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3 Defense Against Infectious Disease Pathogens Cause Diseases y A pathogen is any living organism or virus that is capable of causing a disease o Include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and various types of worms y Exposure to majority of pathogens don t result in disease since we are too well defended for most pathogens to enter our bodies; in the case one does enter, we have previously developed an immunity to that pathogen o For some pathogens like bacteria, there are chemicals called antibiotics what can work against the living bacterial cells but do not affect our body cells How Antibiotics Work Against Bacteria y Bacteria are prokaryotic cells while body cells are eukaryotic cells o Among many differences between the two are differences in biochemical reactions and pathways; have cell wall structure y Antibiotics are chemicals that take advantage of the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells o One type of antibiotic may selectively block protein synthesis in bacteria, but have no affect on our cells ability to manufacture proteins o Other type may inhibit the production of a new cell wall by bacteria, thus blocking their ability to grow and divide y Viruses make use of our own body cell metabolism to create new viruses o Any chemical that could inhabit this would also be damaging to our own body cells (why antibiotics only work on bacteria and no viruses) y Antibiotics are chemicals with the ability to damage or kill prokaryotic cells, but not damage eukaryotic cells or their metabolism Preventing Pathogens from Entering Our Bodies y Best way to stay healthy is to prevent pathogens form having the chance to cause disease o Can try to stay away from sources of infection; why it is still common to isolate (quarantine) people who have certain transmittable diseases Skin y

Skin is a barrier to infection as it has to primary layers o Underneath layer is called the dermis and is alive; contains sweat glands, capillaries, sensory receptors and dermal cells that give structure and strength to the skin o Top layer is called the epidermis and is constantly being replaced as underlying dermal cells die and are moved upwards; this layer of

as long as skin stays intact we are protected Stomach Acid y Some pathogens enter the body in food and water but the acidic environment of the stomach helps kill most of these ingested pathogens Mucus y Other pathogens enter in the air we breath (through nasal passage or mouth) y Either route of entry is lined with a type of tissue known as mucous membrane y Cells of mucous membranes produce and secrete a lining of sticky mucous o Can trap incoming pathogens and so prevent them from reaching cells they could infect y Some mucous membrane tissue is lined with cilia (hair like extensions capable of wave like movements o Movement moves trapped pathogens up and out of the mucous-lined tissues like your trachea y Cells that secrete mucous also secrete enzyme called lysozyme which is able to chemically damage many pathogens Area with Mucous Membrane What it is and does Trachea Tube which carries air to and from the luncgs Nasal Passages Tubes which allow air to enter the nose and then the trachea Urethra Tube which carries urine from bladder to the outside Vagina Reproductive tract leading from uterus to the outside Role of Phagocytic Leucocytes y Leucocytes (white blood cells) are cells in our bloodstream that help us fight off pathogens that enter our bodies and also provide us with an immunity for many pathogens we encounter a second time. they are able to squeeze their way in and out of small blood vessels o Macrophages usually first encounter an invader completely outside the bloodstream . not always in blood vessels y Movements of the cell membranes is similar to the movement an amoeba makes and is referred to as amoeboid movement y Since macrophages can easily change their shape by amoeboid movement.mainly dead cells is a good barrier against most pathogens because its not truly alive. many types different roles o One type that gets involved early in the process of fighting off a pathogen is called a macrophage. which are large white blood cells that are able to change their cellular shape to surround an invader and rake in through the process of phagocytosis.

a protein coat y Cellular invaders. antibodies as a group of molecules are similar to each other y Each antibody is a protein that is Y-shapes. of the body. in the case of a virus. at the end of each of the forks of the Y is a binding site o Binding site is where the antibody attaches itself to an antigen  Because the antigen is a protein on the surface of a pathogen.y y y y When macrophage meets a cell. have proteins that are embedded into their outer surface. just the fact that it is something that is not-self and therefore should be removed Antibodies Are Produced In Response To a Specific Pathogen y Antibodies are protein molecules that we produce in response to a specific of pathogen o Each antibody is different because each type has been produced in response to a different pathogen y Each pathogen is made up of either cells with cell membranes or. particularly cold virus) 2.g. the macrophage engulfs the invader by phagocytes o Phagocytes usually contain many lysosome organelles in order to help chemically digest whatever was engulfed o This type of body response is called non-specific because the identity of the pathogen has not been determines at this point. each type of B lymphocyte can produce one type of antibody y Problem is each cell produces a relatively small number of antibodies in comparison to the massive infection that may be already going on y Continually evolving immune response has a way of producing many antibodies y Immune Response 1. or not part of the body (non-self) Recognition is based on the protein molecules that make up part of the surface of all cells and viruses If collection of proteins is determined self the cell is left alone If the determination is found as not-self . it recognizes whether it s a natural part self . these foreign proteins are called antigens o All not-self proteins are antigens y Most pathogens have several different antigens on their surface and therefore may trigger the production of many different types of antibody y Even though each type of antibody is different and is specific for just one type of antigen. A specific antigen type is identifies (e. A specific B lymphocyte is identified that can produce an antibody which will bind to an antigen (proteins on the cold virus) . like bacteria. the antibody thus becomes attached to the pathogen y Leucocytes that produce antibodies are called B lymphoctes.

includes swelling of the area and excessive mucous production  Other cells in the body do not have the same protein so cold viruses does not affect them y Same concept holds true for HIV. the antibodies help eliminate the pathogen 7. known as a helper-T cell (which HIV affects) o HIV is a type of virus that has a latency period (infection occurs.x. only certain cells in the body have the protein in their membranes that HIV recognizes o One is a cell type that functions as a communicator in the bloodstream. Using various mechanisms.3. but cells remain alive). the communication between cells no longer occurs and antibodies so not get produced o Individual no longer fights of pathogens as they did before and the symptoms of AIDS appears o One or more of the secondary infections that takes the life of someone with AIDS Issues Related to Aids y Difficult to find a vaccine or cure for HIV infection since the HIV hides away in side its host cells for years . The B lymphocyte and several identical B lymphocytes clone themselves (divide repeatedly by mitosis) to rapidly increase the number of the same type of B lymphocytes 4. Newly released antibodies circulate in the bloodstream and eventually find their antigen match (the proteins of the pathogen) 6. They are called memory cells How HIV Damages the Immune System y Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that eventually results in the set of symptoms collectively called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) y Viruses must find a type of cell in the body that matches their own protein in a complementary way o Why only certain body cells are damaged by certain viruses as is typically reflected in the symptoms associated with the particular infection o E. Some of the cloned antibody0producing lymphocytes remain in the bloodstream and give immunity from a second infection by the same pathogen. it is usually many years after HIV infection that the symptoms of AIDS develop y Helper-T cells are the cells that communicate which cells need to undergo the cloning process and begin antibody production so when helper-Y cells begin to die. Cold virus locates proteins on mucous membrane cells in your nasal region and damages those cells. The newly formed army begins antibody production 5.

social acceptance and other forms of discrimination Not all countries have education and medical facilities to deal with the disease. body s immune responses continue to work against other pathogens but not to combat the HIV because it is already inside body cells waiting for some chemical signal to become active Virus mutates quickly for a virus and so body s immune responses or vaccine may not even recognize HIV after it has mutated several times Difficulty of developing medication is the association of HIV with sexual activity and drug abuse. reluctance to allocated money for HIV research HIV is transmitted from person to person by body fluids o Includes fluid exchanged during sex and reusing unsterile syringe needles for legal or illegal drug infections o At one time blood for transfusions was not tested for blood-borne diseases like HIV o But now. inadequate medical care sometimes leads to an increase in infection rates as patients with a variety of ailments are often grouped together in large wards which leads to an exchange of diseases between them . countries with reasonable medical care.y y y y y y y During this time. blood is routinely tested for the presence of blood-borne disease and destroyed if pathogens are found AIDS was originally labeled as a disease affecting homosexuals and drug abusers but now AIDS is spreading by way of heterosexual encounters Individuals who have been diagnosed as being HIV positive may be discriminated against in terms of employment insurance education access.