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NAZARBAYEV UNIVERSITY School of Engineering Examination for Internal Students Academic Session 2011/12

FLUID MECHANICS

Date: Thursday 15 December 2011 Time Allowed 3 hours

Time: 10.00

Attempt a total of FIVE questions

EITHER Section A Attempt THREE questions and Section B Attempt TWO questions OR Section A Attempt TWO questions and Section B Attempt THREE questions All questions carry 20 marks, you can obtain a maximum of 100 marks in this examination.

The use of calculators approved by the School of Engineering is permitted. A formula table is provided at the rear of this examination paper. DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAMINATION QUESTION PAPER. THIS PAPER WILL BE COLLECTED AFTER THE EXAMINATION HAS ENDED.

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

Section A
1. (a) A piston is free to move vertically within a cylinder, illustrated in Figure 1. The piston and cylinder both have a cross-sectional area, in the horizontal plane, of 0.07 m2 and the cylinder is filled with water. An open U-tube manometer is filled with mercury (density Vm = 13000 kg/m3) and is connected to the cylinder as shown. For hL 60 mm and h = 100 mm, what is the value of the applied force, F, acting on the piston? The weight of the piston is negligible and the system is in equilibrium. (10 marks)

patm Force, F

Piston

cylinder

h water hL

Mercury

Figure 1

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

(b) Figure 2 shows the arrangement of a reservoir manometer containing mercury (density Vm = 13000 kg/m3). It is to be used to measure the pressure difference which arises in pipe flow between two points 1 and 2 due to the presence of a valve as shown. Determine the pressure difference when the liquid in the pipe is alcohol (density Va = 800 kg/m3), and the manometer reading is s = 112 mm. (10 marks)

Valve 1 z s = 30 2

Figure 2

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

2. An open rectangular tank is 2 m wide and 4 m long. The tank contains water to a depth of 2 m and oil (density V = 800 kg/m3) floating on top of the water to a depth of 1 m.

A 2m wide wall of the tank experiences a net horizontal force due to the static fluids that it contains.

Determine,

(a) the resultant fluid force acting on a 2m wide wall of the tank, (10 marks) (b) the moment of the force on the wall about the base of the wall. (10 marks)

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

3. A small sphere (diameter = 10 mm) is left to fall in a fluid (oil, SAE10W) at 20C with a constant velocity of 50 mm/s. The following data is available: - For SAE10W oil at 20C: density, V = 920 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity, Q= 0.1 Pa.s - Drag coefficient CD data for the sphere: CD = 24 / Re CD = 24 Re-0.645 CD = 0.5 CD = 0.000366 Re-0.4275 CD = 0.18 a) Find the drag force on the sphere (6 marks) b) Find the density of the sphere. (8 marks) for Re 1 for 1 < Re 400 for 400 < Re 3 x 105 for 3 x 105 < Re 2 x 106 for Re > 2 x 106

c) At what rate is the sphere losing potential energy? What proportion of this is gained by the oil as potential energy? Explain the remaining energy lost by the sphere. (6 marks)

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

4. Pollution is discharged from a set of nozzles into a river which has a uniform velocity U. The discharge is at a rate Q (m3/s) over the entire water depth h (m) so that the discharge is approximately uniform over the depth and equal in all horizontal directions.

Model the pollution discharge as a source in a uniform flow:

(a) Show clearly the coordinate system you are using and give an expression for the velocity potential. (5 marks) (b) Calculate expressions for the velocity field generated by injecting the pollution. (5 marks) (c) How far upstream does the pollution reach? (5 marks) (d) Calculate the far downstream width of the pollution stream assuming negligible missing with the main river flow. (5 marks)

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

Section B
5. (Extra figures and tables to help with this question can be found at the end of the paper). A large reservoir supplies water for a community. A portion of the water supply system is shown. Water is pumped from the reservoir at B to a large storage tank at G before being sent on to the water treatment facility. The system is designed to provide 1.31 m3/s of water. The system between F and G contains 760 m of pipe, two globe valves and four 90 elbows, and a square edged exit into the tank. The pressure at C is pC = 197 kPa. All pipes are 508 mm in diameter and constructed from cast iron. All other dimensions are indicated in Figure 4. Assume kinematic viscosity for water is 1.00 x 10-6 m2/s. Note: For square exits/entrances of the tanks, you can assume the loss coefficient, K=1. Calculate: (a) The average velocity of water in the pipe (b) The gauge pressure at section F (c) The power input to the pump (its efficiency is 80%). Patm B (4 marks) (12 marks) (4 marks)

z = 174 m z = 152m

z = 104m z = 91m C Figure 3. 6 pump F

Patm

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

6. Water flows at 7 m/s through a circular tube with an inside diameter of 50 mm as shown in Figure 4. A smoothly contoured body of 40 mm diameter is held in the end of the tube where the water discharges into the atmosphere. Neglecting frictional effects and assuming uniform velocity profiles at each section, determine:

(a) The pressure measured by the gauge. (8 marks) (b) The horizontal force, F, required to hold the body. (12 marks) gauge V2 V1 = 7 m/s V2 Force, F

Figure 4.

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

7. (a) Write an expression of momentum conservation in the integral form. Indicate what each term in the equation corresponds to. (5 marks) Water (density ) from a jet of initial diameter D and corresponding initial vertical velocity u0 is used to support the coned shaped object shown in Figure 5. = 30 air

cone air

Water jet

Water jet

air

H Water jet

Free surface

u0

Figure 5.

(b) Derive an expression for the combined mass of the cone and water, m, that can be supported by the jet, in terms of parameters associated with a suitable chosen control volume. (10 marks)

(c) Use your expression to calculate m when u0 =10 m/s, H = 1 m, h = 0.8 m, D = 50 mm, = 1000 kg/m3 and = 30. (5 marks) 8

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

8. Two reservoirs (A and B) with a height difference of H = 10 m are connected by a system of two pipes in parallel illustrated in Figure 6. Pipe 1 has diameter 50 mm and length 100 m. Pipe 2 has diameter 100 mm and length 100 m. Each pipe has an entry loss coefficient KEN = 0.5, exit loss coefficient KEX = 1.0 and Darcy friction factor f = 0.008. Assume no losses at the entrance and exit of the reservoirs.

A
Smooth entrance

KEN = 0.5

H Pipe 2
KEX = 1

B
KEN = 0.5

Pipe 1
KEX = 1

Smooth exit

Figure 6.

(a) Calculate the rate of volume flow for each pipe and the total volume flow rate through the system. (8 marks)

(b) A pipe 100m long and diameter D is chosen to replace the two pipes and provide the same flow rate as (a). The new pipe has entrance and exit losses KEN = 0.5 and KEX = 1 respectively. Show that the diameter D satisfies a fifth-order equation. (8 marks) (c) Neglecting the effects of the entry and exit losses and suitably approximating the equation derived in (b), estimate the value of D. (4 marks)

THIS IS THE END OF THE EXAMINATION 9

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

Useful formulas
Equations for pipes with diameter, D, mean velocity, U, and fluid with kinematic viscosity, R, where g is acceleration due to gravity: Entry length for a pipe Head loss due to components with loss coefficient, K: Head loss in a pipe due to friction where f is friction factor and L is pipe length:

Rate of work done in a pipe with volume flow rate Q and pressure loss (p: Loss coefficients, K, for pipe fittings: Fitting type Valves (fully open) Globe valve Gate valve Standard elbow: 90o : 45 o 10 0.2 0.9 0.4 K = (p.2g/U2

Pipe Riveted steel Concrete Wood stave Cast iron Galvanized iron Asphalted cast iron Commercial steel or wrought iron Drawn tubing

Roughness, O, millimeters 0.9 9 0.3 3 0.2 0.9 0.26 0.15 0.12 0.046 0.0015 10

FLUID MECHANICS, Semester 1, 2011-12

Moody chart
Laminar Flow 0.10 0.090 0.080 0.070 0.060 Complete Turbulence, Hydraulically Rough 0.05 0.04 Critical Zone Transition Zone

f= Flow inar Lam

0.03 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001

(L/D)V /(2g)

0.050 0.040

hf

Friction Factor f =

0.030 0.025 0.020

Hydraulically Smooth 0.015

0.010 0.009 0.008 10


3

k /D = 0.000005 k /D = 0.000001
10
4

0.00005 0.00001 10
7

10

10

10

Reynolds Number, Re =

VD R

11

Relative Roughness,O /D

e 64/R