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MABINI STREET MANDALUYONG CITY
Why climate change is a concern to every citizen? In Partial Fulfillment for the requirement in ENGLISH IV (WORLD LITERATURE)
PREPARED BY: Danica F. Elviña
SUBMITTED TO: MS.JOAN B. VILLANUEVA
Climate change, its detrimental effects and the steps that should be taken by governments has long been a source for contention between Greenpeace societies and the various governmental units worldwide. Recent studies and research on the extent of these climate changes have determined the alarming severity of the problem and this has sparked further debate among national policy-makers and international bodies. What measures should be carried out by the executive sovereignty and how these actions vary from nation to nation based on population, wealth, economic strength and pollution index has become the subject of many a heated debate. However, the agreed upon foundation is that every government should contribute to avert, or failing that, lessen the impact climate change will have on mankind if left unchecked.
A. Background of the study Climate includes patterns of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind and seasons. "Climate change" affects more than just a change in the weather, it refers to seasonal changes over a long period of time. These climate patterns play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems, and the human economies and cultures that depend on them. Because so many systems are tied to climate, a change in climate can affect many related aspects of where and how people, plants and animals live, such as food production, availability and use of water, and health risks. For example, a change in the usual timing of rains or temperatures can affect when plants bloom and set fruit, when insects hatch or when streams are their fullest. This can affect historically synchronized pollination of crops, food for migrating birds, spawning of fish, water supplies for drinking and irrigation, forest health, and more. Some short-term climate variation is normal, but longer-term trends now indicate a changing climate. A year or two of an extreme change in temperature or other condition doesn¶t mean a climate change trend has been "erased.´ Worldwide, people are paying serious attention to climate change. In Washington state, climate change is already disrupting our environment, economy and communities. We can help slow it down, but we must take action now. Terminology The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change.
The term sometimes is used to refer specifically to climate change caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes. In this latter sense, used especially in the context of environmental policy, the termclimate change today is synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientific journals, however, global warming refers to surface temperature increases, while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas amounts will affect.[ Causes Climate changes in response to changes in the global energy balance. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth. This energy is then distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions. Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms".These include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in the Earth's orbit, mountainbuilding and continental drift, and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing. Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond slowly in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external". Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself (e.g., the meridional overturning circulation). External forcing mechanisms can be either natural (e.g., changes in solar output) or anthropogenic (e.g., increased emissions of greenhouse gases). Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast (e.g., a sudden cooling due to airborne volcanic ash reflecting sunlight), slow (e.g. thermal expansion of warming ocean water), or a combination (e.g., sudden loss ofalbedo in the arctic ocean as sea ice melts, followed by more gradual thermal expansion of the water). Therefore, the climate system can respond abruptly, but the full response to forcing mechanisms might not be fully developed for centuries or even longer. Internal forcing mechanisms Natural changes in the components of earth's climate system and their interactions are the cause of internal climate variability, or "internal forcings." Scientists generally define the five components of earth's climate system to
cryosphere. their correlation with the advance and retreat of the Sahara.and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate. the Pacific decadal oscillation. Both long. and the Arctic oscillation. On longer time scales. and precession of Earth's axis. the solubility of CO2 in the oceans changed. and that as a feedback amplified temperature change. Combined together. alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat by carrying out a very slow and extremely deep movement ofwater. some changes in it occurring at longer timescales than in the atmosphere.[ The IPCC notes that Milankovitch cycles drove the ice age cycles. and biosphere. changes in the tilt angle of Earth's axis of rotation. and the long-term redistribution of heat in the world's oceans. The three types of orbital variations are variations in Earth's eccentricity. these produce Milankovitch cycles which have a large impact on climate and are notable for their correlation to glacial and interglacial periods. CO2 followed temperature change "with a lag of some hundreds of years". and for their appearance in the stratigraphic record.lithosphere (restricted to the surface soils. liquid water should not have existed on . the North Atlantic oscillation. massing hundreds of times more and having very high thermal inertia (such as the ocean depths still lagging today in temperature adjustment from the Little Ice Age) Short-term fluctuations (years to a few decades) such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. rocks. External forcing mechanisms Orbital variations Slight variations in Earth's orbit lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe. Upon seawater temperature change. Ocean variability The ocean is a fundamental part of the climate system. Solar output The sun is the predominant source for energy input to the Earth. as well as other factors impacting air-sea CO2 exchange. hydrosphere. and sediments). represent climate variability rather than climate change.include Atmosphere. Three to four billion years ago the sun emitted only 70% as much power as it does today. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averaged sunshine. The depths of the ocean have a lag time in changing temperature (thermal inertia on such scale). but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution. If the atmospheric composition had been the same as today.
9 °F). with much higher concentrations of greenhouse gases than currently exist.). and some of the warming observed from 1900 to 1950.around 2. Eruptions large enough to affect climate occur on average several times per century. the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century affected the climate substantially.D. The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused the Year Without a Summer. The Great Oxygenation Event -oxygenation of the atmosphere. including the 11-year solar cycle and longerterm modulations. this is insufficient to account for aerosol formation and additional trace vapours must be involved.D. Solar intensity variations are considered to have been influential in triggering the Little Ice Age. Volcanism Volcanic eruptions release gases and particulates into the atmosphere. ³that the effects of solar variability on temperature throughout the atmosphere may be contrary to current expectations.´ In an Aug 2011 Press Release. Interestingly. it differs from the very slow change that is happening within the sun as it ages and evolves.Earth. a 2010 study suggests. in theHadean and Archean eons. part of the Little Ice Age from 1550 to 1850 A. The results indicate that ionisation from cosmic rays significantly enhances aerosol formation in the presence of sulphuric acid and water. Over the following approximately 4 billion years. Hypothesized solutions to this paradox include a vastly different atmosphere. The next step is to find more about these trace vapours. there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth. CERN announced the publication in the Nature journal the initial results from its CLOUD experiment. Solar output also varies on shorter time scales. but in the lower atmosphere where ammonia is also required. leading to what is known as the faint young Sun paradox. and cause cooling (by partially blocking the transmission of solar radiation to the Earth's surface) for a period of a few years. etc. and climate may be influenced by the sum of all effects (solar variation. Over the next five billion years the sun's ultimate death as it becomes a red giant and then a white dwarf will have large effects on climate. Some studies point toward solar radiation increases from cyclical sunspot activity affecting global warming.4 billion years ago was the most notable alteration. However. Much larger . Research indicates that solar variability has had effects including the Maunder Minimum from 1645 to 1715 A. which was marked by relative cooling and greater glacier extent than the centuries before and afterward. anthropogenic radiative forcings.5 °C (0. including whether they are of natural or human origin.. with the red giant phase possibly ending any life on Earth that survives until that time. The cyclical nature of the sun's energy output is not yet fully understood. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. Global temperatures decreased by about 0. the energy output of the sun increased and atmospheric composition changed.
known as large igneous provinces. plate tectonics may have triggered large-scale storage of carbon and increased glaciation. but may cause global warming and mass extinctions. counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological carbon dioxide sinks. and hot spot volcanoes. Although volcanoes are technically part of the lithosphere. A review of published studies indicates that annual volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide.000 years ago. the IPCC explicitly defines volcanism as an external forcing agent. A recent example of tectonic control on ocean circulation is the formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 5 million years ago. the most recent of which was the Toba eruption in Indonesia 74. Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature. . and therefore. Volcanoes are also part of the extended carbon cycle. which generate 100-300 times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes. The size of continents is also important. are only the equivalent of 3 to 5 days of human caused output. which shut off direct mixing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. During the Carboniferous period.eruptions. Geologic evidence points to a "megamonsoonal" circulation pattern during the time of the supercontinent Pangaea. A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or islands. volcanic arcs. Plate tectonics Over the course of millions of years. which itself is part of the climate system. the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography. This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation The position of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and therefore influences patterns of ocean circulation. and climate modeling suggests that the existence of the supercontinent was conducive to the establishment of monsoons. about 300 to 360 million years ago. they release carbon dioxide from the Earth's crust and mantle. including amounts released from mid-ocean ridges. The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe. Over very long (geological) time periods. yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland. The US Geological Survey estimates are that volcanic emissions are at a much lower level than than the effects of current human activities. The annual amount put out by human activities may be greater than the amount released by supererruptions. in determining global climate. This strongly affected the ocean dynamics of what is now the Gulf Stream and may have led to Northern Hemisphere ice cover. occur only a few times every hundred million years.
and glacial geology. oral history and historical documents can offer insights into past changes in the climate. A world glacier inventory has been compiled since the 1970s. Temperature measurements and proxies The instrumental temperature record from surface stations was supplemented by radiosonde balloons."and it "is largely irreversible." Physical evidence for and examples of climatic change Evidence for climatic change is taken from a variety of sources that can be used to reconstruct past climates. For earlier periods. such as vegetation. the converse is also true. glaciers retreat unless snow precipitation increases to make up for the additional melt. one must average over a decadal or longer time-scale and/or over a many individual glaciers to smooth out the local short-term variability and obtain a glacier history that is related to climate. Reasonably complete global records of surface temperature are available beginning from the mid-late 19th century. The 18O/16O ratio in calcite and ice core samples used to deduce ocean temperature in the distant past is an example of a temperature proxy method. precipitation. as are other climate metrics noted in subsequent categories. Glaciers grow and shrink due both to natural variability and external forcings. and. Historical and archaeological evidence Climate change in the recent past may be detected by corresponding changes in settlement and agricultural patterns. with global satellite data as well. The scientific consensus on climate change is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities. anthropogenic factors are human activities which affect the climate. dendrochronology. As temperatures warm. ice cores. from the 1970s on. extensive atmospheric monitoring by the mid-20th century. and englacial and subglacial hydrology can strongly determine the evolution of a glacier in a particular season. Their size is determined by a mass balance between snow input and melt output. most of the evidence is indirect² climatic changes are inferred from changes inproxies. Climate change effects have been linked to the collapse of various civilizations Glaciers Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change.Human influences In the context of climate variation. Archaeologicalevidence. Therefore. indicators that reflect climate. sea level change. This compilation tracks more than . Variability in temperature. initially based mainly on aerial photographs and maps but now relying more on satellites.
faster or more radical changes.700 years.100. over the last several decades is further evidence for rapid climate change. An example of this occurred during the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse (CRC). abruptly fragmenting the habitat into isolated 'islands' and causing the extinction of many plant and animal species. Similarly. Sea ice is frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface. stable or growing conditions during the 1920s and 1970s. and again retreating from the mid 1980s to present. may result in vegetation stress. the lack of glacier cover can be identified by the presence of soil or volcanic tephra horizons whose date of deposit may also be ascertained. The World Glacier Monitoring Service collects data annually on glacier retreat and glacier mass balance From this data. an extinction event 300 million years ago. whereas almost all Southern Ocean or Antarctic sea ice melts away and reforms annually. . by tephrochronological techniques.Dansgaard±Oeschger events and the Younger Dryas. resulting in improved plant growth and the subsequent sequestration of airborne CO2. Glaciers leave behind moraines that contain a wealth of material²including organic matter. illustrate how glacial variations may also influence climate without the orbital forcing.000 glaciers covering a total area of approximately 240.5 percent per decade. and potassium that may be dated²recording the periods in which a glacier advanced and retreated. It covers millions of square miles in the polar regions. rapid plant loss and desertification in certain circumstances. however. The present interglacial period (the Holocene) has lasted about 11. Climate change devastated these tropical rainforests. and preliminary estimates indicate that the remaining ice cover is around 445. At this time vast rainforests covered the equatorial region of Europe and America. responses such as the rise and fall of continental ice sheets and significant sea-level changes helped create the climate. In the Arctic. including Heinrich events. Satellite observations show that Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11. both in extent and thickness. relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Larger. distribution and coverage of vegetation may occur given a change in the climate. Shaped by orbital variations. Arctic sea ice loss The decline in Arctic sea ice. glaciers worldwide have been found to be shrinking significantly. The most significant climate processes since the middle to late Pliocene (approximately 3 million years ago) are the glacial and interglacialcycles. varying with the seasons. however.000 km2. quartz. some sea ice remains year after year. Vegetation A change in the type.000 km2. Some changes in climate may result in increased precipitation and warmth. with strong glacier retreats in the 1940s. Other changes.
well-watered growing period. ice cores. including polar deserts (cold but with low rates of precipitation). thermal-driven evaporation from the oceans onto continental landmasses was low. Estimated global land precipitation increased by approximately 2% over the course of the 20th century. As an example. narrow rings indicate a time of lower rainfall and less-than-ideal growing conditions. or river deltas indicate changes in plant communities. whilst thin. Climatological temperatures substantially affect precipitation.Satellite data available in recent decades indicates that global terrestrial net primary production increased by 6% from 1982 to 1999.000 years ago.Wide and thick rings indicate a fertile. satellite data has been available since the 1970s. and tree rings. and since the outer surface of pollen is composed of a very resilient material. Different groups of plants have pollen with distinctive shapes and surface textures. Quantification of climatological variation of precipitation in prior centuries and epochs is less complete but approximated using proxies such as marine sediments. the world's climate was wetter than today near the start of the warm Atlantic Period of 8000 years ago. Precipitation Past precipitation can be estimated in the modern era with the global network of precipitation gauges. reducing reliance on interpolation. For instance. palynological studies have been used to track changing vegetation patterns throughout the Quaternary glaciations and especially since thelast glacial maximum. though the calculated trend varies if different time endpoints are chosen. but. causing large areas of extreme desert. Palynology is used to infer the geographical distribution of plant species. including pollen. which vary under different climate conditions. cave stalagmites. These changes are often a sign of a changing climate. Dendroclimatology Dendroclimatology is the analysis of tree ring growth patterns to determine past climate variations. including greater global land precipitation in the 1950s and 1970s than the later 1980s and 1990s despite the positive trend over the century overall. Pollen analysis Palynology is the study of contemporary and fossil palynomorphs. with the largest portion of that increase in tropical ecosystems. bogs. Surface coverage over oceans and remote areas is relatively sparse. In contrast. . complicated byENSO and other oscillations. during the Last Glacial Maximum of 18. then decreased by 1% from 2000 to 2009. they resist decay. Similar slight overall increase in global river runoff and in average soil moisture has been perceived. Changes in the type of pollen found in different layers of sediment in lakes.
Sea level change Global sea level change for much of the last century has generally been estimated using tide gauge measurements collated over long periods of time to give a long-term average. marine terraces. scientists have dated coral reefs that grow near the surface of the ocean. Animals Remains of beetles are common in freshwater and land sediments. For example.altimeter measurements ² in combination with accurately determined satellite orbits ² have provided an improved measurement of global sea level change. The predominant dating methods used are uranium series and radiocarbon. scientists from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted that warming oceans and melting glaciers due to global warming and climate change could cause sea levels to rise 7-23 inches by the year 2100. people are taking action because climate change has serious impacts.Ice cores Analysis of ice in a core drilled from a ice sheet such as the Antarctic ice sheet. can be used to show a link between temperature and global sea level variations. . locally and globally. The air trapped in bubbles in the ice can also reveal the CO2 variations of the atmosphere from the distant past. in 2007. the historical abundance of various fish species has been found to have a substantial relationships with observed climatic conditions Changes in the primary productivity of autotrophs in the oceans can affect marine food webs. past climatic conditions may be inferred. coastal sediments. B. and the age of the sediments in which remains are found. Similarly. knowledge of the present climatic range of the different species. More recently. Given the extensive lineage of beetles whose genetic makeup has not altered significantly over the millennia. To measure sea levels prior to instrumental measurements. ooids in limestones. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Why is climate change a concern? All across the world and in our state. with cosmogenic radionuclides being sometimes used to date terraces that have experienced relative sea level fall. Different species of beetles tend to be found under different climatic conditions. well before modern environmental influences. and nearshore archaeological remains. and continues to provide valuable information about the differences between ancient and modern atmospheric conditions. The study of these ice cores has been a significant indicator of the changes in CO2 over many millennia.
heat our homes. power our factories. ports and wastewater treatment plants). resources and many lives could be lost. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that it is more than 90 percent likely that the accelerated warming of the past 50-60 years is due to human contributions. Climate change and its effects may be irreversible. Trees and other plants use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. We use coal. Some would be flooded or more vulnerable to storm damage. including: y y y y y y y natural ecosystems agriculture and food supplies human health forestry water resources and availability energy use transportation Many people are concerned that we are losing time to make a difference. More carbon dioxide in the atmosphere means warming temperatures. There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming over the last 50 years is due to human activities. These contributions include increased levels of ³heat-trapping´ gases (a.a.Worldwide. they¶re no longer available to take carbon dioxide out of the air. Other effects are also serious. In some places. oil. In flat terrain.k. One of the biggest ways people contribute to greenhouse gases is by burning fossil fuels. ³greenhouse gases´) such as carbon dioxide in the Earth¶s atmosphere. Species.000 years. and run our cars. Life could become very difficult for some populations²plant. densely populated coastal communities and infrastructure that supports them would be affected (such as city buildings and homes. agriculture. and other purposes. cultures. Changing land use patterns contribute. animal and human. and natural gas to generate electricity. the shoreline could move many miles inland. In its 2007 report to the United Nations. . and actually release carbon dioxide as they decay or burn. too. What causes climate change and global warming? This question has been debated a lot. precipitation and soil moisture could severely impact many things important to human life and all life around us. Ice cores taken from deep in ancient ice of Antarctica show that carbon dioxide levels are higher now than at any time in the past 650. floods and/or drought could become more frequent and more severe. Even seemingly less dramatic local changes in temperature. because climate change can be ³due to natural variability or as a result of human activity´ (IPCC 2007) and because the climate system is very complex. roads. When trees are cut down for development.
the average annual temperature in the Pacific Northwest rose by 1.5° F per decade in the first half of the 21st century. Some cooler temperatures in recent years have prompted people to ask if there is now a global cooling trend.) The black line shows the annual changes. (IPCC 2007) Is climate change really happening? Yes. Source: NASA Goddard institute for Space Studies. The graph below shows the global annual temperature change since 1880. the red line tracks 5-year periods. Even with variation over the years. 2008) Although specific. individual events can¶t be directly linked to global warming. This causes significant changes in the timing and length of the seasons as well as the amount and frequency of precipitation. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported to the United Nations that the Earth¶s climate system is undoubtedly getting warmer. the IPCC has noted many indications of climate change around the world: y Retreating mountain glaciers on all continents . but as the graph shows.As the levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases increase. (January 11. the general trend is clearly upward. even several years of cooling doesn¶t mean a long-term warming trend is over. (³Mean´ is the midpoint between the highest and lowest. According to the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington.5° F in the 20th century and is expected to rise 0. In February 2007. more heat is ³trapped´ and global temperatures rise. The land-ocean temperature index combines data on air temperatures over land with data on sea surface temperatures.
Lohmann. In addition. Recently. this abuse of Mother Nature has become a topic of great interest. and insects did well during this time (Hulme. 2009). Starting with the big bang over 13. global temperatures rose and fell allowing for small life forms to succeed. 2010). and the sheer amount of waste humans produce is taken into account. Knutti. from litter in local streams to plumes of carbon dense smoke billowing out of power plants. allowing for the polar ice . Bintanja. it has become apparent sustainability is not a priority. floods or snowstorms) in many areas More intense and longer droughts over wider areas. our resources are being used and abused much faster than the earth can replenish and recover. especially in the tropics and subtropics C. Any temperature fluctuations observed are not significant enough. p. the earth moves at a snails pace. our most recent period of warming ended over ten years ago. cold-blooded animals. Known as the ³green movement. Although human induced global warming is a popular theory. it is misleading because climate change has occurred throughout history. 2). It then took 195 billion years for the blanket of carbon dioxide to dissipate and the earth to cool (Köhler. The earth¶s temperatures rose an impressive 18 degrees F due to a 700% increase in carbon dioxide during this time. there is no wonder global warming is justified in peoples¶ minds. This period of 10 million years is known as ³snowball earth´. The time spans of these major climatic events far surpass any current data time frames. Over the next 400 million years. temperatures continued to fluctuate. Joos. and Masson-Delmotte. volcanoes began to erupt producing greenhouse gasses which warmed the earth. Over the next 40 million years. Compared to a human life span. 2007. there was a mass extinction. At 55 million years ago another 20 degrees F increase occurred due to increased methane gas. and the earth is currently in a state of cooling. This theory is blindly adopted with little scientific evidence because it justifies the worlds¶ need to ³go green. a climate where humans could and have inhabited the planet are mere smudges on its climate time-line. Over 95% of the earth¶s species died due to flood basalt eruptions lasting for one million years. As recently as 650 million years ago the earth was frozen solid. Plants.´ advocates stress awareness of waste and pollution and its effect on the environment.´ When the overwhelming facts concerning greenhouse gasses. Significance of the study Are humans responsible for the destruction of their habitat known as Mother Nature? Humanmade pollution is evident. Climate change is nothing new. After this period. The most publicized consequence of our non-earth friendly actions is global warming.y y y y Thinning ice caps in the Arctic and Antarctic Rising sea level ± about 6-7 inches in the 20th century More frequent heavy precipitation events (rainstorms. quite suddenly.7 billion years ago. Chilingar. Then. Fischer. and Khilyuk. the earth has experienced cycles of hot flashes and freezing spells (Sorokhtin. In the life span of the earth.
Following the MWP was the Little Ice Age (LIA). According to NASA. In fact. There is no doubt the earth has. and Roble. In addition. Since the early 2000s. climate fluctuations. 1770. This was thought to be an all time low since 1913. and consisted of temperatures up to 5 degrees F warmer than today. Gillett. At this time the sun was virtually free of sunspot activity. what reduces or increases the amount of sun spots themselves is unknown. 266 where sunspot free. however an awesome . This period consisted of three consecutive cold spikes with slightly warmer periods in between. this period of warmth could have been global (Qlan. 2009). instead it was a result of over 100 years of activity. At this time the earth was in fact warming. the climate has stayed relatively stable with an ice age occurring in between. This increase in brightness did not happen over night. As with the MWP. 2009).000 years (Michaelowa. Since. 2006). Weaver. The above-mentioned changes had drastic effects on the earth. This increased brightness is due to sunspots. Although it is currently being debated. The important thing of note is the date attached to the above data. The most recognized examples of modern climate change are known as the Medieval Warming Period and the Little Ice Age. When temperatures warmed. while humans were able to adapt (Marsh. however a rough assumption is that the more sun spots there are. the research gained from these events brings to light other justification for naturally occurring climate change. Not only do these historical events contradict the current theory of human-made global warming. the slightly elevated temperatures seen over the last thirty years would not be unprecedented. they would be quite normal and expected. The justification being that it just happens. Burns. and therefore more heat is produced (Melezhik. sunspots create a magnetic cycle that has been found to correlate with the Northern Hemisphere land temperatures (³Global Warming´. 2004). It is the most recent phase of warming before the industrial era. as it was what partially allowed the Vikings to colonize Greenland. Meissner. 2009). and 1850 AD and are well documented in North America and Europe. and will continue to experience periods of warming. it would be naive to think climate change would miraculously come to a stop on behalf of human inhabitation. 2007). Our most recent period began in the 1900s and lasted through the year 2000. it is debatable whether these were global events (Mathews. The Medieval Warming Period (MWP) took place between 800 and 1300 AD. data has shown the earth is once again cooling. 2004). These temperatures played a huge role in history. It is not clear as to the correlation between sunspots and climate change. However. These spikes occurred at about 1650. though still noticeable. A correlation between temperature and sun spot activity known as the Maunder Minimum developed with help from observations from that time (Trenberth. and Eby. If so. There are many scientific explanations for what causes temperature fluctuations such as sun spot activity however.caps to expand and retreat. Solomon. woolly mammoths and other mega mammals that thrived during the ice age could not survive. This warmth can be accredited to a sun that was the brightest it has been in over a 1. Recently there have been less drastic. sunspots are on the decline: out of the 365 calendar days in 2008. the brighter it is.
These endless eruptions covered the majority of the earth in molten lava (Marsh. and Sorokhtin. The graph accompanying the article depicts a peak in solar activity right around 2000. so do the byproducts of consumerism. not warming. Part A: Recovery. Utilization. 2009). the earth¶s temperature should have increased 1. In the journal Energy Sources. Humans know the benefits of this gas as well. staying with in . At times the earth was more than 20 degrees F warmer than it is now. Previously. the volcanic eruptions responsible for the warming occurred over the course of thousands of years. Five hundred years is a much more substantial duration of time yet still trivial in comparison to the earth¶s first ice age of one million years. According to computer simulations. carbon dioxide billowing out of volcanoes was responsible for drastic temperature changes. 2009). During the Triassic Period. The recent cooling and previous period of warming are considered short-term temperature changes. and is in no way comparable to the current levels of carbon dioxide found in the atmosphere. Some studies have gone as far as to say the increase in carbon dioxide leads to cooling.8 degrees F over the last 100 years based on the amount of carbon dioxide being released. Carbon dioxide is plant food. this activity chart mimics that of the observed temperature fluctuations. however when compared to other levels in history it is not alarming. So far. This conclusion has a simple physical explanation: when infrared radiation is absorbed by green house gas molecules the air expands which causes circular fluxes of air masses restoring the temperature in the . The scientists concluded the short-term temperature variances scientists have observed over the past 100 years cannot be accredited to fluctuations in carbon dioxide. Ever increasing amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses are being admitted into the atmosphere as more cars are on the road and more energy is being produced. Instead they are positively matched with sun spot activity Chilingar. Khilyuk. The current levels of carbon dioxide are approximately 390 parts per million. Fluctuations have been smaller. Other studies have found similar evidence. resulted in robust vegetation for these large animals to devour (Diffenbaugh. 2007). This number has increased over the years.560 to 1950 ppm. Though the plants cannot hear. This is poor support for global warming theorists. It is clear there is little concrete scientific evidence to support. an abundance of it. these low levels would have resulted in a much earlier extinction. This has not been the case however. However. when dinosaurs roamed the earth. This scene is unfathomable for humans. The current lull in activity also allowing scientists to better understand what a deep solar minimum is like first hand. or deny global warming. What can be confirmed is that climate change is inevitable. and cannot be cited for significant data. they are very happy to absorb the carbon dioxide given off during the action of talking. Many botanists swear talking to their plants is the key to health. As the world¶s reliance on fossil fuels increases. with a sharp decline predicted through 2012 (³Deep´.5 of a degree (Baliunas. events such as the Little Ice Age have more historical bearing.87% of the days of 2009 were sunspot free. 1999). and Environmental Effects a study was published analyzing the affects of carbon dioxide and the atmosphere. approximately 1. 2008).
Humans are but innocent bystanders of earth¶s natural climate change. people and animals can survive in extreme heat with food and water. developed from ideal conditions in an inhabitable environment. This is a much scarier thought for humans to comprehend. They have polluted and contaminated the environment.troposphere. 2007). With compelling. sustainability must be kept in mind. the same does not go for life in extreme cold. To continue to live. The current climate fluctuations are not significant enough for one to use to draw conclusions. Throughout history. Research is contradictory on the subject of climate change. Humans are but insignificant guests in this world who have failed to respect their hostess. However. crops unable to grow and animals unable to eat (Bell. the volcanoes will erupt. It is apparent the prevailing research and theories on the subject are not willing to be challenged. Food. there is no doubt that the debate will continue as more research is preformed and time goes on. however it is quite clear the opposite would be a much greater threat. The small amount of carbon dioxide released into the air by humans is not enough to influence the atmospheric temperature of the Earth (Cooling of Atmosphere. but the earth will power on. the earth will continue about its climate cycles without batting an eye. Dr. Regardless of what human kind has done by way of contamination. Bell believes global warming is the greatest ruse known to modern science. . there is no denying that the earth is its own entity. there is no doubt a wrench will be thrown in this crucial argument. yet questionable evidence for those who agree and disagree with the theory of global warming. however it is nothing new. 2008). There is no question global warming is a complex issue. If this subject is studied further and found to be true. It is debatable how the rumor became so large with such little evidence. however. Some scientists even feel this is one of the reasons global cooling research is so heavily scrutinized and disclaimed. the tectonic plates will shift. Be it another ice age or incinerating heat. humans are the earth¶s current inhabitants. extreme climate has been normal. unbound by the actions of humans. Human life is a fluke. and over millions of years people will be but a memory. The essentials to life: food and water would be locked away under ice.
Introduction A. . conceptual framework e. Result and discussion IV. It addresses the implications of global warming. and for the energy. and the potential overall impact on human health and natural systems of increased levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earth's surface as a result of depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. sea-level rise. changed precipitation and evaporation and stratospheric ozone depletion for human settlement. which includes housing and infrastructure. Summary V. scope and limitations II. Bibliography F. Recommendation VII. significance of the study d. transport and industrial sectors. Scope and limitations y covers a wide range of potential impacts of climate change. Conclusion VI. review related literature III. background of the study b. Conceptual framework E. statement of the problem c. Outline of the study I. outline of the study f. It also covers the likely impacts of global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion on human health and air quality.D.
They are not intended to be definitive..and taxpayers have been footing the bill! 10/19/2011 ... researchers at a meeting of the European Geosciences Union have reported. dealing a blow to climate change skeptics. The general types of changes that serve as a basis for the impacts assessments are described below. Review related literature Climate change news. Climate Change Skeptics Rebuffed: Cosmic Rays Have No Link to Cloud Formation on Earth 10/9/2008 . Earth Shaking instead of Shaking Earth 7/23/2011 . articles and information: Global warming scam perpetuated by government. it is necessary to make some assumptions about changes in climate in order to assess potential impacts which are due to these changes. or other variables.Cosmic rays do not appear to have any effect on the world's climate.y Evaluating scientific predictions of global climate change is the responsibility of Working Group I. and Wall Street . The assessments in each section of this report summarise studies in the literature that are based on varying assumptions about climate change.The quake in Japan that caused the Fukushima disaster caused a rift 15 miles below the sea floor that stretched 186 miles long and 93 miles wide moving the areas closest to the epicenter of the quake a full 13 feet closer to the United States. those assumptions are generally described for each study cited. while others assume a particular change in temperature. At present there are substantial scientific uncertainties about the nature and magnitude of climatic changes that might result from an effective doubling of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere.. the dogma of man-made global warming has been trumping sound science and even basic logic. Many impact assessments are based on projections of a particular General Circulation Model (GCM) for long-term equilibrium conditions due to an equivalent CO2 doubling in radiative forcing.For over 20 years. Some climate change deniers have . But a simple visual chart put together. The result has been a global movement of pseudoscientific alarmism about climate change that seeks to solve it with scams like global carbon taxes. geophysicist Ross Stein at the United States Geological. precipitation. G. Owing to the large heat capacity of the oceans. industry. However. full realisation of equilibrium temperature increase associated with a radiative forcing is expected to be delayed a number of years.
according to a warning issued by scientists at the 2007 meeting.. It is not a simple matter to ponder. Warn Scientists 6/29/2008 . This has been one factor pushing the prices of bread. in which changes in the emissions of greenhouse gases will not. The new study focused on the next 50 years. Future of Humanity at Risk from Climate Change. according to a new report by the U.Global warming will cause rainfall and water supplies in the West to drop drastically in the next 25 to 50 years. but to allow the amount of carbon in the atmosphere to actually decrease. The global wheat supply is at its lowest point in 50 years. Earthquake and Cyclone Victims: How Can We Help End Suffering Now and In the Future? 5/16/2008 . government.N. especially in the Southwest. Food Price Hikes 9/3/2008 .. a worldwide shortage and high food prices around the world. U..I've struggled all week with the question of how I can best help the victims of the recent natural disasters that have devastated populations in China and Myanmar. The U.. Climate Change Causes Global Wheat Shortage. it is not due to. Urgent Carbon Emissions Cuts Needed to Save Earth From Climate Change Disaster. Environment Program referred to the fourth Global Environmental Outlook report as "the final wake- ... with only an estimated 10 weeks of supply left. Warns United Nations 4/15/2008 . Southwest to go Dry as Climate Change Spurs Drought 8/26/2008 ..Preventing irreversible climate disaster will require carbon dioxide emissions reductions big enough not only to prevent the atmosphere's carbon load from increasing..S..S. How can people in North America (or other western nations) offer remote help to those who live in regions.Droughts caused by global climate change have led to a drop in wheat production.The United Nations has issued a report warning that global climate change and other environmental destruction is rapidly pushing the planet's life support systems past the point of no return...said that if the mean temperatures of the planet are rising.
The Sun Isn't the Cause of Earth's Sudden Climate Change.Did you know that if you have children you are an international criminal? You have violated intellectual property laws by infringing on the copyrights of companies that have been granted patents on the human genome. The study was spurred in part by "The Great Global Warming Swindle. we've seen numerous examples of why preparedness is so important: Hurricane Katrina.Changes in solar output cannot be the cause of recent global warming trends. according to study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy Of Sciences... Earth changes.By the year 2100. Coming global warming will cause climate zone migration.. Corporate Greed. You have replicated that gene sequence by having children without the permission of. nature's backlash and lessons yet to be learned by humans (opinion) 3/12/2007 .... Conclude Scientists 12/26/2007 . species extinction 9/5/2007 . "Preparedness" simply means having some backup supplies on hand to help you get through unexpected events or hard times.. natural disasters and the post-oil economy (opinion) 7/20/2007 .With modern humans engaged in highly destructive behaviors .. Series A. according to a study published in Proceedings of the Royal Society. power. global warming likely will cause the extinction of numerous species by eliminating the climate zones in which they are able to live. Using data and scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on. and over the last decade.. Intellectual Property Laws and the Destruction of Human Civilization 10/5/2007 .I've been a proponent of personal preparedness for many years.up. How to better prepare yourself and your family against climate change." the TV documentary that featured a hypothesis that increased solar radiation..
towards nature (pollution.According to the Guardian.. The statement came Saturday.. say officials 1/22/2007 . Following the IPCC Working Group I report¶s unveiling at the Paris headquarters of the United Nations Educational. the climax of which will be reached Friday when a comprehensive United Nations report will be released. Scientists find evidence that global warming could be causing an "evolution explosion" . toxic chemicals production. sparking conjecture that the White House was poised for an about-face in their deregulatory energy and emissions policy. CO2 emissions. The report.. UN panel set to release anticipated report on global climate change 1/31/2007 ..Representatives of the international scientific community met Monday in Paris to commence a weeklong conference on global climate change. American Enterprise Institute allegedly offers bribes to scientists for disputing UN climate change report 2/15/2007 . use of Roundup herbicides..President Bush issued a statement that has made many heads turn. Rumors of reversal in White House's climate change policy false.. abuse of animals. authored by the Intergovernmental Panel on. did you ever wonder what nature would do to humans if it had the chance? In a recent CounterThink cartoon called "Human... the ExxonMobil-funded think tank known as the American Enterprise Institute sent letters to scientists and economists offering them $10.000 to undermine a major climate change report from the United Nations... The White House has since fervently insisted that no such changes are being considered.). Scientific and Cultural Organization. etc. UN report: global warming caused by human activity 2/6/2007 .The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) met Friday to unveil the first in a series of long anticipated reports on global climate change.. The fourth UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report.
A study published in the Geophysical Research Letters journal this week indicated that the Arctic pole could go from winter wonderland to warm water in a little over 30 years. researchers say 12/18/2006 . Radical weather patterns devastate California crops.The quantity of monsoons in India has increased in the last 50 . Earth's North Pole is already warmer than the South Pole because it lies at sea-level in the middle of an ocean. By 2040. The agency also reported. Small-scale nuclear war could devastate global environment for years. regional nuclear war could vastly disrupt the global climate for a decade or longer. San Gabriel.The environmental impacts of a nuclear war -. according to a study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.1/22/2007 . scientists predict 12/19/2006 . such as Montclair and Chino.Millions of dollars worth of California crops were devastated Friday when an arctic cold snap hit the state. crop production in India 12/4/2006 . but a team of researchers concluded today that even a small-scale.are terrifying enough.. even in areas where such weather is rare.According to a poll conducted by news channel France 24 for the television show. the hotly debated phenomenon of global warming could be causing rapid evolutionary shifts.." more Europeans reported being concerned with climate change than Americans.... In the survey. A freeze watch was issued by the National Weather Service for the Santa Monica mountains and the San Fernando... "Considering the relatively. Currently... endanger residents with rare freeze 1/16/2007 .000 people were surveyed in six countries.nuclear winter.. reported polling agency Novatris. "Le Talk of Paris. Ecology professor.. Survey finds Europeans more concerned about climate change than Americans 1/17/2007 . there will be no ice left at the North Pole. decades of radiation fallout -. about 2.If a species of weed that has adapted to climate change within just a few generations is any indicator. Global warming already impacting monsoons.
Researchers. growing seasons. Even though a warming trend is global. storms and droughts. continental. the number of heavier monsoons has increased since the 1950s. while ³climate change´ includes other more specific kinds of changes.. Also. ³climate change´ can refer to changes at the global. but they¶re closely related. The earth¶s natural greenhouse effect keeps it about 60 degrees warmer than it would be otherwise. while ³global warming´ is planet-wide. humidity. What are greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect? The greenhouse effect occurs as a result of greenhouse gases trapping the sun¶s heat and keeping it close to the earth. and for some. A few areas might even get cooler rather than warmer. and sea level. Global warming causes climates to change. This enables us to live comfortably on earth. regional and local levels. the monsoon rains can be seen as either a huge advantage or an equally large disadvantage. Warmer global temperatures in the atmosphere and oceans leads to climate changes affecting rainfall patterns. which will have unique impacts on their local plants. different areas around the world will experience different specific changes in their climates. Anyone who has parked a closed car in the sun for a few hours on a summer day has experienced something like the greenhouse effect. (NOAA) . similar to how a greenhouse keeps plants warm. Although the average rainfall amount has not increased.years. hence the name. animals and people. H. Result and discussions Are climate change and global warming the same thing? Not exactly. The ³greenhouse effect´ refers to how gases in the earth¶s atmosphere naturally keep the earth warm. "Global warming" refers to rising global temperatures. too.. and some people use the terms interchangeably.
including fertilizer and manure management Land use practices. cloudiness. Climate is the average weather for a particular region over a long time period. Climate describes the total of all weather occurring over a long period of years in a given place. It may rain for an hour and then become sunny and clear. Buffalo a snowy climate. methane. human activities have increased their levels and added new ones. New Orleans a humid climate. How is climate change different from ozone? . regular weather seasons (winter. and Seattle a rainy climate. gas and coal Industrial processes and mining Landfills. Weather is what we hear about on the television news every night. This includes average weather conditions. and special weather events (like tornadoes and floods). San Diego is known to have a mild climate. a warming atmosphere can trigger changes in water vapor levels. sunshine and precipitation. but human activity isn¶t considered a direct cause of changes in its concentration. temperature. and fluorinated gases. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas. A simple way of remembering the difference is that 'climate' is what you expect (cool. spring. summer. However. including deforestation How is weather different from climate? y y y y Weather can change from hour-to-hour. Climate tells us what it's usually like in the place where you live. Greenhouse gases of concern include carbon dioxide. wet winters) and 'weather' is what you get (a foggy morning with afternoon sunshine). Scientists say that increased levels of these gases are contributing to climate change. and fall). day-to-day. Historically. (NOAA) Some examples of activities that contribute to greenhouse gas levels: y y y y y Burning fossil fuels ± oil.Although many ³greenhouse gases´ occur naturally. humidity. and season-to-season. It includes wind. gasoline. septic and sewer systems Agricultural practices. nitrous oxide. atmospheric pressure.
Oxygen. For example. . a remaining few. It means that this mixture is delicate balance that makes the temperature on earth proper for plant and animal life. on the other hand. industrial. Evidently they never read up on the greenhouse effect. yet our Climate change is not a recent problem.y y y Climate change. including the United States. but in need of crash courses on Geology. Therefore claiming that global warming is bad. an international agreement called the Montreal Protocol. Every year we see natural disasters that are extremely powerful. which is roughly 9 to 31 miles above the earth's surface. However. the country of Japan was hard hit by an earthquake that took the lives of thousands of people. Global warming is in the earth's upper atmosphere directly caused by human burning of fossil. In April of 2011. I. logic and philosophy of science. and Carbon Dioxide. A thinner ozone layer lets more harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation reach the earth's surface. If we ignore the fact now the result could be catastrophic. home to over 66 million people. almost 7 billion tons of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere by human activity. more than 400 cities in the United States. rather than being emitted back into space. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol was the initial effort to curb greenhouse gas production. Global warming is indeed a scan. Although many countries have agreed to the Kyoto Protocol. have yet to ratify it. Summary Global warming is also known as the green house effect. is a different problem than the ozone hole. The ozone hole is a thinning of the stratosphere's ozone layer. caused by global warming. and deforestation. The depletion of this ozone layer is due to man-made chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). have committed to the Kyoto goals. The effect of this is a warming of the global atmosphere. Global warming is causing climate change. is a topic that has received much attention. due to the build-up of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses. The problem on Global warming has been unsolvable in the last 30 years. in recent years. A phenomenon (otherwise known as 'Climate change of the green house effect') whereby solar radiation that has reflected back of the surface of the earth remains trapped at atmosphere levels. fuels. farming. People that don't believe in Global warming say that there is no sciencetific proof that earth's temperature is rising. but modern day researchers have found various remedies to the problem that we as humans have inflicted on the earth. don't really know even know if it really is as bad as they say it is. As humans. Every year. we all have our own opinions. perpetrated by scientists with vested interests. This problem is now slowly improving since countries around the world agreed to stop manufacturing and using CFCs. but the problem of global warming should not be debated: it should be solved. The earth's atmosphere has mix of Nitrogen. Global warming. is the increase in the earth's average temperature due to the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities.
the average surface temperature has increased by 1. the sea level could start to rise dramatically. Since the beginning of 20th century. but making your home energy-efficiently will help you reduce your bill. This can mean as little as replacing the regular light blub to super-efficient compact fluorescent lights CFLs would be perfect in your house.1 degree Celsius. J. Another thing we should have talked in how to help to reduce the gasses on our earth. As of now the global sea level is rising three times faster than in the last hundred years when compared to the last three thousand years. Furthermore. and Northern Russia. Many things have happened as a result.1 degree. Canada. Global warming has been caused by the people of the world. We can take charge in our own homes to start modifying energy usage. There are many ways to help reduce the vehicles that are on the road. it is always good idea take care of the huge important forclimate as transportation. car pull. The most important things in 21 century are home improvement or remodeling. The CFL bulb works the same way as the regular one but making your home energy-efficient energy. furnaces. This means that they are in the Northern hemisphere where there is less water. Conclusion The world needs to think of how the climate is changing the food supply of the Earth. The atmosphere is also not in good shape because of climate change. In 1987 "Carbon Dioxide reached 340 parts per million" and "in the 1999 360 ppm". and refrigerators. They have experienced a rise in temperature by 5 degree Fahrenheit. after remodeling or replacing the old product to energy-efficient appliances. Home improving can mean selecting newer appliances such as air-conditioners. for every person who drives fuel-efficient cars. Transport is responsible for nearly one quarter of greenhouse gas emission world wide. Clearly the recently statistics demonstrate that global warming has been effected in the world. We have properly talked about how global warming effect to our earth already. it is a fact that the average rice in temperature globally is 1. Building green homes is important both economical wise and environmental. is important but staring 1970 it had increased rapidly worldwide. The climate is doing some really bad things to the earth. Less water means less of the new found heat is being taken away be the vast ocean. Just in the past 40 years. If they continue to melt.This is at the point in which the global temperature would be "higher than it has ever been and will cause serious problems" unlike the warning sign we are experiencing currently. Humans now need to think of how climate change is .When considering Global warming. These gasses are adding up everyday. It is estimated that in 2050 the carbon dioxide count will be 600 ppm. It has risen by a half of a degree. This doesn't sound like much right away but any change in temperature causes melting to the polar ice caps. or uses public transportations would be as consider environmental friendlybecause it reduces polluting the atmosphere. not only do you help reduce pollution. The starting fact is that parts of Alaska. Furthermore. water heaters. it is first important to know how recently statistics.
The Greenhouse gases are what is really messing up are world food supply and what is messing up our earth. Between those two. by the year 2060 the temperature will rise 12 degrees (Pittock 1). Between 1989 and 1990 the crops increased by 60 percent (Pittock 4). fertilizers. Studies have shown that Sub Saharan Africa will get the worst of global climate change and pollution. Also studies show that food production will have to grow 2 percent every year to sustain the food supply (Roach 1). mechanization. We the people need to step up and take part in the fight against greenhouse gases. So now what do you people think of global warming and pollution? The green revolution was largely based on increased energy in the form of irrigation. Changing climate is changing our earth. The world food supply is changing and the population needs to think about how to stop this from happening.affecting people. We have to use more fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers. Global warming and pollution affects peoples breathing. The climate change is rapidly affecting the Earth. Climate change is affecting the food supply of the world. weather extremes. Scientists state that this is possible. Greenhouse gases are what are leading to climate change. pests. and diseases. Believe it or not climate change affects people too. As the . but not nearly as bad as carbon dioxide. and pesticides. Global Warming is causing concerns because of its high content in the atmosphere already. Climate change can affect rainfall intensity. Natural fertilizers aren¶t harmful to the environment. Wicker Page 4 So far the production yields in crops are negative in the low latitude countries because of climate change. Lately people with asthma have had a hard tine breathing because of global warming and pollution. Although we will still have to increase the Wicker Page 3 demand for food. Doctors have had more asthma patients in this year then in any year (Weier 2). CFC¶s quicken global warming (Weier 1). Because of rising greenhouse gases. CFC¶s are bad too. Natural fertilizer helps crops by 22 percent where as chemical fertilizers help a little better than that but they are harmful to the soil. and climate change is what is leading to the depletion of the world food supply. Scientists think that if we are lucky the populations will only double in the next 66 years (Roach 3).7 times what it was before (Pittock 4). The climate change is affecting our atmosphere and a lot of people don¶t know that. Between these two years we have increased farm machinery by 4. carbon dioxide ranks number one pollutant in the atmosphere.1 times what it was before (Pittock 4). There are lots of pollutants in the atmosphere but the two that are important in global warming and climate change are carbon dioxide and CFCs. Greenhouse gases consist of carbon dioxide mainly and that is why we need to get rid of greenhouse gases all together. And we gave increased electricity by 5.Because of global warming the earth is going down hill fast.
climate is changing so is the world food supply. Climate change affects people too. Climate change affects weather patterns too. Always make sure you recycle cans and glass bottles also. A small amount of electricity is used even when a device is not on but still plugged in. Step 3: Remove yourself from mailing lists to save on paper. like newspapers. This can save you 500 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions a year. start recycling plastic bottles instead of just throwing them away. wash your clothes in cold or warm water instead of hot water. Step 5: To prevent climate change. Step 8: Use a clothesline to dry your clothes instead of a dryer. Food production must increase 2 percent ever year to keep up with the population of the world. Step 2: To prevent climate change. You can also recycle paper. Recommendation To prevent climate change. Step 6: Turn off your lights and televisions when you leave a room. automobiles. and all carbon emissions are the main causes of climate change. Step 7: To prevent climate change. People need to use natural fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers. and taking it easy on the brake and gas while driving. unplug electronics when not in use. Some states charge you 5 or 10 cents a bottle or can which you¶ll get back with you return them. K. It is now a habit of mine to not turn lights on at all during the summer days. . Step 1: A very simple way to save some energy is by changing all of your regularincandescent light bulbs with a compact fluorescent light bulb which are more efficient. It is reducing my electric bill and protecting the environment. you will have to do your part and learn to live a green life. We need to increase the demand for food. often called global warming. The Green Revolution was based on the mechanics of farming. Follow these steps to learn ways you can helpprevent climate change. Electricity. In the summer keep the shades open and try not to turn on the lights until nighttime. inflating your tires. There is a high content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 700 pounds of carbon dioxide can be saved for half a year of air drying. Step 4: Reduce emissions from your automobile by tuning up your car.
Tips: Check out www. (2009. 945-958. from NASA website: http://science.Step 9: When getting ready to buy a new car. Cooling of Atmosphere Due to CO2 Emission. (1999.1080/15567030701568727 Deep Solar Minimum . Ball. Energy Sources Part A: Recovery. S. Khilyuk. & Sorokhtin. Retrieved April 3.com/2007/globalwarming020507. L. Programmable thermostats can lower heat at night and raise it in the morning automatically which can save you around $100 a year off of your bill. install low flow shower heads and sink faucets in your home. 33(7).nasa. Blame the Sun. (2009. Share your knowledge with your friends and family. Bibliography y y Baliunas. doi:10. G. January).The Wall Street journal. S. which can really be an eye opener to climate change. F. 18. check into any hybrids being offered. April 1). National Aeronautics and Space Administration.. Preventing climate change is a world wide effort. Utilization & Environmental Effects. Timothy. Influence of modern land cover on the climate of the United States.. Step 11: Buying locally grown food will support your local market and reduce transportation costs to transport goods from other states and/or countries. G. December). doi:10. Global Warming: The Cold. Step 12: More major steps could include switching to solar energy or wind energy. 2010. The Toyota Prius and Honda Civic hybrids are among the most fuel efficient cars offered as of right now. 30(1). plant a tree once a month. Retrieved from http://www. L. and wrap your water heater in an insulation blanket. (2008.climitecrisis.1007/s00382-009-0566-z y .000 pounds of carbon dioxide each year. To prevent climate change. Buy fresh foods because frozen foods take 10 times more energy to produce. August 5).canadafreepress. February 5). (2007. N. buy organic and avoid anything with harsh chemicals. You can save 2.org for more information on going green. O. Why So Hot? Don¶t Blame Man. 1-9.htm y Chilingar. V. Climate Dynamics. Make them watch ³An Inconvenient Truth´ with Al Gore. Step 13: To prevent climate change.gov/sciencenews/science-at-nasa/2009/01apr_deepsolarminimum/ y Diffenbaugh. Hard Facts?. Canada Free Press. move your thermostat up 2 degrees in the summer and down 2 degrees in the winter. Step 10: Some small things you could do are: limit your time in the shower.
G. Weaver. 1(1). 22(5).026 Marsh. & MassonDelmotte. 19-27. (2009.06. The Netherlands: ELSEVIER.1365-3121.2006.. A. October 3).03. Retrieved from http://p8333metalib5. A.cosust. S.. S.y Global Warming: Sun Takes Some Heat. M.1111/j. April). (2009. L. K. Bintanja. V. & Hearle.library.02770180. doi:10. Mathews. Why we disagree about climate change.. United States : A&E Television Networks. The effect of carbon dioxide cooling on trends in the F2-layer ionosphere. (2006. A. Natural and anthropogenic climate change: incorporating historical land cover change. R.1007/s00382-004-0392-2 Melezhik. Knutti. Meissner. 129-145.proxy. 130-137. V. J.hosted.1016/j.x Qlan. A. Burns. & Eby.2009. Limiting Global Cooling after Global Warming is Over ² Differentiating Between Short. 46(8).... J... doi:10. New York. May). V.quascirev. 18(2). C. O. vegetation dynamics and the global carbon cycle. Environment. 71(14). Gillett.09. OPEC Review: Energy Economics & Related Issues. P.jastp. & Roble. . (2007).2009. F.006 Sorokhtin. Joos. (2004. doi:10.1111/j..2009.000 years? Data-based evidence on radiative forcing and constraints on climate sensitivity. Solomon. December).. 343-351.1016/j.com. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.. G. October). Terra Nova. L. A Global Warning? [Motion picture]. (2010. N. 29(1). K. (2004. G..2003. (2007). 7.uaf. Multiple causes of Earth¶s earliest global glaciation. 461-479. Lohmann. What caused Earth¶s temperature variations during the last 800. Trenberth. Journal of Atmospheric and SolarTerrestrial Physics. D. R. Fischer. H. 24(4). October). Chilingar. January).001 y y y y y y y y y .NY: Cambridge University Press. & Khilyuk.edu/V/QRRXDVTGAV9K 6FN15KYB3N4LT6JFNFQ8IGB5IM6FAFVQKR6DVM-02659?func=quick-3&shortformat=002&set_number=000499&set_entry=000001&format=999 Hulme.and Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases. M. Climate Dynamics.00672. A. E. 1592-1601. An imperative for climate change planning: tracking Earth¶s global energy. doi:10.x Michaelowa.1016/j. H. Quaternary Science Reviews. (Director). Köhler.. (2009). doi:10. (Producer)..00075. doi:10..exlibrisgroup. Global Warming and Global Cooling: Evolution of climate on earth. P. (2009. R. F.
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