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NGUYN T V V NG Wu Shu - ng Thnh (Dch) ---o0o--Ngun http://thuvienhoasen.

org Chuyn sang ebook 9-8-2009 Ngi thc hin : Nam Thin namthien@gmail.com Link Audio Ti Website http://www.phatphaponline.org ---o0o--Mi ngi u ng rng khoa hc l yu t tin phong to nn nn vn minh hin i. Nhng khm ph gn y v s gii phng nng lng ht nhn a nhn loi n mt thi i mi: thi i nguyn t. Song, bt hnh thay, du hiu u tin ca s khai sinh thi i mi ny l vic gia tng mt loi v kh git ngi mi, l bom nguyn t. Nhn loi cm thy lo u khi sng trong thi i nguyn t, mt thi i m s hy dit ton b cc nn vn minh trn th gii ny l iu c th xy ra. Khi bit mnh ang sa vo vt ly ca thi i, con ngi bn ngh n vic nn loi b th nng lng git ngi tn hng mt cuc sng thanh bnh, gin d nh t tin i trc. Tuy nhin, lch s khng cho cc s kin tri ngc v qu kh. H. Compton - mt khoa hc gia c thm quyn M, tng tuyn b trong cun Mt th gii hay l khng, rng: " Khng mt ai c sc ngn chn s hnh thnh ca thi i nguyn t". Do vy, iu ng n duy nht m con ngi cn lm l phi thc c rng v th ca mnh ang ng l nghim trng v cn phi thch ng t duy cng li sng ca mnh bng mt cch no s dng hiu qu nht ngun lc mi ang trong tm tay ca mnh. R rng bn thn bom n khng c g sai lm m sai lm pht sinh t chnh con ngi. Hn na s tht l bn cht ni ti ca nguyn t khng c nh hng my i vi khoa hc hay cc lnh vc khc nh tri thc, tm l, trit hc v ngay c thn hc. Mc ch ca chng ti l gii thiu nhng s kin quan trng cng nhng quan nim mi m cc nh khoa hc hin nay khm ph so snh s ging nhau gia nhng khm ph vi cc nguyn l cn bn v thc ti m c Pht Thch Ca Mu Ni gic ng v thuyt ging cch y hn 2500 nm. Nm 1808, John Dalton xut l thuyt nguyn t. ng tin rng mt nguyn t bao gm nhiu nguyn t khng th thy v khng th chia ch c. ng cho rng cc nguyn t c c tnh c kt nh nhng vin bi-da. Cui th k y, cc nh khoa hc v i nh Michael Faraday, James Maxwell v Lord Kelvin bt u s nghip pht trin nn khoa hc in t. Bn cht in t ca mt nguyn t phn no c khm ph. Nm 1913, Niel Bohs xut mt l thuyt mi, theo nguyn t gm hai phn: mt ht nhn nh v nng c bao quanh bi mt khong khng ln hn v cc electron lun di chuyn cng ging nh cc hnh tinh xoay quanh mt tri, bao quanh cc electron l nhng dng t trng l. V l thuyt, nh hng ca cc dng t trng ny lun mang tnh ph qut. Faraday minh ha mt nguyn t cng ging nh con sao bin vi thn nh v cc chi tng i di. Sao bin s b vng vo mt vt khi cc chi ca n tip xc vi vt . Hnh nh minh ha ny c ngha l: s cu thnh ca v tr vt cht c tng h n cc v tr khc v chng khng th tch ri c. Quan nim v nguyn t nh th c mt ngha trit hc v cng quan trng: cc s vt khng th tn ti ring l, tch bit nhau, do nim v s tn ti ca mt vt th c bit thc ra ch l mt o tng trong tm m thi. V tr chng qua l mt qu trnh, mt h thng vn hnh c s tng tc ln nhau v khng mt s vt no vn hnh c lp vi cc s vt

cn li, v cng tt c u vn ng khng ngng. Qu trnh ny, tuy cch din dch c v khc l, nhng rt kh hp vi gio l v thng ca o Pht, mt gio l ni v bn cht bin dch v v thng ca cc php. Khi gii phng c nng lng ht nhn, con ngi vn cn mang mt nim tin m m v s tn ti ca chn mi bn nguyn t m nguyn t ca chng c xem l khng th hy hoi c. Tuy nhin, vo u nm 1905, nh bc hc Albert Einstein khm ph mt s tht l khi lng v nng lng c th hon i nhau c, v ng a ra mt phng trnh hon ho : E = MC2, trong E l nng lng, C l vn tc nh sng v M l khi lng. Theo phng trnh ny, mt vt th nh nu chuyn qua dng nng lng th s to ra mt ngun nng lng rt ln. Phng trnh ny c kim nghim l hon ton ng qua sc tn ph ca nhng qu bom nguyn t ti New Mexico, Hiroshima, Nagasaki v vng ph cn Bikini Atoll Thi Bnh Dng. Nh vy vt th hay nguyn t c th c m t nh nhng hnh thi hp nht kin c ca nng lng. Phn ng xy ra trong mt qu bom nguyn t vi sc bc ph ln c th c th hin qua cng thc sau: U - 235 + Neutron = I = Y = N neutron. ( U: Urani, I: it, Y: Yttriuna, N mt con s no ). Nh th, mt nguyn t Urani v ra v chuyn thnh nhng nguyn t it v v Yttrium. Nguyn t, ngha gc ca n l "khng th chia ch c", cui cng c chng minh rng c th b chia ch. Nhng trong lnh vc ha hc ngy nay, l thuyt quy c v nguyn t vn cn thit cho cc mc ch thc t nht. iu nghch l l l thuyt c th c hiu mt cch trit l rng: mt nguyn t thc ra khng phi l mt nguyn t; n c t tn nh th v cho mi ngi d gi m thi. Ngi ta s cm thy ngc nhin khi nhn ra s tng ng gia khoa hc v Pht gio qua li tuyn b sau trong kinh Kim Cang: "Khi Nh Lai ni v th gii, Ngi khng cho rng th gii y l thc, Ngi ch gi th gii trn danh ngha m thi". Chng ta cng chuyn sang mt lnh vc khc m cc nh khoa hc t quan tm, l chc nng l tr ca con ngi. D cc chc nng tm l phc tp v vi t hn cc hin tng vt l, nhng mi chng sanh u c kh nng thu hiu chnh mnh nu h bit t mnh qun chiu v thc nghim tu tr. Cc chc nng l tr v tm l ca chng ta c th c chia lm hai loi: nhng chc nng hot ng trong lnh vc ca thc v nhng kh nng siu thc. Nhiu chuyn gia tm l a ra nhiu thut ng v nh ngha khc nhau v nhng kh nng siu thc, mt s gi l tim thc v nhng ngi khc gi l v thc. Song ni chung h u ng rng hot ng tm l ca cc chc nng vt khi s nhn bit v iu khin ca tm mnh. V bn cht ca lnh vc tim thc ny, cc nh tm l a ra nhiu tn gi khc nhau nh: s ham mun v khao kht ban s, bn cht nguyn y, s n lc, thi thc, gic gi, bn nng... Thc ra, khoa hc nghin cu v lnh vc c th ny vn cn non tr. C mt iu l l lnh vc tim thc, mt lnh vc kh m h i vi con ngi trong thi i nguyn t li c cp nhiu ln v trnh by rt c th trong kinh vn Pht gio. Nhng tc phm ny khng nhng bn lun v tm thc m cn cp n cc phng php hnh tr vt l v tm linh ch ng cc ham mun v khao kht, on tr chng mt cch hon ton, v t c trng thi gi l gic ng, ni m hnh gi th nghim c cc php nh tht, v cui cng th hi gio l v ng, ngha l khng c ci g gi l bn ng c nhn c. Thc khng th cp y mt cch chi tit v trit l v phng php tu tp tm trong o Pht, nhng c l s th v hn nu ti trnh by khi qut trit l ca Php Tng tng hay Duy Thc tng. Theo trit l ca trng phi ny, v tr c hnh thnh trn nn tng ca tm thc. Nm thc u gn lin vi nm cn, tc l kh nng thy, nghe, ngi, nm v cm th. Thc th su l thc nng ng nht. Thc ny bao gm tt c cc chc nng tinh thn trong phm tr nhn thc. Thc th by c cng nng chp th bn ng, v thc th tm l thc quan trng nht. Thc ny cng c gi l Tng thc, ni dung cha cc chng t, nng lng ca tt c cc

hnh vi v nim. Thc th by v tm c cng nng nh nhng trung tm tm l. D mt ngi ang tnh to hay ng say v ngay c khi ang trong trng thi thng thng m ngi ta gi l cht, hai thc ny vn tn ti. Thm ch khi su thc trn khng cn hot ng c na, nng lc ca thc th by hay kh nng chp ng vn mnh m, n ging nh ht nhn gn lin vi nguyn t. N to ra mt lp v bn ngoi vi nhiu hnh thc khc nhau, nhng bn trong n l bn nng tham i sng, ln mnh, s hu... thm ch n cn nh hng n h thng l tr ca chng ta. N khuy ng tm thc chng ta v to nn nhng o nh v s tn ti c nhn "ci ti", "chng sinh", "s vt"... v che ph i bn cht thc s ca nhng nguyn l v thng v v ng. V tt c cc kh nng ca tm thc u t nhiu b nh hng bi s chp th m qung ca bn ng nn c th ni mt cch hnh tng rng tim thc l ht nhn trong chp ng l ng lc tri buc. Cc thc khc di chuyn xung quanh n nh cc electron ang vn hnh xung quanh ht nhn ca nguyn t. S phn b ca cc electron trong qu o ca mt nguyn t quyt nh c tnh ho hc ca n. Cng th, cc yu t nh thc, cm th, l tr...ca mi c nhn quyt nh nhn cch hay tnh cch ca ngi . Mt kha cnh khc ng c cp l sc mnh l tr ca con ngi. L tr c kh nng suy lun, hiu bit v tng hp tt c nhng s kin xy ra trong kinh nghim. Nh th, qua kh nng ny, con ngi c th chuyn ha cng nh trao i nhng t tng v suy t ca mnh ging nh cc electron qu o ngoi cng c kh nng to ra dng in. Mt im c bit khc ca l tr l n t b bn ng chi phi nht. Ngc li, thng qua l tr v qu trnh qun chiu, hnh gi c c kh nng t phn tnh v s tht v ng. Chnh phng tin tr tu thm diu ny dn n s x ly mi chp th v bn ng, hay ni mt cch hnh tng hn, nh vo , s tan v ca mt nguyn t vt cht mi c th xy ra. C l di tc ng ca nhng tng v l thuyt khoa hc mi c khm ph, William James, mt nh khoa hc ng thi l mt trit gia, tuyn b rng thc ch l mt loi chc nng v Bertrand Russell cho rng thut ng " tm thn" khng thuc v mt thc th n l trong thm quyn ca n m chnh l mt h thng bao gm cc thc th khc nhau. S xut hin ca nhng li tin on v v ng c th phc hi nim tin loi ngi v bn cht ca thc ti, mt nim tin c hnh thnh trn nn tng ca trit l sng sut c lin h mt thit vi nn khoa hc hin i. Nhng hiu c Tnh Khng ca bn ng l mt chuyn, trc nhn v hnh tr mt cuc sng v ng li l chuyn khc. Einstein tng hnh dung v kh nng gii phng nng lng ht nhn nhng mi n khong bn mi nm sau, bom mi c ch to. C nhng bc nh c Thch Ca Mu Ni v cc t A la hn ca Ngi, d vi mc ch hon ton khc vi cc nh khoa hc, tuyn b t c trng thi gic ng vin mn v hon ton nhip phc c bn ng, nhng so vi hng t chng sinh khc th h cng him nh cc nguyn t t phng x, Urani, radi, actinium v thorium trn tri t ny. C mt iu th v l trong gio l Pht gio, nguyn l Trung o c nhc n nhiu ln. Nguyn l ny ch yu dy con ngi ch ng khng ri vo nhng cc oan trong bt c hnh vi no trn phng din th xc ln tinh thn. Chnh nguyn l ny a hnh gi n s th nhp v gic ng. Trong tin trnh thm nhp vo bn cht ca nguyn t, cc nh khoa hc pht hin ra rng mt nguyn t bao gm mt h thng cc electron m tnh bao quanh ht nhn dng tnh. Cc phn t nh nh proton, electron hay cc ht alpha v cc tia in t (nh cc tia gama) mt i nng lng v yu dn khi i qua nhng vng t trng ca nguyn t . Cui cng, h khm ph mt loi ht mi gi l ntron (neutron) khng mang in tch c th t do vt qua qu o v xuyn vo ht nhn. Du khoa hc nguyn t v Pht gio c v hon ton khc nhau, nhng hai h thng ny cng gii quyt vn nng lng v gii phng nng

lng bng cch ph v mt hnh thi hp nht kin c ca nng lng, m mt bn gi l nguyn t, bn kia gi l bn ng. Hng thc hin ca hai lnh vc ny cng l "hng ni". Do chng ta khng nn ngc nhin v s tng ng gia hai lnh vc ny. Nng lng c gii phng qua vic t b bn ng tuy khng c th nh trng hp bom nguyn t, nhng tr tu ti thng v lng t bi v bin ca c Pht rt ging vi nh sng v hi m ta ra t mt ngun nng lng nguyn t t nhin, l mt tri. Trn y ngi vit cp ngn gn n hai trong s ba nguyn l cn bn ca Pht gio l v thng v v ng. Nguyn l cn li l kh: kt qu ca mt cuc sng y ng tnh. Ba nguyn l ny quan trng n ni chng c xem l nhng yu t kim chng ca Pht gio. Bt c l thuyt hay trit l no tng hp hon ton vi ba nguyn l ny th c xem l thuc v Pht gio, v bt c gio l no khng tng hp vi chng th khng phi l gio l o Pht. T s tht ny, chng ta c th nhn ra tm quan trng ca l tr trong o Pht. ng Thnh (Dch) (Nguyt san Gic Ng)

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