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134STS3 Steel Structures 3

Presentations/text material http://people.fsv.cvut.cz/www/wald/134STS3_Steel/Index.HTM User: ocel Pasword: K134STS3 Prof. František Wald

List of Lessons at Seminar
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Introduction, stability of frames – imperfections Stability of frames – modelling and analyses Connection design - moment connections Connection design - column bases Connection design - fire and seismic Excursion to the building site Tubular structures Lateral torsional buckling, purlins Plate buckling; built-up compression members Torsion, Steel to concrete composite structures, Cranes Aluminium structures, material, design High-rise buildings Structures of large spans, stadiums, halls

Aluminium structures

František Wald

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Objectives of the lecture • Introduction to aluminium design • References • Examples • Material selection • Eurocodes for aluminium design Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 4 .

low ductility transaction temperature Summary Notes 5 .Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Advantages – Weight (2700 kg\m3) – Corrosion Products Assessment 2 – Mon magnetic and low toxic Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 – Fatigue.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Corosion Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 6 .

v Proceeding of the 5th International conference on aluminium weldments. Mazzolani F. Vítkovice. 1978. Bulson P. E & FN SPON.: Rules for design. Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes Educational program TALAT ww.11 č.S. výrobu a montáž konstrukcí z hliníkových slitin. No. INACO.eaa. production and erection. 1992. Kosteas D.: European Recommendation for fatigue design of Aluminium Structures. the ECCS methodology.4. M. Munich. v Structural Stability and design.Směrnice pro navrhování. Brusel. INACO. Bulíček V. ECCS publication. Bulson P.: The new British design code for aluminium BS 8118.: Aluminium alloy structures (second edition).net/eaa/education/TALAT 7 . 1975. London. Rotterdam. Munich. London. 1995. Mazzolani F. v Proceeding of the 5th International conference on aluminium weldments.: Stability problems of aluminium alloys members. Balkema.: Aluminium structural analysis: recent European advances. ISBN 1-85166-660-5. M. 26. Technický zpravodaj r.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 References European recommendation for aluminium alloy structures. S. 1995. 1992. 1992. Elsevier.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 History – Bridge Quebec 1947 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 History – Bridge for airport terminal 1948 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 9 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 History – Aluminium ship 1948 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 History – Sceleton of car. Landover 1990 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .

Stairtowers and Support Structure . 1986 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes Helideck.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 History – Offshore helimodule. Helihangar.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 History – Couch for subway 1992 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Examples of application • Scaffolds • Platforms • Roofing • Mobil structures Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 14 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Aluminium and its alloys • Pure Aluminium • Aluminium Alloys – Wrought alloys – Casting alloys Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 – Non-heat treatable alloys – Heat treatable alloys Summary Notes 15 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Pure aluminium • Electrolytic smelters • Cast into different shapes or forms suitable for manufacturing of semifinished products • Level of purity a distinction is made between – commercial purity (99.98% aluminium) Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 16 .8% aluminium) and – high purity (up to 99.99.5 .

e. lead (Pb). strontium (Sr) and sodium (Na) – in small quantities to achieve special metallurgical effects or properties. grain refining. zirconium (Zr). boron (B). iron (Fe). machinability etc. titanium (Ti).Alloying elements • Improve its strength (from 20 MPa to 350 MPa) • Commonly used – – – – – Copper (Cu) Magnesium (Mg) Zinc (Zn) Silicon (Si) Manganese (Mn) • Other alloying elements – bismuth (Bi). 17 . nickel (Ni). lithium (Li).g. chromium (Cr).

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Adding lithium (Li) • Quantities of 3 to 5% – Improves the elastic modulus – Decreases the density. Products Assessment 2 • Structural aluminium-lithium alloys – restricted to aerospace applications – special care and attention at • • • • casting. fabrication. use scrap recycling stages Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 18 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Heat treatable and not treatable alloys Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 19 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Heat treatment Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 20 .

Products Assessment 2 • Ageing – spontaneously at ordinary temperatures (natural ageing) – by heating for a prescribed period at a prescribed low temperature (artificial ageing). The application of both solution heat-treatment and artificial ageing is often termed “full heat treatment“ 21 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 The nature of heat treatment • Heating for a prescribed period – at a prescribed temperature. – usually by quenching (solution heat-treatment). then cooling rapidly from this temperature.

artificial ageing. Products Assessment 2 • Quenching Plate. Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 22 . Alloying constituents tend to diffuse from the core into the aluminium cladding. extrusions and strip may be discharged from a furnace horizontally and quenched by water sprays to minimise distortion.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Solution treatment Heating. re-heat treatment • Heating Specified temperature range and heating length. quenching. Distortion can also be reduced by decreasing the cooling rate using hot water or oil as a quenching medium and this is often helpful with castings and forgings. Cast aluminium alloys need to be solution heat-treated for longer periods than wrought aluminium alloys.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1

Solution treatment
Heating, quenching, artificial ageing, re-heat treatment

• Artificial ageing
Hardening can be accelerated by heating the solution heat-treated alloy in the range 100 - 200 °C for a suitable period. Maximum strength is generally achieved by prolonged ageing at low temperature rather than by rapid ageing at high temperature.

Products Assessment 2

• Re-heat treatment
Alloys which have been incorrectly heat-treated can be re-solution treated and then precipitation treated again to enable optimum properties to be achieved. Clad material should not be re-heat treated.

Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2

Summary Notes

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Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1

Heat treatment
• Non heat treatable (Non-age hardening) alloys
– – – – – AlMg AlMn AlMgMn AlSiCu AlSi

Products Assessment 2

Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2

• Heat treatable (Age hardening) alloys
– – – – AlMgSi AlZnMg(Cu) AlCuMg AlLi (6000 series) (7000 series) (2000 series) (8000 series)

Summary Notes

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Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1

Four digit alloy designation system
• The first digit indicates the alloy group as follows: • The second digit indicates modifications of the original alloy or impurity limits. • The last two digits identify the aluminium alloy or indicate the aluminium purity.
– A letter used as a prefix indicates an experimental alloy. – A letter used as a suffix indicates national variations.

Products Assessment 2

Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2

Summary Notes

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Li.00 % purity and above Copper (Cu) Manganese (Mn) Silicon (Si) Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium and Silicon (MgSi) Zinc (Zn) Other element (eg. Fe) Unused series 1xxx 2xxx 3xxx 4xxx 5xxx 6xxx 7xxx 8xxx 9xxx Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 26 . 99.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 The first digit indicates the alloy group • • • • • • • • • Al.

record EN 573 1050A 1070A 2017A 3103 5052 5454 5083 6060 6063 6082 7020 ISO Al 99.5Mg1 27 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .7Mn AlMg4.7 AlCu4MgSi AlMn1 AlMg2.5Si AlSiMgMn AlZn4.5 Al 99.5Mn AlMgSi AlMg0.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Classification examples of commonly used alloys Int.5 AlMg2. reg.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Temper Designation F as-fabricated Fabricated products without special control O annealed Wrought products which are annealed to obtain the lowest strength temper Products Assessment 2 H strain hardened Wrought products which have been cold worked Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 W solution heat treated Unstable temper applicable only to alloys which spontaneously age at room temperature Summary Notes T thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than F. and H Products which are thermally treated. 28 . with or without supplementary strain hardening. O. The T is always followed by one or more digits.

H2 strain hardened and partially annealed Applies to products that are strain hardened more than the desired final amount and then reduced in strength to the desired level by partial annealing.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 H-temper . Products Assessment 2 H3 strain hardened and stabilized Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Applies to products which are strain hardened and whose mechanical properties are stabilized by a low temperature thermal treatment which results in slightly lower tensile strength and improved ductility. Summary Notes 29 .strain hardened H1 strain hardened only The number following this designation indicates the degree of strain hardening . unless stabilized. This designation is applicable only to those alloys which. gradually age-soften at room temperature .

strain hardened Three-digit H temper designation H111 to products strain hardened less than the amount required for a controlled H11 H112 acquire some temper from shaping processes H311 to products which are strain hardened less than the amount required for a controlled H31 temper.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 H-temper . H321 to products which are strain-hardened less than the amount required for a controlled H32 temper H323/H343 to products which are specially Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 30 .

or in which the effect of cold work in flattering or straightening Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes T6 solution heat treated and then artificially aged to products which are not cold worked after solution heat treatment.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 T temper . or in which the effect of cold work in flattering or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits. or in which the effect of cold work in flattering or straightening Products Assessment 2 T5 cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and then artificially aged to products which are not cold worked after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. 31 .thermally treated T4 solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially table condition to products which are not cold worked after solution heat treatment.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Assessment 1 • What are the advantages of aluminium structures? • What is nature of heat treatment? • How is indicated the heat treatment? Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 32 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Aluminium products for structural applications • Extrusions – – – – The extrusion process Direct extrusion Indirect and hydrostatic extrusion Extrusions for structural applications Products Assessment 2 • Sheet and plate – The cold rolling process – Hot rolling – Alloys for rolled products Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes • Casting alloys 33 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Processing aluminium alloys Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 34 .

Summary Notes – Copper and/or nickel. manganese or iron • High temperature strength properties 35 . copper and/or silicon + magnesium • very high strength alloys special heat treatments.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Wrought alloys • For fabrication by hot and cold forming processes – rolling. • Principal aloying elements Products Assessment 2 – Magnesium strengthening element • added up to 5% by weight. Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 – Zinc. – Lead and bismuth • The machinability is increased by adding. forging and extrusion.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Casting alloys • For the fabrication of cast parts • High fluidity in the liquid state • Good resistance to hot cracking during solidification. • Castability – addition of silicon (7 to 13% Si) – the silicon content further up to 25% reduces the thermal expansion down to levels of iron and steel Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 36 .

and the • Extrusion speed for the 6063 alloy • between 20 and 70 m/min.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion process • At temperatures 400° . Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 37 .500° C – using a pre-heated billet Products Assessment 2 • Direct Extrusion • Indirect and Hydrostatic Extrusions • Extrusion alloys – 6000-series (AlMgSi).

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion process Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 38 .

both as standard and special sections Summary Notes 6082 (AlMgSi1Mn) T6 In Europe normal 39 . Products Assessment 2 • AlMgSi 6000-serie Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 – majority of extrusions good overall performance i.3000-series for drawn tubes • due to very high formability • excellent dimensional tolerance abilities • 2000-series or the 7000 series • trength performance • no weldability (Cu alloys) • potential danger of stress corrosion (Zn alloys).e.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion . • relatively easy to extrude • medium to high strength in the T6 condition • good corrosion resistance in marine and industrial environments • good weldability by all welding methods • good availability on the market.examples • AlMn .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Sections • Extrusion • Extrusion • Extrusion • Casting • Cold forming • Hot rolling Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 40 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Sections • Extrusion • Extrusion • Extrusion • Casting • Cold forming • Hot rolling Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 41 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion • Bulbs • Stiffners • Locks Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 42 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion – preparation for welding Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 43 .

thicknesses Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 44 .Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion – reccomended shapes Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 45 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Hot rolling Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 • Thick sheetings Summary Notes 46 .

5Mn) (AlMg2.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Hot rolling • Non heat treatable alloys – 5052 – 5083 – 5054 (AlMg2.5Mg1) Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 47 .5) (AlMg4.7Mn) Products Assessment 2 • Heat treatable alloys – 6082 – 7020 (AlMgSi1) (AlZn4.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Reverze hot rolling Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 • Thin sheetings Summary Notes 48 .

Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 • Permanent mold casting • produced by feeding molten metal by force of gravity or low pressure into a mold constructed of durable material (iron or steel). AlCuTi and AlZnMg. • AlSi-alloys are preferred with respect to castability. Summary Notes • Die casting • produced by injecting molten metal under high pressure into a metal mold or die and allowing it to solidify. and allowing it to solidify.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Casting Alloys for Structural Applications • The typical alloys AlSiMg. AlMg. AlSiCu. Products Assessment 2 • Sand casting • produced by pouring molten metal into a sand mold and allowing it to solidify. 49 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Advanced sheetings Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 • Thin sheetings Summary Notes 50 .

priciple Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 • Thin sheetings Summary Notes 51 .Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Sandwitch panels .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Sandwitch panels .advantages Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 • Thin sheetings Summary Notes 52 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Assessment • What are the major proceses for aluminium products? • What sre the advantages of extrusion? • What is the reason for limits of size and thickness in extrusion? Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 53 .

etc Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 54 .Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Choice of alloy and temper • The available semi product range • Delivery time from stock or plant • Prices.

5Mn < AlMgSi1 Summary Notes 55 . – – – – type of alloy quantity and price material dimensions delivery time/eventual need for own internal stock – demands for special material control/certificates and traceability Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 • Type of Alloy AlMn1 < AlMg2.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Costs • Main relevant factors.5 < AlMg4.

commonly 40 % and more) Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Design • Steel as a reference material • Material property E = 70 000 MPa  = 2 700 kg / m3  ductility 0.1 % to 12 % (structural abow 4 %) (steel min 15 %.

Design of Aluminium Structures Pre-standars Eurocode Title General structural rules. ENV 1999-1-1 EN 1999-1-1 ENV 1999-1-2 EN 1999-1-2 ENV 1999-2 EN 1999-1-3 EN 1999-1-4 EN 1999-1-5 Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 57 . Structural fire design Structures susceptible to fatigue Cold-formed structural sheeting Shell structures.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Standards Eurocode 9 .

Structural analysis 6. Materials 4. Basis of design 3.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Structure of EN 1999-1-1 Chapters 1. General 2. Durability 5. Design of joints Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 58 . Ultimate limit states for members 7. Serviceability limit states 8.

E. D.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Annexes to EN 1999-1-1 A. C. Execution classes Equivalent T-stub in tension Materials selection Corrosion and surface protection Analytical models for stress strain relationship Behaviour of cross section beyond elastic limit Rotation capacity Plastic hinge method for continuous beams Lateral torsional buckling of beams and torsional or flexural-torsional buckling of compression members Properties of cross sections Shear lag effects in member design Classification of connections 59 Adhesive bonded connections Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes . J. I. M. K. G. H. L. B. F.

EP/H ET 6082 Temper 4 4 Thickfo 1) fu 1) A 5) 2) fo.2% proof strength fo and ultimate tensile strength fu (unwelded and for HAZ). EP/H EP/O. min elongation A. reduction factors ro. buckling class and exponent np for wrought aluminium alloys – Extruded profiles.52 DT T6 5 < t  20 .54 0.ER/B EP/O.haz HAZ-factor4) ) ).Characteristic values of 0. extruded tube.50 0.haz Products Assessment 2 np 7) Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 T4 T5 T6 t  25 t5 t5 5 < t  15 t  20 110 230 250 260 250 260 255 240 205 270 290 310 295 310 310 310 14 8 8 10 8 8 8 10 100 125 160 185 0.48 0.60 0.50 0. ness t BC 6) mm 1) 3) N/mm2 % N/mm2 o.69 0.2b .haz u.78 0.haz in HAZ.60 0.91 0.64 0. extruded rod/bar and drawn tube Alloy EN-AW Product form EP.haz and ru.ET.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Material EN 1991-1-1 Chapter 3 Table 3.60 0.49 0.63 0.haz fu.48 0.60 B B A A A A A A 8 28 32 25 27 25 22 17 60 Summary Notes ER/B T6 20< t 150 t5 125 185 0.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Linear/multi-linear model of material Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 61 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Nonlinear model of material Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 62 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Steel and aluminium sections Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Aluminium and steel Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 64 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Aluminium and steel Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 65 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Assessment • What affest the cost of aluminium structures? • What knowledge in EN 1999-1-1 supports the other Eurocodes ? • How are described the material properties of aloys? Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 66 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Summary  Weight (2700 kg/m3)  Corrosion  Mon magnetic and low toxic  Fatigue. low ductility transaction temperature Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes .

e.Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion . both as standard and special sections Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 6082 (AlMgSi1Mn) T6 In Europe normal Summary Notes 68 . • relatively easy to extrude • medium to high strength in the T6 condition • good corrosion resistance in marine and industrial environments • good weldability by all welding methods • good availability on the market.examples • AlMgSi 6000-serie – majority of extrusions good overall performance i.

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 69 .

Objectives Introduction Examples of structures Structural alloys Designation system Assessment 1 Extrusion Products Assessment 2 Material selection Eurocodes Assessment 2 Summary Notes 70 .

Thank you for your kind attention 71 .

material. Further readings on the relevant documents from website of ww.net/eaa/education/TALA. • • • • 72 .Notes to users of the lecture • This session is a basic information about the fire design and requires about 90 min lecturing. Formative questions should be well answered before the summative questions completed within the tutorial session. production. The use of relevant standards of national standard institutions are strongly recommended.eaa. Keywords for the lecture: aluminium structures. Eurocodes. examples.