working in that pavilion. I approached should commission another by the one man whom I knew would be capable of the work at that time the American sculptor Alexander Calder. who said and had a different approach thinking that we ought to replace "Guernica" by a more realistic faced with the problem of a fountain painting. Gonzales. that I realized of art in places where many people gather together. they 81 ." which has since been exhibited all over the world. a place of public the importance of placing works assembly. The theme of this mural was also under- temporary stood by everyone. since this time." in quite a different style.

Unfortunately we have today of finding places of this sort. They must be allowed to create freely. cannot talk about the importance of cooperation between the architect. New York. sidewalks! Where can they be put? Only in the cramped surroundings of public buildings and in museums or private houses where everything is on an entirely different scale and where they are only seen by a selected few. and.ment very opportunity we have today quite a different conception of the place of sculpture in our towns. in the open places before the Gothic cathedrals. though controlled by the authorities. when works of art cannot be seen by everyone. these can have no idea what they are about While works of art remain immured within muse- 82 . painter. for example. As long as we have no centers. One must show these things to the people. I do not see where we can cannot just stand them on the place our works of art. entirely lacks any civic center of assembly. Create such will created that places and a new sculpture will be to the spirit of our respond own time! Where were the plastic arts displayed in ancient times? In the public places of Greece. did serve as places of general assembly of the arts Versailles. But if their creations are not It is seen by the people. for example. But since our towns have become abandoned to private interests such centers of assembly no longer exist. Yet it was here that New York had to barricade off the streets for the peace celebrations after the last war. they cannot be painted for everyone nor can be understood they We by the people. But. New York. not that artists should only create works following certain principles in order to be understandable. has only Times Square. before the Royal palaces in Renaissance towns which. a road crossing in the center of constant tumult and uncontrolled furors of publicity. and for We no places where their work can be assembled. and sculptor when there are this reason little to the architecture. the center of the world. to a less extent.

This was a thing brought about by life itself. only the traditional materials with a whole mass of things that also water. there must be absolute freedom of expression. but maybe entirely new things. ready for any purpose. One cannot define things before they happen. with entrance by payment or they will not be seen by the great mass of the people.urns and private galleries. There is a whole language to new mural artists. civic ceremonies. These public places a wonderful began with simple things and then rose to enriched with glowing colors. But the center already existed. Surely the people before the Gothic era can have had no conception of how the areas in front of the cathedrals were going to develop. have existed in cities of the past. We cannot define the life of such new centers. once they are formed. but first we must build the places themselves! will not have static exhibitions in these places. through turnstiles. all were held here. movement. There must be a period of great experimentation. swayed only by questions of profit or propaganda. consecrated can display their work. This must be developed by life itself. Such artists to gatherings of the citizens and where places. Our task therefore as town planners is to create places in our towns where people can walk freely and look around them without being in constant danger of their lives: places that are protected by the cities or the state from advertising. exhibitions where the people can see and comment on in the world of art and where everything that is produced 83 . Not murals in the trabe We interpreted by ditional sense. The means by which artists of today would express themselves in such places is unknown to us. light have not yet been used fully. This is the absolute such centers essential. height of magnificence Theatrical performances. Within the centers. Today we have not have which to work. lectures. But we do need a conviction that themselves are necessary. but We There must be living things will be continually changing.

then just pray for fine it. This center would become a manifestation of human poetry a manifestation of the sole justification for our existence: a center for which we must produce works that are noble and irrefutable witnesses of our age. Life itself will do the rest! help we can give in developing a culture is no more than the help we can give to the growth of can do very little about this beyond making the a bean.themselves as they will. in full sunlight. or by evoking symbols. It would be a shell within which we could experiment with external and internal spaces in complete shadow. One will not be obliged to give way before the majority point of view. It is not necessary for him to be a practicing artist. failings. like the changing scenes of a theater. but it is essential for him to be receptive and responsive to all plastic art. This would be a center for experimay mental work which will be taken down and rebuilt each year. permanent center for the plastic arts be inaugurated. and so on. can plant the bean in the ground. water first gestures. and not works which are full of excuses for our can such works be produced? First the architect be an artist. It is here then that the people will themselves judge of the results and make their opinions known. protect it and take care of it and the bean will have to hold its weather! From this time on Le Corbusier: The We We own I against external influences. where one could develop examples of plastic art from the first drawings to their full-scale expression in color and volume: a place where one could try out all that the plastic arts can do for architecture whether am hoping that a by rendering homage to their walls or by destroying them. Our job is only to create the places themselves. every surface that he decides upon. His own artistic sense must How must also influence every line that he draws. All should be and then the scene changed from time to artists are free to express freely expressed time. volume and every . and so forth.

Permanency for the artist consists in his own pleasure and patience during the period of creation of a work of art and in his endeavor to bring farewell! If it it in tune with his it own pe- riod. Painters all long for the pleasure and publicity of painting walls. This is due to our obsession with profit that on every work. obstructs town planning. C. I speak from experience. art. Sert. in the course of time. It is not size that matters in art. After that is destroyed matters noth- ing! The next generation will create its own works of art. that's it" 85 ." It is not so easy to paint murals. Color has been mentioned. It is the world's obsession with permanence that obstructs building. We have said that we desire to see places created where the major arts can be assembled. He had no idea what would result when he invited Picasso to paint his "Guernica" on the wall of the Pavilion. Our civilization has created no places worthy of being consecrated to this purpose. but concentration. For the sculp- experimentation is not quite so easy. In front of a work of art it is one's instinct that says "Yes. however. "But take them. told us of his experiment in the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris Exposition of 1937. go to your friends and paint on their walls freely and without payment. I say to them. The same goes for sculptors. van Eesteren: The architect must have a feeling for but one cannot reason too much about art. This is a field in which architects can make an immense stride forward to aid the coordination of the major arts. There are walls everywhere! And if you can't find one. One requires practice. tor. and obstructs sculpture. but a determined man can find temporary sites in some open place where it is possible for him to make his experiments in plaster. It is not absolutely necessary always to use granite and it is not important that the object should always be of great size. both the capital shall be recovered and interest be earned. Here was a bean well planted.Penrose has commented upon the obsession of permanency.

I will give. ists Formalism is born from the abyss created by the capitalbetween art and reality." Unfortunately. human conscience and of the architect him- self lack a fair attitude toward the people. We need art. that we have fallen into a formalism. as a personal example. In this matter of cooperation the architect must take the I am work with him. I am in entire agreement with Luis Sert that we .or "No. life Helena Syrkus: We wish to see the transformation of man . provided the artist holds the same idea as the architect. Those banal fragments of contemporary life of a certain aspect of contemporary display to us a reality that we may not find pleasing. the medieval piazza at Bergamo has its function. the aspects world within a corner of the ground. We The Greek Agora had its function. but that we cannot but accept. Of course one must have an idea before one can create. that's not it. lack civic centers. If his doubtful of the receptivity of the "common man" for this all the time. This is the reason why it is realized in the U.. but.R. but an art which responds to human needs uplifts and ing: the spirit of the people. the rest will come of itself. artists will be happy to contemporary art for the solution of our own archi- tectural problems. as it were. but open places have been deliberately degraded by the capitalist system in order that people should not have the opportunity to unite against the system. of the . the work of Schwitters. though we must work initiative. His collages opened eyes to certain of the world around..S." tive sensitivity is the The development of one's instincimportant thing. tact with We architects have great need of close conmy conception is good.S. between Dichtung und Wahr- 86 . Art belongs to the people and must be understandable by the people . The words written on Corbusier's Pavilion of the were "UnderstandDecision: Assertion. by revealing. people have not Spirit New yet the understanding.

the works of Picasso have no mean- CIAM was positive in the early days was a revolt. but its importance Construction is but has gradually grown less and less a skeleton. It made use of analytical methods. where the people have reached a positive phase of development. . The "formalism" of We the skeleton. [Looking through the large windows toward Scamozzi's palace. by social revolutions. It has great interest for the anatomist. but there are many sorts of realism. We 87 . from the forms of the past but we should have The new a greater respect for the spirit of the past . it will preserve all that is good in the lines of roads. We do fall not need to rial directly into the eclecticism of drawing our mate. which were also socialist methods. In defending and Warsaw preserving our national culture ternational culture. ing and are forbidden. will conserve its link with the past that is to say. open places. at the time when CIAM began. . but for the rest it only becomes beautiful when it is covered with had nothing else to offer fine muscles and a lovely skin. For this reason his works are considered valuable in the people's democracies. and with all remaining evidences of its ancient culture. we defend and preserve in- of CIAM must revise our attitude. Goya changed the whole is nique and palette in order to portray the The aim of a socialist realism to raise the status of man. Real artistic revolutions have always been swept forward of his techdisasters of war. and so on). . The work of Picasso is realistic in the sense that he has developed a method of showing the rottenness of capitalist society. that The countries of the East have come to the conclusion we should have a greater respect for the past.heit. and so we made a fetish of it . Functionalism discovered many good things (orientation. Artists detached themselves from life and started to create art for art's sake. the connections with the Vistula. Helena Syrkus concluded]: The Bauhaus is as far behind us as Scamozzi. In the East.

quantities. art: the eternal life of the spirit.. This does not however prevent us from holding different points of view on I share the opinion of Helena Syrkus cultural matters. but I am of the opinion that so-called 'modern-art' in is merely the vaporings of half-baked. She has cited Goya: but in speaking of Goya one cannot and "Maja desnuda. But it is only quality that counts." His portrayal forget his "Maja nuda" of the disasters of war are not superior to these works We have a respect for the past. but for which rifices we would probably not be here today.. Its spirit is alive and we wish to understand its message. illustration of this. I will letter of President quote the following extract from a Press Truman published in the American June 1947: "I do not pretend to be an artist or a judge of art. J. culture is essential. . . simply mean a layman. whether this is the people to give them forms which have no cheating relevance to living art . beShe has said that art must come near to the people." been employed in this conference. There is no excuse for repetition of the done eclectically or otherwise. This "common man" is found equally in all social classes and in J.are profoundly grateful for the sacErnesto Rogers: made by the peoples of Eastern Europe. a man not professionally interested in any of the arts. Sweeney: I shall make the shortest speech of this in the sense they have congress. Our differences relate to the fact that the earlier part of her talk] emphathat Helena . There are a great many American artists who still believe that the ability to make things look as they are is the first requisite of a . We must be the defenders of . An artistic production is one that shows infinite ability for taking pains. . It is past. lieve on the other hand that the people must be given the We means to come near to art. and if any one of these so-called modern paintings shows such infinite ability I am very much mistaken. . But we must stand firmly in our own period. We Syrkus [in sized figures. The words "common man. lazy people.

This kind of thing is for us pure reaction. But it is quite another matter to hang a fagade of colors or a fresco over the front of a building. We have a love for the past.great artist. He chasm. If the form in which it is shown is but a reflection of the forms of the past it is But the modern historian and the modern painter cannot reenact the past . but this was not so. Now to another matter." all in connection with modern- Giedion: [I summed up the discussion thus] I will say frankly that I would have been happier if we could have penetrated a bit deeper into the problem of the means of artistic expression I for it is here that I find the greatest am very grateful to Sweeney for having spoken as he did. Why? Because we can now see the why whole of history as a single entity. . We . Helena Syrkus has talked to us today of the role of culture and of history. have shown us we should be so. It is not treason to show up one's own faults or the faults of one's own country. Everything however depends on the manner in which that entity is projected. for Art is for us a matter of ethics. though with new labels. However. . and that is what is necessary. one is working for it. I have noticed in a recent architectural development that there are signs of a return to the eclecticism of the nineteenth century. It is something that comes from the depths of our whole being: it is the projection of our actual entity.. just told the simple truth.. It is a form of reaction. One is not working against one's country in doing this. nothing. for the past as modern artists have themselves altogether shown. These new labels are are extremely dangerous. He might seem in a way to have been speaking against his own country. If the question of the method of expression is important to us it is just because it is not only a question of the outward appearance of things. Today we can see right are for the past We and modern artists . call it what one will. There is no art at ism in my opinion.

It seems that the architectural horrors of the ruling taste (which has prevailed with dictatorial powers behind the rary Iron Curtain. suppressing to a tragic degree all contempodevelopment) are now nearing their end. it is the method of Picasso." This means that one "thinking" of our tasks is also to educate people and that we must not believe that we can satisfy the real aspirations of the people by fobbing them off with shoddy work. is easier than "feeling. need always to realize that today One final point. Today more and more we see our connections with the past and most especially we see that modern painting is the We be a form of bourgeois decaAnother point. further that we should have no inferiority complex when we are accosted by the common man. (now declared is in Russia to . believe that we are developing this modern tradition. but others did. . We We We Postscript 1957 CIAM did not revise its attitude. . It is somehow comforting porary consciousness has shown that our unwavering contemitself able to outlast dicta- torshipswhatever their nature.across to the prehistoric period when man first began to "feel" and to ask "What is this that is around us?" This method that Miro has employed. 90 . rooted in the past dence) deeply believe believe profoundly in a modern tradition.

Notwithstanding the great variety of solutions displayed in the "grilles. Haefeli. possible to divide them under two main headings: Preservation of the human scale in the face of the mechait 2. Wicker. at Aix-en-Provence in the summer of 1953. Senn. We considered it necessary to awaken the architect and the urban designer to an awareness of the contemporary plastic sense which he so often overlooks. Voelcker. Bagnall. lasting throughout the days and far into the nights. Attitudes toward natural conditions and primitive civili- zations. now in process of regaining and reestablishing hu- man dignity. Bourgeois. Sekler. Auer.Marginalia CIAM discussions on the problem of aesthetics from genera] demands to questions of practical passed appliSlowly the cation. Laidlaw." we found 1. but instead tried to outline painting the plastic structure of the new form of the city. Gregotti. secretary. Richard. Our conclusion was: the necessity for cooperation from the start of a project between the urban designer-architect Giedion. where discussions were focused on the Human Habitat the committee on aesthetics no longer debated the role of and sculpture as such. Brera. The task given to our committee 2 was not easy and demanded hard work from us. chairman. At CIAM 9. nization of this period. This means the subjects were analyzed and presented in a similar manner so that comparisons could readily be made and conclusions drawn. Maisonseul. Tamborini. van Eyck. These "grilles" were all concerned with the Human Habitat. Braeti. 2 Coulomb. Chastanet. Vert. Around the walls were displayed drawings in the form of standard panels or "grilles" from all parts of the world. Tournon-Bramly. 91 .

and the


who can

contribute a keen sense of

rhythm and volume.

Some of the suggestions submitted at this congress may find a place here. They were the outcome of genuine teamwork.



(Proposals of




on Aesthetics


Aix-en-Provence, 1953)

normally used to work with two coordinates, the one perpendicular to the other. The houses were ranged along the length of the road, they were as far of the same height, perhaps even of the same as

The human scale The architect-planner

possible Such a system relieved the architect of
subjects in





shown on the


have once more consusceptible of

firmed that this cartesian system

is still


some instances, but in a new sense. Usually ployment the architect-planner is concerned with laying out a fairly area a residential section, or even an entire city

where no gridiron delineation of the roads


able to serve

as a skeleton for his plastic intentions. suddenly has all his disposition. This gives him a number of directions at of approach that he can use in handling the possibilities that have to be solved. territorial and social
sensibility: a new developof spatial rhythms and a new faculty of ment of a sense of volumes in space. There are many perceiving the play in which it is clear that these capacities are as instances


problems This demands a new plastic

And yet, without yet only very incompletely developed. in the contemporary sense cannot be dethem, urbanism
of these faculties, based upon veloped. The development three-dimensional relationships, should form part of a uniof quite education, starting with the disposition

simple elements. In opposition to the crowded and inarticulated city, which to redisresults in mere chaos and disorder, we are trying and air where nature is not banished with a cover



but which conserves
plastic expression.


urban character by means of


and well-difand integrated into an over-all will not be absent. The architect plan from which greenery needs to be sensitive to the plastic possibilities afforded by each site and to employ them to the full. will give an inspiration to of the The


well-defined city will contain

ferentiated sectors, linked



the spatial imagination of architects. It is indispensable for man's equilibrium that he should have the feeling that has been conceived for him everything in the urban setting to his own human dimensions. This implies research into a new order conditioned by the needs of our period, which
characterized by large-scale mechanized production. between the different Apart from their role of liaison the streets should enable nature to vital sections of the


as to isolate the pedestrian as penetrate into the city so much as possible from all mechanical traction. This is of the greatest importance in considering the plastic conception of urban plans. Studies of the plastic form of the new urban scene must

aware always be guided by the human scale, always being and material elements must at the that essential functional same time express man's immaterial aspirations and desires. The housing group the unit of habitationmust contain in an embryonic state all functions of life. These functions

must then be developed and enlarged

in the social

group forming the community. Each habitable section of the city should possess a certain range of the necessities of existence integrated into a whole and independent from the rest of the urban agglomeration. This new conception is far more supple than the

normal interpretation of "zoning" which is associated with the separation of all functions from one another. Life today results, or should result, from the association
of people in groups of different dimensions. It is necessary to set up a spatial scale within each area


based upon the individual. This scale will be expressed plastically by the repetition of structural elements, such as the dwelling, and in the disposition of these elements in space so as to compose the new organic components of the

The degree of repetition will decide the forms; the resulting scale will determine the means that can be employed to give a plastic identity to each of the sequence of group

We accept the use of repetition as an active factor in the
creation of a plastic expression. Each functional element should express itself by means of a differentiation of form and color which would serve to
give both a diversity within the larger of the residential sectors and, at the same time, a certain unity which would

contribute a general rhythm throughout the city as a whole. To maintain the necessary degree of unity within each element, so that a harmonious whole be created, certain impositions will have to be enforced regarding use of building

which may be

identical or varied to suit each

particular case.

administrative determination of the three-dimensional expression of the elements of the habitat (the houssocial groups ing groups, or units of habitation, and the


forming the community) should not be arbitrary, but be the plastic form that grows out inevitably from the emotional, social, and physical requirements that govern the
functions and reasons for existence of each.

Attitude toward primitive civilizations Contemporary architecture has become involved in the great process of the extension of a way of life, up to now more or less confined to certain parts of the Western

Hemisphere, over the entire globe.

New centers, new

cities, are in

over the whole world. Through

the process of formation contacts with both primi-


tive civilizations

and ancient


architecture has enlarged both its domain It has been deepened as well as widened.

contemporary and its scope.


attitude of contemporary architecture toward other do not regard primitive is a humble one. civilizations from the point of view of an advanced tech-




We realize that often shantytowns

themselves vestiges of the

balanced civilization

contain within the last

civilization in which man was in equipoise. realize that they can teach us forms that can be used to express specific social, territorial, and spiritual conditions. From this our


social imagination

standard of life or a primitive standard of life is not necessarily linked to a low aesthetic standard. primitive Cameroon hut has more aesthetic dignity than most

A low

may be able to form an aesthetic unity.


prefabricated houses.

Everywhere in the cultural

life of

the Western


tion a weakening can be observed in the acceptance of a purely rational approach. At the same time we are met by

the desires of the rest of the world to adopt the results of our scientific methods of approach. Primitive architecture, when approached fairly, can be seen as a symbol that directly reflects a way of life which has

down through the ages, and which has roots that penetrate deeply into human and cosmic conditions. Modern painters, for the last forty years, have been demonstrating to us that primitive and prehistoric art can help us to redirect means of expression. In the same way architecture can give a new depth to primitive contemporary architecture that can enable it to meet urgent challenges of today.




For this approach to be fruitful, the and the aesthetic imagination must be
It is

social imagination


accepted that

can perfectly well be combined with the use of traditional,

modem technical methods of approach

and indeed

primitive, materials.



the material demands and requirements of


it is necessary to provide only the structural The vitality of their innate sensitivity for decora- tion will enable them to transform it into architecture. The problem of the architectural solution of the possible methods of construction is divided into two parts: The first is the plastic determination. the area can be re-developed progressively and with the miniest repetitive unit mum disruption to meet changing habits of life of the community. Provided the module is kept unchanged.simple peoples skeleton. 97 . small piazzas and access ways. In some cases (notably North Africa) a progressive pattern of urban development has been worked out and adopted. until a mastery these arts is attained. many countries now undergoing rapid technical development. as these are specialists and in the siting of volumes in space. It is the duty of Western man to provide the essential tools of his technical inventions. and yet always present a coherent physical expression. Conclusions The architect's widened field of operations demands the development of a far greater sensitivity than is usually evident today in the handling of spaces and in the disof positions of volumes. which should be solved in collaboration between the artist and the technician. different degrees of evolution are likely to be maintained among the population for a considerable time. For the present. it is most important that the architect should work closely from the start of each project with painters and surfaces in the handling of sculptors. The spatial module employed has generally been the smallusually a room or enclosed yard which can be repeated to become house plots. provided this vitality is not blindly blunted or destroyed. but it is also his duty to permit the people to complete the work according to their own In vital standards.

to create a situation that can permit of the free of each individual. Its to secure a permanent and stable structure by dis- ciplining and arranging the of expression in essential parts.The second aim is is entirely the concern of the technician. on the contrary (after a very careful study of regional conditions and of the inner life of a community. not omitting its position in a period of The role of the architect own solutions as opinions. is not arbitrarily to impose his and harmonious development change). . full liberty but. while leaving all details.

Part 4 ON THE FORMATION OF THE ARCHITECT On the Education of the Architect History and the Architect .

"A world-wide reform essary. In every country same question crops up: our training be organized so that we may realize How should the social. 'the past gnaws relentlessly into the future/ We must forge history into a weapon which will enable the coming generation to measure where they stand. History is taught as if it were static. But history is dynamic.Marginalia After the formal proceedings of the conference at Princeton on "Planning Man's Physical Environment" (1947) had been concluded. puts it. The past lies within us and acts in us. The present curricula are insuffinecessities of this period. some of the many people gathered together concerned with education began to there who were closely discuss the form and reform of the training of the architect. whose shadow looms larger with the years. At the end of my conference address I also touched on this problem by pointing. moral." I therefore in architectural education is nec- proposed that the conference should request Dr. and emotional demands of our work? "I shall illustrate from my own field. History is often forced tecture for the last upon students as if nothing had happened in archihundred years. to 100 . The stuciently adjusted to the dents feel it strongly. "We mous have to prepare the next generation for the enor- tasks lying ahead. sometimes more strongly than their the professors.out that the creative budding of the young architect is often blighted by the kind of education he is offered in most universities and technical institutes. then General Director of UNESCO. Julian Huxley. As the French philosopher Henri Bergson. to judge their strength and their weaknesses.

Le Corbusier. November 1947. and I met unofficial letter to Julian it An then decided that CIAM should prepare in Paris. including Gropius. 101 . and in the fall of the same year Maxwell Fry. participants and others. statement on architectural education for submission to the a him We General Assembly of UNESCO in Mexico. Neutra. Mies van der Rohe. Huxley was therefore prewas signed by a great number of the conference pared. its purpose being only to permit of an exchange of ideas from which perhaps certain general guiding princi- ples could be drawn. the well-known English architect. and many more. Julian Huxley answered encouragingly. I was quite unaware that the regulations of the Princeton conference did not permit of resolutions or At the time conclusions.set up a committee to establish a plan for the basic reorgani- zation of architectural education. The statement follows.

no university. human thought and single organization. Educa- one of the fundamental isolated case. In sharp contradiction to the present situation. A common cultural background integrated almost unnotice102 . The main reason for this malaise tion. is a one-sided specializadiseases of our time. we must free ourselves from the departmentalized and encyclopedic conception of education and encourage instead the understanding and comparing of the specific problems encountered and the methods evolved in the various domains of activity. and no country in a position to perform this task. all-over tion in architecture. for the creation of a coherent whole. What we urgently need are people with coordinating minds. seems today the only agency in existence having the necessary means to is No UNESCO accomplish this integration. therefore.ON THE EDUCATION OF THE ARCHITECT The world-wide dissatisfaction with the present training of the architect comprises all aspects of his education. which has to come about if our civilization is not to collapse. To achieve this. uniting the craftsman and the artist. cannot be regarded as an but must be integrated in the long run in the reform of educational training. In the field of architecture the situation may be described as follows: In former periods a common pattern ran through the whole domain of architectural activity. the builder and the town planner. the most vital task of this period is to learn again how to coordinate human activities. from the abilities required to the qualifications and the degree of responsibility attained. and it should therefore be one of the first purposes of education to promote in the young the development of this faculty.

was concerned with shapes and forms. As a historian. sociologist. and future are regarded more and more as an indivisible whole. just as modern painters and sculptors went back to so-called primitive cultures. and most are interested in those problems of bygone particularly civilizations which reveal a deep affinity with the present- which shaped the various we day situation. The teamwork necessary to create a comprehensive whole could almost dispense with a conductor. etc. of course. Today a different architect's relation to history The attitude toward the past has evolved. Past. This hopeless undertaking must be abandoned. I shall limit myself to sketching the consequences of this conception for the architect's study of history. He must be trained.ably the various professions. tectural activity acquire in their training a very limited outThe attempt is being made to turn the architect into a specialist in an ever-increasing number of continuously expanding disciplines: into a dilettantic mathematician. to become as skilled a craftsman as ever. however. What we are looking for are the living forces and the spiritual attitudes periods. art historian. for a methodological approach which will enable the student to know what questions he may ask and what solutions he may expect from other disciplines. so that he may be enabled to integrate the elements supplied strictly by specialized knowledge into a work of art. and to the past is In the nineteenth century the architecture of the changing. statistician. Students were trained to regard the past as a warehouse of forms. The professions involved in archilook. where one could borrow or pilfer ad libitum. present. The spirits were tuned together like the in- struments of a string quartet. to get support for the shaping of their own inner reality. All this has changed. and consequently the training of the architect. This involves in many respects a departure from present curricula and methods. but the stress must be laid today on his future role of a coordinator. ruling taste. engineer. 103 .

how the life of a culture took We call anonyMethodological study of other periods will history. The practical consequences in respect to the teaching of shape. of their emotional as well is the selection and limitation of subject matter in such a way that it can be tied up with the interests and the work of the student. instead of a history of styles and forms. into its own accomplishments. too. 104 . But these fragments have to be chosen in such a way that new constellations will arise in the minds of the students. a typological approach has to be introduced: instead of elaborating a false continuity from the Stone Age to the twentieth century. occurrences. History teaching is ever tied to the fragment. as of their social aspects. This means exploring what one might mous history. will help to eliminate nineteenth-century methods based on a mechanistic piling up of unrelated facts. through an oversimplification and a purely formal description of various periods we must concentrate on the vertical lines going through history. History can only be taught in this sense by people who have an intimate understanding of the architectural and the planning problems of the present. and shortcomings in comparison to former civilizations. Closely related to this demand This. forgotten as quickly as they are acquired. as John Dewey has been proclaiming for the past half century. and economic in the manner of biologists. are that.of life We History conceived as an insight into the moving process comes closer and closer to the biological approach. sociological. into the specific nature of give the student a better insight his own time. which still goes on as if nothing had happened since the middle of the last century. want to know. are interested today in knowing more than political.

Marginalia The letter to Julian Huxley. in architecture remained alive. I am referring to those stu- dents who showed stimulus that had action that the courses had provided a certain into pricked their own powers of thinking one of the main functions of a teacher. 105 . a method started to develop. It seemed to me that an encompassing approach to the history of architecture could only be based today upon conceptions of space. I went to Harvard in 1954 the method had already When not at was able to introduce it there. . Zurich. mentioned earlier. I have been developing an out- line of the evolution of space conception from its birth." I gave a short outline of the role I believe history should play in the education of the architect. this In Space. Time and Architecture I had tried to develop approach within the limitations of one period. Rather. In the course of my recent studies of the beginnings of art and the beginnings of architecture. Toward the end of the first semester at Harvard. and in saying this I am not referring to those students who are prone to present mechanical become formed and all I sure that this attempt worked out better than I of their instrucrepetitions of the ideas and even the words tor in order to simplify the task of passing their all too fre- quent examinations. During the next few my regular courses at the Federal Institute of Technology. remained buried in a drawer. I was would meet with success. in a lecture on "History and the Architect. The stubut it dents reacted favorably. But the demand that history be taught in a way that conformed to a contemporary approach toward years. had anticipated.

How can all this be explained? Undoubtedly it stems from the period when the vocabulary of contemporary architecture was being formulated above all in the 1920'$ following all the harm that had 106 . That's what his An He this job? Histraining is for. and that students Others hold that the study of history produces eclectics will be seduced by the past to become copyists instead of inventors. and there are also their minds. and even obstructive. attitude is that of the practimust be architect has to build. tioner: "History? taught the necessary know-how for this. considering it as something useless. The ing of the study of history importance. or the unimportance. has repercussions upon the whole training of the architect. What has history to do with time in an already tory courses are only a waste of precious overloaded curriculum/' Another familiar attitude held in the profession is the belief that a study of the historical just intimidates the young architectural student. perhaps oversimplified. to present-day development.1955 HISTORY AND THE ARCHITECT in the attitude Uncertainty and hesitancy are noticeable Universities and Institutes of Technology regardthe relations between history and the architect. and that history if taught at all should be taught only toward the end of his studies. There are many opinions in the profession about this re- of many lationship. Now suddenly an we find discussions sional circles and interest in history has reawakened and this subject taking place in profesin the architectural magazines with more on scheduled. Opinions such as these are trying to eliminate contact with the past. many who have not made up One.

a language capable of being adapted to meet the needs of different conditions and different idioms in the varied reis gions of the world. Gothic. interest in history has revived. 107 . Romanesque. and so on. Today this first step has been accomplished and contemporary architecture has become a universal language. or Renaissance banks. An encyclopedic treatment of architectural history presented the student with a sort of inventory of the acknowledged masterpieces of architecture. cessories.been done to architecture by the nineteenth-century plundering of historical forms. relations between Eastern and Western civilizations. A second inventory consisted of the classical orders and Gothic structural features. from all sides. and their consequences. This may be the real reason why. This from an "international avoided. this was accompanied by all the details of entablatures. quite different from that of the nineteenth century. to a certain degree. and. city law courts. halls. of course. At that time those who were framing the new architecture had to search within themselves and in the life around them to produce an architectural language equivalent to their own period. friezes. there hovers in the background the demand for a wider range of inner relationships. The nineteenth and other ornamental acThis presented the young architect with a history of styles that proved very useful to him in the design of Classical. are in the forefront. century In the nineteenth century the architectural historian stood upon firm ground. even a feeling for what is common in human existence: a new demand for continuity. style" a something quite different misnomer to be carefully Closer The horizon today has been considerably widened. But our approach to history is. Moreover.

this materialistic way of ap- proach slowly began to be regarded as insufficient or even detrimental to the training of the student. dead as dust. in past. Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture on the Com- parative Method* in some respects still useful today due to the exactness of its descriptive material. the collapse of eclectic came about. is significant in that it is an epitome of all the history that was then considered necessary and useful for the young architect to know. present. And of teaching the history of the styles of when contemporary architecture after many battles finally long and often deceptive was an immense backlog won of mistrust which. This is still to some extent the situation to regard history as a static process. and future are listed in separate columns as in a bookkeeper's ledger. study of history certainly fulfilled a useful purpose. This brings us to our main problem: How can the history 1 Banister Fletcher. But when. the day. architecture finally early in this century. Universities and Institutes of Technology scriptive still The clung to their former comparative. The result is that the past those things that have happened is no longer seen as We have ceased How do we regard history today? today. caused the teaching of history to be banished altogether from many architectural curricula thus throwing out the baby with the bathwater. de- methods building. ed. there coupled with a deep inner uncertainty. in the twenties and thirties. on the Comparative London. which something dim and fusty. A Method ( i6th History of Architecture . twentieth century During the formative period of contemporary architecture. 1954) 108 . but as an inseparable part of our living human destiny..The In the nineteenth century one stood upon firm ground.

of architecture be taught today so that it can take account of our changed viewpoint that history is not static but dynamic, that history is an ever-changing process, depending upon the point of view of each succeeding generation.

This was already implicit in Jacob Burckhardt's Force

and Freedom, Reflections on History, written nearly a hundred years ago. In this book he stated: "We, however, shall

out from the one point accessible to


the one eternal

center of




and was and

suffering, striving, doing, as ever shall be. ... shall study the

man. Man,


recurrent, constant and typical, as echoing in us and intelligible through us ... and now let us remember all

we owe

to the past as a spiritual

continuum which forms

supreme spiritual heritage." now must find where lies the key to our problem today, and in this connection we have to ask whether there are any phenomena that clearly run through the whole of historical development, upon which the history of architecture, as taught today, can be basically founded. Such phenomenasuch notions must be extracted from the innermost heart of architectural concepts.

part of our


objectivity of the historian Before delving further into this, however, there is a certain prejudice that must be cleared away. This is the fiction that the historian is a man who stands above the turmoil of the milling crowd and, from an ivory tower, surveys the scene with a dispassionate eye, interpreting it with a


a product of able to erect of a timeless quality by piecing together a sort of buildings photomontage of the ornamentations of bygone periods. There is, in fact, no such thing as an objective historian.

timeless tightness. This so-called objectivity of the historian

the last century, which

somehow believed


2 Jacob Burckhardt, Force and 'Freedom, Reflections on History York, 1943), pp. 81, 82, 85.



the beliefs of former generations which have become genand thus he gives an appearance of erally accepted truths

His seeming objectivity usually consists in a regurgitation of

All great historians have been creatures of their own The historian should find period: the more so the better. creative forces that animate what inspiration in the same Paul Klee has called the "real artist." The historian has to give insight into what is happening
in the changing structure of his


time. His observations

must always run parallel with those specialists of optical vision whom we call artists, because it is they who set down the symbols for what is going on in the innermost life of
the period before the rest of us are aware of it. The problems of the past are as innumerable as the trees of a forest, but there are certain problems especially related to the strivings of each particular period. In order to recognize these, the historian must himself be a real creature of his own time. He must know which are the urgent problems
that have to be solved, and he must be able to develop his own researches out of them. For this the historian must have an understanding of his own period in its relation to

the past and maybe also some inkling of those trends leading into the future. History is a mirror which reflects the face of the onlooker. The historian has to show the trends of development as
clearly and as strongly as he is able. But his so-called objectivity is nothing but a fiction. should the historical past of architecture be pre-


sented to students of architecture?

The method of presenting history should not differ from the methods of presenting any other subject considered necessary in the formation of the architects, as, for instance, statics or the theory of structures. In many schools of higher learning, Universities, and Institutes of

Technology, there has been, and

still is,

a tend-

ency to try to teach the architect to undertake the sort of


calculations of structures that are required of the civil engineer.

has been to turn the architect into some kind engineer with no understanding of what "statics" really means. Some time ago I asked Ove Amp, the English structural engineer who works in close contact with architects, what place he considered statics should play in the education of the architect. He told me that, from his experience in working with young architects in the London Architectural Association School, he had become convinced that it was far more important to give them a certain sense for statics than to teach them the techniques of comresult




plicated calculations. The great structural engineer, Luigi Nervi, once complained to me that the plans he gets from architects often reveal an astonishing lack of structural un-

derstanding. It seems, therefore, that the aim when teaching statics to architects should be to develop in them a sense of the potentialities of structural materials so that

the architect's own spatial imagination may be kindled, and, second, that he may know what he can and what he cannot demand from his best helper, the structural engineer.

logical approach, or, to

In other words, the architect needs to be given a methodoremember the statement of Walter Gropius, "In an age of specialization, method is more important than information/' The system of presenting history should be in the same way based on a method, rather than specialization. The student should be helped to widen his outlook. But this outlook should be widened not by a host of facts or purely historical knowledge. His outlook should be widened by strengthening in him a certain faculty: the sense for space.

As a by-product, a method for encompassing architectural history today can be developed.


Space in the around 1900


approach to architecture


the point of view of the present day, the innerof architectural

most heart



upon two

and space concepinseparably connected concepts: space

At the end


of the last century, three great scholars were to undermine the current factual and materialistic to this problem. They were the Swiss, Heinrich

Wolfflin, in his early work on Renaissance und Barock; the Austrian, Alois Riegl, in Spdtromische Kunst-industrie; and the German, August Schmarsow, in Grundbegrijfe der

Kunstwissenschaft* The analysis of formal shapes appeared to these men as too coarse a tool to apprehend the spirit of a period.

Despite their differences, Wolfflin, Riegl, and Schmarsow recognized that the formation of space is fundamental to architecture, and that it is the changes, which occur continuously, in the formations of space that provide the unquestionable basis of the history of architecture.


three stages of architectural development

Nothing is more embarrassing today than when smallminded people, taking advantage of the fact that they have
been born
later in time, venture to criticize those



opened up the paths along which we are now treading. are today born with the belief, based on a development of nearly 2000 years, that architectural space is synonymous with hollowed out interior space. It is, therefore, easy to understand how Alois Riegl, around 1900, considered that real architectural space could only be fully developed when it was given a vaulted ceiling. We, who have been born later, have the advantage that



Heinrich Wolfflin. Renaissance und Barock (Munich, 1888); Alois

Riegl, Spdtromische Kunst-industrie (Vienna, 1901);

August Schmarsow,

Grundbegriffe der Kunstwissenschaft (Leipzig and Berlin, 1905).


our outlook, thanks to the work of modern

artists, has been considerably widened in regard to spatial conceptions. It is, therefore, not so difficult for us to recognize that the first great development of architecture was not concerned with

hollowed out space. In the birth country of architecture Egypt there was no inner space in the accepted sense. In Egypt volumes were
set in the boundlessness of endless space,



space was developed by the interplay between volumes and

We can divide the whole evolution of architecture up to
the third only

the present day into three stages



stage encompasses architecture from its genesis Egypt and Sumer, including the Greek development and to some extent also the Roman, up to the building of the


Roman Pantheon.
This long evolution that connects the Pyramids with the

Pantheon had very many facets, gradations, and differentiations, and it is an exhilarating spectacle to observe how
within this first architectural evolution, characterized by the placing of plastic artifacts in boundless space, the second step is already in preparation. can observe for instance how Egyptian architecture, dominated by plane surfaces, with columns closely connected to inner walls and concealed from the outside, becomes changed during the Greek development. The plane surfaces, with their shadowless low reliefs and interior columns, here turn into temples surrounded by peristyles. The



selves to

columns have come outside and now offer theman exuberant play of sunlight and shadow. The low have become high reliefs and three-dimensional stat-

ues, their limbs no longer pressed closely together, reach out in all directions, their agitated movements accompanied

by wind-blown garments. To an Egyptian they may have seemed as distorted as a 1938 figure by Picasso would have appeared to an onlooker of 1890.

this period stage. At the end of the eighteenth century came a short in4 See Part 6. Since late Roman times hollowed-out space. nor whether it was derived from the East or de4 Eastern Mediterranean soil. and on to the spatial vortex of a late Baroque church. up to the end of the This is when monumental expression. The interior of the Pantheon. The second stage of architectural development opened in the midst of the Roman period. the Renaissance." 114 . attained exploiting simultaneously form. lumes sous la lumiere. a circumscribed interior space. Even stronger contrasts in form. and construction meet the eye than during the first stage. and shadow. stant the most impressive witness of that inhollowed out space.these contrasts. upon This connotation of architectural space with hollowed out interior space is so familiar to us that it requires a considerable effort for us to appreciate its relative nature. organization. eighteenth century. the same space perception Sumer. "Spatial Imagination. scale. with its dominating dome and eternally open But despite all eye. has been the major problem of the art of building. the continuity of the space conception itself remained fundamentally the same. and Greece-Ze jeu savant des vopervaded Egypt. In absolute time. However. and the ever-changing form of this interior space distinguishes the phases of this second stage of architectural evolution. The most creative talents have concentrated its further development. modeled by light. light. its still exists as not the moment to discuss the origin and use of the dome. and the Baroque periods. in tracing the development from the Pantheon to the Gothic cathedrals. is far shorter than the first but it was far more animated in its spatial develop- ment. veloped independently upon This second stage extended from the time of the great Roman vaults and Byzantium through the Medieval.

perforationall lead up to what has been termed the space-time reintroduced. Time and Architecture. yet already some of be outlined. The constituent fact of the second stagethe hollowed out space continues to be further developed. Hollowed out space. history History and curriculum be raised: How can Finally the practical question must of architecture be built into the general curriculum? This can be solved in many different ways. first in painting and then in architecture.termediary period during which the nineteenth century searched everywhere to find its own soul. as I tried to indicate to some extent in Space. In the early years of our century. This third stage of architectural development is still in the convulsions of its formative period. according to the purposes of different types of schools. juxtaposition of volumes. In many universities an introductory survey course in the History of Art is offered as part of the general undergraduate if such courses were made program. from the first stage and from the second. new trends were being developed in the neutral area of construction techniques. conception of our period. Simultanethe first stage are ously the space-emanating volumes of its features can is different New elements also appear. It elements of both are preserved alongside new elements Yet of its own. yet there are some constant leading principles. partly such as transparency which is combined with the interpenetration of inner and outer space. It would be as well for all students wishing to enter the architectural mandatory "5 . some of them announced during the last years of the second stage. Quite aside from the nineteenth century architecture of the ruling taste. a new space conception begins to emerge.

116 . intimately related to the demand for spatial im- From the moment agination which is The widespread so urgent today. serves as a basis for his specialized studies In cases where such courses are not at present available to the first young student. nature of this demand for knowledge of the historical development of space conception in many fields is instanced by the recent appearance of a book entitled Concepts of Space by Max Jammer. These courses provide the student with a certain foundageneral of reference in regard to the develoption and some schools. which contains the statement: It is the history of scientific thought in its broadest perspective against the cultural background of the period which has decisive importance for the modern mind. painting. history point of view that corresponds to our present-day demands and our present-day attitude toward the past. and general introduction can best be given. In my opinion this means that history of architecture should be taught from the very beginning to the present day on the basis of space conception. sculpture The whole question of incorporating the teaching of circles history within the architectural curriculum around three problems: How should history be taught? How much? When? How? the student enters the school of should be presented to him from a architecture.important as the usual reknowledge of mathematics. one must consider in what form a to architecture. This is an all-embracing postulate. and considered just as quirements for a basic points ment of art which in architecture.

one-term course on the Visual Arts. without historical an amplification. This course can and should be handled A by architect. p. Apart from the courses themselves. that these courses do not stand in isolation. the History of Theories of Space in Physics (Cambridge. When. however. History is as much a full-time job as architecture or and the planning. 117 . there is a design problem for a museum. the historian should be required to give an introduction whose length would be dependent upon the importance of the problem. Architectural Philosophy. for instance. at the outset of architectural studies. of space conception in archi- How much? If history of architecture is taught on the basis of space conception. But the courses on Space Conception need to be the re- sponsibility of a fully trained art historian.The concept physics torical of space. v. Mass.. and others. destined as a kind of eye opener to arouse a visual excitement in the student. a church. Care should be taken. history should be brought into coordination with design problems in the workshops. or a shopping center. frame of reference within which courses on space conception have to be set must be rather comprehensive if misleading dilettantism is to be avoided. then it can incorporate much of the material that is often now handled in separate courses such as Theory of Architecture. Concepts of Space. can be based upon first-rate visual material or color slides. an assembly building. treated fundamental role in from such a his- The same must indeed be said tecture. has never been 5 point of view. 1954). The purpose is to give the students a greater oversight into the nature of the prob5 Max Jammer. in spite of its and philosophy.

and by an acceptance of the fact that the history of space conception can include much that is now being studied under other names. but only in seminar work and discussions. how much space can really be given to history in our already overcrowded curriculum. it it has been tackled in the past. This space can be found only by avoiding any kind of repetition and overlapping. This cannot be successfully handled in lecture courses. which is slowly beginning to demand a coherence of parts in relation to the We whole. as has been done for instance in the Architectural Association school in London. as I have discovered since I first started to work along these lines in 1951. which needs to be curtailed rather than extended in time? Courses on two hours weekly throughout four terms. but in a period like our own. Such studies provide another way of bringing theoretical orientation into contact with the workshops. so that with a wider outlook and are less se- duced to imitate the latest fashionable examples in the cur- History should be as closely connected with the workshop problems as is structural design. conception at least demand space When? taught in this way.lem and the ways they can approach rent magazines. and I have had occasion to note how they have a direct impact upon the practical work of the students. Finally. contact with the past should accompany the student from the beginning to the end of his architectural training. The whole development of architecture today leads us toward a greater attention to the long neglected study of know of course that a knowledge of proproportions. whether in a single building or in a larger complex. the study of proportions can provide a necessary backbone. If 118 . portions alone can no more produce a good architect than the rules of sonnet-writing can produce a poet such as Petrarch.

History walks beside the student as a friendly guide. the question as to whether history should be taught at the beginning or at the end of the total pro- . In this event.gram of studies becomes unimportant. liberating but not inhibiting his spatial imagination.


Part 5 ON THE RENEWAL OF THE HUMAN HABITAT The Humanization of Urban Life The New Regiondism .

and remain sane any more than he can take himself away from the air he breathes. It abused the earth. The Frank Lloyd Wright's own proposal Broadacre City 1 Baker Brownwell and Frank Lloyd Wright. had no respect for the land. p. sliced up the ground. the water he drinks." 1 plan to achieve this preservation of the earth can be designed in various ways. land was seen mainly as a living place for people who worked in the neigh- borhood of London. 1937). even as our own. 301. became separated from one anintention was smothered by row upon row of small houses in small gardens. 122 . are already fairly definite. Much flux. by The gravity of this situation compelled Frank Lloyd to issue the following heavy warning in 1937: "Man cannot be taken. other. It is evident that new forms for the human must be found if we are to check an ever-widening expansion of the present human chaos.Marginalia The next part of this book must deal with the question of the structural forms which correspond to the contemporary habitat way of life. as so often. the food he Wright eats. Crucial questions are in a state of outlines. the ground. which may set a framework for the final realizations. away from his birthright. as A proclaimed by Ebenezer Howard in 1898. The past century. But the idea and its realization. and destroyed the landscape the straggling extensions of widespread cities. allowed erosion to remove the topsoil. In the Garden City movement. still less can he take himself. is still But unclear. Architecture and Modern Life (New York. Ebenezer Howard's plan was throughout conceived as part of a greater whole.

A wider separation of structures is needed so that earth and landscape are not choked to death. The development rection of the city's structure took another di- from that anticipated. of an emotionally felt compatibility desire with a sociologically necessary trend. implied a broadcasting of dwellings over the land. when it has no "heart. diversified in the contains a variety of dwelling types for single and for older people. The Garden City movement.was based on the idea of self-sufficient homesteads. like the Broadacre City idea. This is consonant with the basic demand it sense that for a diversified habitat." no place that serves as a bridge between private life and community life. The asphalt deserts must disappear. is one of the people. Thickly settled Europe and much of the United States can no longer think in such terms. The form and relationship of these structural volumes to the spaces between them and to one another is dictated by a new space conception. The destruction of human contacts and the present lack of structure of the metropolis are mutually urgent problems. and grew from the supposition that the greater concentrations of peopleeven the city itself would disappear. 123 . organ- ized in gridiron fashion. This enough land to grow presupposed the existence of large available tracts of land. But even the most beautiful housing project remains but a segment when it stands in isolation. which is displayed by the play of relations of surfaces: by the interaction of high with low buildings. This of form with function. no place where human contacts between man and man can again be built up. such as exist in certain parts of America. for families with children. this also demands man should not forgo his natural right of contact with that the soil. signs which indicates that we are once again moving in ac- cord with a universal conception. Even so. but each with food for the household.

is tacles last past helping. to enable this to occur. Anyone who still does not realize that the most important effect of face to face human contacts is the immeasurable nor radio. If we look at the city as a place in which private life and community life find a meeting place. and a sensitive imagination understanding on the part of the clients porations or private undertakings. measure of the level of its civilization. as is briefly indicated in the following article. There can be no doubt that in the few years the demand for such developments has grown ever stronger. What is needed to bring these into being is on the side of the planners. then the mark of a true city is the balance between YOU and ME. neither telephone and me relationship that we must build up home movies nor television. But. The community life that was develthroughout oped in each period its intensity or its weakness was a appeared in the earliest high civilizations. inward and outward psychic forces which can be generated. No machine can replace physical nearness. It is this you again today. special recepmust be provided.The city as an arch-symbol of a diversified human society and has continued all periods. be they civic cor- 124 .

The work of the Stijl Group in Holland. they may become discarded sooner than expected. for several reasons. were all produced early in the A study of the century and all were single-family houses. The so-called "tower" houses that have been particularly between high and developed in Sweden are a compromise low forms of housing and. 1953 THE HUMANIZATION OF URBAN LIFE If we examine. the road which architecture has been obliged to follow during this century in order to come to terms with its own period. opment man really of this devel- The family cell was still the motif of the different forms of multi-storied dwellings that were developed parallel in time. The American spark reached Europe. From here it passed on to architecture. The climax 2 came later in California. Le Corbusier's first Paris .1951. from a human point of view. started as a fight against two an "infected atmosphere and as a moral revolt against the falsification of forms" (Henry van de Velde) It began far back in the nineteenth century with William Morns' purification of the immediate human environment by giving dignity of form to objects of daily use. 125 . house man's most intimate environmentsingle-family enables one to understand better than anything else whether a knows how to build. house in reinforced concrete. 1952). we shall find this divided into The development distinct stages. including three-story row houses and skyscrapers. a volume of the 2 I was able to develop this observation when editing works of CIAM architects from twenty-two countries A Decade of Contemporary Architecture (Zurich. Mies van der Rohe's projects for country houses. nowhere more markedly than in the single-family houses built around 1900 by Frank Lloyd Wright and others in the suburbs of Chicago.

one of the curious features of present-day civilization that the contemporary creative focus can no longer be traced to a single area. The second stage of contemporary architecture is more concerned with the humanization of urban life. This may have been the underlying 126 The heart of the The endeavor to and the city reestablish collective sphere is proceeding . individual an equipoise between the today throughout the world. has become glance at the big cities. which has lived on imperishably in the human soul left their ritual first met in caves during the ice ages and symbols on the walls. Today creative impulses within the same movement arise all over the earth. The relation of the parts to the whole. trace of community ever since men tion that It is moved the masses. the contact between the individual and the community. or of enjoyment taneous social intercourse. Oud's Rotterdam worker settlement (Tusschendyken 1919climax in Le Corbusier's 20). This has been the first part of the route. the gathering that collected at the tiny Rockefeller Center at the end of the Second World War. by reason of its aesthetic importance as well as its internal organization. aspects of the housing movement was marked by P. has to be restored. Yet the suppressed demand contact. J. when the voice of to the emoLily Pons suddenly arose and gave expression skepticism. It reached an experimental Uniti f Habitation at Marseilles which. whose functioning the impact of mechanization. breaks out spontaneI remember ously when man is shaken by some great event.The beginning of a link between social and aesthetic J. is as much a contribution to urban design as it is an agglom- eration of family dwellings. other than as a passive observer? for social Absolutely true. gives rise to paralyzed by Where in a "megalopolis" does one find any A based upon sponlife.

MARS become too closely restricted to administrative buildings) 3 may soon come into general use. E. music. Colombia. J. according to the Oxford English Dictionary. in our Western civilization. All of these forms are somehow bare and naked as yet. J. to build functioning city cores in the absence of a well-defined structure of society? In contemporary art poetry. We do not know consciously. 1952). ed. who themselves seldom adhere to a formal religious creed or well-defined political convictions. Tyrwhitt. This development is not without an inner significance. why certain forms or symbols which have no direct significance appear again and again in the works of the most diverse painters. and India than in the highly mechanized cities of the United States. N. Rogers (London. at any rate for the present.theme for reason for the selection of the "Core of the City" as the 8 (Hoddesdon. L. It seems that a new stage of civilization is in formation in which the human being as such the bare and naked manwill find a direct means of expression. Since 1300. They are. for instance. 8 Sert. This was developed in The Heart of the City. It seems possible that this demand for the reestablishment of community life is likely to be satisfied sooner in the new town cores which are now coming into being in Peru. the word "core" has meant "the central innermost part. England. architecturewe can see that during the last forty years a new language has been evolved out of our own period by artists. Is it possible." (whose meaning Contemporary interest in the core is part of a general humanizing process. 127 . symbols without immediate significance. July 1951 ) The term "core" which was introduced by the group of London in the place of "civic center" has CIAM . the heart of anything" and it was defined by the MARS group as "the element which makes a community a community and not merely an aggregate of individuals. of a return to the human scale and the assertion of the rights of the individual over the tyranny of mechanical tools. painting.

here I come back to the symbol of the bare and naked man) that there are certain continuous features running through human lost historycertain experiences which appear and are again. founder of the CIAM Peckham Health Center in London. and indeed self-evident. and so the gathering places of the people the places where people can meet together without hindrance have been destroyed. Today this right of the pedestrian this human right has been overridden by the automobile. doctors. and then come up take only a very simple example: the right of the pedestrian in the center of community lifein the core. This To was carefully respected. The problem to which it of the core is a human problem. We know how problems.Sartre once wrote that which spring we need today signs and symbols to the senses without explanation. no suggesshould imitate our forebears. Today one of our hardest tasks is the reestablishment of this human right. Architects and planners know that they cannot solve this problem alone and that they need the cooperation of sociologists. which is not merely imperiled but has been destroyed altogether. The extent will be fired with life will depend on the people themselves. because our period has lost so many of the formerly accepted norms of human behavior and human relations that a special interest has arisen in the conti- nuity of human those experience. in all former civilizations. Then the historian was asked to present the historical background of the core. but I believe (and There is. which was indeed a "core" based on the spontaneous activities of people of all ages. He directly then strengthened this statement by reference to experiments that have been carried out by certain psychologists. Scott Williamson. course and tion that who came before us handled For instance. historians. So. how did they develop community life? are vitally concerned to certain like social inter- we of course. when we look back into history we wish to pose very 128 . For example. G. no one at was listened to with greater the eighth congress of attention than Dr.

SOCIAL IMAGINATION 29. This shell-like plaza The natural slope has been upon which the city is built. completed 1413. Siena: Piazza del tween the three hills Campo. lies be- turned to excellent account to accentuate the domination of the central City .

'' </ /ji v. but a completely new sense of order was iniuced into it as a result of the Greek conception of the polis in which all c emphasis was concentrated in the agora.) studies. Harvard Graduate School of iign. was laid out when the city was rebuilt after destruction by the Persians in 494 B.. The Greek gridiron system in this. the core of the community: the .'.r>:< . . The gridiron as such was invented ch earlier in Sumer and Egypt. home town of Hippodamus. ! BUSINESS j SANCTUARY MEETIMG i i RECREATION . -: ^:- .'0 ?/iif S^li and 31. (From comparative town planning 1955. T/ie Agord and City of Miletus.C.

323. Photograph of model in the Le Corbusier exhibition in Zurich. France. set a milestone in urban 32. 1957. Le Corbusier: Saint-Die. The principal buildings stand freelv each within its Corbusier: Plan for the City Center of Saint-Die. iq^.up development. Le The spatial own space. Vosges. . and in the center is a tall office building. which had been destroyed in the war. in the further corner of the square is the cafe. conception for rebuilding the city center of Saint-Die. to the left is the museum. The building in the lower center of the square is the department store. It is one of the few examples in which the inner forces of the modern space conception are brought to fulfillment.

. At glance these two houses by Richard Ncutra and Oscar Nicmcycr have nothing whatever in common. But both arc imbued with the same contemporary spirit. 1947. THE 34. Brazil. Santa Barbara.Oscdr Niemeyer: The architect's weekend house. California. Neutra: NEW REGIONALISM Tremaine House. Mendes. 1949. Richard S.first 33.

But the different habits of living in East and \Ycst cannot be so easily bridged. kenzo Tange: House in Tokyo. 1953. undisturbed space and purity of form and structure. Another example of the new regionalism. The elements of the traditional Japanese house.35. . require only minor changes to satisfy contemporary needs. its impeccable feeling for clean. with its mastery of the organization of plane surfaces.

Frank Lloyd Wright: Circular 37. This house of rammed earth its curved wall had a thatched roof. Crete. (Right) for Glenn McCord house. with before Christ. (Bottom) House at Uruk-Warka (Irak). .C. about 1940. about 36. (Left) B. Though of our time it is a continuation of the form of the Mesopotamian house of the third or fourth millennial! 38.RETURN TO THE PRIMEVAL HOUSE FORM Oval House. 1500. home in California.

.39- Frdnfc Lloyd Wright: Sol Friedmann circular home.

SertandP. L. Tel el Amarna. own 41.40. er: J. Egypt: Standardized worker's housing. THE NEW REGIONALISM AND AGE-OLD TRADITION .C. about 1400 ing has its B. 3952. Wien- Housing project for Cuba. Every dwellprivate patio.L.

Wiener: Housing project for Cuba. 1955. L. This certainly also gives the' structure a pleasing aesthetic appearance. Sort and P. 43. Andre Studer: Pyramidal apartment block in Morocco. The pyrathe midal organization of this structure has a reason: it is to permit not only sun but also the rain to penetrate every dwelling and so cam. J.42.out their hygienic functions. . L. 2952.

On the roof Le Corbusier presented . 1946-1952. frescoes. Marseilles. IN A LARGE CITY Marseilles. Unite d'Habitation. first terrace a wall has the been reserved for children's paints and colored chalks. General view. THE HUMAN HABITAT 45. Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier: Unite d' Habitation. 1946-1952.mmmmmmmmmmmm 44.

. Marseilles. 1946-1952." A RARE COMBINATION OF SOCIAL AND SPATIAL IMAGINATION 47. 1946-1952. Paddling pool.46. is The "Architecture roof terrace. A larueilles. r Le Corbufiier: Unite d Habitation. the true and conscious piny of volumes in space. Le CorbusieT: Unite d'Habitation.

of the Open Hand.48. fac. Capital of Punjab. monument Le Corbusier: Chandigarh.adc of the Le Corbusier: Chandigarh. 1951-1955. NEW CAPITAL CITY India. opened in 1955. The . Indict. 1951-2955. High Courts of Justice. The THE GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITY CENTER OF A 49. Capital of Punjab.

the High Courts of Justice. 51. The building at the the High Court of Justice with its three pools (4).Corbusier: Chandigarh. Plan of the Capitol. upper right 50. Le right is hand" (7). . assembly hall (i). The High Coi and one of the three pools presenting with its reflection "the dou square" (Le Corbusicr). opposite is t "the or. Le of Justice Corbuaier: Chandigarh. to the left the Secretariat (2).

and services) 12. 10. 9. 1955. Farming land. commercial center. 5. Local center. Bdkem and Group as a OPBOIAV: Plan for Alexander Polder. . International 4. Town forest. Unite d'habitation. 52. J. Cultural and (High rise with 3. Sports.THE HUMAN HABITAT IN THE METROPOLITAN AIWA urn .000. Single family houses. w 1. Industries. nursery schools Local road. 2. 11. 7-8. highway. Designed for a definite of a typical section large city number of inhabitants 30. B. 6. High school. Rottersuch as Rotterdam dam.

. B. Model of an same project. Rotterdam. /. Mem and Group OPBOUW: Atamder PoMr. earlier version of the 1953.55.

. As a consqucncc the center no longer faces upon the street. This urban center will never be built. In America also there is a movement reduce the chaos of the large cities. One of the most important projects for the was this proposed new center for Boston. It is only use of pedestrians (6000 cars parked underground). including Walter Gropius: Boston Back Bay Comand Community Center. mercial to Group of architects. in this direction It was unfortunately replaced by a less than mediocre apartment house project because of so-called "vested interests" and under the pressure of politicians who had no understanding center for a great city of what Boston could have gained by such a community it and of what has now lost. 1953.BUSINESS AND COMMUNITY CENTER FOR A GREAT CITY 54.

Suddenly we discovered that something still remains and that given the opportunity people will dance and put on plays in these open spaces. Today he wants and this is different from the nineteenth century to play his The man own six part in social life. Besides this there are also work who anonymous signs of interest in this question. performed that the medieval core of Zurich had been altogether de- We stroyed. The festival was a reunion of people from the whole canton of Zurich. Those who came from the different and parts of the canton gathered spontaneously together had been very much afraid their own plays. just as important. we had a festival in Zurich to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the entrance of Zurich into the Swiss Confederation.human is questions such as. and yet one couldn't chase the people away from the streets. general public. architects this question really need an answer? and planners at this moment There are many engaged in the of construction and reconstruction of city cenare in the midst of the practical problems of realization of their plans for the core. Everywhere there was music and throughout the whole night people danced in the streets under umbrellas. and medieval nooks and squares were used as open air theaters. "What is still the same and what quite different between you and me?" Or. Spontaneity in the street and that means each of us has an urgent desire to get away from his undoubtedly purely passive position as an onlooker. in this particular case. and benches were spread over the tracks of the street cars. 129 . It poured with rain. which from the point of view of the historian. "Is there still today a need for the core?" Does actual ters. In June 1951. The streets of the medieval city center were closed for two days to all traffic. These are direct impulses that are arising from the other are.

These have been made from very simple elements a circular sand pit. simultaneously. One needs only to provide the opportunity and we. and hundreds of years during which no new cities are started at all. I saw a number of children's playgrounds which have been created under the guidance of van Eesteren and designed by a young Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck.lic. just a symbol but is you I had another experience recently in Amsterdam. There are periods in which many new cities are founded. a parallel pair of tree trunks lying horizontally. These playgrounds also. who is not and me. Let us ask what is alive in the bare and naked man that needs to be given form and expression. What is The common to both however is that there are certain periods which favor growth and other periods which hinder it. though human community life depends upon far more intricate conditions than the plant. who are also maybe children of a kind. Everybody was astonished at the spontaneity of the pubTo be actor and spectator in one person is what is wanted! Clearly the public is ready. human settlements require certain conditions for growth. But these simple elements are grouped so subtly with a background of the Stijl movement and modern art which injects some kind of vitamin into the whole performance that they act as fantastic starting points for the child's imagination. fulfill another function. The careful design of their layout has transformed useless pieces of waste ground into active urban elements. A city is the expression of a diversity of social relation- 130 . core in Greece and Rome Like plants. some upright steel hoops. Let us ask what there is that lives in the bare and naked man. The question is whether -we are! Let us not wait for a structurally well-defined society to arise. the public. will know how to make use of it.

Never way first since the fifth century B. When I was in the United States I felt very conscious of the absence of places where one could stand about to rest. To make the future generation of architects consciously aware of this absence. methods of CIAM in the same manner and upon A sociological question came up immediately: "What was the relation between the plan of the city and its social life?" and we were plunged at once into this curious experiment of Greece the most exciting that mankind has ever . They have also arisen in periods of purposeful communal energy. to stop. In cities that have been developed by the united efforts of their citizens. 31) illustrations follow the normal made by the students. that each city is represented in the same scale. but. has so much loving care been lavished upon the gathering been so amply provided places of the people. The conditions which influence its growth can be of a widely ships dissimilar nature. as his sovereign will is bound to ignore the imponderable laws which stimulate human cooperation. when the despot has had power to compel everyone to build in conformity with a single design. to speak. I conducted a seminar on "Civic Centers and Social Life" first at Yale in 1942. then in Zurich.. a city built under a dictatorship can never acquire that essential quality of organic diversity. Nor has the place where the decisions of the people have been enunciated ever dominated the physical and moral structure of the town so effectively as the agora of these Greek cities. 30. just to move about in.which have become fused into a single organism. The despot has the advantage of his capacity for rapid and ruthless action. and Harvard. or space for them.C. New cities have arisen in periods of dic- tatorship. when the democratic found expression. the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. where some of the illustrations These were (figs. everything even to the last detail is permeated by a marvelous strength.

built.experienced with. but only for the people. In both Egypt and the cultures of the Near East the gridiron had within its center either the palace of the king or the temple. is something quite different from (figs. Sociologically. which is an But the Greek gridiron of absolutely clear-cut gridiron. and the assembly of the elders. such as the prytaneum 4 and buleuterion (council Hall). The public buildings. The gridiron system is an oriental invention. 132 . but. The stoa was supreme. It was only with increasing trade and wealth in the fifth century B. behind this it. not for anyone else. it is especially interesting that no buildings faced directly upon the agora itself. B. Here the core of the gridiron was the Hippodamus the gathering place of the people. In Greece it was completely different. in the work of the only Egyptian revolutionwho in the fourteenth century ary. above all.C. not only from recent discoveries in the Valley of the Indus. 31) the gridiron of Akhnaton (and also completely different from the gridiron of Manhattan). mystical court. within twenty-five years. and ex* Public building enclosing the eternal hearth. a covered way protected against rain and sunshine which served above all as a meeting place for the formation of public opinion. porticos. that it became more intermingled with commerce. and an entablaturethat formed the stoa.C. This is clear. is the agora? It is now established that in the beginning the agora was above all the gathering place of the people and not just a market. The agora itself was for the community: not for the council. 30. a city on the Nile (on the site of the present village of Tel el Amara). but stood behind the stoa. The agora in principle is an open space a square surrounded loosely by simple buildings intended for public use. still very simple in form columns. were in close contact with the agora. the Pharaoh Akhnaton. In the Hellenistic period agora What the agora came to be bounded by standardized elements. sudden awakening of the individual mind the enormous background of Oriental and Egyptian tradition.

next to the rostrum. well-defined and nicely arranged. Recent American excavations have shown that there was a temple on the agora at Athens. temples. Here. On the inner wall of the stoa. many other cities. The Romans. The acropolis was never a gathering place. from the beginning. Even in medieval cities the only period in which we can see a continuation of antiquitydifferent functions were intermingled. the career. very few before. justice. Private life was very humble. Monumentality which was gradually built throughout centuries. then. Agoras in their final form were made at the time of Alexander or later. and comitium (the patricians' stronghold): this was the nucleus of the Roman Forum Romanum. it became the quarters of the gods. who had worked objects were placed in memory of those well for the community. By the law of Athens any citizen who had too large a private house was chased out from the city. First it was the quarters of the king. What is the difference between the It Forum Romanum and the agora? great. the final status of the agora only appeared after the Greeks had in fact lost their liberty. intermingled business. Finally there is the private life. In the Greek cities there is is a clear classi- only for the gods. the consecrated area with the temples. and in the square itself. but this fication of functions. The agora is a community place. It would have been impossible in Greece to place the prison. But the idea of the agora is inherent in the democratic conception of Greek life. These three degrees first the gods. The Forum Romanum was is very clear and very a completely disordered place. Priene is one of the best examples for study because of the excellence of its excavation. and pub- 133 . but very simple. then community life. treasure houses. Now the Romans. religion. rostrum. was an exception. Career. distinguished so clearly. and it is interesting to notice here the lack of direct relation between effect and cause.clusively for the people. when he was eliminated. as in so One thing more. then private lifewere never again agora. the people's plat- form.

Existing cities became depopulated and The What heavily. The rich lived in the best places on the hills and the poor in squalor in buildings of five to eight stories. the Antonines.D. decay.lie life. Nero. These new towns were not in 134 . For instance. I may have a certain prejudice. from Julius Caesar to Trajan. which were 50 B. The right of the pedestrian is regarded as sacrosanct in both agora and forum. the surface of the main forum of Pompeii was depressed: "step- ping stones" and columns traffic made it impossible for wheeled to enter. but I find the most interesting are those in South Germany and Switzerland. decay. the imperial fora of Rome. their shrunken inhabitants. Then hung upon the shoulders of came a sudden awaken- ing. But besides differences between Greece and Rome. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries new cities were founded all over Europe. common features prevail. The city of Rome was so much a disorder that traffic had to be forbidden in the streets during the day by law. The standard of life sank rapidly. They somehow foreshadowed the nineteenth century. But there are small Roman cities such as Ostia or Pompeii where their urban development becomes more evident. for me. decay. through centuries. The imperial fora in their sterile pomp are. All failed who made the attempt Julius Caesar.C. But this does not mean that the Romans did not understand how to build cities. built over a relatively short period One word about core in the Gothic period happened through the medieval period? First. to 115 A. It is true that Rome itself never had a plan. In both of these in contrast to the Greek practice there is a temple dominating the forum. The normal view of the romantic medieval city is here entirely debunked. like overlarge garments. the beginning of academic architecture. which reveal divergent conceptions of community life.

and for The life of the city took place along the street: the justice. whether bordered or not by arcades. But one must issue a warning that urban form. Both street and porticos were. show an intermingling of public and private life. is surrounded by the private houses of the citizens. x 60 feet. The we core and the artists to our question: How can Finally build cores today in the absence of a well-defined struc- we may come back ture of society? There is certainly some relationship between the social structure of a city and the physical structure. The front length 100 be subdivided into four. destined for the market. The market place. six. or of its core. in contrast for instance to Pompeii with its "stepping stones/' no care is taken to see that traffic is kept out of the public square.the any way haphazard foundations. town hall with its square was not built until the fifteenth century. The city of Berne may be taken as an example of one the planned towns of the thirteenth century (and also to of the medieval cowpath destroy the romantic conception Berne was laid out in regular and equal ground plots. city) . respublica. or eight which still prevails today. effect and cause in physics. the emperor sentative. the street the shopping streetof acquired a new and much more intense significance. The streets and parts a system the porticos which stood in front of the houses were owned of 100 feet could or his repreby the protector of trading rights. these new medieval cities. along three parallel streets. was all so easy in the old days even in the nineteenth and so was physics: effect and century! History was simple cause in history. this not always strictly true. five. As a consequence of low standards of living that had prevailed through centuries. in contrast to the cities of Greece and Rome. effect and cause is It 135 . for public affairs. Also. therefore. On the other hand. These plots determined the whole construction of the town.

Reformation. and today we are forced to recognize that the relation between the core of the city and the social structure gf the city is not at all so simple and so rational as we once thought. In 1530 the city-republic of Florence lost its independence to the Medici despot. in 1534. a broad ramped stairway (the Senatorial Palace or cordinata). It is composed cupies one of the hilltops (which is not a real square. It is Let me finish with a single example. of ancient Rome. of Rome. and the Capitoline . Here. It does not always obey the law of effect and cause. in the Rome of the Counter Rome in which there was no freedom and no democracy. Michelangelo came from an old Florentine family and. What Michelangelo has mirrored in his Area Capitolina is the baffling irrationality of historic events and the enigmatic omission of any direct relation between effect 136 . at the same time. Michelangelo's Capitol a perfect expression of the core was a symbol of the vanished liberties of the medieval city-republic that he held in his heart. Here he gave concrete reality to what he had derived from his youthful democratic experiences in Florence. but more of a trapezoid).in psychology. It was. Cosimo the First. a The lack of imagination usually shown today (though there are a few exceptions) in our attempts to devise new city centers new city cores is invariably excused on the ground that we no longer have a way of life that it is possible to express. and the tori on the right. a memorial to the tragic dreams of its creator. itself a tragic example: The Area Capitolina ocMichelangelo's Capitol in Rome. It was the physical sciences that first abolished this rule. of a complex of the square Museum on the left) the Capitol can be rapThe architectural composition of in depth: idly summarized as a comprehensive development with the old medieval city relation plaza. and three buildings (the the Palace of the Conservatown hall in the background. stairway. he left Florence forever and spent the remaining thirty years of his life in voluntary exile in Rome.

Time and Architecture. 64-71). this problem is treated more ex- tensively (3rd edition.and Once more we realize that a great artist is able to create the artistic form for a phase of future social delong before that phase has begun to take shape. 5 velopment This is our task today! s In Space. pp. 137 . cause.

. or a single country. and indeed its very nature. No single country. and the underlying roots are destroyed. for we know that this is inextricably interwoven with the whole shaping of the environment. one movement. to anstate of The torian is other. one would have thought. When one seeks to isolate a single movement or personality." In a primitive sense the word "stylus" was used even in Roman times to describe different manners of writing. But. contemporary This is formalistic approach. and become woven into a subtle pattern that portrays the emotional expression of the period. the moment we fence architecture Today. from one country. but "style" did not come into general use to describe specific periods until the nineteenth century. refrain from using to describe the word "style. no single personality can be claimed as the originator of contemporary architecture. Everything nothingness. one personality.THE NEW REGIONALISM contemporary architecture is such that a hiscompelled to refer back to points that. no single movement. Trends shuttle to and fro. and there to trace back the sources of all developments such as the birth of contemporary architecturethe proportions of this subtle pattern become distorted. had been made abundantly clear many years ago. when different periods of architecture were analyzed according to a materialistic description of details of form. have again become clouded and confused. Purely formalist comparisons have about the same effect on the history of art as a bulldozer becomes flattened into upon a flower garden. Today we are concerned with something other than merely tangible form. in within a notion of "style" we open the door to a purely is There a word that we art. during recent years the origins of contemporary architecture.

the architect himself must conceive it as an integrated whole. In other words. and perhaps even the majority of their of the duties of an arcolleagues. Its cause is not hard to find. the changing structure of the city. but also as a builder of contemporary life. Like all real artists. It is more than a century since a stable them. Their consciences have become 139 . the architect of today refuses to consider himself a mere confiseur employed to attach some trimmings within and without delivered to after the structure has been him by the engineer. This can lead to dangerous results. In earlier times the architect and planner had merely to provide the container for an accepted way of life whether it was the way of life of a Versailles or of the bourgeois houses and squares of Bloomsbury. who are no longer able to limit themselves to pure research. This forecasting of future development has become the noblest task of the contemporary development. The powers that earlier stood behind it and gave environment its stability now decline more and more. Such architect-plan- ners have everyone against them: their most powerful clients are economically dependcity and state on whom they ent. This is now very evifunctions include a dent among architects and planners.The architect of today regards himself not merely as the builder of an edifice. has become a "must" for any creative spirit. he has to realize in advance the main emotional needs of his fellow citizens. No. a togetherness of approach. Today the planner has to discover for himself how the human habitat. A and secure way of life vanished from the scene. can be shaped so as to avoid utter chaos. this among today's scientists. who hold another view chitect. but can also be found In the final resort. long before they themselves are aware of wholeness. To accomplish this. the bankers. the outlying suburb. means that the urban designer's moral attitude. the architect-planner or urban designer must possess within himself the sort of social imagination which formerly resided in society.

in Africa. This true that. sults of their researches. in the Ohio 140 . but in the prehistoric era the hundreds of thousands of years of dark ages we find everywhere the hand axe. We product. physical stages. International archicates tecturethe international style so went the argument. with no roots anywhere. for a is the epithet "international. It is an approach to the life that slumbers unconsciously within our contemporaries. for history is not something dead. the term "international" was used. in the gravel bed of the Somme in the heart of France. especially in Germany." It is no "style" of form characterization. is something that hovers in midair." It is quite short period in the twenties. This hand axe is a universal. It has been found in China. we today abstain from labeling the contemporary movement with the word in the nineteenth-century meaning "style. If history teaches us anything it is that man has had to pass through different spiritual phases -of development. way just as. He refuses merely to submit a series of are its bald facts. They have begun to feel responsible for the reThe historian too has been drawn into this process. But the use of the word "international" quickly became harmful and constantly shot back like a boomerang. certain cultural standard he had to pass through different There are some signs that go to show that a is now slowly encompassing the entire world.troubled. pear-shaped tool whose sides slope to a fine edge. It is is human fate. In historic periods cultural areas have usually been more limited in extent. The word "style" when used for contemporary architecture is often combined with another password label. triangular. as a kind of protest to differentiate contemporary architecture from Blut und Boden advo- who were trying to strangle at birth anything and everything imbued with a contemporary spirit. the coup de poing. All contemporary architecture worthy of the name is constantly seeking to interpret a of life that expresses our period. like the architect. closely bound up with contemporary All this is involved in the reason why life. in prehistoric times. The historian.

Valley. Time and Architecture I felt it in duty to explain that Western man has now. in spheres of influence. I was obliged to add that Western civilization is itself actually in a stage of transition. in ever-growing numbers. Full realization of this fact can lead us slowly toward a new hybrid development a cross between Western and Eastern civilizations. as in the time of Neanderthal man. which have been the cause of their bodily and mental persistence since prehistoric times. which still remain with us. which now leave feelings of shame. Since then the establishment of great states has resulted in national boundaries. Everywhere this flint implement was shaped the same. only now its tempo has become vastly accelerated. without simultaneously presenting some worthy anti- dote. in cycles of culture. 141 . Every guilty. more ancient than West- ern man feels himself somehow When I recently had to write a short foreword for a Japanese edition of Space. as though the wide-flung continents were but neigh- boring villages. Western man has committed acts. Since the beginning of his all-powerful urge for conquest at the time of the Renaissance. upon which of Western civilization has been grounded. Never again has a single culture spread universally over the whole earth nor lasted for such an unimaginably long period. his interference with the way of life of other civilizations some way my whether this has been interference with those natural rhythms in the lives of primitive peoples. it is passing round the whole world. But. Again today. is insufficient. against primitive peoples and in the face of cultures far his own. and The way of life that is now in formation is the product of Western man. and its speed excessive. or whether it has been an injection of rational Western mentality into the oldest existing civilizations. even while writing this. Experience is slowly showing us that the rationalist and ex- the latest phase clusively materialist attitude. become aware of the harm he has inflicted by very slowly.

one could only get Coca-Cola. All these are straws that indicate the direction of a tremendous danger. In Bagdad. This structure and was true for the . in its world-conquering mission has ousted ancient. almost legendary customs. the civilization that is now in the making draws closer to the mental outlook that is shared in the West are by primitive man and Eastern man. again becoming conscious of something that they never forgot: that continuity of human experience always exists alongside and in contrast to our day-to-day existence." This may be enough to indicate that the image of this emerging civilization.Now that we no longer adhere to a creed of production for production's sake. Japan is today torn between two heterogeneous ways of life: the codes of conduct evolved through a thousand years of isolated development. dangerous urge to mimic drags both the primitive and We A the ancient civilizations helplessly toward a low level of achievement. Even here. In many African cities is the most prized personal possession. the hallmark of Americanism. the city of a Thousand and One Nights. In Syria a Swiss photographer had his camera confiscated because he took pictures of camels instead of their "progressive" trucks. one shop after another sells electric gadgets and parts for motor bicycles. In a bicycle the village of Babylon we wanted to have a cup of coffee. this soft drink. Just at the moment when we ourselves are ready to set these things in their proper proportion in relation to our lives. they have become the heart's desire of the "technically less developed countries. especially our particular interest the form of contemporary architecture cannot be described by so drained and bloodless a term as an "International style. It was unobtainable." What is its the new regionalism? its Every period has had own emotional own 142 particular attitude of mind. and the flooding power of mechanization.

the concept of time has been incorporated. Time and Architecture I tried to show how the same spirit emerged in several different countries. it is The all-embracing factor true for us today. Instead of the outgoing "pyramid of vision" emanating from the eye. as their common denominator. pear It has been stated over and over again indeed. Presentart. and period. 143 . This space-time conception embraces all artistic manifestations. It is true for each insofar as our subject is concerned is the Space Conception of each period. or in what country they originate. every urban design. has become the constituent element of our new representation. Furthermore there is no doubt that the use of the plane as a means of expression was evolved from cubism between 1910 and 1914. with the concept of space. For almost half a millennium this aspect dominated the composition of day every picture. It seems and this cannot be too often repeated that all creative efforts in contemporary art have. or whether he is creating in the spirit of the space consciousness of today. every building. I have said it myself that the plane surface. and is becoming ever more dominant. separable forms which have been developed.Renaissance. this new conception of space. is one of the constituent elements of our period. a painting by Mondrian. This is true no how different the movements themselves may apfrom one another. architecture. which earlier had matter lacked any emotional content. One can tell. and city planning have as a basis a space conception that was developed by the painters between 1910 and 1914. by presenting a visual comparison of a collage by Braque. On two facing pages of Space. through observation of any project (irrespective of "modernistic" details) . The space conception of the Renaissance linear perspectiveradiated out from a single point of vision. whether its author is still spiritually within the space conception of the Renaissance. an architectural study by Malevitdi. which. as Leon Battista Alberti named it at the start of the Early Renaissance in Italy: instead of this rigid and static viewpoint. and not the individual.

Art magazines have recently been stressing that the right angle and primary colors used with black. J. The right angle. Piet Mondrian (who called his a similar standpoint. white and gray. between Doesburg. often in dissension with one another. in work "neowas indeed " undeniable intellectual strength. 144 . and Rietveld. All share the new space conception. as for example the Futurists did." This factual analysis is perfectly correct as far as it goes. and to a certain extent the primary colors are by-products and not essential features of the modern conception. disposed in an asymmetrical arrangement were the basic elements of "de Stijl. J. was sometimes a certain amount of collaboration There as at one time between Doesburg and Oud. but it in some way with the region in which he Time and Architecture. Oud (whose early accomplishments will always form part of the history of architecture) is typical of these individualists. they remained individualists. which "de Stijl" shared in common with the whole contemporary movement. 436-437. on the whole. but it does not touch the reason behind the use of these simple elements the essential heart of the matter. the young van Eesteren. third edition. pp. Giedion. and 6 Gropius' Bauhaus.a country house by van Doesburg and van Eesteren. But. 6 movements. P. "De Stijl" consisted of various individualists working in different places. but there are a number of dif- ferent each connects operates. I met him for the first time in 1926 he even then When his emphasized "I was never a member of 'de Stijl/ own way. and. the vertical. This was the introduction of the plane as a constituent element to express the new antiRenaissance space conception. It plasticism") expressed this free cooperation of just strong individualists. that gave the Dutch movement its And. in the twenties. It is well known that the "de Stijl" people around van Doesburg never organized themselves into a formal group. All contemporary architecture and painting is permeated with the spirit of our period. Space.

sometimes they will be basically different. but they are not. may serve to make this point clear. their abstract forms (Mondrian called them "neutral forms") seem very far removed from any specific regional influence. 22) or at one of van Doesburg's architectural schemes. First. from out of the innumerable possibilities of each region. When look at a painting by Mondrian (fig. the new emotional expression. one from Holland. Two examples. the other from France. our attitude toward our environment the region or country in which our structures are rising also changes. we are able to discern that certain regional habits and regional traditions lay concealed within the germinal nuclei of the various contemporary movements. They seem so. I was we 145 . he must make a careful one might almost say a reverentstudy of the way of life (the climate of living) of the place and the people for whom he is going to build. Holland. As the outlook changes. But. that the builder is giving to the habitat of man. Now that we are separated by several decades from the birth period of the early twenties. At the Congress of Art Critics in Amsterdam in 1951. or help to own specific emotional needs. Sometimes the new buildings will conform to a certain extent.This does not strive to mean that the modem architect should produce an external appearance in conformity with traditional buildings. for which the "de Stijl" exhibition was first assembled. This difference may be due to two reasons: sometimes it will be because of new production methods and the use of new materials. This new regionalism has as its motivating force a respect for individuality and a desire to satisfy the emotional and material needs of each area. more importantly. each period selects just those express. sometimes. before making any plans. There is one other thing that the modern architect has learnt: that first and foremost. it will be caused by the new aesthetic. Contemporary architecture and painting are embraced by a pervading mentality the spirit of this period. its which correspond with.

no other people laid such stress on the plane surfaces of interior walls. sprang to his feet and sharply protested when I tried to show the inner ties that exist between Dutch tradition and these so-called "neutral forms": how. It was a radi- The house was shown somehow be made imposition of horizontal cal departure from the usual structural massivity. is one of the most elucidating achievements of "de Stijl" preted as though I (fig. or of the careful organization of the position of doors and windows (Pieter de Hooch). In the seventeenth century the great age of Dutch paintingand perhaps even later. in fact. in this "x-ray" drawing as a superand vertical planes that could transparent or translucent. framing it and extracting from it innumerable details. It is not mere chance that neither the Russians. Rietveld. made such use of the plane surface. these forms are rooted in the Dutch region and in the Dutch mentality. and yellow tulips. Ever 146 . 24). The plane surface. for reasons which do not need to be reiterated. France's contribution comes from another source. Certainly I would never wish this inter- were claiming Mondrian's paintings to be reproductions of tulip fields! But I do maintain that the organized plane surface is in no other country so prevalent as here. is a constituent element of contemporary art. This was made evident in two plans of Mies van der Rohe built. 1922-23. white. and it seems to me that van Doesburg and van Eesteren's simple drawings of the transparent interior of one of their projected houses. Similarly one can note today the careful manner in which the Dutch gardener lays out his fields of red. in the region of the polders. which were never show how he had grasped the intentions of the They Dutchmen and developed them further. Today there can be no doubt that this simple model was of tre- mendous assistance in clearing the minds of contemporaries in other countries. nor the French. for country houses. who was in the audience. nor the Germans.asked to speak on this movement.

This is no international phantom that is appearing every- where today. have only to recall the Halle des Machines or the Eiffel Tower of 1889 and here it is interesting to note that the painter (fig. But one thing more: House 1915 with has not been necessary for the architect to be a native of the country in which he is working in order to be able to it express its specific conditions.universal architectural conception. Ferret soon followed with his Paris houses. France has shown a great facility and a great eagerness to experiment with new forms of structure. Delaunay (a representative of the so-called "orphic cubism") was first inspired by Gothic churches and later by the structure of the Eiffel Tower whose poetic content was first revealed by him (fig. 19).since her daring experiments in Gothic cathedrals. Already around 1900 Tony Gamier. Even so. used the new construction methods of ferroconcrete in his Cit6 Industrielle for all kinds of buildings. It is evident that the interior of a seventeenthcentury house is quite different from a picture by Mondrian and also quite different from contemporary Dutch interiors. and that Gothic cross-rib vaulting is quite different from a concrete construction by Freysinnet. We all know how Frank Lloyd Wright's Imperial Hotel in Tokyo (1916) has withstood earthquakes better than Japanese structures. The reason is that the modern approach encompasses both cosmic and terrestrial considerations. vealing These are but two examples of regional contributions to a. 20) and by the poet Guillaume Apol- We linaire. garages. theaters. It deals with eternal facts. France's early and extensive use of ferroconcrete as a means of architectural conception is but one more link in the same chain. a current flows through them that binds them together in time and 147 . 25) is as reas van Doesburg's sketch. in his Prix de Rome project. and one of Le Corbusier's first sketches of the ferroconcrete skeleton construction for the Domino its intersecting planes (fig.

suddenly. This new regionalism meets its greatest problem in the so-called "technically underdeveloped areas/' Innumerable new city plans are in the making. which cannot meet the emotional or the material needs of the particular region. for India or for South America whether it is for a house. have practically nothing in common. the new capital of Punjab. houses. 34) and a weekend house built for the In form these two tropical conditions of Brazil (fig. India. are having erected for them. great masses of their populations. un- We . but sometimes they indicate a positive way forward. I would like to give a name to the method of approach employed by the best contemporary architects when they have to solve a specific regional problem such as a building for the tropics or for the West Coast. 33). It has been mentioned already that the aspect of the new structures may be very different from the traditional appearance of the buildings of a certain region. There is also a great apparent difference between a wide-open redwood and ferroconcrete house built in the kindly homogeneous climate of California (fig. Formalistic analysis will not help us here. built by Richard S. who up till now have been living in shacks made up from old packing cases or flattened gasoline cans. Neutra and Oscar Niemeyer. This has been neglected for far too long. a government center or a problem in urbanism. Yet these dwellings must be dwellings related to the basic customs of their inhabitants. Sometimes these are made without insight. Now. and not be facile copies of European or American rental houses. A few are in the far north (Canada) but most are in tropical countries. This leads to an exceedingly difficult problem of the greatest urgency: the urban pattern in tropical and subtropical countries. can only refer here to a very few examples: the work done in Chandigarh. yet both are imbued with the same contemporary spirit. This name is the New Regional Approach.from which the forms of our period have been drawn.

above all in the recent work of can now Frank Lloyd Wright (especially since 1940). important projects on the Gold Coast of Africa also carried out by the last two.der the guidance of Le Corbusier. Yet we cannot leave unnoticed a certain symptom which has been appearing in architecture. Andr6 Studer. The regional approach that satisfies both cosmic and ter- restrial conditions that is symptom a developing trend. under Michel Ecochard. In this case the problem was the erection of several thousand dwellings very rapidly and very cheaply and employing only the simplest techniques. follow the exciting path which the human mind had to We travel before man came to standardize (if we may call it 149 . Many of the problems of contemporary painting can also be discerned in the earliest beginnings of art. but there is another emerging. to create a new solution for the many-celled block of dwellings (fig. Each dwelling has two bedrooms that open onto a patio living room surrounded by a six-foot wall that insures privacy for the family. instead a modern version of the lattice-like openings common around the Caribbean has been employed. and later Georges Woods. and Jane Drew. Pierre Jeanneret. The use of the patio as the central motif has also been employed by the Candilis and S. Great care is taken to see that every corner of the dwelling is at some time penetrated by the bacteria-destroying rays of the sun. No glass is used. Cuba) initiated by Jose Luis Sert and Paul Lester Wiener. Colombia. Each dwelling has two bed- rooms and a patio. concrete walk-up apartments have been built for a very poor population. it is not so intimately related to man's direct projection of what flows in the subconscious mind. Architecture is different from painting. Maxwell Fiy. young Swiss architect. 43). living room wide open to a private enclosed In Morocco. and giving evidence of the manyis sided face of contemporary architecture. and successful ex- periments in Latin America (Peru. Figures 41 and 42 show some row houses built in Cuba for the better-paid workers. Venezuela.

is a question that does not permit logical discussion. or in What interests us at the moment is the symptom that. . Suffice to say that. But Frank Lloyd Wright follows exclusively the line of his artistic vision. Today this is attempting a reappearance. Whether we can feel at ease in a Cretan oval house of about 1500 B. maybe adapted to a particular site. from the standpoint of urban design. the round house is undoubtedly bad. 36). together with the desire to use the means of expression at our disposal to give form to the requirements of the soil and the climate. are all born to this rectangular house and are We it that it seems it could never have been otherwise. Yet it is important to note that an artist like Frank Lloyd Wright is plunging deeply into problems that concerned the human spirit during the period when mankind was contemplating the effects of transition from the life of a nomadic herdsman to that of a settled so accustomed to live with agriculturalist. 37) with its remarkable similarity to this Minoan farmhouse. sometimes oval. but the curvilinear house sometimes round. or close grouping in an architectural composition. At the very beginning of architecture the paramount type was not the square house.this) upon the rectangular house with its square or rectangular rooms. such as the mast houses of Buckminster Fuller (the shape dictated by his means of construction) and other houses which are built around a central mechanical core. maybe adapted to the particular man who is to inhabit the house. with its curved outer walls and irregular three-sided or four-sided rooms (fig. Such examples. sometimes freely curving. Each of us carries in his mind the results of five thousand years of tradition: a room is a space bounded by four rectangular planes. Sometimes the round form is dictated by purely mechanistic reasons. which are not fully thought through. do not concern us here. there comes also a desire to free ourselves from 150 Frank Lloyd Wright's circular house (fig.C. maybe under the compulsion of expressing that which slumbers in himself.

but it seems a duty not to ignore it.the tyranny of the right angle and to search for a greater interior flexibility. It is not my intention to discuss the pros and cons of this kind of contemporary architecture. . What we need more today than anything else is imagination.


Part 6 ON THE DEMAND FOR IMAGINATION Social Imagination Spatial Imagination .

. after he had written and is ruled by imagination. I do not simply mean to convey the common notion implied by that much abused word. .. 236. 8 William Shakespeare. A Midsummer-Night's Dream.. creates and upholds his universe. that all Queen of the Facul- creation. saying that. it is proper that 1 it should govern it.8 The Minor of Art. and which. which is a much higher function. imagination bodies forth of things The forms 1 Charles Baudelaire. Act V. mysterious . 2 what Every period capable of giving concrete expression to existed unconsciously in the minds of its people through the means of its architecture has had to possess a creative imagination. he had looted through Edward Young's "Night Thoughts" written in 1741. unknown. even in a religious sense). lectual concepts. in as much as man is made in the likeness of God." Baudelaire returns to this subject. scene 154 . As it has created the world (so much can be said. . entitled "The Governance of the Imagination. . creates a In the following chapter of this report on the Salon of 1859. p. is Imagination. pp. which he then quoted for (as he said) his justification: that the world was created by By imagination. in A Midsummer-Night's Dream. it gins one cannot find save in the It decomposes new world .. bears a distant relation to that sublime power by which the Creator projects. i. which is only fancy. 2 Ibid. 232-233.Marginalia How ties! . Imagination is the power to fashion new artistic or intel- By imagination an image can be created of something that has never till then existed. and with the raw materials accumulated and disposed in accordance with rules whose orifurthest depths of the soul. and found the following passage. but the constructive imagination. Thus. I think.

is Whether the root of eveiy creative thought or creative a building has an emotional impact or re- mains mere dead material depends entirely on whether or not it is imbued with imagination. However. up in- There is today. feast days and festivals are not need crystallization points for our everyday life. as well as in the interest and pleasure with which the general public again cooperates in the celebration of ageold customs.Imagination feeling. when science and industry constantly pile Some up a perturbing mound of new materials. They can be observed signs in a number of spontaneous outbursts. "The Humanization which seem of Urban certain positive signs to indicate that man in truth not with his position as a passive spectator. We This latent demand for a more developed social life is . Nowadays the immense apparatus of the building industry stands between the architect and architecture. Similar are emerging all over the world. Is it possible in another reason for the scarcity of imagination our Western civilization to build a bridge between a man's personal life and the life of the community? Does the man in the street want to shift from his passive role as a mere onlooker participant in social life? and become an Life/' lists is active Part 5. but perhaps never so keenly as in our own. It is difficult for the architect to use this complicated instrument of production. of these are seductive but dangerous to employ. others imagination that they call for may give birth to "things un- known." The longer as contact between the builder and the building is no immediate as it was in the period of brick. Imagination has been necessary in eveiy period. enough. and wood. in which the onlooker suddenly has become transformed into an active parsatisfied ticipant. and the building industry often sets dependent standards of its own. stone.

provide such points of crystallization for the lapse social life of the people. Imagination? Well imagination is it . But we have to be more specific.breaking through in in many countries and is made manifest after a long projects which. in many parts of Africa. as well as in several recent European rebuilding projects. 156 . in some of the out-of-town shopcenters that are springing up everywhere in the United ping States). . All give evidence of the newly realized need to provide some space where long inhabitants can take place. in Japan. What kind of imagination? Or. in India. what kind of that In asking this. . This self-healing process can be seen new plans and both North and operating in many countries: in America. South. perhaps better. These are: Social urgently need today? are led to discuss two kinds of imagina- we most Imagination and Spatial Imagination. in others there is the ambitious founding of new towns (such as Chandigarh in India). In some countries purely commercial undertakings are providing the opportunity (for example. we tion in architecture. neglected contacts between the a new social imagination can In all these plans and projects be sensed. once again of time. which are both rather rare today.

in * Louis H. For this. "I assume that other men than architects definition of We may be and are products and agencies and interpret and the broadest sense. Hence the true function of the architect is to initiate such buildings as shall correspond 4 to the red needs of the people. and Other Writings (New York. in the Baroque period. Sullivan. He is an architect and his "true function" is "to interpret and to initiate" "Of course. all are such under the terms and conditions of modern civilization. This means he has to take upon himself great responsibilities and that he must have an instinct for the exist shaping of unformed future needs. can understand today the truth of Louis Sullivan's an architect in one of the most marvelous books ever to come from the pen of an architect: Kindergarten Chats. Here he describes how the architect is not a surveyor. above all. chairmen of boards. an engineer. 157 . the architect had only to give form to the programs of a clearly structured society. Today's architect which must give shape to vague tendencies only half-consciously in the minds of the general public. adminit is istrators. 139. The architect has to have this social imagination because among those who should possess it the politicians.1956 SOCIAL IMAGINATION The creative architect and the creative planner of today both need to possess a strong social imagination because their tasks are far more complicated than they were in former periods." initiate: in fact. For instance. he has to have the rare gift of a peculiar sensitivity that I call Social Imagination. But not one of these is expected to interpret the wants of the people with a view to initiate buildings. and so on its usually con- spicuous by absence. p. 1955). nor a builder." he says. Kindergarten Chats.

then we inevitably arrive at the situation we see all too often Ren6 Maunier.Most schemes of this nature have remained in But a few examples have been executed There are not many ing to the future. Qrigne de la Fonction ficonomique de la Ville. Contemporary artists do not wait to give expression to the symbols that grow within them until these can be given 5 mique. If first place is given to questions of financial remuneration and if no more of the human factor enters into the picture than can be enforced by building codes. recog- nized that the essential nature of a city lies in its complexity. but they stand from Finland to South America like outpost radar stations call- Contact between the individual and the community Town planning and democracy have a common basis: the establishment of an equilibrium between individual freedom and collective responsibility. The city 5 comme un must be recognized comme un fait social and not simple phtnomene g&ographique on econo- today. in all the world. the level of a civilization depends on how far a chaotic. Orfgfne de la Fonction Economique de la Vitte (Paris. approach is always given pride of place. He saw that the city was not simply an economic or geographic phenomenon but. In other words. A cancerous growth spreads through and destroys both inner and outer structure of the city. This is an ever-fluctuating problem that can never be solved once and for all. and the life of the individual becomes atomized. in a forgotten booklet. which social imagination has been given three-dimensional expression. 1907)- 158 . above all. incoherent mass of humanity can be transformed into an integrated and creative community. This requires that the human A French sociologist. Ren6 Maunier. on paper. a social complex. It all depends on how far intentions can be implemented.

in another direcclear that we are in an ever-developing process of humanization. by the rise of a new religious force. there universal agreement as to the kind of operation that the present city structure must undergo to recover those values is that have been lost to our period: the human scale. It is ever clearer that.meaning by changes in our conception of the rights of the state. moral responsibility of awakening in man a realization of needs and aspirations which are slumbering within him. The urbanist has the with them. are coming into being that express this point of view types and that imply a new social implementation of the human We habitat. the rights of the individual. but yet. How can one overcome the isolation of the individual. the conditions under which he is now living. That this is possible is evident from developments over the last ten years. Whichever gains the upper hand will determine the destiny of our civilization. within the city. Their starting point is the man of today. These two contradictory trends persist simultaneously. the most primitive security of movement. induced to a large extent by the chaotic 159 . situation seems in The world tion. urbanist. and the terms he is obliged to come to Then from their inner vision they attempt to evolve a form which reinterprets those eternal laws which human nature is bound to follow. Nor do the creative urbanists wait to form their plans until conditions are ripe to realize them. or by a new political order. is required to provide an answer to the question: What form The should the contemporary city take in order to restore the distorted equilibrium between individual freedom and collective responsibility? His starting point must be the diversified residential unit: in other words the housing group that caters for households of differing social structure and have seen that new dwelling differing circumstances. it is one direction to look to- ward a time of utter destruction. despite differences in detail. who inevitably stands for humanization.

in the following decade. to realize in how short a time uncertain gropings have been transformed into almost universal acceptance of the form the new city must take. and the vocabulary of the new city structure . This fell outside the normal purview of the layman and of many architects. It is astonishing. all of 160 . These needs cannot be met by an endless series of similater shrinking of the family circle. The starting point must be the diversified residential unit. lar cells. Nevertheless. methods of town planning during the when looking over the developments last in two decades.How can one stimulate a closer between the individual and the community? tionship structure of the city? rela- The It is diversified residential unit a long-drawn-out and difficult process. What is here in process of formation is certainly of greater importance than all before in the contemporary movement: to confront a chaotic way of life with positive action. a fairly clear picture of the future city can now be envisaged. Massive agglomerations of high-rise buildings offer no more of a solution than the endless sprawl of single family dwellings and row-houses. the period of growing children. This can provide differentiated dwellings for our ever more complicated social structure: dwellings that take account of the existence of single men and women and that allow for the normal changes of family life the young married couple. but also those of young people J and Jilt adults. Right from the start the social needs of the different age groups must be taken into consideration not merely the requirements of small children. We shall limit ourselves here to five examples. O JL JL The vocabulary of contemporary architecture was formulated between 1920 and 1930. whether arranged horizontally or vertically. the and the period of old age.

Carlo alle Quattro Fon55. The hollowing out of space is in this photograph bv Kidcler Smith.SPATIAL IMAGINATION Dome of S. . 1634-1641. (1599-1667): most effectively portrayed tane. Francesco Borrommi. Rome.

The reason for the interlacing binding arches is to evoke an impression of spatial infinity.Rome. One of the most beautiful domes of Imperial Rome. . 57. 1668-1687. Guarino : Guarini (162 4- 1683 ) View of the dome of San Lorenzo. Turin. when the vaulting problem was first solved on grand majestic seale.


61. It remains as evidence of Frank Lloyd Wright's eternal flexibility as a molder of space. sculptors envisioned the new vaulting problems. was never actually built. California. Naum 62. This club house of glass and concrete. whose scallopshell form floats above the trees. Gabo (born 1890}: Project for the Palace of the Soviets. Hollywood Hills. . 1947. 3931. Before the engineers. Frank Lloyd Wright: Club house for Huntington Hartford.

. Its balance within always contained itself. 1955. is pro- House at Raleigh.6*. N. a vi'dcs new ^ starting point for spatial imagination. The space frame Eduardo F.C. Catdano: Hyperparaboloid space frame. Catalano: conconstructed of wood or as a has the same significance whether oltid crete shell. The hvperbolic panb64 Eduardo F.

These hollow protruding arches are triangular in section. . the architect. Hugh Stubbins Associates. and the engineer. between the sculptor. The development of the structure of a laboration. 1957 (in construction). The warped planes of the sagging line of the roof is formed from straight wire cables strained between the arches. 1937. 66. The)' spring from the height of the platform to 65 feet and span 260 feet. Fred Severud.65. space frame demands close colfrom the earliest stages. engineer: Conference Hall for International Building Exhibition. Side view from west: two bowed arches support the hanging roof. Naum Gabo: Spherical construction.

Joern Utzon. Sydney. Australia. There is a conscious dichotomy in this building between its ground-connected heavy base and its shell vaults light as the velum which spanned the amphitheaters of antiquity. Joern Utzon: Prize-winning design -for Opera House. Plan of Sydney Opera House. .67. 1957. 68.

Le Corbusier: Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps.on here. leaving a narrow sliver of light between. The roof docs not press down upon the walls but floats above them. At the opening shown c. the Archbishop of Bcsanwas the first high prelate of the Church to proclaim the suitability of modern architecture for ecclesiastical buildings. 70. Le Corbusier: Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps. . 19511955.6g. The interior of the church during service. 1951-1955.

32). The area is perforated by volumes of widely different shape that continually fill in or hollow out the space like contemporary sculptures. on the opposite bank glimpse terall are 161 . hotels. museum. The fourth is a commercial and community center within a metropolis: Boston Back Bay Center. Theater. The program demanded a social center for this city of 20. administration buildings. and the distant old cathedral and. The first example poses the problem of a gathering place for the people of a city destroyed in the war: Saint-Die. when living in a high-rise building. India. Civic center for a bombed city: Saint-Die. The second tries to solve the question of how man. The different buildings are designed in such a way that each emanates its own spatial placed atmosphere and yet bears a close relationship to the whole core. cinema. and here theater. shops. Rotterdam. administration cen- the eye can even freely placed in space. can recapture a balance between the spheres of private life and community life. the government center for the newly founded capital city of Chandigarh. This is the Uniti d'Habitation at Marseilles. In a masterly way it displays a new kind of spatial relationship.000 to 30. The third shows the spatial and social organization of a new residential area within a metropolis: Alexander Polder.which show distinct ways of giving form to architecture in the service of the community. and restaurants are all freely disposed and yet develop a wonderful and play of forces. 1945 The civic center for the bombed city of Saint-Die in the Vosges seems to express all that we mean today by the Core of the City (fig. Finally. museum.000 inhabitants. People walking around or sitting in the caf6 that forms a corner of the square would have a continuously changing spatial experience.

green-girdled factories. But Saint-Di6 remained a paper plan. Instead they accepted a scheme of horrible banality. upon their desire to see or not to see a scheme come into being. The in the Gothic period relationship was the relationship of formally closed volumes. created by solids and voids. Today we are moving toward a more dynamic conception of space. and camposanto give an exciting display of volumes in space. campanile. incited by the academicians. This is but one more example of the tragic gulf that still exists between creative solutions and the powers of judgment of politicians and administrators. baptistry. such as is. including those of the extreme left. As a part of life it is more dependent than any other form of art upon the will of the public. the cathedral. would have presented a crystallization life which could have equaled the Greek meeting place. which shows in terms of a city plan what in our time until now had only been expressed in the ground plans of individual dwelling houses. Architecture cannot be confined to those buildings which have been erected. Architecture is a part of life and architecture is a part of art. were violently against Le Corbusier's project. However. relates it to the Greek agora. this core does not lose contact with normal life: it is from the caf6 in the southwest corner that the best view can be obtained of the life and the buildings of the center. Us usines vertes as Le Corbusier calls them. It is a long stride from the enclosed Renaissance piazza to the freedom of this planning. common among cities that have suffered war destruction. for the first time in our of community period. The whole area of the core of Saint-Di6 is reserved exclusively for pedestrians and this. but not only this. Saint-Dte. The modest unrealized scheme of Saint- Die develops a different spatial conception. All political parties of this small French city. Medieval Italy knew how to place volumes in space: in the Piazza del Duomo in Pisa.of the river. unfortunately. 162 .

in the time of the Parthenon. In the Unit6 d'Habitation the housing problem loses much of its special not meaning today. the Pantheon. and here lies the heart of its boldness in our contemporary scene. If. whose The accommodation We inhabitants are famous for their independence and indifor viduality. the taste of those who had power to order the as it erection of public buildings had been as weak and debased is today. does not merely pile up dwelling units on top of one another (fig.In architecture the standard of values of the client is as important as the standards of the builder. 1946-1952 on the Boulevard Michelet at the outskirts of Marseilles. They are daring experiments. Peter's. Chartres. 1946-1952 One of the few instances in which social imagination has been given three dimensional expression is the Unite d'Habitation (the residential unit). And this is a good augury the hope that now. The high-rise apartment house and social imaginations Unite d'Habitation. Marseilles. the French Minister of Reconstruction. everywhere in the world. ment could succeed in the southern city of Marseilles. But it did succeed. there is a latent desire to break away from the isolation and loneliness of the dwelling cell in a great metropolis. In architecture the cultural level of the client is as important as that of the designer. or St. The boldness of this experiment does some 1600 people under one roof just consist in housing . who defended it to the very last against violent attacks. The people of Marseilles call it simply "Maison Le Corbusier. The Unit6 d'Habitation." That this daring building could be successfully completed during five difficult postwar years is due to the courage of ClaudiusPetit. 44). every one of them. none of them would ever have been built. boldness of this experiment lies in bringing together for the needs of the individual and of the all felt doubtful whether such an expericommunity.

hairdresser and beauty shop. These. its The boldness of the Unit6 d'Habitation consists in close linkage of social opportunities with the daily life of its inhabitants. The most interesting experiment in this residential unit was to take the shopping center from the ground and from the street and to place it on the central floor of the building itself. such as the so-called larger apartment houses London Terrace are stacked one in Manhattan in which 4000 apartments upon the other. instead of renting them as is the usual custom. vegetables. The other part of the roof terrace 24 x 165 meters is designed for social activities of the adults. and one can understand that the shopkeepers hesitate to take the risk. The shopping street includes shops for groceries. and. Unfortunately. There is an area for gymnastics. who are encouraged to decorate the walls with their own murals (fig. partly open and partly covered. can be immediately identified by its two-story louvers. a large slab which acts as a protection against the strong north . this central shopping street. laundry and cleaning services. From outside. together with the vertical rows of square staircase windows in the middle of the block. and hotel rooms for the guests of the inhabitants. varying from one room up to dwellings for "families with eight children. la rue marchande. and some charming installations for the fifty children. its shallow 47). roof terrace with A ramp leads directly to the room raised on pilotis. 45). the French government. its rest children." Numerically there are far in America. This has greatly hindered the bringing of this internal shopping street to active life. demands that the shopkeepers purchase the stores outright. vitalize and give scale to the whole front. cafeteria. owner of the building. newspaper stand. meat and fish. On the seventeenth floor is placed the nursery for one hundred and pool (fig. post office.or even in providing twenty-three different types for its 337 apartments. at the north end of the building.

and also as a background for open-air theatrical performances. 46) play together marvelously in the sunshine. said: "Any architect who doesn't find this building beautiful it had better lay down his pencil. as Le Corbusier stated in his opening address. In the hands of Le Corbusier the amorphous material of crude concrete. the mistral. yet it has never been used so consistently to give ferroconcrete the properties of "a natural material of the same rank as stone. bton brut. always generous in recognizing talent in others. as is are not left unused." In this building depends on the individual inhabitant number in a huge buildnormal fate of the great city dwelleror whether ingthe he will spend part of his free time together with others. He does not smooth away the marks and hazards of the form work and the defects of bad craftsmanship which. The variously formed volumes and walls and the movement of the levels on this terrace (fig. vibrant throng. It was on this evening that Walter Gropius. 1953. when celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary on this About four hundred people were able to move about freely and uncrowded on the various levels. "shout at one from all parts of the structure!" The use of the natural imboards to vitalize a concrete surface is far prints of wooden from new. It has now been shown that if the inhabitant is given the poswhether he prefers to remain a lost sibility of choice. This at least was our experience on the night of July 26. wood. and yet it is perhaps under the light of the full moon that they reveal their secrets. almost an its rigidity and became where every particle throbbed with life. the Swiss bridge-builder.wind. here the case. organic skeleton. assumes the features of natural rock." Le Corbusier continues: "It seems to be concrete really possible to consider 165 . the social opportunities reinforced concrete lost In the hands of Robert Maillart. The architecture came to its full strength when animated by this CIAM roof terrace. or terra cotta.

Bright colors are also used in the artificially lit rues interieures and. so that the different floors are now called the green. yellow. or yellow "streets. 191. He paints the side walls of the balconies red. In this way they are made to gleam like vivid colors through gauze. one color predominates. On the roof the rough surfaces of the ventilator shafts and elevator tower. This can be permitted in two. no matter at what height Corbusier. upon which every change of the strong Mediterranean light plays with a peculiar intensity. like sardine boxes. each reality two-story a villa 6 with a hanging garden. One thing that must be avoided is the undifferentiated Is A few words are necessary on this stacking of dwelling a reconstructed stone worthy of being exposed in its natural state. Since 1922. He stated that each dwelling is "in a house. blue." immeubles villas. on each floor. 1953). as the problem of the high-rise dwelling type will remain acute as long as our civilization contains dense concentrations of population.or three-story walk-up apartments. Strong. the painter. it Le 166 ." 6 The rough concrete surface is employed wherever it can strengthen plastic intentions." where the colors glow from the light source over each front door. but not in high-rise buildings. one above the other. p. he continued to think over the possibilities of the two-story villa which was realized in the Unit< d'Habitation. has refrained from using any colors di- rectly upon the fagade. pure colors are used in this building. red. when Le Corbusier presented the plans for his "villa apartments. green." One steps from the elevator or the naturally lit staircase into one of these "streets. the high-rise apartment house developing a type form? point. in the fall Salon. Oeuvre complete. but not the front. but Le Corbusier. help to transform these utilitarian objects into exciting plastic elements. 1946-1952 (Zurich. as in the herringbone pattern on the huge supporting pilotis which was left behind by the narrow boards that had been used for their wooden form work.

At the same time. came into being on German soil. and contact with nature than in the finest street of four. they were temporarily pushed aside.or five-story buildings was demonstrated in vain by Walter Gropius in the second half of privacy the twenties. Each has a loggia. consisted in the conviction that. Work and Teamwork (New York. 79. These Among leading spirits. interspersed with stretches of sunlit green. light. pp. then as now. twenty feet from the ground. Paris. 1924). The first realization of this building type was in Rotterdam in 1933. Le Corbusier designed apartments on two floors. for this secured both enhanced and the possibility of greater spaciousness. the individual dwelling should have ample free space in the open air. The basic conception. 1954). and on the other hand of the horrors of 7 Le Corbusier. even at the expense of the size of the rooms. p. and of which he showed a single type specimen on the outskirts of the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris. from the first. That the inhabitants of a well-planned high-rise building can have more freedom. as they have become called from their cramped ground plan. which makes the house like a gigantic sponge that soaks up the light: the house breathes.8 the concepts that were first given had long been discussed. but through the rise of the Swedish point houses. This was one of the reasons why. 206- 212. in the Pavilion de FEsprit Nouveau. even in a high-rise building. s Wdter See S. "The Development of the Slab Apartment Block/* Grofrius. Giedion. 167 . birth in the Unit6 d'Habitation point houses. 1925. remind one on the one hand of the towers of San Gimignano.. the inhabitants must not lose the feeling of complete privacy within their apartment. which appealed greatly to the laymen and to romantics among the architects. None of his slab apartment blocks. the Unite d'Habitation embodies the idea of the villa apartments that Le Corbusier first conceived in 1922." 7 As a dwelling type. Vers ime Architecture (znd ed.

To the west lie the blue waters of the Mediterranean: while directly below. relationship One consists in the greatest possible merging with nature: Indian rock temples and the simple log hut and. the high-rise building. But the contrast of their man-made form with the grandeur of undisturbed nature sets up a tension that is highly impressive. so Le Corbusier has known how to capture it within an architectural frame. To the east their view embraces an arena of the limestone mountains which can be found everywhere in Provence. Moreover space conception. in our time. The forms of the Pyramids or of the Parthenon are inferior to their opposing landscapes of surrounding desert and rocky eminence. have been deliberately fitted into folds of Wall Street. The other attitude is concerned with the conscious accentuation of the contrast of an abstract man-made structure with its natural surroundings: the Pyramids. Just as Cezanne was able to seize the soul of Provence in his paintings. among other examples of our own period. Adjacent colors of the same tone range are just as delightful as the contrast of complementary colors. The same is true of the high-rise building as a human habitation when it is correctly sited in the landscape. the Parthenon. they How does the high-rise building stand in relation to the attitudes toward the landscape? There are two different of a building to nature even to the cosmos.In city planning. in regard to our present-day unusable. Both attitudes have their justification. despite their dominating position. some of the dwelling houses of Frank Lloyd Wright's middle period. It all depends on how they are handled. and. Each two-story apartment looks to both sides. they are generally do not permit of an expanded layout. the eye can rest on treetops interspersed with red-tiled Mediterranean roofs. the earth. The Unite d'Habitation has shown that the human habitation (a "human'' way of living) does not depend upon 168 .

Last but not least. is infinitely worse as a human habitation than high-rise buildings which fully express the needs for social and physical extensions of the individual le logis prolong as the French call it. in the hands of a genius.000 inhabitants. was erected at Nantes between 1953 and 1955. through ordinances and frontage limitations. is hemmed in by rental apartment houses. is 169 . A neiv residential area for a metropolis: Alexander Polder. Individual residential areas. Rotterdam. will become another by traffic lanes and bands of separated from one greenery. It will help to liberate also the mind of the architect and planner from the conception of units and expand it to housing as a simple addition of single of the the wider frame of the human habitat. to give the new settlement a different form: tects sought barrack-like apartment houses were rejected and an effort (figs. 52. CIAM Group called OPBOUW planned 53) This of Rotterdam for 30. it shows how. the Dutch project Bakema and the . will no longer retain the compact structure of the present-day city. Social Imagination can find a plastic expression. 1953 Even the metropolis.its largeness or its smallness. the great trading or administrative center. with more or less predetermined numbers of inhabitants. On on the outskirts three sides the area. on a more modest scale. which belongs to the city of RotterThe archidam. the wicked devastation that is caused by building regulation which. is for Alexander Polder prepared by B. second "complete habitat. 108 X 17 meters. con- dwelling A tains 294 dwellings of ten different types for 1400 people. compel the de- zoning struction of the countryside. To our eyes." the Maison Familide de Reze. This building. There is no doubt that the Unite d'Habitation at Marseilles will have an enormous influence in shaping the mind coming generation. A typical example of such planning J.

Eight of these residential units are foreseen. The their 170 . is The whole development The characteristics. Each residential unit contains individual houses. three high-rise slabs for 1500 people stand amid greenery. plan thus takes into account. individual gardens. each for 3500 people. vertical unit never excludes the horizontal unit.was made to return to small differentiated housing units. and the sports area. J. B. There are also a few ten-story high-rise apartments. have been carefully and successindustry. Bakema's notes: This new section of the Rotterdam is situated on an terrace (or polder) raised to the artificially built same level as the national highway. recreationbecomes ever more important. three. traffic. housing. Toward the center. row houses. Each of these blocks is placed in greenery and contains a full complement of social needs. There is also a small port that used for nautical sports. community centers. We but in development both become integrated into the structure of the landscape and the community. These are called vertical dwell- ing units. with its small canals or ditches that drain the raised areas or polders. may be illustrated by an city of abbreviation of B. These groups are called horizontal dwelling units. Their intentions J. very happily. In addition there are three unites ( habitation each for 1500 people. Recreation areas. and dwelling areas fully integrated. The open link between the spaces are so arranged that they form a connecting industrial area glass hothouses growing vegetables and flowers that are within the area and the public park. regional Bakema draws some conclusions: are approaching a period in which the integration of the four functions of the city work.and four-story apartment houses. is based upon the rectangular structure of the Dutch landscape.

the result of several the differentiated handling of horizontal and vertical elements so that simultaneously uniformity has been avoided and a closer and better integration of the different functions has been achieved. The plan for the new Boston Center (fig. and it cannot be denied that this change is largely due Mies van even clearer example Gropius. in September 1943. cannot be forgotten. So it became possible for an enterprising firm of real-estate developers to undertake the project. that the earliest designs from the new Boston Center were made by students of the Harvard School of Architecture. a more elaborate comproject plex and is more urbanistically varied. area was consciously created for the sole use of the pedestrian. twenty years earlier is however. years of research is What seems important in this study Commercial and community center Boston Back Bay Center. The strength of the spatial planning of the first coordinated group of skyscrapers the Rockefeller Center (fig. Twenty years earlier it would have been unthinkable for a leading real-estate developer to have consulted a university professor in connection with an impor- new tant building project. by comparison. 54) made use of the freight yards of the old Boston and Albany Railroad to the creative achievements of such architects as der Rohe and Walter An which have become unbearably costly to operate owing to the increasing tax rates on the property. 1953 It is for a metropolis: in the history of large enterprises that an undertaking of some seventy-five million dollars should be designed by a group of architects who were practically all university professors. The Boston 27). of this change of attitude appears in the acknowledgment by the Architectural Forum. a protected zone within which he can wan- A large 171 . This reflects a far-reaching change of the businessman's attitude toward the teacher of architecture.

172 . At the entrance to the Forum at Pompeii stand stone bollards. Its volumes lacked breathing space. In the Boston Center. dominating the scene. this center 9 Further information was a leap into the future. 103-115. to move freely within a center of collective life. such as the sooks of Cairo or Bagdad. from a socio- From logical point of view. on this project. are contained in the illustrated article "A Cavity in Boston. including the difficulties which prevented its realization. There was also a hotel. a large convention 7500 people. one of which." Architectural Forum (November 1953). a forty-story slab.der free from danger. stood transversely across the project. and here the city dweller of the West was restored something that has always continued to be enjoyed in the bazaars of Eastern cities. three-story car-parking garages were proposed beneath the ground in which 5000 autos could be stored like garments in a closet. all sides this new center was hemmed in by the dense structure of the great city. It stood as an isolated phenomenon closed in upon itself. is an exhibition pedestrian hall for hall. significance of this scheme lies in its relation to the changing structure of the city: of the great metropolis which The here with us and cannot be simply dreamed away. blocking the entry of wheeled vehicles. and. Shopping calls for a certain degree of concentration and absence of extraneous disturbance. gripped as in an iron vice. separated from these by a wide way across the traffic stream. pp. occupying a tongue of land covering some thirty acres. At last the pedestrian regains the right he had lost since antiquity. Even so. 9 The scheme included several office buildings. It is this practical aspect that gave rise to this Boston project with its comprehensive building program. the low buildings of a motel. This is clearly connected with a third principle of urban planning: the reduction in importance of the street frontage and the movement the traffic-free of the shops to their rightful positions: within pedestrian area.

Punjab. India. The same phenomenon occurred during the last century in the United Toward the middle States. Colombia. when it is of the age.away from the commonplace business approach. foreshadowing its industrial hegemony. since 1951 The founding of new towns is a sign of vitality and of an enterprising courage. takes on so many spirit This aspect of architecture has long been a feature of in the works literature. why India- through the understanding of its leader Pandit Nehrucould choose a Western architect for the new capital city of the East Punjab. Countries which have long been slumbering in their own lethargy or under oppression begin to awake and to become active participants in an evolution which is encompassing the entire world. Venezuela. when new towns suddenly sprang up in Central and Western Europe. New towns are often related to higher living standards. never more sublimely expressed than . This explains why contemporary truly different forms. New energyradiates from its former fringes: Finland. Chandigarh. In this process spirits of East and West are meeting together. the African Gold Coast. Civic center of a capital city: Chandigarh. of the twentieth century we are wit- nessing the decentralization of Western culture. Canada. imbued with the architecture. This was the case during the Gothic period. Yet there is also another reason. or to the promise of them. Brazil. The Middle East is now also going ahead with an astonishing speed. toward the satisfaction of the human needs of twentieth-century man. This meeting of East and West may explain. This is an inherent trend in contemporary architecture toward satisfying cosmic and terrestrial conditions and the habits which have developed naturally out of them. to name only some areas of the centers of a new vitality.

an architect. and Jane Drew in cooperation with an entirely Indian staff of architects and engineers. how it became a mighty monument. present. an artist. and future. A town planner. The Civic Center itself was entrusted to Le Corbusier. These five are united in one person. Neighborhood planning.000. is for a population of 150. the ancient capital of Lahore was attached to Pakistan. an eminent Indian government engineer. housing. Western calculation. and schools were. and Le Corbusier has also been responsible for the master plan of the whole city. for the first three years. in which. with the assistance of Pierre Jeanneret. who kept his roots firmly embedded in Ireland though he grappled with the cosmos and showed humanity unsevered by division into past. Maxwell Fry. When complete. The new capital city was called Chandigarh after a village on the site. and a man with the grasp of a poet are surveying a wide empty space at the foot of the Himalayas. it may be worth while to have accepted a lifetime of humiliations. Varma. On a sloping plateau at the foot of the Himalayas a superb site was discovered in 1950 through airplane reconnaissance by E. To achieve this. can follow line by line in Le Corbusier's sketch book how the vision of the new Capitol crystallized. Eastem and Western thought merged without a break. for the first time. now largely constructed. and a butterfly roof We of huge size. This is the spot where the capital of Chandi- garh is to stand. When the Punjab was divided in 1947 between Pakistan and India. A new capital became necessary for the East Punjab with its twelve and one-half million inhabitants. shell concrete vaulting. a sculptor. There is truly creative mind than to turn a nothing more thrilling for the dream into reality here on this myth-soaked soil. it will house half a million people. under the direction of Pierre Jeanneret. normally associated with locomotive sheds and station platforms. here change under our very eyes into some dream-building 174 of the East.of James Joyce. L. . The first section.

10 ing feature. 1951. The 10 The program for the Capitol (fig. which provides shelter from the tropical sun and from the monsoon rains. which was opened in the spring of 1955. 1952-1957 (Zurich. Entrance to Justice. Le Corbusier. The most fantastic of these will be the Palace of the Gover- d. designed at the same time. 50) consists of a House of Parliament.nor. pp. The huge sloping eaves stretch far out from the building. India. 1951-1955. Le Corbusier: Chandigarh. 48. Parabolic shell vaults stiffen the structure and span the wide-open entrance hall. also has a concave roof as its most outstand- A word is necessary regarding the High Court of Justice. with its roof terraces. Oeuvre complete. in shape almost like a sickle moon. 102-107. a building for the Ministries. the Palace of the Governor. . Capital of Punjab. and the High Court of Justice. the upper one concave. 51 ) contains seven courts of law surmounted by an enormous butterfly roof. High Courts of Pilgrimage Chapel of Ronchamps. This building (figs. 1957). probably designed in April 1952.

1953). But there will surfaces between them. who discovered the site of Chandigarh. L. no atomic Oeuvre complete. In this strange Palace of Justice modern techniques comply with cosmic conditions. pp. It was then an aggressive and menacing hand. This symbol is still alive in India. green lawns. E. We 11 are Le No guns to brandish. Corbusier. the Open Hand (fig. Ram hands. will be seen from everywhere and will "turn on ball bearings like a weathercock. Varma. as has happened in India with govern- What buildings erected under British rule. 176 . astonish the European eye are the great distances between the buildings. Only time will show whether these are not too grandiose. which indicates deep faith born of the surrender of the will to the Ultimate Source of Knowledge. 150humble people. single and artificial hills made of surplus material. with the country. 1946-1952 (Zurich. Now under an Eastern sky it has quieted down like the hand of Buddha.which reaches up to the full height of the building. such as the daily path of the sun. A dominant symbol. and at the marriage feast friends leave the red stamp of their hands red is the color of good luck on the white trees walls of the bridal pair. monument in form of A an enormous hand 'can be found the work of Le Corbusier. The sculptor in Le Corbusier has taken the opportunity to mold the enormous ment be no dead surface by varying levels. service without reward and much more. and also by symbolic representations of the harmonic spiral. has given the Indian response to this symbol in a letter to Le earlier in Corbusier: Bharosa. and with the habits of its people. I live in that faith and feel happy in the vision of the new city which is so safe and so secure in its creation in your in the ultimate faith We have a word. 49)." " The impress of the human hand placed upon the rock was the first artistic utterance of man. large pools.

may on our side. Ours is a philosophy of open hand. may become a source of new inspiration in our architectural and city planning. when you come here next. 177 . 12 We 12 See S. be able to show you the spiritual heights to which some of the individuals have attained. Giedion. I pray. Your philosophy of "Open Hand" will appeal to India in its entirety. What you are giving to India and what we are taking from your open hand. Maybe Chandigarh becomes the center of new to kill. Space. Time and Architecture. third edition. p. 540.

ing place tionswhether they be the nave and archiand has been solved. It is here that the fullest freedom is granted to the imagination of the architect. in all civilizations.1954. different edi- so that they can merge into a bolic oneness. evolved of the origin of the concept of the domed great frequently raised. An imagination that can dispose volumes in space in such a way that new relations develop fices. dawn of architecture. we are talking of the vaulting problem. This is the space that floats over our heads. But their sacred con- and with this their much later. ever since the notation. even stone vaults. Our own cannot be an exception. 1956 SPATIAL IMAGINATION The need for imagination implies that there exists a need for something more than the bare interpretation of functional requirements. The problem vault is major development. It is true that there have been vaults. a sym- Even greater hesitations arise when the building program demands that the architect create an interior space which transcends its purely technical and organizational requirements. new synthesis. Nothing is so difficult to find today as an imaginative handling of space a Spatial Imagination. between differing structures. lying beyond the reach of our hands. In two words. The area where the spatial imagination has always had the greatest freedom where it could unfold with the least interference has been the area that lies above normal utilifor a The need is monumental expression in art tecture one that has existed. There is no doubt that the 178 . tarian requirements. as in great halls destined to reflect general aspiraof a Cathedral or the meetfor a world organization.

. always identified with interior space. This is linked with the relation of the vault to the cosmos. 56). the conception of space was almost Since late antiquity. has been hollowed-out space. Basic forms of enclosing space were developed der G. 1944). 179 . that time on. Their forerunners have recently been thought to be the Maltese rock temples of the Neolithic period which stand half free and half hollowed out of the living rock. 1953). And the ceiling has been the area in which the imagination has had the fullest freedom to give symbolic strength to this hollowing out of space. Today it is thought that these were mortuary buildings linked to 13 In Rome. of the vaulting principle is evidenced in Hadrian's Pantheon at the beginning of the second century. Here the role of the emperor was identified with that of the crea- tor of the universe. circumscribed of architecture. the question arises of how the change was effected between the vault considered as the mother's womb and the vault as the heavenly firmament. The eternally open eye in the center of and its former covering with gold leaf point out the The complete development cupola that the universe is here symbolized. P. The greatest skill has the From major problem been devoted to its modeling. Mass. von Kaschnitz-Weinberg. Cosmic tongsftzp 14 H. and probably fertility rites of the Great Mother. The turning cupola (known only from coins ") in Nero's Golden House which depicted the movement of the stars of is except for certain oriental legends the first example a direct comparison between the vault and the cosmos. Studies on the Iconography of m the Ancient World (Cambridge. Since the time of the great Roman vaults. rather than the ma- ternal womb (fig. earlier in the East. barrel vaults and crossribbed vaults represent their first large-scale development. I/Orange. each period has solved the vaulting problem according to its own emotional needs.vaults of late antiquity domes. interior space. Die mittelmeerischen Grundlagen antikenKunst (Frankfurt.

known techniques of spansuch as the barrel vault and the cupola. together with their greater spatial freedom. late Roman times more complicated construction afforded possibilities of through lighting and perforation. favored lightness and slim dimensions. the chapel. 1668-1687. of the is dome. 59). The Arabs. Turin. 58). Guarino Guarini. A curious link leads from the domes of the Arabic world in the tenth century to our own striving for the solution of the vaulting problem. maybe because of a mobile heritage. rather than on elaborating the interior form of the dome. light-flooded area seems to hover in space. The development of the cupola received particular attention during the Byzantine period. and this without any induced artificially per- 180 . of course. gave the impression that the heavenly vault was suspended from above rather than supported from below: it had become a canopy. for the light penetrates through the curving triangles formed by the intersecting arches so that. In the vaulting of their small domes they invented reinforcing ribs. within the limitations of then All was now prepared for a transfer from solid construc- tion to light rib vaulting. though. 57. The Mihrab. this intervening period had occupied several hundred years. Perforation of the walls. The lantern of his cupola of San Lorenzo. Another ancestor of the means of spatial construction of our period is the mathematician and monk. The result is a veritable light filter. orientated toward Mecca in the mosque of C6rdoba (fig. Already in ning. shows how the Arabs developed a forerunner of the space frame construction long before the ridge ribs of the Gothic cathedrals. those binding arches which they made to spring so precisely from one support to another. Both intend to eliminate heaviness and to reduce the amount of material as much as possible. when the observer looks upward. whose placed upon the free-standing binding arches intersections form a fantastic eight- pointed star (figs. and the accent was laid on strengthening the spatial effect through the introduction of mosaics. the highest.

Today light-filters and the perforation of space. cannot be compared with the finesse of Guarini's perforated space. They need but to be grasped. Curtain walls and eggshell skinvaults have taken the place of the massive structures of former periods. principle of the mosque in Corto the widely traveled monk has been transposed into daring dimensions. Baroque period was strongly attracted to constructions defying the force of gravity and awakening the impression of spatial infinity. yet the principle of composing a dome of simple prefabricated elements which can be assembled new and fantastic way. The dome of San Lorenzo presents the case of an architectural vision its age to the utmost the reverse. Today. Industrialization and the vaulting problem of this period are inextricably interwoven. The means of just construction present the architects with the subtlest possibilities of development. 1889. Paris. have become relatively 15 consimple practical problems. Guarini's intention was to satisfy by architectonic means the Baroque feeling for Here the dobawell-known was done by painting. the situation is church with the utmost difficulty. Even in the field of engineerihg. No later architect dared to follow the precedent Guarini set in this church. Nineteenthcentury engineering found its apex in Cottancin's Hall of Machines at the International Exhibition. Construire correttamente (Milan. In San Lorenzo. There is a remarkable difference between the nineteenth. which were only achieved in the seventeenth-century means that uses the structural resources of limit. Mostly this mystery and The are used to defy gravity.and the twentieth-century approaches to the problem of wide spans. has been achieved by this twentieth-century engineer (fig. there is a tendency for ever lighter structures.spective illusions. purely architectonic infinity. Today Pier Luigi Nervi structs his perforated space frames from the simplest prefabricated elements. in a 15 Pier Luigi Nervi. 60). . 1954). Maybe his Festival Hall in Chianciano. Italy. The next step leads from Guarinfs cupola of San Lorenzo to our own time.

near Paris. the principle of the soap bubble whose molecular tension holds it in shape. in Maillart's later parabolic vault for the Cement Hall in the Swiss National Exhibition. is only two Rather further from architecture are the domes of the Zeiss Planetarium. whose space frame of wire netting was later covered by a thin skin of cement. and greater the forms of vaulting appears also in ferroconcrete structures. small prefabricated members. rope nets like a hammock. The tendency to achieve lightness. is 1929). stretched skins like a drum. "The dome was on the principle of a wickerwork construction without the use of supports. Maybe the first realization of this idea is the German Werkbund. Das hangende Dock (Berlin. It would have been impossible for the nineteenth century to build the enormous cantilevered hangers which Konrad Wachsmann has designed. principles that formerly could only be employed for the lightest of materials could be set in a space frame that at the same time absorbed both stress and strain: hanging membranes in the form of a canopy. Here in his Crystal lightest built up Bruno Taut developed a fantastic dome with the kind of concrete construction. the thin reinforced slabs can almost be bent like cardboard. 1954). 1939." 16 After this. 17 Torrochs in Spain. 16 17 Bruno Taut. . and was the forerunner of postwar laminated wood and concrete constructions. by means of its three-hinged arches. each of them forming a part of a space-truss and being themselves spatial structural elements. Die neue Baukunst An 182 (Stuttgart. Dischinger and Finsterwalder in GerPavilion. p. we are on the way to replace heavy trusses with Today. less weight. 28.which. 1914. the thickness inches. built their eggshell vaults in the twenties: in Freysflexibility in sinet's locomotive sheds at Bagneux. like Freyssinet and Maillart. insight into present possibilities given by Frei-Otto. to be found in the Exhibition of Cologne. achieved for the first time a free span of 115 meters. Great engineers.

a sculptor. to conceive two halls an auditorium for 15. as far as we can see. and the e. His competition scheme for the Palace of the Soviets in Moscow. it seems that similar lines of direction are being followed the evidence sometimes coming "The Concepts of Russian Art/' World Review (June 1942). an artist. the painter. Naum Gab6. and the sculptor.side by side developed the theoretic bases for the system. structural calculations are being given emotional expression. followed the outlook developed by the Russian "Constructivists" who led sculpture into the architectural domain as "it is the spiritual source from which the future architecture will be fed/' 18 Here Naum Gab6. and the greatest architects with talents in many have mediocre structural engineers. The SurrealErnst. 18* . 1931 (fig. one finds that even without direct collaboration between engineer and architect. One very early push came from the Russian sculptor.000 like two enormous shells 18 the same area as those that exist between the architect. Catalano: Rippling space frame construction. for we find that the greatest of the structural engineers are working with mediocre architects. Eduardo F. The blending of the finest both fields has as yet not been achieved.000 and a theater for 8. 61). difficulties lie in from most unexpected places. If one examines the present-day situation more closely. One of the most hopeful signs of our time is the way in which mathematical and ists. The question at once arises: what is going to happen from the artistic point of view? Here we return to the isolation of the artist. recognized the emotional power of models of especially Max complicated mathematical formulas and now the hyperbolic paraboloid shells of the engineer have become a starting point for this spatial imagination. which has still not been overcome. was the first.

Le Ricolais. but now it could. The structure is designed for experimental dance performances with music and changing lights. taken up from the ground and floating in space. the excellent mathematician-engineer. whose and floor mirror each other and are drawn movement. and Catalano's stadium. 1952. having the sky as its counterpart. have 184 . could be realized imceiling into continuous mediately. and other collaborators. CarGround plan and section. California.f . Perhaps it could not have been realized in 1930. Catalano the architect. Paffard Keatinge Clay: Light dome for the Carl Cherry Foundation. mel.

there were still little more than paper projects to refer to as statements of possibilities imaginative expressions of what the future might hold. In all corners of the world rise buildings that indicate the same direction. Two artists have been touched independently by the current of ideas inherent in our period. In schemes prepared by the youngest generation. Frank Lloyd Wright has produced a scheme for a club-house for Huntington Hartford. vaulting problem is certainly not the main factor in creating a community life.proposed for this project three different kinds of space frames of prefabricated parts. Berlin Conference Hdl. 1957 When the first version of this article was printed at the beginning of 1954 in the Architectural Record. an emotional and a rational apis again reflected. 62). based on a similar spatial conception. Much sooner than we had thought possible. The Gothic burned out. Since the project of the Russian Naum Gabo. the same tendency toward combining an organic and geometrical. Is this "international style"? Certainly not. International Building Exhibition. for a music festival or for theatrical performances. California (fig. such as the light dome for a California foundation by Paffard Keatinge Clay. evidence has been produced to show that our period is really on the way to solving its vaulting problem. But the molded sphere above proach The the head has always given a decisive stimulus to the places where the community has gathered for religious or political purposes. It is not that the creation of an all-embracing sphere immediately changes a chaotic crowd into an integrated commucandles are nity. but it is its foremost symbol. Almost without exception these have incorporated the 185 . but the cathedrals still remain as silent long witnesses. Hollywood Hills.

what differentiates the vaulting problem of our period from those of early times. In a certain sense the present-day development of archibeen attained by the use of glass walls to achieve interpenetration of inner and outer space (the Bauhaus at tecture has Dessau by Walter Gropius. Anyone who has ever climbed the spiral staircase of this tower has experienced 19). To select but a sier's Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps. 1954. Sydney. for St. perforated lat^ ^rst achieved a pure w expression of the interpenetration of inner and outer space. It has assumed a wide range of forms often emphasized by marvelously contrived directional lighting. Missouri. 1955. From the Roman Pantheon to the Baroque Church of the Fourteen vault into their architecture. can now be achieved in a more sublime manner: through a new conception of the vaulting problem. its tremendous flexibility supporting nature have tial made it a springboard for the spa- few: Eero Saarinen's domed Kresge Auditorium for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1957. in their different ways. Hugh Stubbins' Conference Hall for the Berlin International Building Exhibition of 1957. in tice of his Eiffel Tower (1889). What is at the root of their form of expression? last three It was the engineer Eiffel. this fantastic interpenetration (fig. with its shell of teakwood. the vaulted ceiling has been placed like a bell over the interior space. Burma. the soaring. 1955. It has still much to teach us. and Le Corbu- imagination. above of form. as well as its selfall. This desire for transparency and interpenetration which continues unabated. Its lightness and. These show. Yamasaki's airport assembly hall for the University of Raglan Squire's large Rangoon. Joem Utzon's prize-winning design for the National Opera House. But all these vaults from the first development of the 186 . for we are still only at the beginning of our development. Vosges. 1926). known as the Vierzehnheiligen. Louis.

69). Hugh Hall for Stubbins Associates. but that it extends further does not maximum height. which up to now has been it of it rises that toward the encompassing walls. The curve With the exterior.round house in northern Mesopotamia around 5000 B. In the buildings now to be consideredthe Assembly Hall for the Berlin Exhibition. the National Opera House. Fred Severud. has become its lowest point. 1957. 187 . g. and Le Corbusier's Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps TRANSVERSE SECTION Hugh Stubbins Associates. Fred Severud. engineer: Conference International Building Exhibition. The curving vault opens outward like an opening eye. at Ronchamps great insight has inserted a narrow Le Corbusier in the chapel band of light to mark the separation of the wall from the hanging ceiling.C. engineer: Conference Hall for International Building Exhibition. shaped by light. The walls of the hall support a compression ring. This means that the sinks into the space the position center of the ceiling. 1957. with the triangular sections the arches. indicating by this into terminate there. Transverse section: showing the roof dipping into the Conference Hall. Sydney. is concave in form: it happens that the curved ceiling below (fig. h. have one thing in common: the enclosing of an interior space.

for example. to be handed over.And if one stands in front of the building one sees how brown-grey concrete vault raises itself up from the white walls and attracts one into the interior. hover over the platform. 19 19 Information on such matters must be acquired elsewhere. no. which the United States has erected for the Berlin Exhibition. Eduardo F. It is this that gives the building the buoyancy that seems to raise it To describe the way from the ground. The engineer. is intended as a permanent build- ing for cultural interchange. 5. In the Berlin Assembly Hall for the Exhibition of 1957 this great the heavy outward curving roof seems almost to (fig. creased. Fred Severud. perceptive observer cannot but be aware is is a mastery of workmanship that could never have been achieved before our period. Through its concave planes a subtle play of strength has been achieved so that the vault is supported by its own internal equipoise. and how molecular tension can be transformed into architectonic space is not here our task. Very wisely the glass walls of the entrance hall have been pushed well back. 188 . At its center is the auditorium for 1200 people whose curving roof can be seen from afar. has here employed all the experience he acquired in his earlier building for Matthew Nowicki. and crumpled planes are related to the geometry developed by Riemann and Lobatschevsky (much as the forms of former periods were with Euclidean geometry). to the city of Berlin. Catalano. in which today's curved. It invisible wire cables but even the least that here true that the eye sees none of the which are concealed in the concrete. It is situated in the Tiergarten by the side of the river Spree. later. This Assembly Hall. vol. who died too young. 65). i) prepared under the guidance of one of the leading pioneers in architecture. in the excellent booklet issued by the North Carolina State College (Student Publications of the School of Design.

after having concentrated for so long upon a battle for the purity of the two dimensional plane. There is neither right nor wrong. It can be easily understood why a good deal of interest has been aroused by the fact that.rectangle half of this century it became evident that the plane surface was one of the constituent elements of contemporary architecture. and after aberrations. pp. So it is not astonishing that the magazines of architecture have been concerning themselves with the question: Is there not a contradiction between the developing space frame structure and the steel skeleton? For instance. emphasis has shifted to the problem of the curving vault. tricate pattern of or Their great differences are just different threads in the incontemporary art." I could never agree to discuss in painting: Mondrian versus Kandinsky Miro versus Mondrian. . 5000 years ago. started Dome versus During the first First Chicago School in the late i88o's. the emotional content of the high-rise building as expressed in the gigantic undisturbed surfaces by the many of Mies van der Rohe's immaculate apartment buildings on the lake front at Chicago may stand as the supreme solution of the intermarriage of the plane surface and the latest structural techniques. recently the Architectural Forum asked several people to express their views on the form of Eero Saarinen's Kresge Auditorium under the general title of "Dome versus 20 1 replied as follows in December 1955: Rectangle. and after a struggle. The organic conception (Miro) meets with the geometric horizontal-vertical conception in our con(Mondrian) which has been deeply embedded sciousness ever since the Egyptians. Rectangle/' Architectural 156-157. Their external contradictions have in reality * complementary function. made the horizontal-vertical relation supreme over all others. 20 "Dome versus Forum (March 1956).

a scheme for the great AssemHall of the United Nations in which floor and bly ceiling Le Corbusier prepared 190 . but it is not the one.For Mondrian or for Mies van der Rohe. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. is one way to conceive buildings. It is one of the steps toward the solution of the vaulting problem of our period. Frank Lloyd for a club house in Wright prepared designs Hollywood on the same principles as this Russian In the same . The area that lies above normal utilitarian requirements. only Eero Saarinen's shell concrete dome for the Kresge Auditorium. any deviation from the horizontal or vertical spoils the artistic purity. Since Davioud in 1878 designed a parabolic ceiling for the Paris Trocadero. is where the fullest freedom has been granted to the imagination of the architect. This solution for which architecture everywhere is craving has not yet been found. the space that floats above our heads beyond the reach of our hands. year. 61 ) In 1947. Each civilization since interior space was first shaped has found a solution to the vaulting problem that has met its particular emotional needs. Naum Gab6 made a scheme for the Palace of the Soviets in 1931 in which the ceiling and floor were curved like a shell (fig. As mentioned above. The uncompromisingly clean cut skyscrapers of Mies van der Rohe may one day stand as a testimony that our period contained some particle of the clarity of abstract strength that gave the Pyramids their eternal force. but we are on the way to it. is by no This means an isolated phenomenon. architects have been to find a trying solution to the problem of vaulted interior space in our period. sculptor. and from their point of view they have every right to believe this. In 1953 I hinted that the vaulting problem of our period will be derived from the possibilities offered by the structural engineer particularly in the forms of space frame construction.

If executed. three dec67. ades earlier. Just as I could not discuss Kandinsky versus Mondrian. There has been a change since that time. now the most courageous Western civilizabuildings are erected on the fringes of our 191 . stood at Ronchamps while the chapel of Le Corbusier was dedicated.flowed together in one continuous curve. Eduardo F. in his case. another building again widens our vision of the vaulting problem of our period. We Dome versus Rectangle Rectangle versus Dome? This I cannot answer with a simple yes or no. Le Corbusier's project for the Palace of the League of Nations at Geneva had done. 65). the German painter and poet. 1957 It is a good omen for future development when." National Opera House. His project outshone all the others as. gress Hall in Berlin with a space frame as its outstanding feature I (fig. Joern Utzon (figs. 68). Sydney. won by a young Danish architect. are on the way. This work that brings to expression the secret boldness that dwells within our times had not to wait to find recognition. Both in their own way are expressing what is inherent in our period. Australia. will be kinder. Catalano made interesting experiments in North Carolina and built his own house beneath a space frame vault (fig. 64) Stubbins has constructed the American Con. would have answered this quite simply: "Whatever an artist spits is art. The Archbishop spoke of the forward-curving bows of the roof as containing within its form both the old and the new the arch and the airplane. Le Corbusier's pioneering project was intended for an international center in the very heart of Europe. Let us hope that Fate. scarcely two years after the completion of the chapel at Ronchamps. Kurt Schwitters. this would have been one of the marvels of our period. This is the prize-winning design for the National Opera House at Sydney.

ment which This one brings Australia into the world-wide develop already embraces Brazil. . nal designs for housing developments and private houses But this sudden stroke of genius was quite unexpected. however pract strongly . "We have been impressed. Joern Utzon. . Sydney. One of the features of the new regionalism is its recovei of an inner relationship between a structure and its su roundings.tion. "by the beauty and the exceptional poss: fee bilities of the site in relation to the Harbour that a large and massive building. is known for his sound and origi i. The theater with its two auditoriums stands upon a prom Poinl ontory overlooking the harbor of Sydney: Bennelong a highly exposed position. Danish architecture. similar to that breathed by th novels of Jens Peter Jacobsen." com ments the jury. would be only b the fact that the jury included Professor J. We cal. designer of the Festival Concert Hall." The marvel that this project was ever selected can among over places of public gathering. India. Long: tudinal section. the architect o the Sydney Opera House. and Eero Saarinen. A second surprise is the country in which the projec until now. both of whoi the first architects to use shell concrete vaull were entirely unsuitable on this particular site. Londor architect of Kresge Auditoriuir 1951. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1955. and Japan. Lei explained by lie Martin. 1957. Joern Utzen: Prize-winning design for Opera House. laid by a delicate mist of classicism which has given rise t< an atmosphere of fatigue. has been over originated. This can be attained by stressing the differences betwee 192 .

as day and night. They prepare one for what will take place within. Archi- 193 . male and female. be tect 21 particularly appropriate. the Greeks accomplished superbly: the steps of their semicircular theaters bite into the hillside. The principle of contrast is found in the upper part of the structure: the thin concrete shells. 275. The solution suggested in this scheme is that the two auditoria should be roofed by a series of interlocking shell vaults in which the high stage is only one of a series of separate shells. It is difficult to think of a better silhouette for this The dynamic form of this vaulted shape contrasts with buildings which form its background and gives a special significance to the project in the total landscape of the Harbour . principle is the amalgamation of the structure with nature. At one blow. and become one with it. strange aspect of the Sydney Opera House is that it makes use of both principlescontrast and amalgamation. too. 21 Assessors' Report. they are cut out from the rock. The use of this form of construction seems to us to peninsula. used with great courage and freedom. The jury commented: great merit of this building is the unity of its structural expression. One of the most difficult problems of opera house design is to relate the stage tower to the separate and surround- The ing buildings and this becomes of particular importance on this exceptional site. This creates a striking architectural composition admirably suited to Bennelong Point. They seek to divorce the audience from the routine of their daily lives. or the bridges settings. have become sails billowing with dramatic expectancy." The and Building News 211 (28 February 1957). This. . the banal stage tower is also destroyed.the man-made artifact and nature: by contrasts which complement and complete one another. certainly for many people. Another The new and. "Sydney Opera House Competition. . Among the highest of this is the Acropolis with its formed and unformed of Robert Maillart in their high mountain expressions principle conscious juxtaposition of the of temple and rock. The white sail-like forms of the shell vaults relate as naturally to the Harbour as the sails of its yachts.

The space outside this pilgrims' chapel is more important than the interior. which was destroyed in the last war. so a magnificent ceremonial approach. it its intention that they will neither prevent its on pretexts of one kind or another. This is the exciting novelty of this scheme. and here is one more quotation from the jury's verdict: "We are convinced that the concept of the Opera House is capable of becoming one of the great buildings of the world. This conception solves all the complex needs of escape which form much dead space in a multi-storeyed building. massive base stands in complete contrast to the upper part. "The auditoria are arranged like Greek theatres in this rising base externally and are approached either underground from cars or externally along by elimination. The venerated 194 . which hardly has room for two hundred people. ing.000 pilgrims used to visit the chapel." In certain places. Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps. June 25. the curved roof rests on curving chalk-white walls." The project consciously brings into play both principles amalgamation and contrast within one building. Twice a year about 10. one might perhaps prefer a certain moderation in the vaultAnd the lower walls have not yet the great lines of the all its vaulting concept. The heavy. about thirty kilometers west of Belfort. nor change unrecognizably. rises the Pilgrimage Chapel of Sainte-Marie-du-Haut Grey-brown like the wings of a moth. such as the entries to the auditorium. 1955 On a wooded hill above the town of Ronchamps.The principle of amalgamation is also found. But this Opera House design contains the elements of a masterpiece and will give Australia first great forward-looking building. One can but hope that the authorities in whose hands Fate has placed this gift are able so to comprehend realization. This lower area forms a contrasting extension of the rock upon which it stands.

69) sings gallery set in the concave back wall. an act of optimism. was for you. You must have felt something of this inward elevation of the Virgin when you cast these walls up in space. (fig. as you have said of the architects of the thirteenth century. 195 . the curving concrete roof. under the of : Dedication from a protection j. Le Corbusier. The boys' choir. to forgetfulness of self and to joy in life. clad in red. The dedication takes place in the open air. Silhouette seen from the architect's sketch.statue of the Virgin Mary is now so built into the structure that it can be seen from both inside and outside the church. This "skyscraper Mary" that dominates the landscape far and wide. Le the valley Corbusier: Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps. the architect. hands over the keys of the church to Archbishop Dubois of Besangon. like under the overhanging crag of one of the prehistoric Magdalenian shrines. From the pulpit the prelate in his violet-colored cassock addresses Le Corbusier and the sun-drenched throng: You said once that a style took form in the century of the cathedrals that led to devotion to art.

this little chapel immediately became world famous. as being borne within Does this signify a radical authorities it. He spoke of the forward-curving bow of the roof. upon this dedication day.Something more rang through this address by the Archbishop: It was one of the first recognitions from such a quarter that contemporary architecture is a symbol of the inner strivings of our period a courageous recognition of the present. which the walls cut at an angle like the bow of a ship. What happens here is what Naum Gab6 and others have proclaimed: the principles of modern Ronchamps 196 . Facade est k. arch and airplane. The eastern side of the church. It became the symbol of a concept more quickly than any other buildof our times. the oldest and the newest. designed for open-air services the architect's sketch. who change on the part of those hold power in their hands? It is a fact that. Does it deserve this? is a building in which all the parts are plastically interdependent. ing unaccompanied by the usual attacks and denunciations. It appeared at once in the newspapers and magazines on both sides of the ocean. Le and of arche et avion. Corbusier: Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps.

Elevation with bell turrets. On their glass. The nave proper of the chapel is in twilight. whose conart up cavebearing surface is made of a double shell of reinforced concrete. simi- The walls are as flexibly modeled tower larly formed structures which through their slits give indirect light to the two side chapels that appear as tonguelike projections of the walls. the architect has written in his own handwriting passages from the service of the Mass. and. Light sources are variously distributed. tower and light as the roof. The south wall lets light in through small scattered square holes (fig. sends the sound of the bells out over the plain. first catches sight of the building. This concrete is left rough. or has painted symbols. longltu'dlnale Le Corbusier: Pilgrimage Chapel at Ronchamps. The bellthe chapel in a completely unjuts upward alongside precedented manner. raise the roof. The white walls.) There are two low.have passed over into architecture and have coalesced with it. especially in their most prominent position where the pilgrim. coming up from the vale. 70). (Le Corbusier has talked of acoustic architecture. like a conch shell. Le Corbusier accepted this commission because he was "intrigued by the prospect of going deeply into problems 197 . The roof swings like a canopy into the half-darkened interior of the chaj Coup* 1.

LeCorbus^Pd^mage rrom the south. Chapel at Ronchamfis. especially of inner and outer space or the high side chapels.m. This of organization of space. Axionometric drawing drawing gives an excellent insight into the relationship and the volumes .

As a Swiss architect once said. they are go per cent in favor. sat among the crowd on one of the crude benches arranged in rows. which brings to expression the secret boldness that dwells within our times. 199 ." It is not the people who are holding things up. the Resistance fighters who darmes. "Generally us but those who are unnot the people who are against willing to risk anything." Have we reached a moment of change? innate strength Is the ruling taste. corrugated sheet-iron hall was set up and A more than five hundred were served. disappearing of the general public and at last. "Well. the contact with the exterior may still be felt.where no utilitarian purposes were to be served. At our table sat the Ronchamps building contractor. free scope was generously him. a priest or two. given to It is an event that cannot be brushed aside: that such a work. It is those who think they can obtain power by catering to the lowest it is instincts. But Ronchamps the one that has particularly aroused enthusiasm. despite meditative seclusion. how do the people feel about this building?" we asked him. The Archbishop. that has befuddled the for a century and a half. The by transfer of the chapel to the public was followed a banquet." No self- important persons interfered. has not had to wait to achieve are many fine churches in existence recognition. with it. with Le Corbusier at his side. Then the workers who had taken part in the construchad fought here. the tragic conflict between feeling on will those few great spirits who have thinking? From now the gift of spatial imagination be able to concentrate upon imitations? real achievements rather than upon clever It almost seems so. There filled is with a worthy contemporary spirit. "At first they were go per cent against it. It has raised the problem of the vaulted interior space to a new level in which. and. Opposite was the fine profile some military men. and gention. now of Claudius-Petit.



not pression only on the occasion of some extraordinary event. Already in remote areas such as a new built Arabian housing project in Moroccoin schemes intended for the poorest sections of the community. Such places have existed ever since man first began to establish a differentiated society. must be made a necessary condition everywhere. The life of a number of people in the same place only acquires meaning when some care is taken for their spiritual stimulation outfamily household. needed are extensions to the dwellingsfe logis prolonge where contacts between neighbors can occur as a matter of course. become more thing that is demanded today is an almost completely neutral contact between person and person no intimate relationship. the conviction becomes accepted that housing projects composed solely of dwelling units are no longer is sufficient. These neutral relationships outside the dwelling have become as necessary today as the sanitary fixtures within it. 202 . small community centers have been incorporated from the very start of the project These additional elements. They are bound up with the ber of a polis. Their promotion is nothing new. of a consciousness of being a memBut today. An opportunity is needed for the exof casual remarks and observations every day. which were first introduced only side the two generations ago. he needs some wider relationships in apart from the family circle. but uninterruptedly. No matter how much man may his private life The change his residence. particularly in highly in- dustrialized countries. prehistory. They began to develop as soon as a freer society took the place of the constitutionally What and mystically attached clans of city. our way of life has similar to that of primitive nomads. essential for community life.FINALE Slowly.

Closely linked with the demand for the human scale is another demand that is now widely accepted at least in theory: this is the right of the pedestrian. at least for the working population. the same phenomenon can be large cities ob- served at work everywhere. and these will become more evident as the revolt against the inhuman habitat spreads through the general public. as they were stated in 1933^ have lost their balance and their interby CIAM relationship. work- ing. These conditions will not vanish in a day. which under the influence of unbridled traffic has become neglected. result in an inhuman way of life. The four main functions of urban planning: living. and communication. Due to the destruction of the human scale. The devour dispro- CIAM (France). radical changes in the Great states and highly developed industries require within their ever greater agglomerations. On 1 a smaller scale. LaCharteD'Athtnes (Paris. Added to this is a human "birthright": that a relation- ship with nature must also be reestablished. a similar situation exists. This too must be reestablished. 203 . Monster urban agglomerations of eight millions and more with no clear internal structure must. but there are already hopeful indications. The demand for the reestablishment of the relation be- tween "you" and "me" leads to structure of the city. a demand has arisen to reestablish the eternal claim of the human scale in all urban planning. 1943).In order to realize this relationship. certain places where face to face discussions can take place without the use of technical intermediaries. though maybe less grotesque. administration and government centers. Everywhere. the working people of all large cities are now often obliged to spend two or more hours a day in transportationpenned barbarously together if they wish to avoid living in the midst of an asphalt jungle. recreation.

When the disproportionate enlargement of the big city first set in. J. M. there must be a number of smaller units whose size is foreseen and planned in relation to the human scale. with their varied needs for distance and for nearness. This is a miserable congeneral pattern of land tinuation of one of the evils of the nineteenth century. As an integral part of this scale pattern a greater differentiation is demanded of housing types. and have again shrunk to smaller size. Such units must be redivided into smaller neighborhoods dimensioned to make possible easy contacts between the inhabitants. to meet the needs of the different age groups: single men and women. The clearest insight new environment can into the way in which units of this develop can be found in a country which is able to look back upon the longest development of urbanism and the closest settlement of cities: Holland. and families which are small. are growing. and this seriously affects the population settlement. He can be seen to be without the necessary tools of his trade. there were none of the highly developed transport systems that we now possess. Bakema and OPBOXTW. if a spontaneous relationship between inhabitants is again to come about. The many-sided possibilities of nature of these requirements. give rise to new shaping the environment. the architect and planner must draw upon the means of expression that have been developed by contemporary art. These alone can show the possibilities by which these varied requirements can be visually expressed. in iheir project for the 204 . It may be here repeated that the architect-planner who has not passed through the needle's eye of modern art betrays himself immediately.of people in relation to the total portionately large numbers of the country. the dense masses of urban development must be smashed. To meet these. If a reestablishment of the human scale is desired. Instead of one large solid body of masonry with an inextricable chaos of functions.

This six is certainly something!" Henry van de Velde had to wait nearly this decades before development penetrated into industrial production and to the general mass of the people until it became "anony- mous. three-year-old of this wider vision will materialize? Henry van de Velde. This ninetystood on the terrace of his charming wooden house and looked out over the landscape. 1953. 2 For seven years he has been writing his memoirs by the side of the Aegeri Lake in the Swiss mountain region of the Zug canton.000 people can be planned and built in the neighborhood of Rotterdam (fig. 52). every inch had to be redesigned by the architect himself. Then came the period in which he could rely upon the good designs of certain individuals. which made one conscious of the ri- diculousness of our ready-made clothes. fact be brought to realization? how much can in In 1897 when Henry van de Velde showed his interior designs at the Dresden Exhibition. wearing a stone grey suit he had himself designed. Now we are already sufficiently far along the way that an assembly can be made of articles that are themselves anonymous. down to the door latches and tableware. He stood there in unimpaired elegance. turned upon practical matters." To 2 change the structure of the of plans. he released the latent stream of the modern movement in Germany. Now he struck the balance between the nineties and today: "At first. How much Recently. 1957. city is an infinitely more Still full Henry van de Velde died 25 October. ^ ave shown the way in which a unit limited to 30. This urban element can be linked to other similar units and all connected to a mutual administrative and cultural center. as always. in the revolution against the falsification of architectural forms.Prince Alexander Polder. His conversation. These will give us an insight into the most important I visited man cultural developments in Germany since 1914. 205 .

is necessary the will to bring it about. and take note of the present position of the contemporary development. but if we look at it from the point of view of this old master of architecture.G. 1955 206 . S. of the city All that is it may be would appear that the changed structure achieved more rapidly.complicated and entangled process.

the later Spaniard Soria y Mata worked out a new type of city which exerted great influence. and much the same occurred in the nineteenth century. For one of the last he took an old quarry in a working class district Buttes Chaumont. by judicious qualities of the natural landscape. NEW YORK Frederick Law Olmsted In America. 207 . he succeeded in achieving. 1856-1867 THE PUBLIC SQUARES OF PARIS Alphonse In the decade between 1856 and 1867 the landscape architect Alphonse Alphand created over twenty new public squares in the heart of Paris. Frederick Law Olmsted was superseding the artiwith a development of the inherent ficially romantic garden In Central Park. transformed 1857-1860 CENTRAL PARK. time. 1856-1860 and it into a place for active enjoyment of the populace instead of merely another pleasant public garden. for use of the natural topography. The garden landscape of Versailles was the forerunner of the great city plans of the Baroque period. the first 1882 THE LINEAR CITY Arturo Soria y Mate In isolation and without creating much interest at the time. In this the different functions of living. hundred years can be desig- owes much to the traveling exhibition on Urban Design prepared by the Graduate School of Design at Harvard nated. 1956-1957. This list University.DEVELOPMENTS IN URBAN DESIGN SINCE It is 1850 actual dates anything as nebu- difficult to pin down with lous as social consciousness in certain pioneer ventures of the last urban planning. Nevertheless. one of the canons of future urban planning: the separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Changes in the city structure have often been preceded by changes in landscape design.

In the early part of the century Holland became preeminent in housing developments. P. CITIES Sitte. and circulation were allowed to develop continuously along parallel bands.000 inhabitants. 1898 GARDEN CITIES OF TOMORROW Ebenezer Howard The British parliamentary shorthand writer. 1889 THE ART OF BUILDING city planner. blocks at Tusschindeyken in Rotterdam. His ideas Tony Gamier Tony Gamier. but in most of the settlements of the Garden City Movement industry was omitted.working. Oud's first really human working-class apartment J. Camilla Sltte essayed to set The Viennese Camillo down the principles underlying the placing of statuary and monuments in early city squares. each designed for living and working. HOUSING LEGISLATION IN HOLLAND This year also saw the first systematic legislation for the national organization of urban settlement. were pioneer achievements in urban design. H. Ebenezer Howard. achieved great success. J. when working on a scholarship in the French School at Rome. produced a 1901 series of plans for THE INDUSTRIAL CITY an industrial city to be sited on the banks of the Rhone. a French architect from Lyons. wished to break up the congestion of the great metropolis of London by the creation of a number of small self-contained garden cities. especially in the Anglo-Saxon world. P. Holland required a revised general plan to be prepared every ten years for all cities over 10. and the journey to work thereby greatly lengthened. 1919. and 208 . and to inveigh against the spacedestroying crossroad "squares" of the nineteenth century. 1902. Berlage's plan for middle-class housing in Amsterdam South. This was published in 1917 and was the first fully worked out plan for the organization of the urban structure of a twentieth-century city.

STUTTGART. 1922 PLAN VOISIN. Patrick Geddes. folk. young architects from all over Europe were invited to erect experimental buildings at Weissenhof .Scottish Professor of Botany. KARLSRUHE. GERMANY Emst Mdy Ernst May. under the direction of Mies van der Rohe. city in 1928 DAMMERSTOCK HOUSING PROJECT. Its new contribution to urban planning was its systematic development of the short cul-de-sac which provided for greater safety and privacy for its residents and broke up the old rue corridor.000 people placed twenty miles north of London followed closely the principles laid down by Ebenezer Howard. which were brought to an abrupt end in 1933. ENGLAND Raymond UnWTl new town for 20. and the separation of pedestrian walks and traffic roads was developed. ROEMERSTADT. An 209 . GERMANY The late twenties saw many very hopeful developments in Germany. GERMANY Wdter Gropius attempt at giving a number of different architects responsiin a unified project under the general bility for single elements direction of Walter Gropius. city which 1927 WEISSENHOF HOUSING PROJECT. FRANKFORT. the chief architect and city planner of Frankfort am Main. PARIS Le Corbusier This was a proposal for a new organization of the metropolitan contained many new ideas. In 1927. WELWYN GARDEN CITY. one of the pioneers of diagnostic planning. work") and to move from a mere collection of statistics to The an interpretation of the 1920 This living reality in time. built many new suburbs around the outskirts of this which new designs for mass-produced low-cost row housing were tried out on a large scale. strove to bring about an integration of urban planning with sociology and economics ("place.

free from all traffic circulation. each centered around an elementary school. 1933 THE "CHARTE D^ATHENES" of CIAM 4 The Fourth Congress Athens. THE NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT Clarence Perry In the Regional Plan for New York. living. circulation. through the concentration of dences in high-rise apartments. It established Modern Architecture was held in the four main functions for which a city working. mind and 1934 BROADACRE CITY Frank Lloyd Wright On the basis of universal ownership of automobiles and the tremendous spaces of western America. recreation of plan must provide: body. Clarence Perry outlined his concept of dividing up New York into traffic-bounded residential districts.1929 SIEMENSTADT. Frank Lloyd Wright developed his wide-flung "city" of self-sufficient homesteads and dispersed centers of activity. prepared under the direction of Thomas Adams. GERMANY Walter GrOplUS This working-class housing project on the outskirts of Berlin was the most congenial of many such projects built at this period by reason of its clear lines and open layout with wide swathes of greenery. BERLIN. the cul-de-sacs of Welwyn Garden City have become garage courts and the houses are turned around to face upon a footpath entrance. resi- 210 . A ribbon this For park runs through the traffic-free "super-blocks" and pedestrians cross the encircling roads through underpasses. 1935 LA VILLE RADIEUSE Le Corbusier In this volume Le Corbusier proposed the reshaping of the metropolis by the creation of large pedestrian open spaces. RADBURN. NEW JERSEY Henry Wright and Clarence Stein garden suburb of the automobile age.

L. The gridiron is used as a major large traffic net. Here also the separation and differentiation of fast and slow traffic routes and pedestrian paths was first put into operation on a city-wide scale. Wiener and J. INDIA Le Corbusier The plan for the new capital city of the Punjab is the first major example of the combination of radically progressive city planning with age-old habits of life. architectural de- not always entirely CHIMBOTE. Their satisfying.1938 CULTURE or CITIES Lewis Mumford Lewis Mumford. and eight satellite towns were established around London where men could both velopment is live and work. ENGLAND British Frederick Gibberd The New Towns' Act after the Second World War en- deavored to return to the original principles of the Garden City. one-half by three-quarters of a mile). PUNJAB. while still remaining part of an over-all organism. 1951 CHANDIGARH. through this book aroused the interest of the American public in the problems of urban decentralization and the planning of garden cities on the lines advocated by Ebenezer Howard. 1945 SAINT-DIE. VOSGES. first FRANCE for a Le Corbusier community center (see The . 1948 HARLOW NEW TOWN. an avowed disciple of Patrick Geddes. 211 . PERU P. 1944 THE GREATER LONDON PLAN Patrick Abercrombie This was the first large-scale working out of a permanently green belt around a large metropolis coupled with the establishment of a number of new satellite cities (new towns) beyond it. L.pp. Sert The use in modern times of the patio house to conditions in single-story buildings at high provide good living first large-scale density. truly contemporary design 165-166). These dimensions enough to enable each sector to be developed as an a life of its enclosing large sectors (each approximately are ele- ment with own.

MASSACHUSETTS Walter Gropius and others first In this unrealized project the core of the city found its American form. DETROIT. out-of-town shopping center. 1952 In VALLINGBY. here begins to take center of social activity. MINNEAPOLIS. BRAZIL 1957 LuClO Costa This prize-winning project for a new Brazilian capital gives a twentieth-century twist to some early ideas of the linear city. MICHIGAN Mies van der Rohe The rebuilding of a complete downtown section of Detroit combines high-rise buildings in a parklike setting with patiotype row houses and a neighborhood core. studied. MINNESOTA Victor Gruen The mercial reasons. 1956 ALEXANDER POLDER.THE CORE OF THE CITY CfAM 8 At the Eighth Congress CIAM discussed the physical expression of "recreation of mind and body" and came to the conclusion that the time was ripe for a concentrated endeavor to re-create urban centers of social activity. Bakema and Group OPBOUW Ever since 1948 this CIAM group had been working on the problem of the contemporary form of an urban settlement which could provide for all the needs of a varied population (see pp. HOLLAND R. 173-175). 1953 BACK BAY CENTER. 212 . the relation of high and low buildings and the provision of a wide range of dwelling types was most carefully this. BOSTON. developed for purely comon some attributes of a LAFAYETTE PARK. SWEDEN Sven Markelius the most elaborately planned of many recent suburbs of Stockholm. BRAZILIA. SOUTHDALE SHOPPING CENTER.

Tyrwhitt. 1949 and 1953. April 1952. Revista de Occidente Argentina. J. i (Paris. Jacques de la Prade. No. "The Tragic Conflict. Time and Architecture." in Architectural Record. "Art as a Key for Reality. and E. "Architects and Politics" and "Aesthetics and the Human Habitat. and Architectural Review. 7-9. 48-49. Rogers (London and New York. 61. 1954). Zurich. edited by Paul Zucker (New York. 44-46. 1937). "Nine Points on Monumentality. 14. architects' drawings." in Der Neue Zuercher Zeitung. 0.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Much of the content of this book first appeared in the form lectures or papers of by the author. 25. 57-59. "Fernand Leger. Oeuvres. Sert and Fernand Lger. 1949. 1951). photo BranSeurat." in Building for Modern Man. Sert. h. c. Seurat. "On the Force of Aesthetic Values" and "On the Education of the Architect. 1944). 16-19. d. 1943. New York. Galerie Valentin. L. 13. municipal government." unpublished symposium prepared with J. and Sculptor. Space. photo Giedion." in A Decade of Contemporary Architecture. 3^> 47? 69. Credits for illustrations used in the German edition are as follows: 1-6. "The Humanization of Urban Life. 21. and Das Werk." unpublished papers on the Ruling Taste (Paris. Lancaster. photo 213 . N. September 1948. by Tom Creighton (Princeton. November 1952. 27. edited by J. a radio dialogue with Antoine Pevsner. 1954. State of Contemporary Architecture. by Sigfried Giedion (Zurich. V. and 1956. "The New Monumentality. Le Corbusier. Giedion." "The New Regionalism. "Architect. "The edited Painter. IV. 66. Cousturier. Architectural Record. Museum of Modern Art." foreword for the painter Ben Nicholson (London. August 1955. 23. L. from publication of Naum Gab6. 1936-1955)." in New Architecture and City Planning. October 1949. a partial list of these follows: "Brauchen wir noch kuenstler?" in Plastique. edited by Sophie Tauber-Arp. 1952. 15. 1949)." "Social Imagination. f. 32. From Pillar to Post. 12. g. b." in The Heart of the City." unpublished material from the 7th and gth Congresses for Modern Architecture (CIAM). 1937). Oslo." and "Spatial Imagination.

53. Catalano. seminar.Architecture tfaujourdhw. Harvard University. 67. 51. 39. courtesy Joem Utzon. Student Carolina State College. by permission of the publisher 214 . 40. 31. photo Lozzi. courtesy J. D. copyright 1955. F. Dolf Walter Drayer. Kidder-Smith. Pendelbury. F. 68. 56. photo photo Robert Harvey. 63. Fimmen. 52. no. photo ArchiCarl E. 64. photo Shulman. Credits for illustrations new in this L. vol. 30. 36. pub. d'architecture. photo photo Ezra Stoller. Architectural Forum. Cours tecture. photo cusi. Catalano. photo Ren6 Burri-Magnum. A Perusset. 34. Rosenberg. 65. Giedion. Tell-El-Amarna. Edgar Kaufmann. a. courtesy E. 323 42. 37. North tecture. Q edition are as tallows: 28. Durand. photo Vrijhof. photo G. Die kretische-mykenischeKultur. Progressive Publications of the School of Design. Jr. e. 54. photo Delaunay. 33. Schnebli.. i. Sert. 55. reproduced and E. E. 70. . 5. Decade of Contemporary Archi41 photo Sert. 20.

fig. 165. figs. 60 Chicago. 60.. Chevreuse Valley. Baghdad. 163 Baudelaire. 143 Alberto. 81 California. 212. 204-05. Georges. 143. 28 148-49. 16.. 123. fig. 212. 208 Apollinaire. Burckhardt. 210 Acosta. 130. i88n. 6 4 Paul. Abercrombie. 18 also Sydney Australia. 97. 101. 91. Constantin. 15. fig. 15 Borromini. 22 173 212 CIAM Bridgwater (England). 53. fig. 60 Catalano. Alexander Polder (Rotterdam). figs. 125^. 5 Brancusi. 21. 133 Audincourt. 111 Athens. 54. 133 54 Bouguereau. 32. 127. Adelbert. 172 Bagneux. Ove. Akhnaton (Pharaoh). Patrick. 208 Berlin. 53. L. 60. 35 Arp. ngs. 147 Chaumont. 156. Peru. fig. Francesco. Eduardo. 18. 148. 193 Africa. Adolphe. 24. 211 China. 3. 24. 173 American Abstract Artists. 131. 180 Arc de Triomphe. 109 Buttes. 56. See Audincourt Bergamo. 210 Berlin Conference Hall.INDEX OF NAMES Aalto. C&anne. 142. 168 Chandigarh. 17173. 15 Braque. 32. 207 Byzantium. fig. 131. 90. See Broadacre City. 17. Lucio. Julius. figs. Alphand. Alexander. 155. 25. 172 Arab world. 64 Amsterdam. 18. 173 Candilis. 71 Arup. 142 Capitol (Rome). 161. 48-51. Georges. stained glass. 12. also Corbusier Charte d'Athenes. 65 Moderne). 77. 186 Belfort. 182 Bakema. 169-71. 81 Alexander the Great. 10. 87. 125 Canada. Alphonse. 211. 215 . 68. Brazilia. 53 Chianciano Hall. 207 America. 161. 135 Bill. 204-05. 136 Caracas. figs. See Wright. The. Leon Battista. 87. 64 Berne. 134 Cairo. d. 183. 35. 180 Caesar. g. 65. Hans. B. Jacob. 169. 52. 140 CIAM (Congres International d' Ar- 185-88. > 26 Brazil. 161. Charles. chitecture h. See 173-77. 56. 193. F. 212. 154 Bauhaus. Guillaume. Ames. See CIAM Berlage. 189 Chimbote. 80 173 Bird in Space. 63. 81 Acropolis. 53 fig. 140. 132 Alberti. 140. Boston Back Bay Center. figs. figs. See CIAM Chartres Cathedral. 191. Bathers. 169-71. See Calder. 144. J. 184. Alvar. Max. 149 Opera House Babylon.

Frederick. Hofstede. 29. 186. 24. 130 68 16 d'Athenes. 174 Dubois. 108 Colonne DiFlight of the Bird. 91-98. fig. Paffard. 19 HoddesCongress 1953. 85-86. a 132-33. 15. 80. 27. 144. 61. 87. Patrick. 68 Dammerstock. 158. 57. Michel. 15 Daumier. Garden City movement. 88 Greece. 41. figs. 17 Groot. k. 190. 1949. Theo van. 194-99. 72. Ebenezer Gamier. 7 8 >9 Fry. 77 Dewey. 17 Gonzales. Tony. la Vic- Faust and Marguerite. Buckminster. $6. 126. Bridgwater Congress 1947. 150. 174 Fuller. Charte 212. 181 Costa. 208 Gautier. 149. 52. Le. Eiffel Tower T. 6 Composition. 209 Freysinnet. 21 Clay. 113. Florence. 149. 114. See Howard. 195. 211 General Motors Technical Center. 7 C6rdoba. d'Architecture Moderne) 203-04. 161-69. fig. Alberto. 210 Cigate. 147. John. 211 Doesburg. See veloppable de la Victoire Corbusier. 127. Thomas. 101. 86. 204. 18 Delaunay. 146. Naum. 148. 150 figs. 84-85. Aldo van. 66 Galerie Drouin. 199 Durand. 17 Geddes. L. f Colonne Dfoeloppabte de 16 fig. 209 Dante. 15. 24 147. figs. 24. Ellesmere. (painting).) Ecochard. fig. 56 Gibberd. 23. 190 de Groot. 54 Giacometti. 70. 211. fig. 183. 53. 76-78. 173 Finsterwalder. La. 72-78. Jane.. fig. 136 Forum Romanum. don Congress 1951. van. 133 Fould. 1930. 101. 69. Domino House. 15 Frankfort am Main. 132. 25. C. Jean N. 13. 181 Creighton. 58. 27. oval house. 36 Cuba. 128.6o Gericault. Colombia. Group. Hofstede de Delacroix. 146 Egypt. 186. 81 Goya. 173 toire. Lucio. 22 Fletcher. 145. 57 Galileo. 174-76. 185. fig. fig. 82. 1. 44. 323. 114. 1317 Drew. fig. 147. Earl of. 113. 189 Eiffel Tower. 32. fig. 56. MARS Group. 15 Dischinger. 125. 20 Eliot. m. 75-76. 80. 209. 180. 144. Archbishop of Besangon. 3 Clarinet. 182 fig. Bergamo Congress Aix-en-Provence 79-80. 149. 169. 182 Divers. 212 Cottancin. 25 Goethe..CIAM (Congres International (cont. 149 Eesteren.193 Gromngen. 7071. 104 See Groot. 196-97. OPBOUW figs. Femme en Bleu. The*ophile. 182 Frogner Park Sculpture Group. 149. Achille. 17. Bannister. 69. 127. Eyck. 147 Descartes. 64 Crete. d. See also Sert Gab6. 184. 18 Davioud. S. 13. 41 Finland. The. University of. 36. Hofstede de. 210. 44-51. fig. 77. 17 . Maxwell. j.

Miletus. 148. 16 fig. Sir William. 60. von. Pierre. 189 Moholy-Nagy. Henry-Russell. fig. 34. c Latin America. P. 81. 160. See also Bakema Magasin Pittoresque. i44> fig. fig. 28 52-55. fig. 174 oyce. Halle des Machines (Paris). 212 La Guardia <zZ$o Pi- Airport. 174 Lancaster. L. Piet. Le Ricolais. 156. Sven. 211 Heine. 11 Hepworth. See Saarinen 57.). 81. Fernand. 179^ 189. Institute. Guarino. Julian. 29. 29. Barbara. fig. 48-51. 15. b. 174 Jammer. Kresge Mass. 173 Ingres. 142. 210 L'Orange. Maison Familiale de Reze. 67-68. 85. 80. See CIAM Unitd d'Habitation. 32. fig. 17. 11 Mesopotamia. 59 30. 22 14 Montparnasse. Michelangelo. 77. Osbert. 12. F. Heinrich. 122. 17. 180-81. Gruen. See Colonne DeVictoire veloppable de la London. Maunicr. 43 no Monument in Wood. 136-37 Mignon. 68. See See Imperial Hotel (Tokyo). 33 Manhattan. 73-74 Lines in Motion. 191. Mellon Julius. Paul. 212 MARS. 33 Holland. See South America Le Corbusier. See Innocentut Hamlin. Joan. 80. fig. 116-117 apan. See Corbusier. 143. 10 fig. 209. 54 Lahore. 3 L6ger. H5' Kaschnitz-Weinberg. 149. i Mayer. 147. Le Lefevre. 35. Gavin. Ren6. 35. 189. 211. 127. 156. 18. i7n. Jules. Illustrated London News. 100-101. See casso Lafayette Park. 208. Keynes. 32. 146 Howard. 31 Kandinsky. 209 18 fig. 190. See New York Markelius. 212 Guarini. Victor. 22. 64 Harlow New Town. See also Catalano 63. 17. Pieter de. Edouard. 158 May. Marseilles. Robert. India. John Maynard. 182. 90. 132 Hitchcock. figs. 23 Holford. 179 Manet. 208 Huxley. l6 5 fig- 1 7' 171' 1 54 figs. 38 Klee. 174 Hippodamus. 32. 143 Malta. Corbusier Wright. 16 Maillart. 179^ Louis Phillippe. 169 Malcvitch. 23 Hooch. G. 317 . 15 Guernica. 2 Mihrab (Cordoba).144. 105 Hyperparaboloid space frame. 58 Gu6rin. Talbot. 179 Hall of German Art (Munich). figs. ign. H. 17 Himalayas.. Innocentia. Emperor. 184 181 Hamilton. 192 eannerct. 209 Miro. figs.. 187 Max. Hadrian. 35. 180. 18. Ebenczer. 1 5 Louvre Museum. 54 Mondrian. 191 Karlsruhe. 147. Ernst. 118. 16 Illustration (Periodical). James. Auditorium (Cambridge.

Ernesto. 113. 199 Pevsner. 168 Jersey). 6 5 60. 147 Perry. Saint-Di6. 33 Noguchi. 35. Ernest. 186. Antoine. 56. 16 Picasso. 70. 126. 186. See chard also Eco- Plan Voisin (Paris). 79 Pantheon. Rothschild. i36-37> J 79> l8o Roh. 79. 80. 174 Palace of the League of Nations fig. 69. 191 Palace of Soviets. 127 Petit. 54. Clarence. Sir Herbert. 210 32a St. 181. Gustave. 186. 10. 27 Ohio Valley. }. University of. 113. 210 Niemeyer. 209 88 Rogers. P. 188 Riegl. fig. 125 Mumford. 169 Napoleon. 189. 82. 72 Renan. 79 Pakistan. Cathedral. Monica.Morocco. 186 St. 23. 208. 14 162 San Gimignano. 30. 87. William. Oscar. - Ostia. 100. der. Isamu. Pisa. 144. 32. Pier Luigi. 16. k. J. Alfred. fig. 208 Morris. 171. 211. 57 Nantes. Chandigarh Orleans. Frederick Law. 85 Perret. Richard. 140 Olmsted. (Geneva). Peter's. 133 Princeton University Conference. 190. 15 Rotterdam. See also Alexander Polder Rouses Point. 190 Saint Augustine Parthenon. Gregor. 167 218 . 202. Nero. 101 64. Palazzo Vecchio (Bergamo). 71 112 146 fig. 163 Sainte-Marie-du-Haut. 81. 10 St. fig. 23 Penrose. figs. 70 194-99* fi ss i> Roth. 179 Nervi. 65. 60. 148. fig. 13 Rohe. 114. 90. 64. 53. 101. 80 Nowicki. Claudius. 210 Rangoon. 208 187. Paul's Peru.. Louis airport. 44. 101. 144. champs San Carlo o 55^- alle Quattro Fontane. See Gab6 fig. due d . 34. 54-55 Saarinen. 171. Rietveld. New 34 York. 57-59. Rockefeller Center. 134. 1. 176-177. See CIAM Roemerstadt (Frankfort). 56. 161-62. 16 Rhone River. Richard. 61. Pablo. 16. 32. 135. 80. and His Mother 4. Madame de. fig. See also 208 Ronchamps Pilgrimage Chapel. 148. Lewis. 175. 134. 22. 209 Planche. Franz. 60 Neutra. Oud. 23.. Provence. 17 Revue de Deux Mondes. 24. also 61. 49. 191. 191. 15 7 fig. 85. fig. Mies van Open Hand. 211 Museum of Modem Art (New York). 189. 207. 163. 212 146. Matthew. Rome. 163. 134 J. 207 OPBOUW. Alois. 163. m. 29 National Opera See Utzon Radburn (New House (Sydney). 17 Read. 126. 133-34. 149. 64. 168 Paulsson. 172 Priene. 24. 126. 186 Raphael. 164. 16 Pompeii. See Ronfig. M. Roland. Eero. 125.

Arturo. Henry.. 60 Violin. 16. 209 Sullivan. 167 Warsaw. 80. 191-94. 1920. 86-87. Piazza del Campo. 187. Henry van de van der Rohe. 80-84. Tremaine House. Andre\ 149. Jos6 Luis. Joern. 12. Stubbins. E. 19. See Gab6 Squire. J. 68. fig. See Velde. 67. h. 87 Scheffer. also fig. See Eesteren. 42 Truman. 174.68 Vallingby. 191 Sert. 126. 128 Scamozzi. 212 van de Velde. Henry van de. Raglan. Aldo van Somme. Raymond. La. 65 Venezuela. 125. 212 Space Study. 182 Wall Street. See also Doesburg Spherical Construction. P. 87 Weissenhor. Clarence. 208 4. Sweden. Virgin with Angels. Harry S. 140 Sophocles. 154 Siemenstadt. 16369. Mies. figs. 167 Sweeney. Louis. 157 Sumer. 79. 182 Trajan. 186. C. 142 Syrkus. William. 86. Theo van van Ecsteren. 176-77 Velde. La. 13. 6 Schmarsow. fig. The. 207 South America. 17.. Gustav. 13 Park Vigeland. 57. 24 Sitte. fig. 10 Stein. 210 Siena. 186 Victoria. 207 Unwin. 209 Uruk-Warka. figs. 102 Unite d'Habitation. 79. Hugh. 205 191. 112 Schwitters.. fig. 53. 158 Southdale Shopping Center. 17 Vierzenheiligen. 12. 113. 13 Severud. See Doesburg. See America h Shakespeare. figs. Mies van der van Doesburg. 210 Villenueva. Camillo. 18. See also Corbusier Frederick. August. Ary. 40 Torrochs. 15 5 Wachsmann. figs. Stuttgart. figs. 186 Stalingrad. Theo. 35 Taut. 44-47. figs. Vincenzo. 134 26 fig. 149. 180-81. 15. 88-89 Sydney Opera House. 82. 80. . 58. 187. See also Guarini Sartre. 15. Studer. 43 139 Queen.. 149. figs. g.San Lorenzo. Joern Syria. 211. 65. See Rohe. 38 Utzon. 101. 64. Helena. Bruno. 182 Tel el Amarna. 180 Tusschindeyken. i. 13 Soria y Mata. 34 Trotsky. L. See Frogner Sculpture Group Ville. 89 Tange. Georges. 173 Versailles. 52 Ville Radieuse. 55.. Varma. 2. C. UNESCO. 161. 190-91 United States. 67. 66. fig. See Eyck. 88 Turin. 22. figs. Konrad. 100. 188. L. Leon. 210 186. Kenzo. Vitet. Assembly Hall. 125. van van Eyck. 64. 209 Welwyn Garden 209 City (England). 148. g. figs. Sweden. fig. J. J. figs. fig. 85. 48-51. 41. 41. fig. 88. 42 Seurat. 24. Aldo. United Nations Building. 114 Sunday Afternoon on the Grande Jatte. i. See also Utzon.

Community . Paul L. 123. 181. 27. Heinrich. 124. rights of. 202 Pedestrians. 190. Scott. 28-31 Pseudo-symbolism. 189 Pseudomonumentality. 56. 2. 211. 64. 210. as age-old symbol of social life. 128. 186 Young. 12. 185.. 160. 133-34 City-state. 180-81. 140 Butterfly roof. rights of. Market 122-24. 174. 41. 204 Beton brut. 150. 162. 158 City center. 123. 135 Roman. 179. Holland. 18 Woods. 185 Dome. 125. Peckham. 125-37 City planning: Greek. 102-03 Health Center. 208 Logis prolong^. 7 Regional planning. 171- dso Core Core. places. 27. 159. 49 32-33. See Core City planning and community Landscape architecture. 147. fimile. 17. differentiated. 182. 163-69 Housing. 150. 131-33. 25. 165 Individual. 207 Legislation. 126-37. figs. International style. 42 Williamson. 143. Alfred North. 68. 18. Zurich. 185 208 Cathedral as symhol. Human Scale. 202. See Core Napoleon. 93-95. Medieval. S. 154 Zeiss Planetarium. Frank Lloyd. 136 Civic center. Blut und Boden advocates. 189-91 Eclecticism. 192 Round house. 49. 204 Architecture. 129 149. 128 High-rise apartment house.Whitehead. prototype of self-made man. 105. 107 Architecture and m town planning. 50 Art as luxury. 184. centers. 94. 112 Yamasaki. 4.. 212 73. 134. 37 Children's playgrounds. 148-49. nineteenth-century. 149. 158. 72 Wiener. 185. 19. 161-63. 140. 175 203 Industrial buildings. 22n. 29 Neighborhood unit. 29-30 Gridiron plan. as coordinator. medieval. Edward. G. 64. 159. medieval. 26. 25. 132 220 . See 171-72 203 Plane surfaces. Paul. 159. 128 Wolfflin. 103. figs- 149 Wright. Zucker. 37> 39> 62 SUBJECT INDEX Architect. 3 Public art. 202 life. 122. 130 City. 182 Zola.

185. 112-15. pyramid of. 49- 65-66 Space conception. 143 Vaulting problem. 125. 35. 171 3". 10. 125. movement. 143 Space-time. 143 Stijl Vision. Ruling 14 148-49 Symbol. 178-82. 49 Subtropical. 144-46 186-88 221 . *"* Skyscrapers. 149 taste. 116. 23.Row housing.