Applications of Advanced Simulation

Student Guide July 2006 MT15020 — NX4.0.2

Publication Number mt15020_g NX 4

Copyright and trademarks
Proprietary and Restricted Rights Notices This software and all related documentation are proprietary to UGS Corp. Copyright ©2006 UGS Corp. All Rights Reserved. All trademarks belong to their respective holders.

©2006 UGS Corporation All Rights Reserved. Produced in the United States of America. 2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide mt15020_g NX 4

Contents

Course overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Course description . . . . . . . . . Intended audience . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to use this manual . . . . . Symbols used in this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Advanced Simulation overview . . . . . . Advanced Simulation file structure . . . Advanced Simulation workflow . . . . . . Simulation Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nodes in the Simulation Navigator Simulation File View . . . . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 1 1- 2 1- 4 1- 5 1- 6 1- 8 1-10 1-10

Geometry idealization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Geometry idealization overview . . . . . . . Modifying features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Feature Parameters . . . . . . . . . . Suppress Feature/Unsuppress Feature Master Model Dimension . . . . . . . . . . Modifying geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Idealize Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defeature Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partition Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midsurface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Face Pair midsurface method . . . . . . . Offset midsurface method . . . . . . . . . User Defined midsurface method . . . . Sew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subdivide Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- 1 2- 1 2- 2 2- 2 2- 5 2- 7 2- 7 2-10 2-11 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-18 2-19 2-22 2-23 2-23

3D meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3D Tetrahedral Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- 1
©UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 3

Contents

3D Swept Mesh . Solid from Shell Activity . . . . . . Summary . . . . .

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2D meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 2D meshing overview Editing a 2D mesh . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44441 4 5 5

1D and 0D meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 1D Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1D element meshing methods Create Weld Elements . . . . . . . . 1D Element Section . . . . . . . . . . 0D Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 1 5- 2 5- 5 5- 7 5- 9 5-11 5-11

Mesh points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Mesh points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 1 Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6- 2 Mesh and object display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Mesh Display preferences Object display . . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77771 2 4 4

Geometry abstraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Geometry abstraction overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparing geometry idealization and geometry abstraction Understanding polygon geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding the geometry abstraction process . . . . . . . . . Fillet identification process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auto Heal Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Split Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Split Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Merge Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Merge Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Match Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collapse Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Face Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved

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8- 1 8- 2 8- 2 8- 3 8- 6 8- 9 8-10 8-11 8-13 8-13 8-14 8-17 8-19

mt15020_g NX 4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©UGS Corporation.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Comprehensive check . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – body selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supported boundary conditions Creating loads . . . . . . . . 101010102 4 5 5 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . .Contents Reset . . . . . . 11-1 Boundary conditions overview . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – face selection . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – 1D mesh selection . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 9-10 9-11 9-13 9-15 9-16 9-16 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111111111112 2 5 6 6 6 Model information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – 3D mesh selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – 2D mesh selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Customizing the material library Activity . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . .2 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – curve/element selection . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . .2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1 Model Check overview . . . . . . . . . .3 13-10 13-10 5 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor . . . .4 Model checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – 0D mesh selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Model information overview . . . .2 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Element Shapes check . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 8-21 Element attributes . . . . . . . . . .3 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20 Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Materials overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nodes check . . . . . . . . Element Shapes Threshold Values Element Outlines check . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – point selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Element attributes . . . . . . . . . . . Attribute Editor – Surface contact mesh selection Activities . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . Attribute Editor – Contact mesh selection . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating the report . Identify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 15. Overlay . . . . . . Activity . .5 Weld Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Manager . .6 6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results in the Simulation Navigator The Post Control toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414141414142 2 3 3 4 4 Post-processing . . . . . . . . .2 Edge Face Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post View . . . .4 15. . . . . . . Post view templates . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1 Units overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Import Results . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . Solving the model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post view layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1 Mesh Mating Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1 Solving overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16161616162 4 4 4 4 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 15. . . . . . . . . 15-1 Post-processing introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . 13-11 Solving . . Exporting the report Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 15. . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Converter Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis Job Monitor Batch solving . . . . 17171717172 2 4 5 5 Mesh connections . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 2D Element Normals checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 15-10 15-10 15-12 15-12 15-12 Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combining load cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generating reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 15. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 ©UGS Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Surface to Surface Gluing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Contact and gluing . . . . . . . .5 Thermal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 18-10 18-11 18-11 Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . 19-1 Optimization overview . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . .2 Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1 Durability overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . .4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Contact Mesh Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2020202020202 2 3 4 5 6 Buckling analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constraints . . . . Loads in linear buckling analysis Supported environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimization analysis options Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1 Thermal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparing the model for a durability analysis Creating a durability solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19191919191919192 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Durability (fatigue) analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Advanced Nonlinear Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21212121212 2 3 4 4 Modal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimization Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . 21-1 Linear buckling overview . . 24-1 Surface to Surface Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating fatigue results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Contact Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1 Modal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . .Contents Activities . . . . . . . . . .6 Summary . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . . .

It is intended for design engineers and analysts who want to learn the details of how to do finite element analysis on NX models. you can always refer to any previous activity where a method or technique was originally taught. Basic understanding of finite element analysis principles. mesh generation and manipulation. Later lessons assume you have learned concepts and techniques taught in earlier lessons. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9 . Working knowledge of NX Modeling. ©UGS Corporation. material definition. Intended audience • • Design engineers Analysts Prerequisites • • • Practical Applications of NX course or self-paced equivalent. FEA model checking and solving. This course covers the details of the FEA processes from model preparation. If necessary.Course overview Course description Applications of Advanced Simulation introduces the finite element modeling and analysis tool integrated in NX. How to use this manual The general format for lesson content is: • • • presentation activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook summary It is important that you use the Student Guide and Workbook in the sequence presented. to postprocessing the results. loads and boundary conditions.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .How to use this manual Symbols used in this guide The following symbols are used throughout this guide: This is a tip. 10 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. This is a note. This is a warning.

The software then presents all meshing. ANSYS. Advanced Simulation overview Advanced Simulation is a comprehensive finite element modeling and results visualization product that is designed to meet the needs of experienced analysts.Lesson 1 1 Introduction Objective • This lesson is a fundamental introduction to Advanced Simulation. transparent support for a number of industry-standard solvers. boundary conditions. and solution options using the terminology or “language” of that solver and analysis type. Advanced Simulation includes a full suite of pre-and post-processing tools and supports a broad range of product performance evaluation solutions. such as NX Nastran. Additionally. Advanced Simulation provides seamless. when you create either a mesh or a solution in Advanced Simulation. you ©UGS Corporation. you specify the solver you plan to use to solve your model and the type of analysis you want to perform. MSC Nastran. and ABAQUS. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 1-1 . For example.

and thus which file needs to be the active work part when you create that data. plus numerous additional features that support advanced analysis processes. 1D. Advanced Simulation supports a complete complement of element types (0D. 2D. and 3D). The software is designed to produce a very high quality mesh while using an economic element count. Additionally. For example. Advanced Simulation file structure As you progress through the Advanced Simulation workflow. you need to understand what data is stored in which file. Advanced Simulation includes a number of geometry abstraction tools that give analysts the ability to tailor the CAD geometry to the needs of their analysis. It allows analysts to perform steady-state. Advanced Simulation provides all the functionality available in Design Simulation. Advanced Simulation offers world class meshing capabilities. These data structures also allow analysts to easily share FE data to perform multiple types of analyses. you will use four separate. that help facilitate the development of FE models across a distributed work environment. incompressible flow analysis and predict flow rates and pressure gradients for movement of fluid in a system. Advanced Simulation gives analysts control over specific meshing tolerances which control. – NX Thermal is a fully integrated finite difference solver. such as tiny edges. These four files parallel the simulation process. such as the separate Simulation and FEM files. • Advanced Simulation features data structures. Advanced Simulation features the new NX Thermal and NX Flow solvers. It allows thermal engineers to predict heat flow and temperatures in systems subjected to thermal loads. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Introduction 1 can solve your model and view your results directly in Advanced Simulation without having to first export a solver file or import your results. such as fillets. 1-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. NX Flow is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver. analysts can use these tools to improve the overall quality of their mesh by eliminating problematic geometry. for example. To work efficiently in Advanced Simulation. yet associated. • • • – You can use NX Thermal and NX Flow together to perform coupled thermal/flow analyses. how the software meshes complex geometry. files to store information.

All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 1-3 . For example. and the unmodified part geometry. you might not have permission to modify it. an idealized part would be named plate_fem1_i. The master part file is generally not modified during the analysis process. By default. For example.prt. The idealization tools let you make changes to the design features of the model using the idealized part.prt extension. The part file contains the master part or an assembly. and you can modify it. For example. you may remove and suppress features such as small geometry details that can be ignored in the analysis.Introduction 1 The original design part file being analyzed A part file has a . The idealized copy of the design part file An idealized part has a . If you start with a model designed by someone else. The FEM file ©UGS Corporation.prt if the original part was named plate. An idealized part is an associative copy of the original.prt extension. a part might be named plate. You can perform geometry idealization as needed on the idealized part without modifying the master part. fem#_i is appended to the part name.prt. when an idealized part file is created. You can use multiple idealized files for different types of analysis of the same original design part file.

small edges. a FEM file may be named plate_fem1. _fem# is appended to the part name. 1.prt. constraints. you can use the abstraction tools to remove design artifacts that can affect the overall quality of the mesh such as sliver faces. and materials. when a Simulation file is created. A FEM file contains the mesh (nodes and elements). not in the idealized or master part. Open the Advanced Simulation application. 3.Introduction 1 A FEM file has a . and then create a Simulation file later. For example. a Simulation file may be named plate_sim1. element-associated data. _sim# is appended to the part name. and isthmus conditions. and what type of solution is needed. Since multiple FEM files can reference the same idealized part. solution setup. In NX. such as solutions. Advanced Simulation workflow Before you begin an analysis. physical properties. The Simulation file A Simulation file name has a . 1-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. By default.fem if the original part was named plate. open a part file. The abstraction tools allow you to mesh the geometry at a level of detail that sufficiently captures the design intent relevant to a particular finite element analysis. when a FEM file is created. The geometry abstraction occurs on polygon geometry stored in the FEM. or language) for working in the FEM and Simulation files. By default. Once you create the mesh.sim if the original part was named plate. Create a solution. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . You should know which solver you will be using. You could also choose to create only the FEM file first.sim extension. You can create many Simulation files associated to the same FEM file. 2. The following outline summarizes the general workflow in Advanced Simulation. For example. loads. you can build different FEMs for different types of analyses. The Simulation file contains all the simulation data. what type of analysis you are performing.fem extension. Specify the default solver (which sets the environment. you should have a thorough understanding of the problem you are trying to solve. physical properties. and overrides.prt.

1 Simulation Navigator The Simulation Navigator provides you with a graphical way of viewing and manipulating the different files and components of a CAE analysis within a tree structure. In addition. to create a new solution definition. make the Simulation file active. Each file or component is displayed as a separate node in the tree. The Simulation Navigator provides direct access to the entities in it through shortcut menus. high-quality mesh you can use without modification. Solve your model. 9. If necessary. idealize the part geometry. In the great majority of cases. analysis type (such as Structural). in the FEM you can use the abstraction tools to eliminate issues with the CAD geometry that can cause undesirable results when you mesh your model. If necessary. the software defaults provide a robust. It is a good practice to first mesh your geometry automatically using the software defaults. 8. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 1-5 . When you are satisfied with your mesh. partition the geometry to prepare for solid meshing. 4. ©UGS Corporation. 10. Examine your results in Postprocessing. and apply loads and constraints to your model. you can remove unnecessary details such as holes or fillets. Make the FEM file active. you can drag loads and constraints from one container to another in the Simulation Navigator. and mesh your geometry. 6. Once you make the idealized part active. and solution type (such as Linear Statics). Apply a material to the mesh. or create midsurfaces. You can perform most operations directly in the Simulation Navigator instead of using icons or commands. Check your mesh quality. For example.Introduction Select the solver (such as NX Nastran). 5. you can refine your mesh by returning to the idealized part and further idealizing the part geometry. 7.

The check boxes let you control the display of the items.Introduction 1 Nodes in the Simulation Navigator The top panel of the Simulation Navigator shows the contents of the displayed file. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 1-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. The figure below shows an example of the containers that can be displayed within a top-level Simulation file.

the Load Container contains the loads assigned to given subcase. Once you mesh the FEM. Contains constraints assigned to the current Simulation file. You can have multiple Simulation files associated with a single FEM file. and overrides. You can associate multiple FEM files to a single idealized part. not the idealized or the master part. constraints. Contains loads assigned to the current Simulation file. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 1-7 . solver-specific simulation objects. Icon Node Name Simulation Node Description Contains all the simulation data. and edges). tables. In a Solution container. right-click on the master part node to create a new FEM or display existing idealized parts. Contains all 2D meshes. master part When the master part is the work part. loads. or flow surfaces. material data. Contains all 0D meshes. and polygon geometry. Contains all the mesh data. In a Solution container. physical properties. 1 FEM idealized part Contains the idealized part that the software creates automatically when you create a FEM. any further geometry abstraction occurs on the polygon geometry. solution setup. The FEM file is always associated to the idealized part.Introduction The following table presents a high-level overview of the various nodes in the Simulation Navigator. faces. the Constraint Container contains the constraints assigned to the solution.and solution-specific objects. Contains solver. Contains all 1D meshes. Contains the polygon geometry (polygon bodies. Contains all 3D meshes. such as solutions. Polygon Geometry 0D Meshes 1D Meshes 2D Meshes 3D Meshes Simulation Object Container Load Container Constraint Container ©UGS Corporation. such as thermostats.

In the post processor. such as loads. loads. To work on a particular file. double-click it make it active. which shows the overall “roadmap” of the files you have open. and simulation objects. Contains any results from a solve. and subcases for the solution. constraints. Contains solution entities specific to each subcase within a solution. you can open the Results node and use the visibility check boxes within the Simulation Navigator to control the display of various results sets. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Introduction 1 Icon Node Name Solution Subcase Step Results Node Description Contains the solution objects. 1-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Simulation File View The bottom section of the Simulation Navigator contains the Simulation File View panel. constraints.

All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 1-9 .Introduction 1 Part file bracket.prt Idealized part file bracket_fem_i.prt FEM file bracket_fem1.sim ©UGS Corporation.fem Simulation file bracket_sim1.

Introduction

1

Activity
See the “Introduction” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. In this activity you will work through the Advanced Simulation workflow by analyzing a part — a connecting rod — using a 3D (solid) mesh.

Summary
In this lesson you: • • • • • • Learned about the capabilities of Advanced Simulation. Learned about the files that are used by Advanced Simulation. Learned about basic workflow for using Advanced Simulation. Created FEM and Simulation files. Worked with files in the Simulation Navigator. Worked through the finite element analysis workflow in Advanced Simulation.

1-10

Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide

©UGS Corporation, All Rights Reserved

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Lesson

2

Geometry idealization

2

Objective • Learn how to use model preparation tools to simplify your model before meshing.

Geometry idealization overview
Geometry idealization is the process of removing or suppressing features from your model prior to defining a mesh. You can also use geometry idealization commands to create additional features, such as partitions, to support your finite element modeling goals. For example, you can use geometry idealization commands to: • • • • Remove features, such as bosses, that aren’t significant to your analysis. Modify the dimensions of the idealized part using interpart expressions. Partition a larger volume into multiple smaller volumes to facilitate mapped meshing. Create midsurfaces to facilitate shell meshing of thin-walled parts.

The software performs all geometry idealization operations on the idealized part, which is an assembly instance of your master model. No idealization is performed directly on the master model. You can use the commands on the Model Preparation toolbar to idealize the geometry in your model. To use the commands on the Model Preparation toolbar, you must make the idealized part the displayed part.

Modifying features
Several tools let you modify features of the idealized part: • • Edit Feature Parameters Suppress Feature and Unsuppress Feature
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Master Model Dimension

Edit Feature Parameters

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In Advanced Simulation, when you use the Midsurface tool, you create a midsurface feature parameter that you can edit using Edit Feature Parameters .

Additionally, you can edit any existing feature parameters in your model based on the method and parameter values used when it was created. The interaction depends on the type of feature you select.

Suppress Feature/Unsuppress Feature
Use Suppress Feature to automatically select features to be suppressed, or to manually select one or more features and temporarily remove them from the target body and the display. To successfully access features for suppression, you must first enable suppression for the relevant part features in Modeling (Modeling application → Edit → Feature → Suppress by Expression).

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A suppressed feature still exists in the database but appears to be removed from the model. You can retrieve any suppressed features using Unsuppress Feature .

Use Suppress Feature to: • Reduce the size of large models, thereby reducing the creation, object selection, edit, and display time. Remove non-critical features such as small holes, blends, and chamfers from your model for analysis work. Note that suppressed features are not meshed in Advanced Simulation. Create features in locations where there is conflicting geometry. For example, if you need to position a feature using an edge that has already been blended, you do not need to delete the blend. You can suppress the blend, create and position the new feature, and then unsuppress the blend. UGS recommends that you do not create new features where a suppressed feature exists.

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the associated features are also suppressed (see figure below). 2-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Geometry idealization 2 Suppressing associated features When you suppress a feature that has associated features.

Master Model Dimension The Master Model Dimension tool launches the Edit Dimension dialog box. turn the List Dependents toggle switch to Off.Geometry idealization 2 Suppressing features 1. taking advantage of interpart expressions. 3. Edit Dimension lets you modify the idealized part’s dimensions. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-5 . If you do not want the Suppress Feature selection dialog to include any dependents in the Selected Features list.) 4. Click Suppress Feature . 2. You can also click the Selection Criteria button for automatic selection of suppressable features using a criteria filter. (Doing so can noticeably improve performance time if the selected features have a lot of dependents. Select the feature(s) to be suppressed. ©UGS Corporation. Click OK or Apply to suppress the selected features. Use the Edit Dimension dialog box to modify any feature or sketch dimension without affecting the master part dimensions. either from the list in the dialog or in the graphics window.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Geometry idealization 2 Editing master model dimensions to open the Edit Dimension dialog 1. Associated expressions or descriptions display in the list window. 2-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Click Master Model Dimension and select a feature.

6. 3. 4. Click Apply to apply the new dimension value. you may want to remove small geometric features that would otherwise cause too many additional elements to be created. For example. Select a dimension from the list to modify. To use Idealize Geometry . you must have the idealized part displayed in the graphics window. 5. Enter a new value for the selected dimension. 2 Modifying geometry Several tools let you modify the geometry of the idealized part: • • • • • • Idealize Geometry Defeature Geometry Partition Model Midsurface Sew Subdivide Face Idealize Geometry Use Idealize Geometry to simplify a model’s geometry by removing features from a body or a region of a body that satisfy certain criteria. or that you explicitly select for removal. Use the Expression or the Description option to display the selected feature’s dimensions as either an interpart expression or as standard descriptions for the feature type.Geometry idealization 2. Click OK to apply the new value and close the Edit Dimensions dialog. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-7 . and repeat steps 3 – 5 for the remaining features and dimensions. (Optional) Click Used By to view a list of where the selected expression is used. ©UGS Corporation.

Geometry idealization

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Idealizing Geometry on a Body 1. With the idealized part displayed in the graphics region, click Idealize Geometry .

2. In the Idealize dialog, click Body

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3. In the graphics window, select the body. You can now select options that identify features to be removed. 4. (Optional) To remove specific faces, click Removed Faces (Optional) , and select faces to remove. 5. (Optional) To remove blends, select Chain Selected Blends. In the graphics window, select a blend. The software selects adjacent blends with the same radius.
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6. (Optional) To automatically remove features, select Holes or Blends in Automatic Feature Removal. Enter a value for the criteria. The software selects all features in the body that meet the criteria. 7. Click OK. The selected features are removed. Idealizing Geometry in a Region 1. With the idealized part displayed, click Idealize Geometry

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2. In the Idealize dialog, click Region

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3. In the graphics window, select a seed face (the first face in the region). You can now select features to be removed. 4. (Optional) To define an outer boundary for the region, click Boundary Faces (Optional) and select the face or a set of faces.

5. (Optional) To automatically select adjacent faces to include in the region, select Tangential Edge Angle, and enter an angle value. The software selects faces adjacent to the seed face if the angle between the normal to the seed face and the normal of an adjacent face is less than or equal to the angle value. 6. (Optional) To remove specific faces, click Removed Faces (Optional) , and select faces to remove. 7. (Optional) To remove blends, turn on Chain Selected Blends. Select a blend. The software selects the adjacent blends with the same radius. 8. Click Preview Region to see the outline of the region to be simplified. 9. (Optional) To automatically remove features, select Holes or Blends in Automatic Feature Removal. Enter a value for the criteria. The software selects all features that meet the criteria. 10. Click OK.
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All selected features are removed.

Defeature Geometry

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provides a streamlined method for feature Defeature Geometry removal. When you defeature a model, you simplify geometry by using selections in the graphics window to remove a face or set of faces. This is a quick way to remove larger model features such as bosses containing multiple faces. Defeaturing geometry To remove a feature or set of features, follow these basic steps: 1. Click Defeature Geometry .

If the Selection Intent toolbar is not visible in the graphics window, position the cursor in the toolbar area outside the graphics window and click MB3 to enable Selection Intent. 2. Select Add Region Boundary from the Face drop-down list in Selection Intent. In the graphics window, the cursor becomes available for face selection. 3. Select a seed face for the feature you want to remove. 4. Select a boundary face as the outer limit for feature removal. 5. Click MB2 to update the surface region. The second figure in the following graphic shows an example of a resulting surface region.

on the Defeature dialog bar, or click MB2 again to execute 6. Click feature removal. To edit the removed feature, click on the Part Navigator tab in the Resource Bar and locate the Defeature node. Use MB3 menu options to edit feature parameters.

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Partition Model
Partition Model provides a way to associatively partition solid bodies in a simulation model. This feature is most often used to partition bodies into sweepable solids to create a swept mesh model. This feature creates a named group of features, which can be seen in the model navigation tool. The objects selected for the trimming operation determine the contents of the named feature. Furthermore, the grouped feature allows users much greater flexibility in editing. In addition to the geometric operation of splitting the body, a glued mesh mating condition is automatically created at the partitioning geometry location, so that applied meshes are continuous from one body to the other. The model partitioning function is also useful for controlling a tetrahedral mesh using, for example, different global element sizes on sub-bodies. Because of this, the geometry model needs to be broken down into smaller units that can be more easily and automatically meshed. Model partitioning breaks down a volume into sub-volumes associatively.

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Because of this. Model partitioning breaks down a volume into sub-volumes associatively. Furthermore. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Geometry idealization 2 Partition Model provides a way to associatively partition solid bodies in a simulation model. This feature is most often used to partition bodies into sweepable solids to create a swept mesh model. The model partitioning function is also useful for controlling a tetrahedral mesh using. different global element sizes on sub-bodies. for example. 2-12 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. This feature creates a named group of features. which can be seen in the model navigation tool. the geometry model needs to be broken down into smaller units that can be more easily and automatically meshed. a glued mesh mating condition is automatically created at the partitioning geometry location. the grouped feature allows users much greater flexibility in editing. In addition to the geometric operation of splitting the body. The objects selected for the trimming operation determine the contents of the named feature. so that applied meshes are continuous from one body to the other.

sheet body. 3.) to subdivide the body or bodies. etc. ©UGS Corporation. partitioning geometry is blanked following the partitioning operation. 2. Click Partitioning Geometry .Geometry idealization 2 Partitioning the model 1. The Partition Model dialog is displayed. Click Body to Partition and select the solid body to be partitioned. curve/edge. and select the desired partition geometric tool (datum plane. Click Partition Model . When Blank Partition Geometry is selected (the default). Select an option from the Filter drop-down menu to aid in selection. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-13 .

Click Apply to create the partition. Repeat steps 2 – 4 to fully partition the model. or midsurface.Geometry idealization 4. contains information about the geometric thickness of the surface pairs. If you are partitioning the model to prepare for swept meshing. If necessary. The new surface. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 • 2-14 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . click Direction and choose a Vector Method to define a direction vector to extrude or revolve a selected section. Midsurface creation methods Use one of the following methods to create a midsurface feature: • Face Pair: This method creates a midsurface halfway between the opposing face pairs. ©UGS Corporation. The face pair method is useful for creating midsurfaces for thin-wall geometries with ribs. click Show Unsweepable Solids require further partitioning. The points and normals of the parent faces (surface pairs) are averaged at corresponding parameters. to highlight bodies that Midsurface Use Midsurface to simplify thin-walled geometry and create a continuous surface feature that resides between two opposing faces within a single solid body. 2 5. Offset: This method offsets the midsurface from one side of the solid body by a depth ranging from 0 to 100% (the thickness of the solid).

In the dialog. and then define that body as a midsurface feature of your part. ©UGS Corporation. That is. This type of midsurface can only be created from a single solid body that contains opposing faces. you can manually model a sheet body to approximate the midsurface of a thin-walled part. choose Method →Face Pair. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-15 . Click Midsurface . 2 Face Pair midsurface method The Face Pair method uses opposing face pairs to create a midsurface located halfway between the two faces. 2. Automatically Creating a Face Pair 1.Geometry idealization • User Defined: This method defines a sheet body you’ve previously created as the midsurface of a part.

Select a face for side one and click MB2." You can verify the thickness using Format → Attribute → Object. a midsurface generated from a seed face is positioned midway between the seed face and its opposing face. Choose AutoCreate. 2 4. Select an opposing face for side 2.Geometry idealization 3. Offset midsurface method With the Offset method. Manually define or edit any remaining face pair features. if necessary. The midsurface thickness created using the offset method is added as an NX attribute attached to the midsurface sheet body. The name of the attribute is "Midsurface_thickness. Note that the solid body is promoted at this point. When this option is turned on. Manually Creating a Face Pair Midsurface 1. Continue to select pairs in this manner until all face pair features are defined. but you first must select a seed face. The distance between the seed face and the opposing face is the thickness of the solid. You can define any number of faces to be offset. you cannot switch from the offset method to the face pair method. 3. the software selects the most likely side 2 face for each side 1 face you select. 5. 2-16 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Alternatively. 2. The software creates as many face pair features as possible. choose Method →Face Pair. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 5. Once you begin. select the Automatic Progression check box. In the dialog. Select a face for side one and click MB2. Click Midsurface . The offset method requires a solid of uniform thickness. Note that the solid body is promoted at this point. 4. Watch the cue line to ensure that you select the correct corresponding face at the right time.

6. Set the Cliff Angle. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-17 . 2. Click Midsurface .Geometry idealization 2 Defining a midsurface with the offset method 1. 3. Click Target Body and select the body. 5. ©UGS Corporation. Click Seed Face and select a seed face for the midsurface. Select the solid body and click MB2 to advance to the next selection step. The default is 75 degrees. 4. choose Method → Offset. In the Midsurface dialog.

the original solid body is blanked. if you have a sheet body containing small holes and you want the holes to be ignored in the midsurface creation. click OK. 2 8. the software will automatically generate the midsurface. This value tells the software how thick to define the "virtual" solid body when it encounters what are actually the small holes. All faces connected to the seed face that satisfy smoothness and boundary face criteria are offset as a midsurface half the thickness into the solid. you use an existing sheet body to create a midsurface in a solid body. at an angle greater than or equal to the cliff angle value. Thickness Outside Body guidelines The user-defined midsurface can contain surfaces that extend. The seed face will propagate in all directions until it reaches the edge on a boundary face. This method can be useful in situations where alternate methods of midsurface creation did not produce satisfactory results. If Blank Original is selected. enter a value for the Thickness Outside Body option. If necessary. A boundary face is defined as a face oriented in the thickness direction. 2-18 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. When the previewed face is correct. only the sheet body is displayed. If the sheet body you create is within the confines of the solid body. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . User Defined midsurface method With the User Defined method. The software terminates midsurface creation when it encounters a boundary face. Preview the generated face to be offset by clicking the Region or Full Boundary preview buttons. For example. even if the body is not uniformly thick. adjust the Cliff Angle to ensure that the correct face is selected.Geometry idealization 7.

Select the solid body and click MB2 to advance to the next selection step. Sew Use Sew to join together selected sheet or solid bodies. 3. enter a value in the Thickness Outside Body field for the software to use when formatting the element thickness for a solve. 2. 2 Defining a midsurface with the user defined method 1. Select the sheet body. The software approximates a thickness for these regions. 4. the yellow portion of the midsurface ignores the hole in the solid. especially if the midsurface extends beyond the solid body.Geometry idealization Note that an outside body thickness value of greater than zero is recommended. In the following graphic. the solve could fail. while the dark green area extends beyond its boundaries. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-19 . You can use Sew to join together: ©UGS Corporation. choose Method → User Defined. If some part of the selected sheet body is not fully contained within the solid body. Click Midsurface . which you can modify. Although it is unlikely that a zero value will cause midsurface creation problems. In the Midsurface dialog. because the shell thickness will be interpreted as zero.

If the collection of sheets to be sewn encloses a volume. Otherwise. the selected sheets must not have any gaps larger than the specified Sew Tolerance. the software creates a solid body. sheet body If you want to create a solid body by sewing a set of sheets together. not a solid. the resulting body is a sheet. 2-20 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 2 • Creating a solid vs.Geometry idealization • Two or more sheet bodies to create a single sheet. Two solid bodies if they share one or more common faces. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

whether there is a gap between them or whether they overlap. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-21 . If you deselect the Sew All Instances option. the software sews the entire instance array. the software deletes the common face(s) and sews the solid bodies into a single solid body. the software cannot sew them together. ©UGS Corporation. If the distance between them is greater than this tolerance.Geometry idealization 2 Sewing two solid bodies together You can sew two solid bodies together only if they share one or more common (coincident) faces. When you use Sew. the software only sews the selected instance. if the distance between them is less than the specified Sew Tolerance. Sew All Instances • If a selected body is part of an instance array and you select the Sew All Instances option. • Sew Tolerance The software sews edges together.

using a variety of subdividing geometries. It is also useful if you want to subdivide a face into four-sided regions to facilitate mapped meshing with quadrilateral elements.Geometry idealization 2 Subdivide Face Subdivide Face lets you automatically subdivide multiple faces while maintaining associativity. The edges and faces of a subdivided face are associative and are combined into a group feature. This function allows you to control a 2D mesh using global element size for a portion of the model. For simple edges and curves. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . the behavior will be as follows: 2-22 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

Partition Model. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 2-23 . the subdivided faces are updated accordingly. • 2 Geometry objects that are associated with the subdivided face feature cannot be deleted. However. • ©UGS Corporation. and the resulting curves are used for subdividing. Where the Two Points option is chosen in the filter. you can specify the end points of a line. projecting the line as required. and Master Model Dimension. you will idealize a part. sheet body. including Idealize Geometry. and Subdivide Face. Activities See the “Geometry idealization” activities in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. Unsuppress Feature. including Edit Feature Parameters. The resulting line will be used to subdivide the face. The last two points selected are used to create the line. or face is used as a tool. Defeature Geometry. their associated curves do not move.Geometry idealization • Where a datum plane. the face itself is also updated. Summary In this lesson you: • Learned about tools for modifying features in the idealized part. If you transform the solid body on which any subdivided faces reside. Sew. Learned about tools for modifying geometry in the idealized part. In these activities. Suppress Feature. Midsurface (three methods). The end points are associative to the underlying geometry. the tool is intersected with the selected face to be subdivided. These intersect curve features will show up in the grouped feature. If you transform the objects associated with a subdivided face.

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3D Tetrahedral Mesh The 3D Tetrahedral Mesh function supports the creation of 4-noded and 10-noded tetrahedral elements.Lesson 3 3D meshing 3 Objectives • • • Learn how to mesh solid bodies using 3D tetrahedral elements. Learn how to mesh solid bodies by creating a solid mesh generated from shell elements. ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 3-1 . You can create a 3D mesh on solid bodies for all supported solvers. Learn how to mesh solid bodies using 3D swept mesh elements.

3-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.3D meshing 3 3D Mesh Options The 3D Mesh Options dialog box defines how the meshing algorithm processes small features and fillets. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

Use the abstraction tools to improve the quality of the polygonal geometry. Modify surface or solid mesh size variation to improve node distribution. • If you have a high number of poor quality elements. the element quality is checked against the Maximum Jacobian threshold: • If the quality measure violates this threshold.3D meshing 3 Failed elements After meshing. the element is highlighted in red. the element is highlighted in yellow. All Rights Reserved . Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 3-3 ©UGS Corporation. If the quality measure is within 10% of the this threshold. you can: • • • Further idealize the part’s geometry to remove problematic areas.

Click 3D Tetrahedral Mesh . the swept mesh will also contain corresponding wedge elements. click calculate an appropriate element size. (Optional) To specify small feature tolerances and fillet processing parameters. The mesh generation proceeds from the selected source face to the target face. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . (Optional) Click Preview to view the resulting nodes on edges for the mesh. 3D Swept Mesh 3D Swept Mesh generates a mesh of either 8– (linear) or 20–noded (parabolic) hexahedral elements on any two-and-one-half dimensional solid by sweeping the mesh from a source face through the entire solid.3D meshing • Increase the threshold value for Maximum Jacobian if element quality is not critical in that area of the model. you can modify the Overall Element Size value. choose an element type from the drop-down list. Enter an element size. 3-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 6. click the Mesh Options button. Click OK or Apply to generate the mesh. 3 2. If you are not satisfied. which the software determines by evaluating the volume. You can also use an existing (linear or parabolic) triangular or (linear or parabolic) quadrilateral surface mesh to generate (linear or parabolic) wedge or (linear or parabolic) hexahedral swept mesh elements. The software then propagates that mesh into the volume layer by layer with the first layer resulting in the first set of hexahedral elements. 7. Or. In the dialog. and so on. Creating a 3D mesh 1. If the initial mesh originating from the source face contains one or more triangular elements. In the graphics window. the software first meshes the specified source face of the volume with linear quadrilateral elements. 3. to have the software 5. 4. select the solid body to mesh. When you create a swept mesh.

Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 3-5 • ©UGS Corporation. For a linear or parabolic hexahedral swept mesh. All Rights Reserved .3D meshing 3 System checks Once you click OK or Apply on the dialog box. If they are and if a mesh is found on the face adjacent to the source face for the swept mesh. as follows. the software checks to see whether mesh mating conditions on an adjacent solid are satisfied. Checks whether the target face has already been meshed and generates an error if yes. the adjacent body must have an existing linear quadrilateral/hexahedral or parabolic quadrilateral/hexahedral mesh. the software: • Checks whether the solid is geometrically sweepable and generates an appropriate error if not. • For a linear or parabolic wedge swept mesh. • • Mesh mating conditions For each face in the solid. Checks whether the meshes on the solid’s faces or mated faces can be used for sweeping and generates an appropriate error if not. the adjacent body must have an existing linear triangular/wedge or parabolic triangular/wedge mesh. this will be used for mesh mating conditions as long as it matches the defined swept mesh.

Generating a swept mesh from a sweepable solid 3 1. In the dialog. 2. 4.) For each edge. select an element type from the drop-down menu. 3. select an existing meshed surface on a sweepable solid. 3-6 to generate a solid tetrahedral mesh from a Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. (All wall faces must be map-meshed. a surface mesh is created. 2. Enter an element size. Solid from Shell Use Solid From Shell triangular shell mesh. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Click OK or Apply to generate the mesh.3D meshing If no mesh is found on the adjacent body that satisfies other mesh mating conditions. Click OK or Apply to generate the mesh. Click 3D Swept Mesh . (Optional) Click Preview to view the resulting nodes on edges for the mesh. 3. 6. Select an element type from the drop-down menu. Generating a swept mesh from a meshed surface 1. or click calculate an appropriate element size. Note that the element size is determined by the size of the seed mesh. Free mesh or mapped mesh will be determined based on whether the face is a wall face. In the graphics window. 4. If you are not satisfied. select the sweepable solid body to mesh. to have the software 5. you can modify the Overall Element Size value. In the graphics window. the same logic is applied. Click 3D Swept Mesh .

There are no coincident triangular elements in the shell mesh. the software can’t generate the solid elements. • The shell elements must completely enclose a volume.3D meshing 3 Solid meshes created from shell elements have no associativity to the bounding shell mesh or the underlying geometry. Otherwise. Unless the parabolic triangular shell elements have straight edges. the resulting parabolic tetrahedral mesh will likely contain elements that fail Jacobian tests. You must re-create the solid mesh following the shell mesh update. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 3-7 . the 3D mesh is automatically deleted. if any shell mesh bounding a 3D mesh created by Solid from Shell requires an update. In addition. Solid meshes created by the Solid From Shell command are not editable. Use caution when generating a solid shell from parabolic elements. the shell mesh must meet the following requirements: • All 2D triangular elements must be of the same order (linear or parabolic). • ©UGS Corporation. To generate a solid mesh.

2. in which the interior volumes would typically represent a heat sink or source. Creating a solid mesh from shell elements To create a solid tetrahedral mesh from triangular shell elements 1. This is a good check for coincident elements. Click OK. A free-edge check will reveal any gaps in volume boundary. This is useful for modeling thermal or flow problems. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Mesh Interior Volumes generates multiple solid meshes from selected shell meshes that enclose interior volumes. Use Element Outlines to check for element free edges. 3 When selected. Summary In this lesson you learned about the three 3D meshing commands: • • • 3D Tetrahedral Mesh 3D Swept Mesh Solid from Shell 3-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 3. triangular shell meshes that completely enclose one or more volumes. 4. Activity See the “3D meshing” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. or a flow obstacle. Choose Solid from Shell . Select one or more 2D. you will generate and refine a 3D mesh. You can use the 2D Edit Mesh commands to repair any gaps in your shell mesh.3D meshing Use Check Nodes to identify duplicate nodes. Review and modify the dialog options as needed. In this activity.

Learn about tools for editing a 2D mesh. For Tri6 and Quad8 elements. midnode snapping and a specified Jacobian ratio are supported. The resulting element size will be "safe" and yield a higher quality mesh. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 4-1 . Actual element edge lengths are approximately equal to the specified overall element size. 4 2D meshing overview 2D Mesh generates 3.Lesson 4 2D meshing Objectives • • Learn how to generate a 2D mesh.and 6-noded triangular elements as well as 4and 8-noded quadrilateral elements. ©UGS Corporation. The software automatically adjusts for problematic element sizes on rectangular or nearly rectangular surfaces (non-planar included). The default element size does not specify the final size of the elements but defines the parameter used to control the edge length of the element. 2D elements are also commonly known as shell or plate elements.

2D meshing 4 Mesh Options The 2D Mesh Options dialog box specifies how the meshing algorithm processes small features and fillets. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 4-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

2D meshing 4 Creating a 2D mesh 1. In the dialog. or an existing mesh. Click 2D Mesh . 3. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 4-3 . ©UGS Corporation. 2. to 5. click the More Options arrow to display additional options for this mesh. bodies. 4. use the Filter drop-down menu to help you select from faces. or click automatically calculate a suggested element size. If necessary. Enter a size for the Overall Element Size. Select the midsurface or faces you want to mesh. choose the element type. From the Type drop-down menu.

To specify small feature tolerances and fillet processing parameters. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Allows you to unlock the edited mesh for an update operation. Allows you to create a quad or tri element that will be added to the existing 2D mesh.2D meshing 6. Allows you to manually define a nodal displacement coordinate system for selected nodes or geometry. 8. If you are not satisfied with the node number and location. If the mesh has higher order elements. Allows you to relocate a nodal position. Edit Mesh features the following options: Icon Label Split Quad Description Allows you to divide quadrilateral elements (quads) into triangular elements (tris). you can modify the Overall Element Size value. Click Preview to view the resulting nodes on edges for the mesh. click the Mesh Options button. Allows you to delete elements of your choice. Click OK or Apply to generate the mesh. 7. Combine Tris Allows you to combine triangular elements (tris) into quadrilateral elements (quads). Splitting occurs along the smaller of the two diagonals. the newly created element will also have midnodes. Editing a 2D mesh The 2D Edit Mesh functionality provides you with a basic set of shell element and/or node editing capabilities for the purpose of fixing elements of poor and unsatisfactory quality produced by the automatic mesh. 4 Move Node Delete Element Create Element Unlock Mesh Assign Nodal Displacement Coordinate System 4-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

2D meshing Icon Label Assign Nodal Displacement Coordinate System Description Allows you to determine the coordinate system assigned to nodes. Activity See the “2D meshing” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. or the nodes to which a coordinate system is assigned. ©UGS Corporation. Learned about tools for editing a 2D mesh. In this activity. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 4-5 . 4 Summary In this lesson you: • • Learned how to generate a 2D mesh. you will generate and refine a 2D mesh.

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or edges. curves. You can create or edit one-dimensional elements. may or may not require an orientation component. Learn how to create a 0D mesh. stiffeners. Typical applications for the 1D element include beams. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 5-1 . One-dimensional elements are two-noded elements which. 5 ©UGS Corporation. Learn how to create a 1D element section. Learn how to create weld elements. along or between points. 1D Mesh 1D Mesh lets you create a mesh of one-dimensional elements. A one-dimensional element is one in which the properties of the element are defined along a line or curve. and truss structures. depending on type.Lesson 5 1D and 0D meshing Objectives • • • • Learn how to create a mesh of 1D elements.

5-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . These point locations are associated to the parent data from which they were selected. Ordered Nodes method Using this method (which requires selection of a point or points for Group 1 as well as Group 2). These methods are based on the way you select geometry using Selection Step icons in the 1D Mesh dialog.1D and 0D meshing 5 1D element meshing methods The following section describes methods available for creating different types of 1D mesh. two ordered sets of point locations are created.

then 1D elements are created from all of the points in Group 1 to all points in Group 2. several outputs are possible: • If the number of points created in each set (Group 1 and Group 2) are equal. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 5-3 . generates a chain of 1D elements between the points that you select. as shown in the graphic above. ©UGS Corporation. If the number of points created in each set are unequal.1D and 0D meshing Depending on the quantity of data selected for this method. The elements that are created form a consecutive link between the successive point locations. as shown in the following figure. then a single 1D element is generated between each set of corresponding points. • 5 Point-to-Point Chaining method This method. This option provides a "one to many" type of connection. which requires Group 1 selection only.

5 Point-to-Curve (Edge) method For this method. which requires selection of a curve for both Group 1 and Group 2. You can specify a total number of elements or an element size for the elements. as shown in the following figure. generates a series of 1D elements along single or multiple curves or edges. Curve-to-Curve method This method. elements are created similarly to the Ordered Nodes method. which requires selection of a Group 1 point and a Group 2 curve. the curve you select for Group 2 infers the second curve set.1D and 0D meshing Along a Curve (Edge) method This method. however. The point 5-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. In the Point-to-Curve method. generates 1D elements between two curves or edges. Nodes created at coincident point locations on adjacent curves/edges are shared. which requires Group 1 selection only. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

(Optional) Select Create Mesh Points to create selectable mesh points on or relative to CAE geometry. 1D elements are built along or between the objects you selected for meshing. Create Weld Elements Create Weld Elements allows you to model welds by projecting a set of points to top faces and using the resulting points to project to bottom faces. Group 2) to define sections. In the dialog. Click 2. choose an element type. Or you could create mesh points to force a node location on an edge or improve node distribution on a curve. If you enter 9 for example. If you select Size. using the Normal to Face option in both projections. 6. enter an element density. the software will distribute nine elements along the selected edge. Choose Apply or OK. the software matches all possible points and build the rest of the elements between a point on one curve and the remaining points on the other curve. Use the Selection Steps (Group 1. Creating a 1D mesh (1D Mesh). and select an edge. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 5-5 . Choose either Default Element Number or Size and enter a value: • If you select Number. 3. ©UGS Corporation. If the two sets of point locations do not contain the same number of points. 5. For example. 1.1D and 0D meshing locations associated to the parent curve/edge will be used to determine the corresponding node locations. enter a size in model units. 5 • 4. you could create a mesh point at an arc centerpoint to create a spider mesh at a large hole.

5 Support for interior hard curves in meshing This feature gives you the ability to associate curves to faces to represent weld locations in the Create Weld Elements dialog. 3. Click Create Weld Elements.1D and 0D meshing Weld mesh effect on 1D mesh When you exit the Create Weld Elements dialog box. select points. the software will distribute nine elements along the selected edge. curves. The point locations on the hard curves are honored by the software during 2D meshing. Click OK to confirm the selection. and select an edge. and the ordered set of points from the bottom faces will be added to Group 2. Choose either Default Element Number or Size and enter a value: • If you select Number. enter an element density. The Create Weld Elements dialog is displayed. or edges. • 4. enter a size in model units. 5. 2. the ordered set of points from the top faces will be added to Group 1 selection step of the 1D Mesh dialog. Using the Points/Curves selection step. You can then create any type of 1D element available. Use the Filter menu to pinpoint selection. Choose an element type. If you enter 9 for example. If you select Size. 5-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. the software honors the weld elements during 2D face meshing. Creating a weld element mesh 1. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Click 1D Mesh . In addition. These weld points are treated as interior hard curves.

Use the Top Faces selection step to project the points. which you can then assign and analyze for comparison to a bar or beam element mesh. The elements are created between each pair of points (the point on the top face and the corresponding point on the bottom face). 9. 7. and display the results. they are updated whenever changes are made to the data from which they are derived. Temporary points are displayed at the projected locations. 8. or edges. or points. curves/edges. Click OK or Apply to project the points and create weld elements. curves.1D and 0D meshing 6. Click OK or Apply to return to the 1D Mesh dialog. The Top Faces selection is added to Group 1 and the Bottom Faces selection is added to Group 2. Since section properties are associative. This feature also lets you create associative section properties from the analysis. which can then be used for beam model analysis. 1D Element Section 1D Element Section helps you create sections. Click OK to confirm the selection. Use the Bottom Faces selection step to choose the bottom face and click OK to confirm the selection. 5 ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 5-7 .

1D and 0D meshing 5 5-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

A warning message will be issued by both the Section dialog and the Attribute Editor when you attempt to add a section to a beam mesh if the underlying curve/edge already has a section. To create concentrated mass elements on nodes. Zero-dimensional elements are also referred to as scalar elements. curves. edges.1D and 0D meshing Types of sections include: • • • • • • • • • • thin wall rectangle hollow circle thin wall channel thin wall hat thin I-beam solid cylinder solid rectangle user–defined properties user–defined thin wall user–defined solid Order of precedence when using sections The following is the order of precedence for each section type when there are conflicts in the section assignment: • • • Section on points (smart points for the Along a Curve option) Section on curves/edges Section on bar/beam mesh 5 A section assigned to a hard point on a curve will be used in place of the section on the curve. solids. ©UGS Corporation. or meshes. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 5-9 . you can select points. A section on a curve/edge will precede a section found on a beam mesh. 0D Mesh 0D Mesh provides you with the tools to create concentrated mass elements at specific nodes. lines. You can align the sections to bar or beam elements by specifying the desired orientation vectors. faces.

the software will distribute nine elements along the selected edge. for example. or choose Create Mesh Point to concentrate the mass on a point. choose an element type. If necessary. • 4. enter an element density. and select an edge. If you enter 9. This size is the average distance between 0D elements. choose either Default Element Number or Size and enter a value: • If you select Number. 3. If you select Size. Notice that 0D elements are built along the grids of the object you selected for meshing. enter a size in model units.1D and 0D meshing 5 Creating a 0D mesh To create a concentrated mass using a mesh of 0D elements: and select the entity for the mass in the graphics 1. Click 0D Mesh window. 5-10 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . In the dialog. 2. Click either Apply or OK.

©UGS Corporation. Specify total mass. 5 Summary In this lesson you: • • • • Learned how to create a mesh with 1D elements. Learned how to create a mesh with 0D elements. Learned how to create a 0D mesh.1D and 0D meshing 5. Activity See the “1D and 0D meshing” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. Learned how to create a 1D element section. In this activity. Specify mass distribution and mesh density attributes on the Mesh tab. CG. and inertial properties attributes on the Element tab. you will generate beam (1D) elements and define a beam cross section. with the FEM file as the active part. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 5-11 . To specify mass properties for the 0D mesh. select Simulation Navigator → FEM node → 0D Meshes → the 0D mesh → RMB → Edit Attributes.

5 .

You create mesh points directly on the polygon geometry in your FEM file. 6 ©UGS Corporation. You can position them using the standard NX Snap Point toolbar icons. The following example illustrates one use of mesh points. Mesh points are useful for ensuring that the software creates nodes at specific locations. Mesh points When you mesh your model. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 6-1 .Lesson 6 Mesh points Objectives • Learn how to use mesh points. Suppose you want to transfer a load from the centerpoint of the hole to the nodes on the edge. You could use the Mesh Point to create a mesh point at the centerpoint of the hole and then use the Arc Center tool on the Snap Point toolbar to constrain the new point. You can also define point-based loads or boundary conditions on mesh points. the software automatically creates a node at all mesh point locations.

Summary In this lesson you: • Learned how to use mesh points.Mesh points You could then create a spiderweb mesh of rigid bar elements to connect the mesh point to the nodes on the edge of the hole and define a fixed constraint at the mesh point. you will create mesh points. 6-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Where do I find it? (With the FEM file active in the Simulation Navigator) Insert→ Model Preparation→ Mesh Point 6 Activity See the “Mesh points” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. In this activity.

element shrink. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 7-1 . Mesh Display preferences Mesh Display lets you define preferences for basic finite element model visualization capabilities such as color. Learn how to control object display. and 2D element normals. 7 ©UGS Corporation.Lesson 7 Mesh and object display Objectives • • Learn how to set mesh display preferences.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Mesh and object display 7 Where do I find it? Preferences→ Mesh Display Object display Two commands help you manage and control your display: • Show Only • Show Adjacent Both commands are designed to make it easier to limit and control the objects being displayed. which is particularly useful when you’re working with a very complex finite element model. 7-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

(D) shows the resulting display. splines. 7 We then used Show Adjacent (C) to add all adjacent faces (all faces that share an edge with the displayed face) to the current display. This process can be useful. for example. loads. you can use Show Only to display only selected polygon faces. For example: – When you’re working with a mesh in a FEM file. When you’re working with boundary conditions in a Simulation file. such as points. to only a selected set of polygon faces. for examining an area where you might want to create a mesh mating condition. ©UGS Corporation. boundary conditions. once you’ve used Show Only to limit your display. For example. Show Adjacent shows all faces adjacent to the selected face. and mesh points. you can use Show Only to display selected polygon geometry and associated simulation objects. conics. – • Show Adjacent works with the Show Only command. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 7-3 . you can then use Show Adjacent to selectively add additional adjacent faces to that display.Mesh and object display • Show Only lets you easily display only the entities you select. meshes. we used Show Only (A) to display only the polygon face on the selected fillet. (B) shows the resulting display. In the following example.

In this activity. meshes. Activity See the “Mesh and object display” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. but they require far fewer clicks to display only selected geometry of interest. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Mesh and object display Show Only and Show Adjacent work similarly to the Blank commands in the Edit menu. you will learn how to modify the display of a mesh. and constraints 7 7-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Summary In this lesson you: • • Learned how to set mesh display preferences Learned how to control display of objects such as geometry. loads.

you can use geometry abstraction tools to: • Improve the quality of your mesh by manually eliminating problematic geometry. For example. Learn how to detect fillets before meshing. you can use geometry abstraction tools to: • Improve the quality of your mesh by manually eliminating problematic geometry. • • • Geometry abstraction overview The Model Cleanup toolbar contains a set of commands that let you perform geometry abstraction operations on your model. Geometry abstraction lets you eliminate issues with the CAD geometry that can cause undesirable results when you mesh your model. For example. Create boundaries on which to define loads and constraints.Lesson 8 Geometry abstraction Objectives • • Learn about geometry abstraction techniques. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-1 8 • ©UGS Corporation. • The Model Cleanup toolbar contains a set of commands that let you perform geometry abstraction operations on your model. All Rights Reserved . Learn about polygon geometry. Learn about various geometry abstraction tools. Understand the difference between geometry idealization and geometry abstraction. Create boundaries on which to define loads and constraints. Geometry abstraction lets you eliminate issues with the CAD geometry that can cause undesirable results when you mesh your model.

Geometry abstraction lets you eliminate issues with the CAD geometry that can cause undesirable results when you mesh your model. the two are fundamentally distinct processes that operate on different aspects of your model. and edge in your model. Understanding polygon geometry When you create a FEM file. For example. However. Add geometry to your model for use in the analysis. you can add edges to the polygon geometry to either control the mesh in that region or to define additional edge-based loads or constraints. without impacting the CAD design process and without requiring that you own the CAD part. Polygon geometry allows you to: 8 • • Tailor the design geometry to fit the needs of your CAE analysis. the software automatically creates “polygon” geometry from the idealized part. that can prevent the software from meshing or solving your model. for every body. polygon face. Changes you make to the polygon geometry do not affect the master part.Geometry abstraction Comparing geometry idealization and geometry abstraction Geometry idealization and geometry abstraction operations are similar in their intent in that both allow you to specifically tailor the geometry to the needs of your analysis. 8-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. • You perform geometry idealization operations on the idealized part. This gives you the flexibility and control to idealize the geometry to suit the needs of your analysis. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Partition a large volume to facilitate the meshing of that volume. Polygon geometry is a faceted representation of the geometry in the master part. the software creates a corresponding polygon body. For example. Repair issues with the design geometry. Create a midsurface on a thin-walled part to facilitate 2D meshing You perform geometry abstraction operations on the polygon geometry within the FEM file. That is. such as narrow regions or tiny edges. For example. and polygon edge. Geometry idealization lets you simplify and streamline your model by removing or suppressing unnecessary features. you can use geometry abstraction commands to: – – Remove very small surfaces or small edges from your model that can degrade element quality in that region. you can: – – – • Add features to the idealized part to facilitate the analysis. face. The polygon geometry is initially a one-for-one representation of your original master part.

Sliver faces. which is required by many solvers. • On the Mesh Options dialog. However. the polygon geometry may contain missing faces. The software uses the small feature tolerance to determine which features to eliminate during the abstraction. the abstraction process is designed to abstract features that are smaller than 10% of your overall element size. Small feature tolerance The key difference between the different ways to perform the abstraction is in how you define the small feature tolerance. you should always use caution not to set the small feature tolerance too high. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-3 . Removing features below that size helps ensure that your model will mesh with elements that have an aspect ratio greater than 10:1. you define the small feature tolerance as an absolute measurement. 8 • In general.Geometry abstraction In some cases with particularly complex geometry. faceted representation of the master part. You can use the Auto Heal Geometry command on the Model Cleanup toolbar to manually abstract your model. In both cases. you define the small feature tolerance as a percentage of your overall element size. • Whether you choose to perform the abstraction during meshing or by using Auto Heal Geometry. On the Auto Heal Geometry dialog. the software eliminates: • • • Short edges. the software searches your model for geometric features that are so small that they can prevent the software from being able to mesh or solve your model. Understanding the geometry abstraction process There are two different ways you can abstract the polygon geometry in your FEM file to optimize it for meshing: • You can use the software’s automatic abstraction capabilities (available through the Mesh Options form) during either 2D or 3D meshing. the abstraction process is the same. you can use the Face Repair command on the Model Cleanup toolbar to construct a new face. Highly pinched regions of the geometry. In those cases. During the abstraction process. the software may be unable to generate a complete. ©UGS Corporation. When this occurs.

Geometry abstraction In general. Removing short edges The software abstracts any edges that are shorter than the specified small feature tolerance. the software abstracts away the sliver face. The following graphic shows an example of a sliver face on polygon geometry. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Turn sheet bodies into solid bodies. Abstraction process limitations The abstraction process is limited to abstracting away small features. Transform radius corners of fillets into 90° angles. Removing sliver faces The software abstracts any sliver faces whose width (W) is smaller than the specified small feature tolerance. This prevents the software from creating an element with a very short edge on that portion of the geometry. The abstraction process does not: • • • Suppress holes. 8 When the software meshes the geometry. Notice how the software doesn’t include this face in the mesh. the small feature tolerance should not be larger than 20% of the element size you intend to use to mesh the geometry. 8-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

isolates the pinched region.Geometry abstraction Eliminating pinched regions The software also abstracts away any highly pinched regions of the geometry. the software evaluates the extent of the pinched region. 8 ©UGS Corporation. In the case of a pinched region. A pinched region is a very narrow region of a surface whose width is smaller than the specified small feature tolerance. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-5 . and then tries to merge it with the adjacent geometry. The following graphic shows an example of a pinched region.

the software can create a better discretized. By identifying fillets prior to meshing. mapped mesh in those regions. the pinched region is absorbed into the adjacent geometry.Geometry abstraction When the software meshes the geometry. 8 Fillet identification process The software’s meshing and geometry abstraction operations contain a capability that allows the software to intelligently detect fillets within your model. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 8-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

Rather. Categorizing fillets into inside and outside radius fillets Once the software identifies the faces that are fillets. the software detects fillets by searching for surfaces whose boundary edges meet certain characteristics. If you select Fillet Processing on either the Mesh Options or Auto Heal Geometry dialogs. the software constructs a vector between the centerpoint of the fillet’s edge and a point on the edge. then the software categorizes the fillet as an inside radius fillet. The software then compares the direction of this vector against the normal of the surface at the point on edge. it categorizes them as either inside or outside radius fillets. Importantly. The edges of fillets must also have a radius that falls between the minimum and maximum fillet radii values you specify on either the Mesh Options or the Auto Heal Geometry dialogs. If the software cannot create a mapped mesh on a fillet. 8 ©UGS Corporation. Categorizes any detected fillets into inside and outside radius fillets. fillets have four logical sides and are defined by a chain of edges that form a closed loop. the software tries to create a size consistent free mesh. The software: • • Searches the faces in the model to identify fillets. this is not possible in all cases. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-7 .Geometry abstraction The software always tries to create a mapped mesh on fillet surfaces. the software considers the face to be a fillet. However. this search is not based on the part’s history data. During this process. the software searches your model for fillets that meet criteria you specify (minimum and maximum radius dimensions). • If the vector’s direction is different from the direction of the surface’s normal. Process of identifying fillets In general. There are two stages in the fillet identification process. If 30% of the edges on a face are fillet edges.

Geometry abstraction • If the vector’s direction is the same as the direction of the surface’s normal. then the software categorizes the fillet as an outside radius fillet. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 8 8-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

Geometry abstraction Auto Heal Geometry Auto Heal Geometry lets you abstract certain types of features from your model that may be problematic for meshing. you define the small feature tolerance as an absolute measurement. there are some subtle differences between the two methods. With both 2D and 3D meshing. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-9 8 • ©UGS Corporation. This can be advantageous if you intend to perform more manual abstraction operations on your model prior to meshing. the software automatically abstracts the polygon geometry to repair problematic topology. you use the options on the Mesh Options dialog to control the abstraction. All Rights Reserved . • How you specify the Small Feature Tolerance on the Auto Heal Geometry dialog is different from the way you specify it on the Mesh Options dialog. However. When you create a 2D or 3D mesh on your model. such as small features. The Auto Heal Geometry command gives you an alternative way of performing the same abstraction operations that are embedded within the 2D and 3D meshing commands. you define the small feature tolerance as a percentage of overall element size. that can degrade the quality of your mesh. On the Mesh Options. On the Auto Heal Geometry dialog. Auto Heal Geometry lets you abstract the geometry without generating a mesh on it.

Transform manifold bodies into non-manifold bodies. 2. You may want to split an edge when: • You want to define separate boundary conditions on different portions of an edge. Turn sheet bodies into solid bodies. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 • 8-10 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . 8 Split Edge Split Edge you specify. if you use Auto Heal Geometry to abstract your model. Additionally. select No Fillets. Otherwise. ©UGS Corporation. outside-radius fillets. specify a Small Feature tolerance value in model units. 3. Automatically healing polygon geometry 1. On the dialog.Geometry abstraction You can use Auto Heal Geometry to abstract your model at any point in the finite element modeling process prior to meshing. Click Auto Heal Geometry . Features smaller than this value are abstracted during meshing. Click OK or Apply. the software won’t abstract the part again during meshing. 5. You’re preparing to split a face. splits a single edge into two separate edges at the location Split Edge lets you split any polygon edge in your model into two separate edges. Limitations Auto Heal Geometry does not: • • • Suppress through holes or features. or all fillets. If you want special processing to apply to filleted faces during meshing. Enter the minimum and maximum radius that you want the software to use during the fillet identification process. 4. choose whether you want special processing applied to inside-radius fillets.

Quadrant Point lets you select a point at the quarter points of an arc or ellipse. such as Merge Face or Auto Heal Geometry.Geometry abstraction Splitting an edge 1. Split Face Use Split Face • • • to divide a selected polygon face into two separate faces. All Rights Reserved . 3. Point on Curve lets you select any point along the curve. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-11 ©UGS Corporation. Select the polygon edge you want to split. For example. you can use Split Face to: Add an edge to divide a face so that you can apply an edge-based load. 8 • mode to split a polygon face Use the Split face by suppressed edges by restoring an edge that was previously removed by another abstraction command or process. Splitting faces by points or suppressed edges The Split Face command has two separate modes of use. • mode to split a polygon face by selecting Use the Split face by points two points on one of the face’s edges. • • • Mid Point lets you select a location at 50% of the total length of the curve. Use the selection mode icons on the Snap Point toolbar to select the location where you want to split the edge. 2. Click MB2 or click OK on the Split Edge dialog bar to split the edge at the selected location. Divide an irregular face into several smaller faces on which you can define mapped meshes. Restore an edge that was previously removed by another abstraction command. or by the automatic abstraction that occurs during 2D or 3D meshing. 4. Click Split Edge .

The software displays any previously suppressed polygon edges in the graphics window. Splitting a face by selecting suppressed edges 1. 8 2. Point on Curve lets you select any point along the curve. Mid Point lets you select a point at 50% of the total length of the curve. Click Split Face . 2. • • • End Point lets you select a point at the end of a curve. Click Split face by points on the Split Face dialog bar. The selection mode icons on the Snap Point toolbar help you select the point. The software creates a new polygon edge between the two selected points. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Click MB2 or click OK to restore the edge and divide the face at that location. Click Split face by suppressed edges on the Split Face dialog bar. • 4. Quadrant Point lets you select a point at the quarter points of an arc or ellipse. Select the first point on a polygon edge. 3.Geometry abstraction Splitting a face by selecting points 1. Select a suppressed edge. 5. 8-12 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 3. Click MB2 or click OK on the dialog bar to accept the new edge and split the face at that location. 4. Click Split Face . Select the second point on a polygon edge on the same face.

you can either manually combine faces at locations you select. Click Merge Edge . Select the point at the end of the polygon edge that you want to merge with the adjacent edge. This is useful. to merge two edges together at a selected end-of-edge Merge Edge allows you to combine selected polygon edges at a selected endpoint. if you want to create larger faces prior to meshing. You cannot use Merge Edge to combine edges when more than two polygon edges intersect at a single endpoint. This is useful. You can also use Merge Face to recombine faces you previously divided with Split Face. for example. 2. You can use Merge Face to combine two adjacent polygon faces into a single face. when you want to create a larger or more continuous boundary edge prior to meshing. You can also use Merge Edge to recombine edges that you had previously divided with the Split Edge command. 3. or you can have the software automatically combine faces based on criteria you specify. ©UGS Corporation. Merging edges 1. for example. Merge Face Merge Face lets you merge two separate polygon faces into a single polygon face along a common polygon edge. You can also use options on the Merge Face dialog to specify the criteria the software should use when automatically merging faces. The options on the Merge Face dialog let you choose between the manual and automatic methods. Manual or Automatic Face Merging With the Merge Face command. The End Point option on the Snap Point toolbar lets you easily select points at the end of polygon edges. Click MB2 or click OK on the Merge Edge dialog bar to merge the two edges together at the selected location.Geometry abstraction Merge Edge Use Merge Edge location. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-13 8 .

3. Click Merge Faces on the Merge Face dialog bar to display the Merge Faces dialog. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Use Auto Remove Vertices to control whether the software automatically removes associated vertices (end-of-edge points) when you remove an edge between two faces 5. Click Auto Merge. 2. Click Merge Faces on the Merge Face dialog bar to display the Merge Faces dialog. 8 6. 8-14 to match the first edge you select to the second edge Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 5. Automatically merging adjacent faces 1. Match Edge Use Match Edge you select. Specify the maximum Edge Angle and Vertex Angle in degrees. 7. 3. Click Merge Face . Use Auto Remove Vertices to control whether the software automatically removes associated vertices (end-of-edge points) when you remove an edge between two faces 4.Geometry abstraction Merging adjacent faces manually 1. Click OK or Apply on the Merge Faces dialog. Click Merge Face . Click OK or Apply on the Merge Faces dialog. 4. select the faces that you want to have the software automatically evaluate for merger using the edge and vertex angle criteria you specified. 2. In the graphics window. Click Merge and then select the polygon edge between the two adjacent faces you want to merge together.

the software projects the source edge onto the target edge. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-15 . the software creates duplicate nodes along the area where the edges were matched. • Projecting versus not projecting edges You can choose from two different methods on the Match Edge dialog to control how the software matches the first edge to the second edge. If you use Match Edge to connect free edges between different solid or sheet bodies. but separate edges. • With Project. the software stitches the free edges together and creates a single.Geometry abstraction Match Edge lets you repair small cracks or gaps in your model by matching an edge (the source edge) to another edge (the target edge). the software matches the free edges together. When you mesh these edges. This results in two coincident. 8 ©UGS Corporation. common edge. You can use Match Edge on any solid polygon body that contains free (unstitched) edges. • If you use Match Edge to connect free edges within the same solid or sheet body.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . Click Match Edge 8-16 .Geometry abstraction • With No Project. Match Edge limitations • You cannot use Match Edge to stitch together the free edges between separate solid bodies. You can only use Match Edge when the source edge is stitched and the target edge is stitched within a different sheet or solid body. You cannot use Match Edge to stitch together the free edges between separate sheet bodies. ©UGS Corporation. the software interpolates the source edge point-by-point onto the target edge. 8 • • Matching edges 1. You can’t use the Match Edge method when the source edge is unstitched and the target edge is stitched within the same sheet or solid body.

©UGS Corporation. • 4. the source edge onto the target edge. 5. For example. Collapse Edge to collapse an edge to either one of its end points or Use Collapse Edge to a specified point along the edge. Select the edge to match (the source edge). 8 You can use Collapse Edge to collapse a selected polygon edge to any point along that edge. On the Match Edge dialog. Click No Project to map. Click OK or Apply. from your model by collapsing them to a point. set the Project Switch: • Click Project to project the source edge to the target edge without changing its length or shape. endpoint-to-endpoint. 3. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-17 . Select the edge to match to (the target edge). the following graphic shows an example of a very small polygon edge.Geometry abstraction 2. such as those shown below. Collapse Edge lets you manually remove very small edges.

Use the tools on the Snap Point toolbar to help select the point to which you want to collapse the edge. In the graphics window.Geometry abstraction We then used Collapse Edge to collapse the edge to its end point. ©UGS Corporation. 8 Collapsing an edge to a point 1. select the polygon edge to collapse. 2. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . • 8-18 End Point lets you select a point at the end of a curve. Click Collapse Edge . 3. as shown below.

Set the Type Filter in the Selection toolbar to the type of polygon geometry you need to select. Quadrant Point lets you select a point at the quarter points of an arc or ellipse. the software creates polygon geometry from the idealized part. • To create a new polygon face from a set of free edges. 2. faceted (tessellated) representation of your original geometry.Geometry abstraction • • Mid Point lets you select a point at 50% of the total length of the curve. set the Type Filter to Polygon Face 8 • 3. Click MB2 or click OK on the Collapse Edge dialog bar to collapse the edge to the selected point. select a free edge. • Repairing and replacing damaged faces 1. Occasionally. For example. Point on Curve lets you select any point along the curve. the software may encounter problems during this process and may be unable to completely or properly tessellate certain faces. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-19 ©UGS Corporation. Create a new polygon face to fill a missing void in your model. set the Type Filter to Polygon Edge. With the Pick Loops selection step active: • If you’re creating a new face from a set of free edges. When you first create a FEM file. Face Repair Use Face Repair to create new polygon faces from free polygon edges on the surrounding body. To replace a damaged polygon face with a new face. • 4. you can use Face Repair to: • Repair a corrupt or poor quality polygon face that did not tessellate properly when the software created the polygon geometry. All Rights Reserved . The software constructs a loop of free edges. Click Face Repair . The polygon geometry is a one-for-one. Face Repair lets you repair polygon faces that are either damaged or missing entirely.

. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . if necessary. leaving a loop of free edges. a hole).Geometry abstraction • If you’re replacing a damaged face. select the damaged face. Click Create Face from Loops. Use the Snap Point toolbar options to help select specific points. Click Complete Set and Start Next Set to generate the face and return to the Point selection step. The software automatically deletes the face. Click the second Point selection step icon. b. select a second edge to define an inner loop (i. the software returns the portion of the polygon geometry you select to its original state prior to any modifications. Reset removes all changes to the polygon geometry from the geometry abstraction commands. 4.e. Reset lets you remove changes you have made to the polygon geometry with the geometry abstraction tools. Click Reset 8-20 . Subdivide the loop as necessary: a. Click the first Point selection step icon. When you use Reset. The one exception to this is the Collage Edge command. d. 8 Collapse Edge limitation In general. Click OK. Select an edge to define an outer loop. Repeat step three until you’ve defined a new polygon face to connect the free edges. Because Collapse Edge can cause fundamental changes in the polygon geometry. 5. and select a point along a free edge of the loop. c. such as Split Face and Match Edge. Select a second point to define a curve that subdivides the free loop so that you can create a quality face. and. the software can’t always reset all the changes caused by the Collapse Edge command. Resetting geometry 1. 6. ©UGS Corporation. Reset Use Reset to restore abstracted polygon geometry to its original state.

You can: • Select one or more faces or bodies to reset the abstractions made to those faces or bodies. Select the polygon geometry on which you want to remove changes caused by the geometry abstraction commands. you will simplify geometry to improve mesh quality. • • • 8 ©UGS Corporation. • 3. Learned the difference between geometry idealization and geometry abstraction. Click OK to reset the selected geometry.Geometry abstraction 2. In this activity. Summary In this lesson you: • • Learned about geometry abstraction techniques. Activity See the “Geometry abstraction” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. Learned about polygon geometry. Learned how to detect fillets before meshing. Learned about various geometry abstraction tools. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 8-21 . Choose Edit → Selections → Select All to reset all abstractions made to the polygon geometry.

8 .

9 In the same dialog. as well as additional mesh properties. you can modify additional mesh attributes: ©UGS Corporation. Learn how to use the Attribute Editor to modify element attributes. Learn how to override element attributes.Lesson 9 Element attributes Objectives • • • Learn how to modify element attributes. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-1 . The dialog below shows the element attributes for a beam element. if you pick the mesh tab. Element attributes The Element Attributes dialogs let you define and modify the materials and physical properties for the elements. The default language Solver setting for the FEM file determines which elements can be used. as well as their corresponding element attributes.

respectively. which saves disk space as well as modeling time and effort. such as materials or physical properties. we didn’t define a thickness value. you can define element “overrides. the software uses the values you modified in the override instead of the values you defined in the original model. this allows you to use a single FEM model to perform a series of material studies. When we initially created the original FEM file. When you solve a model that contains an override.Element attributes Where do I find it? Simulation Navigator→mesh node→right click→Edit Attributes Element attribute overrides When you’re working in a Simulation file. For example. However.” Element overrides let you change the value of selected element attributes.5mm. The graphic below shows an example of an element override that is used to vary the element thickness. without requiring that you copy the entire mesh (FEM file). 9 9-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. we then created two different overrides in the files SIM1 and SIM2 in which we defined override values for the element thickness of 2mm and 2. You can also use overrides to quickly analyze the effect of varying the element thickness within a 2D mesh. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

• Geometry. Attribute Editor – point selection The following illustration shows the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after selecting a point. face. curve/edge. Once you select a mesh. you can edit attributes that will help you control the mesh definition on this geometry. The dialog presents a variety of point attributes that may be reviewed and edited. and body. 3D. contact meshes. These properties are the same ones that you can modify through the Element Attributes dialogs available in the Simulation Navigator. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-3 . including 0D. including point/mesh point. The entities that you can select include: • Meshes. The attributes that you can edit depend on the element type. 1D. and surface contact meshes.Element attributes Attribute Editor The Attribute Editor lets you select any editable FEM entity and review and revise its attributes. 2D. you can edit the element attributes and materials assigned to the elements. 9 ©UGS Corporation. Once you select geometry.

The dialog presents a variety of curve/edge attributes that may be reviewed and edited.Element attributes Attribute Editor – curve/element selection The following illustration shows the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after selecting a curve or edge. 9 9-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

Element attributes Edge Density Type and Edge Density value These two options work in combination. ©UGS Corporation. allowing you to specify density control for the 2D mesher on local edges. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-5 9 . Edge Density Geometric Progression Geometric Progression allows you to specify a ratio of node locations along an edge or curve. Geometric Progression allows spacing of a set of points based on a geometric ratio. The number of elements is rounded to the closest integer. Nodes are placed in high curvature areas (where curvature is greater) and in lower curvature areas. Edge Density Ratio The Edge Density Ratio field becomes active when the Geometry Progression option is selected. allowing a coarser mesh to be generated in less critical areas of the part. the number entered in the Edge Density field reflects the number of elements on the edge. Finer. The default value for Edge Density Ratio is 1. Edge Density Size When the Edge Density Method is set to Size. The Chordal Tolerance option allows you to produce a parametric set of node locations that are derived from equations related to the curvature of the curve or edge. the value entered in the Edge Density field reflects the approximate size of the element on the edge. With the default value.0. You can apply or assign edge densities to model edges and curves using any of the following: • • • • Edge Density Number Edge Density Size Edge Density Chordal Tolerance Edge Density Geometric Progression Number When the Edge Density Type is set to Number. This option should be used to define critical areas of interest. Edge Density Chordal Tolerance Chordal tolerance is defined as the maximum distance between an arc along the curve and the curve itself. This produces a series of node locations that are more dense at one end and less dense at the other. based on the arc length. the result is the specified Number of Points value (or node locations) divided into equal parameter spacing. more controlled meshes are produced in these critical areas.

75 is entered. 9 9-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. the distance from one point to the next is multiplied by 0. It is important to note that the Geometric Progression option is dependent upon direction. Applying the inverse value for the Edge Density allows you to reverse the direction of node distribution. The distribution of the nodes always begins at the natural start of the curve (indicated by the direction of the temporary display arrow). All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Element attributes For example. The dialog presents a variety of face attributes that may be reviewed and edited. The arrow always points from the natural start of the edges or curves to its end. Attribute Editor – face selection The following illustration shows the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after selecting a face. Shown below is a brief description of each option.75 (as shown below). if a ratio of 0.

9 ©UGS Corporation. Attribute Editor – body selection The following illustration shows the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after selecting a solid body.Element attributes Face Density Face Density allows you to set the approximate element size for the selected face. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-7 . The dialog presents a variety of solid body attributes that may be reviewed and edited.

9 9-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Element attributes Attribute Editor – 3D mesh selection The following illustration shows the Mesh tab on the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after selecting a solid (3D) CTETRA10 mesh. The dialog presents a variety of solid mesh attributes that may be reviewed and edited.

Element attributes Attribute Editor – 2D mesh selection The following illustration shows the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after selecting a shell (2D) CQUAD4 mesh. 9 ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-9 . The dialog presents a variety of mesh and element attributes that may be reviewed and edited.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 9-10 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. if desired.Element attributes 9 Attribute Editor – 1D mesh selection The following is a typical Attribute Editor dialog that displays after you have selected a beam mesh. The dialog presents a variety of mesh and element attributes of the mesh for your review and/or edit.

Element attributes Attribute Editor – 0D mesh selection The following image shows the Mesh tab on the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after you have selected a 0D mesh (concentrated mass). The dialog presents a variety of mesh and element attributes of the mesh for your review and/or edit. if desired. 9 ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-11 .

Element attributes 9 9-12 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

• Mesh Density Value allows specification of a desired density value for the mesh. etc. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-13 . Attribute Editor – Contact mesh selection The following image shows the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after you have selected a contact mesh. Size .Enter the approximate size of the element to be created. edge. 9 ©UGS Corporation. The two options are: • Number . the Distribute Mass option instructs the system to distribute the concentrated mass elements along the selected object (face. Distribute Mass When toggled on.Element attributes Mesh Density method and value Mesh Density allows assignment of a default density to the element to be created.Use this option to specify the number of elements to be created on the geometry.).

Element attributes 9 9-14 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

9 ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 9-15 .Element attributes Attribute Editor – Surface contact mesh selection The following image shows the Attribute Editor dialog that displays after you have selected a surface contact mesh.

Learned how to modify element overrides. In these activities.Element attributes Activities See the “Element attributes” activities in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. Summary In this lesson you: • • • Learned how to apply element attributes. 9 9-16 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . you will improve the mesh by modifying element and mesh attributes. Learned how to use the Attribute Editor.

10 ©UGS Corporation. Learn how to customize the material database.Lesson 10 Materials Objectives • • Learn how to assign a material to a mesh or geometry. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 10-1 .

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Materials Materials overview Use Materials to select and define materials and material properties to use in the simulations and mechanisms you build. 10 10-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

It contains three orthogonal planes of material symmetry at a given location in the model structure. and edit isotropic. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 10-3 10 . Orthotropic materials An orthotropic material is a special case of an anisotropic material that may be used with plate and shell elements. As a convenience. the entire symmetric matrix will be shown. orthotropic. An isotropic material is defined as a material having the same material properties in any or all directions.Materials From the Materials dialog box. review. and fluid materials. the paired value is a label which will be updated automatically each time the opposite twin value is entered. ©UGS Corporation. the Orthotropic tab on the Materials dialog shows the material properties for this material type. for example) are the same in all directions. Use of an Isotropic material assumes that the material is homogeneous and that the properties (Young’s Modulus. Use the material library. especially when the parts are constructed from fiber composites. and edit temperature-dependent fields for these material types. Anisotropic specification consists of three matrices. anisotropic. you select the Isotropic tab to enter the isotropic material properties. On the Materials dialog. review. The two square matrices are symmetrical so that you need only enter data at the bottom half. Isotropic materials The isotropic material is the most commonly used material property. Anisotropic materials An anisotropic material has different properties in each direction at any given location in the model structure. Add. you can: • • • • Create. You may want to re-size the dialog to better see the contents of the scroll window. which includes standard as well as user-defined materials. No material plane of symmetry is associated with an anisotropic material (meaning that properties may vary in all directions). Control the orientation of the material by aligning it with a coordinate system. When complete. Isotropic material types are used when certain assumptions are made. It is common to model composite structures (laminates) using an orthotropic material.

dat file. Select the material name in the Materials dialog.dat and phys_material. 2. From ${UGII_BASE_DIR}\ugii\materials. Copy the full line of the bottom-most material and paste it on the next line down.tcl files. then pick the geometry in the graphics window and click Apply. 5. Enter a new material name and unique ID. Change the values in the material property fields.Materials Fluid materials Fluid material properties are those applicable to 3D elements modeling the liquid or gas in a fluid volume. Click Materials . use the following basic steps: 1. Select one or more materials and click OK. make a backup copy of phys_material. click Library . 2. 4. If you are running NX as a client. To add a new material to the database: 1. A list of available materials appears. 3. click OK. If you are running NX as a client. Customizing the material library Adding a new material To add a new material to the library. On the Materials dialog. Use Shift-click or Control-click to select multiple items. Make sure the necessary environment variables are pointing to the location of the modified phys_material. 10 10-4 4. A status message appears. 3. and to locations of the current phys_material.dat file in a text editor application. indicating that the material has been assigned. 2. as necessary. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . When the **Unsatisfied Title** dialog opens. copy the following files to a local directory: phys_material.dat.def and phys_material. Open the phys_material. Go to the bottom of the materials list. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.tcl. you may need to set the variables manually. Assigning a material 1.

dat file has the following environment variables set correctly. Otherwise.tcl . Add temperature-dependent properties.def or ug_english.def .Materials 5.UGII_PHYS_MATERIAL_LIB_PATH= ${UGII_BASE_DIR}\ugii\materials\ • ug_metric.UGII_DEFAULTS_FILE= [default directory ${UGII_BASE_DIR}\ugii\] When defining the environment variable path. Save the file and exit the text editor. and create a new material. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 10-5 10 .UGII_PHYS_MATERIAL_LIB_DATA_DIR= ${UGII_BASE_DIR}\ugii\materials\ • phys_material.UGII_PHYS_MATERIAL_LIB_DIR= ${UGII_BASE_DIR}\ugii\materials\${UGII_LANG}\ • phys_material. Summary In this lesson you: ©UGS Corporation. UGS recommends that you use an end backslash. (see Setting material library environment variables) 8. From a command shell or the System Properties dialog. 7. Activity See the “Materials” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. set the appropriate environment variables for running the software with the modified file. make sure the ugii_env. or set them directly: • phys_material. Launch the software with a test part to make sure the new material is working as intended. In this activity you will apply a material to a mesh. Setting material library environment variables To ensure that the material library database is accessed from the correct location.dat . you may get an error message when you try to use the updated library.def . 6.

10 10-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Learn how to customize the material database. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Materials • • Learn how to assign a material to a mesh or geometry.

©UGS Corporation. Learn how to create constraints. Learn how to create loads. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 11-1 .Lesson 11 11 Boundary conditions Objectives • • • Learn about the boundary conditions that can be defined for a model.

constraints. and display boundary conditions. If you create the loads. The Simulation Navigator provides tools that let you create. Icon Load Force Moment Bearing Torque Nastran Analysis Type Structural (all except SEMODES 103) Supported Nastran Cards FORCE Axisymmetric Structural Structural (all except MOMENT SEMODES 103) Structural (all except SEMODES 103) Structural (all except SEMODES 103) FORCE FORCE 11-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. They are also stored in the solution. constraints. You can create boundary conditions before or after you create a solution: • If you create a solution first. and Simulation Objects Container. The options that appear on the boundary conditions dialogs are specific to the active solution and its associated solver. the associated analysis types. For example. and simulation objects are all considered boundary conditions. and simulation objects are stored in their respective containers in the Simulation: the Load Container. Constraint Container. simulation objects). constraints. the loads. and simulation objects first. constraints. You can then drag and drop individual boundary conditions into solutions you create. edit.Boundary conditions 11 Boundary conditions overview Loads. they are stored in their respective containers in the Simulation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . • Supported boundary conditions The tables list the Advanced Simulation boundary conditions (loads. if the active solution uses the NX Nastran solver. and the Nastran solver cards that they support. You can also create boundary conditions using icons on the Advanced Simulation toolbar. the Create Force dialog provides options that are specific to the NX Nastran FORCE card.

Boundary conditions 11 Icon Load Nastran Analysis Type Supported Nastran Cards PLOAD4 (Structural only) PLOAD2 (Structural only) Pressure Structural (all except SEMODES 103) PLOAD1(Structural Axisymmetric Structural only) PLOADX1 (Axisymmetric Structural only) Hydrostatic Pressure Gravity Structural (all except SEMODES 103) Structural (all except SEMODES 103) PLOAD4 GRAV Centrifugal Axisymmetric Structural Structural (all except SEMODES 103) RFORCE Axisymmetric Structural Structural (all except SEMODES 103) Axisymmetric Structural Thermal Axisymmetric Thermal Thermal Axisymmetric Thermal Thermal RADBC QBDY3 QBDY2 QHBDY Temperature Load TEMP Heat Flux Radiation Heat Generation QVOL Icon Constraint User Defined Constraint Nastran Analysis Type Structural Axisymmetric Structural Supported Nastran Cards SPC (Structural only) SPC1 ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 11-3 .

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Boundary conditions 11 Icon Constraint Enforced Displacement Constraint Fixed Constraint Nastran Analysis Type Structural Structural Axisymmetric Structural SPC SPC SPC SPC Supported Nastran Cards SPCD Fixed Translation Structural Constraint Fixed Rotation Structural Constraint Simply Supported Structural Constraint Pinned Constraint Cylindrical Constraint Slider Constraint Roller Constraint Symmetric Constraint Structural SPC Structural Structural Structural Structural SPC SPC SPC SPC SPC SPC CONV Anti-Symmetric Structural Constraint Thermal Thermal Constraints Convection Axisymmetric Thermal Thermal Axisymmetric Thermal 11-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

5. 1. ©UGS Corporation. curves. (Optional) In the dialog box. From the menu. 6. They can also be applied to nodes or elements.Boundary conditions 11 Icon Simulation Object Nastran Analysis Type Supported Nastran Cards BCRPARAM BCTPARM Surf to Surf Contact SESTATIC 101 (Single Constraint and Multi Constraint). (Optional) For some thermal loads. vertices. ADVNL 601. or the entire model. right-click on Loads. Select the object to apply the load to. points. 106) NLSTATIC 106 BGSET Initial NX Nastran ADVNL 601. edges. choose the type of load to create. click and select a control point. choose the type of load that you want to create. Boundary conditions can be applied to geometry. In the Simulation Navigator active structural or thermal solution. mesh points. 2. including faces. Choose New Load. The type of boundary condition determines the objects that you can apply it to. (Optional Control Point). 3. 106 BCTSET BSURF BSURFS BCTPARA (ADVNL only) Surf to Surf Gluing Structural (all except NX Nastran ADVNL 601. 4. Temperatures 106 NLSCH 153 TEMP Creating loads The procedure for creating most structural and thermal loads is similar. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 11-5 .

mesh points. (Inferred Vector) and enter a Creating constraints The procedure for creating most constraints is similar. Enter a magnitude for the load. Summary In this lesson you: • • 11-6 Learned about the boundary conditions that can be defined for a model. Learned how to create loads. 5. edges. (Optional) On the Create (Constraint) dialog. In the Simulation Navigator active solution. curves. including faces. The type of boundary condition determines the objects that you can apply it to. click the Optional Control Point icon. and select a control point. (Optional) For a convection boundary condition. 2. points. choose the Type. From the menu. Choose New Constraint. They can also be applied to nodes or elements. 3. Select the object to apply the constraint to. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . you will apply loads and constraints to your model. Boundary conditions can be applied to geometry. ©UGS Corporation. 8. In this activity. 4.Boundary conditions 11 7. Activity See the “Boundary conditions” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. choose the constraint that you want to create. 7. (Optional) Click the arrow next to direction for the load. vertices. 8. or the entire model. 6. (Optional) Enter a direction for the constraint. 1. right-click on Constraints. (Optional) Enter a magnitude for the constraint.

11 ©UGS Corporation.Boundary conditions • Learned how to create constraints. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 11-7 .

11 .

All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 12-1 .Lesson 12 Model information 12 Objectives • Learn how to display information about your model. ©UGS Corporation.

parts. expressions. element numbers. In addition. The Information window has its own menu bar that supports cut. • Identify lets you display element or node labels. Information options provide general and specific information for selected objects. layers. you can obtain a simulation summary which gives more detailed information on mesh nodes. etc. 12 The image shows element and node labels displayed for 2D elements. The data that is output to the Information window differs depending upon the chosen Information option(s). copy and paste operations. etc. The Information→Advanced Simulation menu lets you query finite element entities or objects. 12-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. as well as capability to save output to a file and/or print to the default printer.Model information Model information overview The Information feature is available with every NX application producing geometric and part relationship data. Data is displayed in the Information window. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

Simulation object. material. Simulation Summary lists information about the solutions in the Simulation file. Identify lets you display element or node labels. you can list information on a mesh. All Rights Reserved . • When the Simulation file is active. The figure shows an information listing for one element. step. constraint. and other entities. and mesh mating condition. Finite Element Summary lists detailed information about number of nodes. section. load. elements. you can list information on a mesh. solution. material. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 12-3 ©UGS Corporation.Model information 12 • When the FEM is active.

12-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Model information 12 Summary In this lesson you: • Learned how to display information about your model.

Lesson 13 Model checking 13 Objectives • • Learn how to perform model checks. Understand threshold values. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 13-1 . ©UGS Corporation.

the software verifies that the model contains: • • • • • Elements Element attributes (such as thickness) Loads Constraints Materials The software displays the results of a Comprehensive check in a separate Information window. 13-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Model Check is a good predictor of whether the model is ready to solve. along with an error summary for each topic. 13 Comprehensive check Use the Comprehensive check to see if your model contains all the necessary elements for the analysis. When you perform a Comprehensive check.Model checking Model Check overview Model Check provides complete information about the model and all its finite element components. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

For accurate results. The values you enter depend on the accuracy you need from your analysis and the type of solver specified in the environment. You may also accept the software’s defaults for the threshold values. finite element analysis solvers require elements that are not distorted. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 13-3 . 13 Element Shapes Threshold Values Threshold values are the maximum allowable value for each test. Any element whose test results exceed these values will fail the test. ©UGS Corporation.Model checking Element Shapes check Use the Element Shapes check to detect elements that may be too distorted to yield good analysis results.

An element fails the Jacobian zero test if its test results fall below the threshold value you enter. Aspect Ratio Aspect ratio is the ratio of an element’s length to its width. Note that the shape tests do not check for misplaced midside nodes. 13-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.Model checking 13 The Jacobian zero threshold is an exception. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

"Element Warning Diagnostics. such that an element in the shape of an equilateral triangle will equal 1. The ratio is determined as the ratio of the length from the origin to the bisector of ©UGS Corporation. Quad Aspect Ratio The aspect ratio for a quad element is determined using a test proposed by Robinson and Haggenmacher (J. This procedure is repeated for the remaining two edges of the triangle and the largest value is retained as the aspect ratio for the element. This ratio (h2/h1) is then multiplied by SQRT(3)/2. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 13-5 . The x-axis extends from the point to the bisector on edge 2. 1982). This test is based on a projection plane created by first bisecting the four element edges. June and August. Haggenmacher.Model checking Tri Aspect Ratio 13 The aspect ratio for a triangular element is calculated as the ratio of the length (h2) to the height (h1)." Finite Element News. then creating a point on the plane at the vector average of the corners. W. Robinson and G.

the software report a value of 1.3. The maximum height to area value is multiplied by a factor cf = 0. If the ratio is less than 1.805927. it is inverted.4. Aspect ratio = Max(cf(hi)/sqrt(Ai)). This result is the aspect ratio. With an equilateral tetrahedral element. Tet Aspect Ratio 13 The aspect ratio for a tetrahedral element is computed by taking the ratio of the height of a vertex to the square root of the area of the opposing face. Warp Warp allows for measurement of out-of-plane element deviation. Quad Warp The warp value is determined using a test proposed by Robinson and Haggenmacher which uses the following method of calculating Quad element Warp.Model checking edge 2 to the length from the origin to the bisector of edge 3. where i = 1.0. The test is based on a projection plane created by first bisecting the four element edges. which is the ratio of height to edge length for an equilateral tetrahedron. then creating a point on the plane at the vector average of 13-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.2. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

Every corner of the quad is a distance h from the plane. ©UGS Corporation. The largest of the three computed angles is the skew angle for that element (skew factor = (90°-a)/90). the other between the mid-points of the adjacent edges. The plane normal is in the direction of the cross product of the x-axis and the vector from the origin to the bisector of edge 3. This causes the element stiffness terms to contain either a zero or negative value. Elements which fail the convexity check double-back on themselves. To calculate each skew angle.Model checking the corners (where the x-axis extends from the point to the bisector on edge 2). Skew Skew allows for measurement of angular deviation of an element using an edge bisector method. Quad Skew Angle Prior to testing for skew. The warp angle is the arcsine of the ratio of the projection height h to the half edge length 1. The length of each half edge is measured and the shortest length is assigned a value of 1. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 13-7 . This procedure is repeated for the other two vertices. Tri Skew Angle 13 Three potential skew angles are computed for each triangular element. the software constructs two vectors: one from a vertex to the mid-point of the opposite edge. The software subtracts the angle between these two vectors from 90° (skew angle = 90°-a). the software checks each element for convexity.

Model checking 13 This skew test is based on a reference frame created by first bisecting the four element edges. The y-axis is in the direction of the live cross product of the x. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .and z-axes as shown above. then creating an origin at the vector average of the corners (where the x-axis extends from the origin to the bisector on edge 2). The highest resulting angle for each element is retained as the skew angle. The resulting angle is subtracted from 90 degrees to yield the skew angle. Tet Skew Angle Each face of the tet element is tested for skew as if it were a tri element. 13-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Quad Taper Taper allows for measurement of the geometric deviation of a quadrilateral element from a rectangular shape. The Robinson and Haggenmacher skew test uses the angle (alpha) between the edge 2 and 4 bisector and the test y-axis. The z-axis is in the direction of the cross product of the x-axis and the vector from the origin to the bisector of edge 3.

For example. Jacobian Ratio Jacobian Ratio is a ratio of the largest Jacobian determinant to the smallest. This ratio gives you an idea of overall distortion in an element.Model checking 13 Quadrilateral element taper is determined using a test proposed by Robinson and Haggenmacher. For shape check the Jacobian is evaluated at each vertex. The Jacobian ratio test is helpful for identifying when the interior corner angles of an element deviate too much from 90 degrees. An element will fail this test if the ratio is higher than the value entered in the data field. Four triangles are created bounded by the element edge and the edges created by connecting the element verification reference frame origin with the two nodes at the element edge. a Jacobian might be used to describe the variance of slope between two points on a curve. The resulting four triangular areas are calculated and summed. A ratio close or equal to 1. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 13-9 . These values are then used to generate results for the Jacobian Ratio and Jacobian Zero tests. The minimum value for each element is determined.0 is desired. A Jacobian could be used to compare the orientation between two edges of an element. Jacobian measures the ratio between the area or volume of an element to the ideal parametric element. Jacobians are useful tools for measuring distortion. The ratio of the smallest triangular area to the total area of the element is the taper ratio (taper ratio = 4*a(smallest)/a1+a2+a3+a4) Jacobian A Jacobian is a determinant used to describe the variance of some characteristic at two different positions in a system. This element verification test can be used to identify incorrectly shaped ©UGS Corporation. Jacobian Zero The determinant of the Jacobian (J) is calculated at all integration points for each element selected. The software calculates this value by mapping a parent element (in computational space) against the actual element.

Moreover. If you try to solve a model that contains coincident nodes. Element Outlines check 13 Use the Element Outlines check to display free edges (element edges that are unconnected to any other element) of 2D meshes and display free faces (element faces that are unconnected to any other element) of 3D meshes. This check operates only between boundary nodes on your geometry (for example. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . etc. J is positive at each Gauss point and is not significantly different from the J value at other Gauss points. For example. Nodes check Use the Nodes check to detect and merge duplicate (coincident) nodes between meshes. The ability to detect and merge duplicate nodes is particularly useful when you’re working with assembly models or with models that contain multiple meshes.). An element will fail this test if its Jacobian Zero is below the value entered in the data field. J approaches zero as an element vertex angle approaches 180 degrees. The Jacobian Zero is the smallest determinant. edges of faces and faces of bodies. the software only merges nodes of identical types. singularities or other rigid body motion errors can occur during the solve.Model checking elements. For a well formed element. 13-10 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. the software will not merge a midnode with an end node.

Model checking 13 2D Element Normals checks Use the 2D Element Normals check to display and reverse 2D element normals. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 13-11 . Summary In this lesson you: ©UGS Corporation. or you can check all 2D elements in the current part. the software maintains that reversal across all mesh updates. You can check the normals on individual faces or within individual meshes. Once you reverse an element’s normal.

Learned about threshold values. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 13 13-12 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.Model checking • • Learned how to perform model checks.

All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 14-1 .Lesson 14 Solving Objectives • • Learn how to solve the finite element model. Learn how to do a batch solve. 14 ©UGS Corporation.

then automatically begins processing. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . This command lets you control the location of the input file. Click OK to run the solve. Click . On the Solve dialog. 6. select an option from the Submit menu. as well as the units for the file. To edit solution attributes. The Analysis Job Monitor appears. When the analysis is complete. A solve formats the bulk data deck or input file. You can write out the active FE Model and Simulation. select the solution node. choose Edit Solver Parameters. choose Edit Solution Attributes. 5. run a comprehensive check. 3. before you solve the model. 14-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 2. 14 Solving the model To ensure a successful solve and accurate results. You can also write out an input file with File →Export. as well as element quality checks. a Results node appears in the Simulation Navigator. In the Simulation Navigator. you can perform a solve. 4.Solving Solving overview Once you have prepared your FE model by defining a mesh and applying boundary conditions. To edit solver parameters. You can also choose to write out the input file without solving it. 1. or only the active FE Model.

and also lets you know when the analysis job is completed. ©UGS Corporation. The Analysis Job Monitor automatically appears after you run a solve.Solving Analysis Job Monitor The Analysis Job Monitor lets you keep track of the progress of the analysis job you submitted. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 14-3 . 14 Batch solving Solve All Solutions allows you to perform batch solves. You can choose between launching all solves simultaneously or in sequential order.

Summary In this lesson you: • • Learned how to solve the finite element model. you will learn the process for preparing and solving a model. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . In this activity. 14-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Learned how to do a batch solve.Solving 14 Activity See the “Solving” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook.

Learn how to use the tools on the Post Control toolbar.Lesson 15 Post-processing Objectives • • Learn how to use Post-processing. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 15-1 . 15 ©UGS Corporation.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . • Click the Enter Post Processing toolbar. Select or clear the visibility check box ( ) for a result type or data component. You can use MB3 options available from the Results node to do the following: • • Create and append post views Combine load cases 15-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. You can expand each result type to access all data components available for the selected result type. on the Advanced Simulation • From the main menu. and the graphics window display updates dynamically. choose Tools→Results→Enter Post Processing 15 Results in the Simulation Navigator Use the Simulation Navigator to display and manage results in Post –processing. You can enter Post-processing by double-clicking on any Results node in the Simulation Navigator. Available options include the following: Node Name Results node Description and Functions Result types are displayed under the Results node in the Simulation Navigator.Post-processing Post-processing introduction Use the post-processor to view the results of all analysis types supported by Advanced Simulation. Opening the post-processor To open the post-processor: • Double-click on the Results node in the Simulation Navigator.

Creates an identical copy of the post view in the Simulation Navigator. To manage display features of a particular view. Rename . select the view in the Navigator. Append to Display .adds the post view to the current layout. Post View ©UGS Corporation.Lets you save the selected post view as a template. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 15-3 . Delete .Post-processing Node Name Post View node Description and Functions Provides access to the current post view.Deletes the selected post view. Overlay . Controls the display of results in selected post views. Alternatively.Adds the post view to the current working post view. you can exit Post-processing by double-clicking the FE Model node in Simulation Navigator. Save As Template . Clone . Double-clicking on a post view in the Navigator designates that view as the new work view.Renames the post view.Populates the graphics window with the selected post view. • • • 15 • • • The Post Control toolbar Use the Post Control toolbar to access the following Post-processing features: Icon Option Finish Post Processing Description Exits Post-processing. then right-click to access the following options: • Load .

Controls animation settings. Steps backward through the animation one frame at a time when the animation is paused.Post-processing Icon Identify Option Display Marker Display Marker Drag View Layout Select All Views Deselect All Views Overlay Description Probes and displays node and element information in the work view. 15 Animation Setup Previous Next Play Pause Stop Import Results You can import and access results for solves performed outside of the current set of solutions. (. Stops the current animation. The following file formats are supported for importing results: • • • 15-4 Nastran (. Switches the display of minimum and maximum result markers on and off.E. Steps forward through the animation one frame at a time when the animation is paused.op2) Structures P.rst) ©UGS Corporation.vdm) Ansys Structural (. Pauses the current animation. Deselects all selected layout views. Plays the animation using the current settings. Superimposes one set of results on another in the same view. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide . Displays results in multiple layout views. Selects all layout views. Allows you to reposition minimum and maximum result markers.

rth) Abaqus (. 5. You can therefore perform the following operations on imported results: • • • Post-process and view the results Re-solve for new results Edit attributes of the imported results Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 15-5 ©UGS Corporation. The imported results node appears in the Simulation Navigator. Click OK. the imported results node behaves somewhat like a solution node in the Simulation Navigator. If necessary. click Change and select new units from the Import Results units dialog. All Rights Reserved .bun) Importing results To import and view results: 1. right-click on the Simulation file and select Import Results. Review the results units. Click OK. 15 3. 4.unv) I-DEAS Bun file (. 2.Post-processing • • • • Abaqus Thermal (. From the Simulation Navigator. name the imported results file. Using imported results Once you have successfully imported a results file. Click on the File Open button to select a file type and path for the file name. From the Import Results dialog.fil) I-DEAS results file (.

A post view represents result settings displayed in the graphics window that include result type. synchronization. deformed display options. the Results node expands to display all result types available. The Edges and Faces tab controls the display of element edges and faces. You can also manage cutting plane options from the Post View Display tab. which is created automatically by the software from solver results. You can manage the settings for each view using the Post View dialog. dynamic viewing and text color preferences. Beneath the Results node is a post view. The Color Bar tab lets you select results data for post processing. and so on. ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 • • • 15-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide .Post-processing Post View When you enter Post-processing. deformation. data component. 15 • The Post View Display tab provides options for displaying results such as contour type. The Preferences tab controls display marker. and where to display results. and save settings as templates. cutting plane. Options are also provided for linear or log display and for viewing optimization results in tabular and graph form. You can create additional post views.

you can save the template as a single view or as a layout. 15 4. Depending on how many views are currently displayed. 3. available from the resource bar. Creating a viewport layout To create a viewport layout. you can save this template as the default. and you can choose to use the part model image for the template icon. Creating a Single-View Template 1. ©UGS Corporation. enter a Name and choose additional options. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 15-7 . In the Save Post Template dialog. 2. select a layout from one to nine views.Post-processing Post view templates Post View templates provide a way to save data from one or more post views for future re-use. Right-click on the post view and choose Save as Template. The Layout view also lets you save templates in layout format. Click OK. This template is stored in the Post Processing Templates palette. Post view layouts Post-processing displays up to nine models simultaneously. Select the post view node of the view you want to save as a template. if necessary. From the drop-down list. For example. click the down arrow next to the layout icon on the Post Control toolbar.

Use the Overlay dialog to select the view to apply changes to when modifying an overlay. To create an overlay display: is not 1. Overlay active until an overlay exists.Post-processing Overlay The Overlay icon ( ) becomes active only after you have created an overlay using the Simulation Navigator. Creating an Overlay Create an overlay using the Simulation Navigator. in the Post Control toolbar to launch the 15-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. if desired. You can now use Overlay Overlay dialog. and select Overlay. and to remove overlays. 2. 4. Right-click on a non-work view. Ensure that the layout in the graphics window for the current work view is single-view only. Ensure that you have created at least two post views in the Simulation Navigator. 15 3. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . The non-work view is superimposed over the work view in the graphics window. Select additional views to superimpose. Use Overlay to superimpose one or more sets of results on another.

multiplied by the entered scale factor. you should give some thought to how you set up your analysis. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 15-9 . appears in the Combined Load Case Definition list. If you will be applying a scale factor. resources and disk space for every instance of a load case combination. Click OK or Apply. 7.Post-processing Combining load cases You can add linear static load cases and view their combined results. The combined load case appears below the results node along with the subcases. Select the first load case to combine. The Load Case Component list box is now active. 4. You can create post views displaying the combined results. Prior to using the Combine Load Cases functionality. The Load Case Component list box lists the solved subcases for the solution. 2. 6. Enter a short. meaningful name for the combined load case and click Create. Be sure to create a separate subcase for each load case you intend to combine. enter a value in the Scale field. If you are applying a scale factor to this load case. The Scale field and the Add/Edit button are now active. you may find it useful to define loads using unit values. Click Add/Enter. Repeat steps 3 – 5 for each load case you want to combine. Combined load case definitions are saved in the Simulation file and are available from session to session. 3. Right-click on the Results node in Simulation Navigator and choose Combined Loadcases. ©UGS Corporation. Combining load cases To combine and scale load cases in the post-processor: 1. The load case. This feature is useful for viewing results for varying combinations of load cases without spending analysis time. You can scale results to compare the results of similar loading conditions at different loading values. The combined load case name appears selected in the Combined Load Cases list box. 15 5.

Click Stop displacement or stress display. You can animate displays to better visualize how the model responds to a particular solution. You can display the IDs or the current results value. You can also list results for selected nodes and elements. Click Pause 15 or Next . Click Identify . 2. Identify Use Identify to probe and display nodal and elemental information for the Work view display. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Post-processing Animation Animation allows you to generate and control the display of animation frames. (Optional) Step through the animation frame by frame. 15-10 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Click Play on the Post Control toolbar. The software first generates and steps through the individual frames of the animation. Using the animation tools You can quickly animate static displacement or stress results (using the default settings) using the Animation tools: 1. and you can save a particular selection. and then plays the animation. and then click Previous forward through each animation frame. to step backward or to delete the animation frames and return to the static 3. Identifying results at nodes or elements 1.

Click List Information in Window or List Information in Spreadsheet to generate a listing of results data for all nodes or elements matching the probe criteria. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 15-11 . • If you select n Highest or n Lowest Nodes or Elements. enter a value for N=. If you select Node IDs or Element IDs. or just the node location highlight. • • Selected elements are marked using the marker indicated in the Mark field: Values. For example. node IDs.Post-processing 15 2. In the dialog. Use commas or spaces to separate multiple node IDs. To include all data components in the listing. to view the 10 nodes with the highest values for the current result. be sure to select the List All Components check box. choose a filter from the Filter menu. enter node or element ID in the IDs: field. 3. use the resulting Probe cursor to interactively select nodes or elements. enter N= 10. ©UGS Corporation. If you select a geometry-based filter (or no filter).

gif images and other FE model data. 15 Summary In this lesson you: • • Learned how to use the post-processor. Use Create Report to generate a report. with some sections including optional information that you can enter or edit. Each chapter contains automatically generated information.Post-processing Generating reports The report is an HTML document containing . 15-12 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. you will explore some of the techniques that you can use to post-process the results from a solve. It consists of a title page and multiple chapters. Activity See the “Post-processing” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. In this activity. Learned how to use the tools on the Post Control toolbar. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

Lesson 16 Reports Objectives • Learn how to generate an HTML report. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 16-1 . 16 ©UGS Corporation.

Each chapter contains automatically generated information. use Create Report . All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . The figure shows a typical report structure displayed in the Simulation Navigator. That is. suppose that you define the loads and constraints for a model that will be meshed by a colleague. You can create a report at any time after you create a solution. For example. You may want to create a report detailing the loading before handing off the solution to the colleague performing the meshing. with some sections including optional information that you can enter or edit.gif images and other FE model data. the solution need not be complete and solved. It consists of a title page and multiple chapters. The report is an HTML document containing . 16 16-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.Reports Overview To generate a report.

All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 16-3 .Reports 16 ©UGS Corporation.

as necessary. solution data. Expand the Reports node in Simulation Navigator so you can see the chapters and their contents. 2. MB3 → Edit to display a text editor where you can add or edit text to the sections of the report. 16-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. When the files are written.Reports Creating the report 1. In this activity. and images. and stored in your local temp directory. • Clear the visibility check box ( ) next to a report item to exclude it from the current report. • Exporting the report 16 To export the report. the software launches your default browser and displays the resulting report. you will create an HTML report of model data. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . right-click on the Report node in the Simulation Navigator and choose Export. Activity See the “Reports” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. Summary In this lesson you: • Learned how to generate an HTML report. Use MB3 options in the Simulation Navigator to modify the report. An HTML-formatted report is automatically generated and displays as a node in the Simulation Navigator. 3. or MB3 → Clear. The report is written to a number of HTML and graphics files. Click (Create Report). or right-click on the Solution node in the Simulation Navigator and select Create Report.

17 ©UGS Corporation. Learn how to calculate unit conversions.Lesson 17 Units Objectives • • Learn how to create new units of measure. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 17-1 .

Units Manager Units Manager lets you make changes to units of measure. For example. New information from each Units Manager session is dynamically updated in all key dialogs. select Newtons from the unit options and enter a value. Within a part. The Units Manager dialog lets you create new units and unit systems that are saved to the part and become available from all key dialogs.Units Units overview The NX software provides two default unit system files: English and metric. drop-down selections let you change the unit system dynamically rather than having to manually calculate conversions. The settings for that unit system are then applied to and stored with the file. The Units Converter dialog provides a utility to calculate unit conversions. the unit values are automatically converted to the NX standard or metric system when you perform a solve. 17 17-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. if you are creating a load set and want to enter the force in Newtons instead of pound-feet. You can choose one of these unit systems when you create a new part file. In addition. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . you can modify the default unit settings as follows: • In key dialogs. • • All unit modifications are stored with the part and are therefore preserved between sessions.

which appears in the Conversion Parameters section of the dialog and updates automatically whenever you change the unit of measure. such as Temperature. ©UGS Corporation. Choose Analysis → Units Custom → Units Manager. the software updates the dialog by clearing the Default Unit check box.Units Creating a new unit of measure To create a new unit of measure: 1. Select or enter a new unit name. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 17-3 17 . Choose Measure to change or add a unit of measure. with the Default Unit option selected. TheUnits Manager dialog opens. Each unit of measure is assigned a unique conversion equation. The default unit system is displayed. 3. 2. When you switch from the original unit system.

6. Units Converter The Units Converter dialog provides a utility to calculate unit conversions. In the From field. In the dialog. select a Quantity. which is the abbreviated name for the unit.Units 4. You can delete or update units you’ve manually created in the Units Manager dialog as long as they haven’t been used elsewhere. Enter a full-name description for the unit of measure. You can use the converted values as input in other dialogs. Enter a Unit Display Name. The software automatically calculates a conversion value. if necessary. enter a value and select a unit system for the original unit. if you just defined dyne as a unit of force in the Units Manager dialog. 17 Calculating a conversion value 1. 4. an addition factor for the unit of measure equation. 17-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. The new unit measurement is available immediately. 3. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . the dyne unit appears as a selectable option the next time you open the Loads dialog. 7. select the new unit system. or to simply compare with other values. In the To field. In the Conversion Parameters section. enter a multiplication factor and. 2. 5. Choose Analysis → Units Custom → Units Converter. For example. Choose New Unit.

Summary In this lesson you: • • Learned how to create new units of measure. Learned how to calculate unit conversions. 17 ©UGS Corporation. you will create and work with custom units. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 17-5 . In this activity.Units Activity See the “Units” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook.

17 .

18 ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 18-1 . including Mesh Mating Condition. Surface Contact Mesh. Edge-Face Connection. Contact Mesh.Lesson 18 Mesh connections Objectives • Learn how to connect parts using various tools. Weld Mesh.

However. and the target face should have a more coarse mesh. The source face controls the density of the mesh at the interface. For example. and the other face serves as the target face. when you define a mesh mating condition. The software ensures that connectivity is maintained at that interface. One face serves as the source face for the mating condition. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . to connect two separate solid bodies and The Mesh Mating Condition capability lets you assemble individual meshes together at a specified interface. Create identical meshes on two faces to facilitate contact definition. you can use Mesh Mating Condition to: • • Connect the meshes on similar bodies within an assembly. the source face should have a finer mesh. 18-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 18 Understanding the roles of the source and target faces In a mesh mating condition.Mesh connections Mesh Mating Condition Use Mesh Mating Condition their associated 3D meshes. In general. you actually select the faces of the part and not the meshes. the software creates a connection between the mesh on the face of one body and the mesh on the face of another body.

A Glue Non-Coincident condition.Mesh connections You can use the Reverse Direction icon at the bottom of the Mesh Mating Conditions dialog to reverse which face is the source and which face is the target. ©UGS Corporation. • Choose All Pairs to have the software find all pairs of source and target surfaces within the specified Distance Tolerance. Choose Identical Pairs to have the software find only pairs of source and target surfaces within the specified Distance Tolerance. the same area. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 18-3 18 . that are also geometrically identical (for example. It then merges the nodes at the interface between the source and target so that the two faces share the same nodes. the software creates multi-point constraints (MPCs) or constraint equations between the nodes on the source and target faces. Glue Non-Coincident conditions With a Glue Non-Coincident condition. if two faces are geometrically identical. A Free Coincident condition. • Selecting a mesh mating condition type The Mesh Mating Conditions dialog lets you define the following types of mating conditions: • • • A Glue Coincident condition.). they must have the same number of edges. etc. Glue Coincident conditions With a Glue Coincident condition. you can use the Face Search option to control the criteria the software should use to find pairs. the software imprints the mesh from the source face onto the target face. the Type options let you choose whether you want the software to automatically search your model for appropriate source and target faces or whether you want to manually select pairs. If you select Auto Create to have the software select the pairs. Selecting faces automatically or manually On the Mesh Mating Conditions dialog.

Face Search Option. If you don’t select a region of faces. no relationship is created between the two meshes. rename. the software aligns the mesh on both the source and target face but does not connect the meshes. 18 5. and the bodies are likely to move independently. and manage mesh mating conditions. 3. for example. With Free Coincident. Click Preview to highlight all face pairs that match the criterion you’ve set. the software adds it to the Connection Meshes → Mesh Mating Conditions container in your FEM file in the Simulation Navigator. 4. You can also change the Type to Manual and manually select the 18-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Free Coincident conditions With a Free Coincident condition. if the two faces are far apart relative to the tolerance. this results in duplicate nodes at the interface between the source and target faces. You can use MB3 options in the Simulation Navigator to delete. select a region of your model to limit the face pair search. Optionally. Managing Mesh Mating conditions in the Simulation Navigator When you create a mesh mating condition. 6. Therefore. or Distance Tolerance. you may need to adjust the Mesh Mating Type. 7. 2. the software uses the Distance Tolerance to connect the nodes at the time you solve. the software searches the entire visible model. for setting up surface-to-surface contact problems. Choose the Mesh Mating Type. select Identical Pairs Only. Click Mesh Mating Condition . Adjust the Distance Tolerance as necessary for the size and scale of your model. This is useful. Automatically Creating Mesh Mating Conditions 1. Choose the Face Search Option. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . However.Mesh connections You can create this type of mesh mating condition between any two faces irrespective of their relative positioning. If the previewed face pairs do not meet your expectations. To limit the face pair search to coincident faces. Select Auto Create on the Mesh Mating Condition dialog.

Click OK or Apply to create the mesh mating condition. Select the target face. Edge Face Connection Use Edge-Face Connection to define the connection between a set of edges and a set of faces. 4. 7. 18 ©UGS Corporation. for example. Select the source face. you may want to adjust the Distance Tolerance. 3. Depending on the size and scale of your model. Use this feature whenever there are meshes to be connected in T-junction configuration. fins or stiffeners attached to surfaces.Mesh connections 8. the software ties the selected edges to the faces using rigid links and MPCs (multi-point constraints). The existing meshes on the edges or faces are not disturbed. 6. When you use Edge-Face Connection functionality. 5. Select Manual on the Mesh Mating Condition dialog. Click Mesh Mating Condition . Choose the Mesh Mating Type. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 18-5 . Click OK or Apply to create the mesh mating condition. 2. Manually creating mesh mating conditions 1.

including consideration for midsurfaces. • 18 • • Weld Mesh Weld Mesh lets you locate/automate the recognition of weld features (connections) and then automate the creation of their FE model representation. The rigid link elements are displayed in preview. click OK or Apply to create rigid links between the selected edges and selected faces. each selected edge is seeded with nodes corresponding to the number specified in the Default Element field. The software creates the connection as follows: • If are no meshes exist on the edges. element nodes are located (Glue Meshes) or points are projected and corresponding nodes created on the selected faces (Match Meshes). From these seeded node locations.Mesh connections Understanding the edge-face connection process Once you finish making selections on the Edge-Face Connection dialog. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 18-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Rigid links are created between the face nodes and the edge nodes.

The original spot weld locations (weld points) are projected onto the face. It then creates the recipe for the weld mesh recipe. Resistance spot welds Resistance spot welds are used to connect multiple layers of sheet metal. again projected normal to the first body’s surface. Finally. • 18 • Weld element process You can get spot locations for each layer of metal faces from the weld feature. and the software creates weld elements (Rigid Link or Spring type elements) between the projection points. The software creates hard points at the spot locations defined in the weld feature.Mesh connections Use Weld Mesh to create weld elements (1D mesh) from weld features (connections). The software treats the weld points as hard points. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 18-7 . the ©UGS Corporation. The second and subsequent bodies are projections of the first body’s locations. This means that the software honors the weld points during face meshing. The software sorts face pairs from top to middle. and middle to bottom. • The original spot welds are first projected to the first body using a normal to the surface projection.

Points on the original curves are projected on to the faces. 18 • • 18-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. This means that the software honors the weld points during face meshing. and weld elements (Rigid Link/Spring) are created between the projected points. just as spot welds do. Resistance seam welds Resistance seam welds connect multiple layers of sheet metal. The software creates the rigid elements between each pair of points (point on top face and the corresponding point on the bottom face). the points on the "original" curves are projected to the first body’s surface. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . They differ from resistance spot welds in that the weld geometry is modeled by curve. just as resistance spot welds do. They differ from spot welds in that the weld geometry is modeled by a curve. • Resistance seam welds connect multiple layers of sheet metal. As with spot welds. The software treats the weld points as hard points.Mesh connections software creates 1D elements between the projection points for each pair of faces. and then the resulting projection points are projected to each subsequent body.

Select the desired target edge. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 18-9 . 2. 3. Select the desired contact edge and click OK. Click Contact Mesh .Mesh connections Contact Mesh Use Contact Mesh to create point-to-point contact between two edges or a portion of two edges defined by limiting points. ©UGS Corporation. Result types supported in Post Processing for contact mesh include Normal Force. Sliding Force. Element Status. and Gap/Penetration. 18 Creating a contact mesh 1.

you define the contact elements as surface contacts or node-to-node gap elements. and enter the desired Capture Distance to specify the surface proximity value by which the overlapping faces can be detected. (Optional) Select Auto Create Contact Pairs. Surface Contact Mesh Surface Contact Mesh lets you create and define contact elements between two selected faces of a solid or between different components. 18 Creating a surface contact mesh 1. You can define or edit the element properties of the contact mesh you built using the Attribute Editor. Using surface contact. or bonded. rough.Mesh connections 4. Depending on the solver you plan to use. Click Apply to build the contact mesh. 2. 5. The options available in the Surface Contact dialog depend on the solver environment selected as the currently active solution. you can choose between four contact conditions: standard. 18-10 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. (Optional) You can also use the other selection step icons to control the limiting points definition. no separation. Click Surface Contact Mesh . All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

First. use the Selection Steps instead of Auto Create. In this activity. Click Apply to build the surface contact mesh. 4. Activity See the “Mesh connections” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook.Mesh connections 3. Summary In this lesson you learned how to use various mesh connection tools: • • • • • Mesh Mating Condition Edge Face Connection Weld Mesh Contact Mesh Surface Contact Mesh 18 ©UGS Corporation. Change other properties as desired. (Optional) To more specifically define contact. you will create mesh connections and generate a mesh. 5. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 18-11 . select the source face and then the target contact face. and then click OK.

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All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 19-1 .Lesson 19 Optimization Objectives • Learn how to use optimization. 19 ©UGS Corporation.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 19 19-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Where do I find it? To run optimization. and design variables. You can also use this dialog to specify the number of iterations for the optimization run and to view defined optimization settings. you set convergence parameters for the design objective. constraints. design variables. To achieve the design goal. you can access the results in Post Processing. and convergence parameters.Optimization Optimization overview Optimization is a process that helps you arrive at the best solution for a given design goal. then define a design objective. After you perform an optimized solve. right-click on the simulation → New Solution Process → Optimization • Advanced Simulation toolbar → Optimization Setup Optimization Setup Use the Optimization Setup dialog to specify an optimization type. The software then performs a series of iterations to converge on a solution. constraints. do one of the following: • In the Simulation Navigator.

Optimization Optimization analysis options Two types of optimization are available: • • Global Sensitivity Studies Altair HyperOpt™ 19 Global Sensitivity Studies Global Sensitivity Studies iterates through the limits of each selected design variable one at a time. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 19-3 . to see how sensitive the design objective is to each variable. ©UGS Corporation.

and the Optimization Spreadsheet automatically launches.Optimization The design variable values are varied over a specified number of steps. you should not attempt to modify a model while an optimization analysis is in progress. Once you have defined a set of design variables. a copy of the part is saved. there will be five iterations during which the design variable is incremented by a value of 2. displacement. the software stores this information and uses it during optimization to determine how many iterations are needed for a converged solution. During the optimization. For example.0 for each iteration. a graph displays that dynamically updates for each iteration to show the objective result (y axis) vs. design constraints. an upper limit of 10. which you can access from Results → Type in the Post-Processor. In general. and temperature (for thermal analysis) 19 • 19-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Optimization objectives include response types from supported solvers. the graph closes and quits.0. including the use of feature parameters and expressions as design variables. and you specified 5 steps for the global sensitivity study. iteration (x axis).0. and an optimization goal. When the run is complete. Altair HyperOpt™ Altair HyperOpt™ provides full support for shape optimization. if a design variable has a lower limit of 0. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . You can select: • • Volume or weight (for static analysis) Frequency (for modal analysis) Additional selections such as stress. The total number of iterations for a global sensitivity study is equal to: ( number of steps + 1 ) * number of selected design variables The results for study are displayed in the Sensitivity Spreadsheet. Objectives Use the Objective dialog to select and define a design objective to be applied to the optimization problem. Upon initiating an analysis or study.

Constraints can be applied to the model as a whole or to specific geometries. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 19-5 . 19 ©UGS Corporation.Optimization Constraints Use the Constraints dialog to make constraint selections for optimizing a specific problem.

which are independent quantities that you can vary in order to achieve the optimum design.Optimization Design Variables Use the Design Variables dialog to define the design variables. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Upper and lower limits define a maximum range of variation and serve as constraints on the allowable amount of change. 19 19-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

In this activity. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 19-7 . you will use shape optimization to minimize the weight of a part. 19 ©UGS Corporation.Optimization Activity See the “Optimization” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook.

Optimization Summary In this lesson you: • Learned how to use optimization to achieve your design goals. 19 19-8 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .

All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 20-1 . Learn about the types of durability results.Lesson 20 Durability (fatigue) analysis Objectives • • Learn how to create a durability solution. 20 ©UGS Corporation.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .. You will not need to perform a solve. also known as fatigue duty cycles. Open or create the part or assembly. Structural fatigue analysis is a tool for evaluating a design’s structural worthiness. Estimation is accomplished by reducing data to a peak/valley sequence.. 20 20-2 3. under various simple or complex loading conditions. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. A library containing standard fatigue material properties is provided. create new FEM and Simulation files. 2. the load variation parameters are combined with other fatigue criteria. or its durability. Fatigue analysis uses the cumulative damage approach to estimate fatigue life from stress or strain time histories. prepare the model as you would for a finite element analysis and then provide certain fatigue-specific information: • • • Fatigue material properties Fatigue load variations Fatigue analysis options Fatigue results During the solve. In Advanced Simulation. and calculating fatigue life. Fatigue analysis process To perform a fatigue or durability analysis. and the software performs fatigue analysis calculations to evaluate the structure’s durability.Durability (fatigue) analysis Durability overview Fatigue life can be defined as "failure due to repeated load. Durability is assessed and displayed as contour plots in the following areas: • • • Structural strength (Stress Safety Factor) Fatigue strength (Fatigue Safety Factor) Fatigue life (Fatigue Life) Preparing the model for a durability analysis To prepare the model for a durability analysis. counting the cycles. Results of a fatigue analysis are displayed as contour plots that show the duration of cyclic loading (number of fatigue duty cycles) the structure can undergo before crack initiation occurs. 1980).involving the initiation and propagation of a crack or cracks to final fracture" (Fuchs. first perform the initial steps for a linear static analysis: 1. Create a linear statics solution.

Creating a durability solution To create a durability solution: 1. Apply loads and constraints. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 20-3 . Right-click and select New Load Variation. mesh the model. 2. create a new solution process (MB3 → New Solution Process → Durability Solution). Click OK. Make sure to assign a material that contains fatigue properties. 3.Durability (fatigue) analysis 4. select the Durability solution node. With the Simulation node selected. 20 ©UGS Corporation. 5. In the Simulation Navigator. Assign a name to the solution and specify durability parameters.

Evaluating fatigue results The fatigue result types correspond to the fatigue evaluation options: • • • Stress Safety Factor Fatigue Safety Factor Fatigue Life Factor 20 20-4 You can view each of these result sets in a post processing display. while fatigue safety and fatigue life results are displayed as log scale. select the Results node in the Simulation Navigator. Stress safety results are displayed as linear scale by default. right-click and select Solve. 5. double-click. pick one of the results types. Post Processing opens.Durability (fatigue) analysis 4. Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Under the Results node. Select the Durability solution node you just created. 6. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . After the solve is complete.

Activity See the “Durability (fatigue) analysis” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. You probably don’t need to pay much attention to it. Fatigue Safety Factor results Fatigue safety results reflect the fatigue safety factor due to the cyclic loading conditions you defined in the fatigue duty cycle. For a design to be considered feasible. Post Processing opens. 2. select the Results node in the Simulation Navigator. In this activity. After the solve is complete. the fatigue safety factor must be greater than 1. In addition: • An area where the fatigue safety factor approaches infinity may be overly designed for this particular event.Durability (fatigue) analysis Viewing fatigue results To access fatigue results: 1. you will perform a durability (fatigue) analysis. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 20-5 20 . An area where the fatigue safety factor is less than or equal to 1 will eventually be damaged by repeating the given fatigue duty cycle. pick one of the results types (see below for description). Stress Safety Factor results The software calculates Stress Safety Factor as a function of the time history of effective stress (von Mises. • • Fatigue Life results Fatigue life is expressed as a real scalar results set that evaluates the number of fatigue duty cycles before crack initiation occurs. maximum or minimum principal stresses) to determine the failure index results set for the structure. Values greater than 1 are acceptable. Under the Results node. double-click. values less than 1 indicate failure. Lower fatigue safety factor values indicate that the cyclic stress range during the fatigue duty cycle was high. ©UGS Corporation.

All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 20 20-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. Learned about durability results types.Durability (fatigue) analysis Summary In this lesson you: • • Learned how to create a durability solution.

Lesson 21 21 Buckling analysis Objectives • Use linear buckling in an analysis ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 21-1 .

but instead act on the part by making it more (or less) likely to become unstable. 21-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . enter a number for the required buckled shape modes and. which when large enough. and a buckled mode shape is the characteristic shape associated with a structure’s buckled response. choose the Linear Buckling analysis. would cause the system to become unstable). if desired. Before performing the Solve operation. A default value (usually the lowest number of modes) is given if these values are not defined. To build the model for a linear buckling analysis. the structure becomes unstable. However. When this loading is reached. under certain loading combinations. A linear buckling analysis identifies the loading conditions that make a structure unstable and result in various buckled mode shapes. a structural model is normally considered to be in a state of stable equilibrium. The model can contain one or more buckling loads and also other loads that would not cause buckling on their own. The figure below illustrates one such case. In a linear statics analysis. the upper and lower eigenvalue range. As you remove the load previously applied. Loads in linear buckling analysis If the analyzed model only contains a buckling load (that is. the structure goes back to its original position. the critical buckling load is the load multiplied by the eigenvalue. A buckling load is the critical load at which a structure becomes unstable. as determined by the eigenvalue extraction method and the number of modes for which the analysis is solved.Buckling analysis 21 Linear buckling overview Buckling analysis is a technique used to determine buckling loads and buckled mode shapes. a load. the structure continues to deflect without an increase in the loading magnitude and "buckles" or becomes unstable.

For example.5 and the lowest eigenvalue turns out to be 500.Buckling ABAQUS . the system is calculated to be unstable for the load combination: P1=500 and P2=250. The part in the example will become unstable for a lower value of P1 than the same part without P2. With a linear buckling solution. The relation between the loads is not considered to change. You may want to find out the value of P1 at which the part becomes unstable. Supported environments Advanced Simulation supports the following linear buckling environments: • • • Nastran . P2 may be a known load acting on the part. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 21-3 .Buckling Perturbation Substep ©UGS Corporation.Buckling analysis 21 P1 is the buckling load and P2 is a load that makes the part more likely to become unstable.SEBUCKL105 ANSYS . if the part is analyzed with P1=1 and P2=0. The linear buckling solution considers all loads as a system. you cannot keep P2 constant and analyze the part only for buckling caused by P1.

you will analyze a strap to determine the first three buckling modes. In this activity. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 .Buckling analysis 21 Activity See the “Buckling analysis” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. Summary In this lesson you: • Learned how to use linear buckling in an analysis. 21-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation.

All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 22-1 . ©UGS Corporation.Lesson 22 Modal analysis 22 Objectives • Learn how to perform a modal analysis.

Modal analysis

Modal analysis
Dynamic analysis is an important part of any design involving non-static structure. These analyses are frequently performed to ensure that the natural frequency of a given part does not coincide with that of a certain input or forcing function. These forcing functions can occur in nature from such causes as wind or other parts of a mechanical system (such as a nearby engine). Use of modal analysis Below are a couple reasons for running a dynamic analysis and verifying that the forcing function frequency does not coincide with the part being analyzed: • If the natural frequency of the part happens to be the same as that of the forcing function, an amplification of vibration may result, imparting more load into the part than intended. This amplification can also carry over into any mating parts, resulting in a vibrating system. If the natural frequencies are close, the product may vibrate. Although the vibration may not be detrimental to the strength of the system, it can present discomfort to the user.

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Modal analysis and material properties In order to perform a dynamic analysis, the density must be specified in the material properties listing. Failure to specify the density and assign it to the mesh will yield a result without natural frequencies. Submitting a dynamic analysis Several parameters must be specified before submitting a dynamic analysis. Upon selecting Solve, choose Edit Solution Attributes, and the Edit Solution dialog is displayed.

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To submit the analysis, you must first specify the frequency range of interest and number of modes you wish to find. From the Modal Generation menu,

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choose Modes/Frequency to activate the Frequency Range Lower Limit and Upper Limit fields.

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Knowing the input frequency, you would typically specify a broad range around it, within the range of interest field. For example, for a forcing frequency of 500 Hz, you could specify a lower limit of 0 and an upper limit of 1000. It should be noted that this frequency range is in Hertz units. The Number of Desired Modes corresponds with the number of mode shapes for that part. Typically there is one natural frequency that corresponds to a given mode shape. The higher the number of mode shape, the less extreme are the deflections that correspond to the frequency of that mode. The first mode shape normally results in the highest local deflection of a part. The first four mode shapes are typically requested when performing an analysis. Generally, a dynamic analysis is submitted without any type of loading; however, the part must be constrained in accordance with a real-life situation. If a structural analysis is being performed, the simplest way to transition to a dynamic analysis is to delete the loads and submit the model with constraint information only. Mode shapes of a modal analysis Mode shapes illustrate the deflection of the part when subjected to vibration. A mode shape develops when the vibration frequency reaches the natural frequency. At this point the part is considered to be in a steady state. Post processing a modal analysis For modal analysis the frequency results are displayed, ranging from lowest to highest natural frequency in the specified range. The results are ordered by mode shape, with the lowest natural frequency being the first mode shape, the next highest the second mode shape, and so on. Selection of the various results shows the mode shape. The natural frequency for that mode shape is displayed with the result selection. All post processing tools are available when processing the model results. This includes the animation tool. The animation tool is particularly useful when visualizing mode shapes. The displayed deflections are relative to other grid points in the model and should not necessarily be considered true deflections.

Activity
See the “Modal analysis” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. In this activity, you will perform an modal analysis on a speaker cabinet.
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Summary
In this lesson you: • Learned how to perform a modal analysis.

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Lesson 23 Thermal analysis 23 Objectives • Learn how to perform a thermal analysis. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 23-1 . ©UGS Corporation.

Thermal analysis

Thermal analysis
Thermal analysis is an important part of any design intended to function over a broad range of temperatures. There are usually certain design conditions that a given part must be designed to withstand. Thermal analysis is one tool employed to verify this criterion. Thermal model preparation

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Preparation of a thermal model is similar to preparation of a structural model. With a structural model, the part must be both constrained and loaded to obtain a result. With a thermal model, constraints only may be specified or a combination of constraints and loads, depending on the application. There are a number of different types of loads and constraints available when performing a thermal analysis. One parameter that is required with a thermal analysis is the coefficient of conductivity. A value must be assigned to the mesh. Failure to enter a conductivity coefficient will yield no results as the solver does not know the rate at which heat flows through the assigned material. Post processing a thermal model Thermal models are post processed similar to dynamic and structural models. When viewing the results of a thermal model, you can animate the result and view the temperature changes throughout the model. Also helpful as an available option is the ability to target the highest temperature node or element. Determining thermal stresses and strains From various strength of materials and linear elasticity concepts, we know that thermal loading is not capable of causing direct stress, but instead causes thermal strains. Depending on how the part is constrained, these thermal strains may result in thermal stresses. For example, if a part is constrained at both ends over a length and is subjected to a positive temperature load, the part will tend to grow. Because the part is fully constrained at both ends, it is not able to grow. This results in thermal stresses. If one end of the part was free, the part would grow without incident and no thermal stress would develop. To calculate these stresses and strains the part must first be loaded with the thermal loads or constraints. The part is then structurally constrained. The model would then be run as a structural analysis and post processed. If there are no structural loads applied, the resulting stresses and strains must be due to thermal loading. It should be noted that in linear elastic analysis,
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Thermal analysis

these thermal stresses and strains are additive to the structural stresses and strains. Submitting a thermal model for analysis When submitting a thermal model for analysis, choose Edit Solution Attributes on the Solve dialog. On the Edit Solution dialog, enter the Default Initialization Temperatutre, which is a start temperature for all the nodes that do not have a temperature assigned. This gives the solver a starting point that is closer to the ending temperature, resulting in fewer iterations. This can actually lower the run time of the model.

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Material considerations of temperature When considering varying ranges of temperature, attention must be paid to the material properties. Material properties typically vary with temperature.
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As a material is removed from room temperature, property degradation will occur. For an accurate analysis, this degradation must be accounted for. One way to accomplish this is to use multiple names of the same material with different material values. For example, aluminum may be denoted by the numbers 1 through 5. They can then be defined as being in a category of a temperature range. Consult your local material information specifications for temperature range and degradation amounts.

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Activity
See the “Thermal analysis” activity in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. In this activity, you will perform a thermal analysis. You will also create and solve a second solution using the same model.

Summary
In this lesson you: • Learned how to perform a thermal analysis.

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24 Contact and gluing

Objectives • • • Learn how to analyze surface to surface contact Learn how to analyze advanced nonlinear contact Learn how to analyze gluing

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enter the parameters to define contact between these two surfaces. On the Create Surf to Surf Contact dialog. 24 To define additional contact parameters for the solver and solution type.Contact and gluing Surface to Surface Contact Surf to Surf Contact lets you define contact between two surfaces. select a source region and target region in the Simulation model. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . To define the contact. These solvers and solution types support surface to surface contact: Solver NX Nastran ANSYS ABAQUS Solution Type SESTATIC 101 (Single Constraint and Multi Constraint) Linear Statics Nonlinear Statics Structural — General Analysis 24-2 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. use the Edit Solution dialog.

Defining surface to surface contact To define surface to surface contact: 1. and the legacy command Surface Contact Mesh. 3. 2. Make sure that your solution supports surface to surface contact. right-click on Simulation Objects Container → New Simulation Object → Surf to Surf Contact. UGS recommends that you use Surf to Surf Contact to define contact between two surfaces. 24 Advanced Nonlinear Contact Create Advanced Nonlinear Contact lets you define surface-to-surface contacts on shell and solid element faces in an advanced nonlinear solution for NX Nastran. there are two commands for defining surface contact: Surf to Surf Contact.106. enter parameters for the contact between these two surfaces and click OK. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 24-3 . Surface Contact Mesh generates contact (or gap) elements between the two surfaces. In the Create Initial Temperature dialog. In the Create Surf to Surf Contact dialog. In the Simulation Navigator. Unlike Surf to Surf Contact. click Target Region. ©UGS Corporation. Select the second surface (target region). 5. 4. This dialog box is available when the Solution Type is ADVNL 601. Select the first surface (the source region).Contact and gluing When the solution is set to the NX Nastran solution type SESTATIC 101.

click Target Region .Contact and gluing 24 To define the contact. On the dialog box.106 supports advanced nonlinear contacts. Internally. In the Simulation Navigator. Defining advanced nonlinear contact Only NX Nastran SOL 601. 24-4 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. 1. select a source region and target region in the Simulation model. enter the parameters to define contact between these two surfaces. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . Select the first surface (the source region). In the Create Advanced Nonlinear Contact dialog. you can use the optional selection step. Optional node for rigid target displacement . rigid links will connect all the nodes on the rigid target region to this master node. right-click on Simulation Objects Container → New Simulation Object → Advanced Nonlinear Contact. Specify the Target Region Type as FLEX (flexible) or RIGID. Choose this step to select a single node or point as a “master” node to control the motion of the rigid target region. 3. When you use a rigid target region (meaning the target contact surface is rigid and the rest of the target part is flexible). 2.

5. you must first define the regions where you want to create glue elements (stiff springs that connect and constrain the surfaces). Enter any additional parameters for the contact between the two contact surfaces and click OK.Contact and gluing 4. ©UGS Corporation. Then select a single node or point for rigid target displacement as a “master” node to control the motion of the rigid surface. Select a source region and target region in the Simulation model. If you set the Target Region Type to RIGID. enter the parameters to define the contact between these two surfaces. you can click Optional node . rigid links will connect all the nodes on the rigid target region to this master node. All Rights Reserved Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide 24-5 . A region is a collection of element free faces in a section of the model where you expect gluing (or contact) to occur. 6. 24 To glue two surfaces. These regions can be created using shell elements and using free faces of solid elements. Surface to Surface Gluing Create Surf to Surf Gluing lets you connect two surfaces to prevent relative motion in all directions. Internally. In the Create Surf to Surf Gluing dialog box. Select the second surface (the target region).

In the Create Surf to Surf Gluing dialog. click 4. right-click on Simulation Objects Container → New Simulation Object → Surf to Surf Gluing. 24-6 Applications of Advanced Simulation — Student Guide ©UGS Corporation. All Rights Reserved mt15020_g NX 4 . 24 3. 5. 2.Contact and gluing This option is available for all structural NX Nastran solution sequences except for SOL 601 and 701. you will learn how to set up and perform contact and gluing analysis problems. In these activities. Target Region. Select the first surface (the source region). Select the second surface (the target region). Defining surface to surface gluing Only NX Nastran supports surface-to-surface gluing. Summary In this lesson you: • • • Learned how to define surface to surface contact. Activities See the “Contact and gluing” activities in the Applications of Advanced Simulation Workbook. 1. In the Simulation Navigator. Enter parameters for the contact between these two surfaces and click OK. Learned how to define surface to surface gluing. It is not supported in thermal or axisymmetric solutions. Learned how to define advanced nonlinear contact.

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