496 views

Uploaded by Darya Bukhtoyarova

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Compressible Flow
- UBC CHBE 251 - Fluid Mechanics - Problems From Past Finals
- Fluid Mechanics Tuts and Answers
- Numerical Methods HW2
- Steam pipe size calculation.pdf
- Chapter 1
- Guide on How to Develop a Small Hydro Power Plant
- Ameron Calculation Manual for Bondstand GRE Pipe Systems
- Microirrigation – Theory & Practice
- IAB Unsteady Friction
- Calc Example (Imper) HOT WATER
- Engineering & Piping Design.pdf
- Darcy Friction Factor Formulae
- 25635-220-3DR-M11-00001
- roughness
- Pipe Flow Expert Brochure
- 12inch Pipe x 500MT Per Hr C3@ 10deg.C
- azdez 2
- Ejercicio Video 17 y 18 Milan Stanko
- Nodalanalysis Introductiontoinflowandoutflowperformance Next 161121154412

You are on page 1of 12

FLUID MECHANICS

Time: 10.00

EITHER Section A Attempt THREE questions and Section B Attempt TWO questions OR Section A Attempt TWO questions and Section B Attempt THREE questions All questions carry 20 marks, you can obtain a maximum of 100 marks in this examination.

The use of calculators approved by the School of Engineering is permitted. A formula table is provided at the rear of this examination paper. DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAMINATION QUESTION PAPER. THIS PAPER WILL BE COLLECTED AFTER THE EXAMINATION HAS ENDED.

Section A

1. (a) A piston is free to move vertically within a cylinder, illustrated in Figure 1. The piston and cylinder both have a cross-sectional area, in the horizontal plane, of 0.07 m2 and the cylinder is filled with water. An open U-tube manometer is filled with mercury (density Vm = 13000 kg/m3) and is connected to the cylinder as shown. For hL 60 mm and h = 100 mm, what is the value of the applied force, F, acting on the piston? The weight of the piston is negligible and the system is in equilibrium. (10 marks)

patm Force, F

Piston

cylinder

h water hL

Mercury

Figure 1

(b) Figure 2 shows the arrangement of a reservoir manometer containing mercury (density Vm = 13000 kg/m3). It is to be used to measure the pressure difference which arises in pipe flow between two points 1 and 2 due to the presence of a valve as shown. Determine the pressure difference when the liquid in the pipe is alcohol (density Va = 800 kg/m3), and the manometer reading is s = 112 mm. (10 marks)

Valve 1 z s = 30 2

Figure 2

2. An open rectangular tank is 2 m wide and 4 m long. The tank contains water to a depth of 2 m and oil (density V = 800 kg/m3) floating on top of the water to a depth of 1 m.

A 2m wide wall of the tank experiences a net horizontal force due to the static fluids that it contains.

Determine,

(a) the resultant fluid force acting on a 2m wide wall of the tank, (10 marks) (b) the moment of the force on the wall about the base of the wall. (10 marks)

3. A small sphere (diameter = 10 mm) is left to fall in a fluid (oil, SAE10W) at 20C with a constant velocity of 50 mm/s. The following data is available: - For SAE10W oil at 20C: density, V = 920 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity, Q= 0.1 Pa.s - Drag coefficient CD data for the sphere: CD = 24 / Re CD = 24 Re-0.645 CD = 0.5 CD = 0.000366 Re-0.4275 CD = 0.18 a) Find the drag force on the sphere (6 marks) b) Find the density of the sphere. (8 marks) for Re 1 for 1 < Re 400 for 400 < Re 3 x 105 for 3 x 105 < Re 2 x 106 for Re > 2 x 106

c) At what rate is the sphere losing potential energy? What proportion of this is gained by the oil as potential energy? Explain the remaining energy lost by the sphere. (6 marks)

4. Pollution is discharged from a set of nozzles into a river which has a uniform velocity U. The discharge is at a rate Q (m3/s) over the entire water depth h (m) so that the discharge is approximately uniform over the depth and equal in all horizontal directions.

(a) Show clearly the coordinate system you are using and give an expression for the velocity potential. (5 marks) (b) Calculate expressions for the velocity field generated by injecting the pollution. (5 marks) (c) How far upstream does the pollution reach? (5 marks) (d) Calculate the far downstream width of the pollution stream assuming negligible missing with the main river flow. (5 marks)

Section B

5. (Extra figures and tables to help with this question can be found at the end of the paper). A large reservoir supplies water for a community. A portion of the water supply system is shown. Water is pumped from the reservoir at B to a large storage tank at G before being sent on to the water treatment facility. The system is designed to provide 1.31 m3/s of water. The system between F and G contains 760 m of pipe, two globe valves and four 90 elbows, and a square edged exit into the tank. The pressure at C is pC = 197 kPa. All pipes are 508 mm in diameter and constructed from cast iron. All other dimensions are indicated in Figure 4. Assume kinematic viscosity for water is 1.00 x 10-6 m2/s. Note: For square exits/entrances of the tanks, you can assume the loss coefficient, K=1. Calculate: (a) The average velocity of water in the pipe (b) The gauge pressure at section F (c) The power input to the pump (its efficiency is 80%). Patm B (4 marks) (12 marks) (4 marks)

z = 174 m z = 152m

Patm

6. Water flows at 7 m/s through a circular tube with an inside diameter of 50 mm as shown in Figure 4. A smoothly contoured body of 40 mm diameter is held in the end of the tube where the water discharges into the atmosphere. Neglecting frictional effects and assuming uniform velocity profiles at each section, determine:

(a) The pressure measured by the gauge. (8 marks) (b) The horizontal force, F, required to hold the body. (12 marks) gauge V2 V1 = 7 m/s V2 Force, F

Figure 4.

7. (a) Write an expression of momentum conservation in the integral form. Indicate what each term in the equation corresponds to. (5 marks) Water (density ) from a jet of initial diameter D and corresponding initial vertical velocity u0 is used to support the coned shaped object shown in Figure 5. = 30 air

cone air

Water jet

Water jet

air

H Water jet

Free surface

u0

Figure 5.

(b) Derive an expression for the combined mass of the cone and water, m, that can be supported by the jet, in terms of parameters associated with a suitable chosen control volume. (10 marks)

(c) Use your expression to calculate m when u0 =10 m/s, H = 1 m, h = 0.8 m, D = 50 mm, = 1000 kg/m3 and = 30. (5 marks) 8

8. Two reservoirs (A and B) with a height difference of H = 10 m are connected by a system of two pipes in parallel illustrated in Figure 6. Pipe 1 has diameter 50 mm and length 100 m. Pipe 2 has diameter 100 mm and length 100 m. Each pipe has an entry loss coefficient KEN = 0.5, exit loss coefficient KEX = 1.0 and Darcy friction factor f = 0.008. Assume no losses at the entrance and exit of the reservoirs.

A

Smooth entrance

KEN = 0.5

H Pipe 2

KEX = 1

B

KEN = 0.5

Pipe 1

KEX = 1

Smooth exit

Figure 6.

(a) Calculate the rate of volume flow for each pipe and the total volume flow rate through the system. (8 marks)

(b) A pipe 100m long and diameter D is chosen to replace the two pipes and provide the same flow rate as (a). The new pipe has entrance and exit losses KEN = 0.5 and KEX = 1 respectively. Show that the diameter D satisfies a fifth-order equation. (8 marks) (c) Neglecting the effects of the entry and exit losses and suitably approximating the equation derived in (b), estimate the value of D. (4 marks)

Useful formulas

Equations for pipes with diameter, D, mean velocity, U, and fluid with kinematic viscosity, R, where g is acceleration due to gravity: Entry length for a pipe Head loss due to components with loss coefficient, K: Head loss in a pipe due to friction where f is friction factor and L is pipe length:

Rate of work done in a pipe with volume flow rate Q and pressure loss (p: Loss coefficients, K, for pipe fittings: Fitting type Valves (fully open) Globe valve Gate valve Standard elbow: 90o : 45 o 10 0.2 0.9 0.4 K = (p.2g/U2

Pipe Riveted steel Concrete Wood stave Cast iron Galvanized iron Asphalted cast iron Commercial steel or wrought iron Drawn tubing

Roughness, O, millimeters 0.9 9 0.3 3 0.2 0.9 0.26 0.15 0.12 0.046 0.0015 10

Moody chart

Laminar Flow 0.10 0.090 0.080 0.070 0.060 Complete Turbulence, Hydraulically Rough 0.05 0.04 Critical Zone Transition Zone

0.03 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.001 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001

(L/D)V /(2g)

0.050 0.040

hf

Friction Factor f =

3

k /D = 0.000005 k /D = 0.000001

10

4

0.00005 0.00001 10

7

10

10

10

Reynolds Number, Re =

VD R

11

Relative Roughness,O /D

e 64/R

- Compressible FlowUploaded byAngelica Kartika
- UBC CHBE 251 - Fluid Mechanics - Problems From Past FinalsUploaded byflybossladi
- Fluid Mechanics Tuts and AnswersUploaded byStevenMvuyana
- Numerical Methods HW2Uploaded byJemy Akvianto
- Steam pipe size calculation.pdfUploaded bykhairul1989
- Chapter 1Uploaded byck512
- Guide on How to Develop a Small Hydro Power PlantUploaded byBesim Gülcü
- Ameron Calculation Manual for Bondstand GRE Pipe SystemsUploaded bygbuckley9630
- Microirrigation – Theory & PracticeUploaded byJuan Carlos Cruz E
- IAB Unsteady FrictionUploaded byprashanthreddyh
- Calc Example (Imper) HOT WATERUploaded bysmithwork
- Engineering & Piping Design.pdfUploaded bycleyber navarro
- Darcy Friction Factor FormulaeUploaded bysiva242245
- 25635-220-3DR-M11-00001Uploaded byJulio
- roughnessUploaded bysptbala
- Pipe Flow Expert BrochureUploaded byvijukrish5
- 12inch Pipe x 500MT Per Hr C3@ 10deg.CUploaded byDubaiHMAR
- azdez 2Uploaded byRafael Ludwig
- Ejercicio Video 17 y 18 Milan StankoUploaded byAnonymous jqevOeP7
- Nodalanalysis Introductiontoinflowandoutflowperformance Next 161121154412Uploaded byJaimin Prajapati
- Hydro Power Plants (1)Uploaded byZelalem Girma
- DimplesUploaded byraju
- Chap5-4bUploaded byPeevish
- Results and DiscussionUploaded byJihan Pacer
- SamandarUploaded byhfarias
- 1139Uploaded bySheikh Faiz Rocker
- FM and H lab ManualUploaded byprashmce
- THE EFFECT OF GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ON HEAT TRANSFER AND HYDRO DYNAMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HELICAL EXCHANGERUploaded byAnonymous pKuPK3zU
- AbstractUploaded byfahadbashadi
- Introduction of Atwood’s Machines as Series and Parallel NetworksUploaded byYunus Akgün

- A Numerical Investigation of the Noise Radiated by a Turbulent Flow Over a CavityUploaded byrhill55_911701980
- Log Mean Temperature DifferenceUploaded bySARATH KRISHNAKUMAR
- OpenFoam ExamplesUploaded byrvaidy163
- FLOW-3D Water and Environmental Brochure in EnglishUploaded byhhad
- Production and Transport of Oil and Gas-Academic Press, Elsevier (1975)Uploaded byJavier Zamir Cárdenas Arana
- Charecteristics of airfoilUploaded byGautham Sudhakar
- 1.pdfUploaded byTayyab Nazir
- Separators sizingUploaded byRonald George
- Handout_–Problems_Chapter_5-practice_in_classUploaded byJesus Emanuel Rosario
- Mini Project WrdUploaded byNeeraj Gupta
- wsb sylUploaded byManish Shashikant Dharek
- centrifugal pump lab reportUploaded byapi-310519283
- Specific SpeedUploaded byKaushik Chakraborty
- flow over weirs ReportUploaded byميسرة
- Enigma of the Aerofoil a reviewUploaded byJames Rait
- ad-2.docxUploaded byVijay Chandar
- AIAA-2006-0697Uploaded byFaizan Habib
- Lecture_10.pptUploaded bycameronfreiheit
- homework_2.pdfUploaded byNghia
- Interpretation of Hydraulic Fracturing Pressure in Low permeabilityUploaded byjohndo3
- Water PumpUploaded byFirdaus Zahari
- Various Pump & Dicharge Side Control SchemesUploaded byArunkumar
- Sweeten_ku_0099M_10917_DATA_1Uploaded byAshok Jhajhria
- 10.1109@cinti.2015.7382897Uploaded byicaanmpz
- 03. Wind LoadUploaded byChan Samnang
- Experiment No 1 MinhajUploaded byMinhaj Akbar
- Fire Plant Room BoqUploaded byRashel Hasan
- Engi 0851 ILLI SebastianUploaded byAerospaceAngel
- DragCoefUploaded byRitesh Singh
- Gas Lift Valve SpacingUploaded byLuis Carlos Saavedra