ASSIGNMENT NICMAR/CODE OFFICE Name : Regn. No. Course No.: Course Title : Assignment No.
: Date of Dispatch : Last date of receipt of Assignment at CODE office
NCP-21 Management in Organization
Scope of work: Construction of Housing Colony consists of 10 Bungalows for senior executives, 20 Apartments in five buildings, 100 dwellings for white collar workers and 300 dwellings for blue collared workers. Colony will have market and entertainment complex.
Key Functions The key function of construction Project: Planning & Scheduling: Planning involves formulation of a number of alternative realistic work plans for achieving specified objectives. Finally selecting a plan which is best suited from the stand-point of available resources and constraints imposed upon the project. Scheduling is fitting of the final work plan in to a time scale. It shows the duration and order of various construction activities. Organizing: Organizing is concerned with division of total project in to manageable departments/sections and systematically arranging various operations by delegating specific task to individuals. Staffing: Organising involves division of project work into section and staffing is the provision of people to fill the position so created. Directing: The directing function is concerned with the training to the subordinate to carry out assigned task, supervising their work and guiding their efforts. The essence of directing lies in the ability to motivate people individually and as groups. Controlling: Controlling is necessary for ensuring effective and efficient working. It involves constant review of the work plan to check on actual achievement and to discover and to rectify deviations through appropriate corrective measures. Co-ordinating: Since authority coverage to the top of the organizational pyramid, it is necessary to bring together and coordinate the work of various department and sections. This requires an efficient system of communication so that each department and section is aware of its role and assistance to be expected from others.
Project Organization Structure Project Chief
Staff Technical & Administration Support
Line Site Execution
Technical Planning & Finance Management Monitoring
Material Management Management
Quality Control safety
Super Finishing of Structure Fabrication Management
Mechanical/ Manufacture/ ServiceMaintenance Workshop
The size of project management team depends upon the nature and scope of the project work. In the medium and large size projects, it may include specialists to manage construction planning architecture and engineering, tendering and contract administration, value analysis and quality assurance, material and equipment handling and finance and personnel administration. Depending upon the size and nature of the project, the manager in the project team are entrusted with the responsibility to accomplish project tasks. A large complex project will have a manager in-charge of each specialized task whereas in smaller and less complex project, only few managers can look in to all the tasks. The various ways in which the duties of a manager can be combined with those of the project manager in a small project are: Project Manager/ Construction Superintendent/ Planning and Controlling Manager, can be a single individual. Project Manager/ resource Procurement Manager/ Construction Superintendent, all can be centralized in one person. Project Manager/ Planning and Controlling Manager/ Contract Manager can be the same person. Communication Requirement and Flow: Co-ordination of workers their views and finally completion of project are the necessary task of manager. He has to collect views of various persons at different level and required to execute the job to be more correct, realistic and feasible. He is also required to co-ordinate various gangs, persons involved in construction. He has also to co-ordinate various activities in a project.
Motivation is very essential in modern management technique. The job of managerial person is to motivate the workers for effective working. This can be achieved by economic, psychological and sociological satisfaction of workers. Functional authority is the common thing in organization. It is the power which an individual or department may have delegated to it for specific processes, practices, policies and related matters. A Managing Director may have the complete authority to manage the company subject to the superintendence and control of board of Directors. But he is not expert in every function in the company and has officer responsible for technical, production, finance, personnel matters etc. Theoretically all these officers must give advice to managing Director and the latter alone will issue instructions. However, Managing Director delegates authority to these officers to issue instruction directly to the line organization. This is called functional authority. Since functional authority is an act of delegation, it may create confusion. A project manager reports to the managing Director. He may receive instruction from Finance Manager who is of equal status. Functional Manager generally lay down the rules, procedures, forms, norms, time schedule etc. in regard to the discharge of work. Line Managers function within the framework. For example: The finance Manager of a company will lay down the rule, procedures and methods of accounting, cash handling, spending, collections etc. He will also establish norms/rates etc. which should be adopted for profitable work. Line Managers will function accordingly and could make a reference if a deviation is needed. A small company may not have a Finance Manager; it may hire a firm of auditors/ chartered accountants to render this advice. There is no one way to manage things. Each organization has to find a method best suited to it. However, no organization should go against the principle of ³Unity of Command´ and no organization should do anything to weaken the authority of life Managers. On the human level, controls often comes down to telling people what to do and criticizing them or applying other pressures if they do no what they are told. This aspect of controlling performance is inescapable. It can pose a problem because many people do not like to be controlled or to be corrected for off-standard performance. To a certain extant, the difficulty must be simply endured. Part of the unique responsibility of the managerial job is to exert this control over subordinate and to accept and deal with any negative effects as expressed in anger, resentment, complaints or temporarily lowered morale. A supervisor who can not at least partly offset the human problems of control will be at a distinct disadvantage because performance standards as far more successful when they are willingly accepted by the people who must strive to meet them. The main objective of any management, i.e. to achieve a time cost balance relationship by proper planning and scheduling the project has already been explained in previous clauses. Man power and equipment have been assumed to be available as and when they are needed, which is off course not usual. The basic planning problem is therefore, how to decide between alternative ways of using resources such that the best profits are obtained. These decision are perhaps more difficult that the management has to face. The ³resource analysis report´ allows a manager to best use all means at his disposal. It is a technique to level out the peaks and the valleys that prevail in the managers industry. In planning resource requirements, therefore, the following key questions have to be answered. What are the total requirements of resource for a project over its duration? If resource available are insufficient than what is the minimum duration by which the completion period of the project can be delayed?
What is the best utilization of the available resources to carry out the project in a fixed time. There are two basic problems involved in resource scheduling. Project duration being fixed , to level or to smoothen the resource demand avoiding peaks and valleys as far as possible. It is called resource aggregation, i.e. unlimited resources are available for disposal. With fixed availability of resources, to minimize the project duration, i.e. Resource allocation. It occurs when there is scarcity of resources. Site Organization: After having decided the organizational structure in a construction company, the next step is to spell out the tasks, power and responsibilities of all its functionaries. Telling an accountant that he is to look after the accounts work or telling the foreman that he is to supervise the daily wage workers at the site is not enough. specific job detailing i.e. what is to be done by whom, at what time and how it is to be done is the starting point of the site organization. Site organization, in simple terms, means how to organize the construction activities on site. A typical site organization for a division, headed by an executive engineer.
AE civil works
AE PHE services
Important Duties/Roles Executive Engineer: To coordinate the work of various contractors and to check whether all necessary instructions have been provided to the contractors. To check the progress of work regularly and to arrange for rectification of faulty workmanship or inferior quality material. Clearing all bills related to construction work for which he is the final authority. To carry out technical audit and settlement of final contractual dues.
Assistant Engineer: To check the specifications of construction jobs in regard to the quality of materials, method of workmanship. to plan and organize construction work in his section in order to avoid delay in the process of work. To keep a record of all measurements of work done and tests carried out at site. To report regularly to the executive engineer on all the above matters. Junior Engineer/Supervisor/Foremen: To supervise the execution of work at the site in their respective sections. to place indents of material well in advance to avoid delay in the progress of construction work. To control and provide technical guidance to workers. To check and test materials for quality and quantity. To measure the quantity of work done for the purpose of payment and progress. To report regularly to the assistant engineer on all matters related to site. Role of Mistry/Skilled worker: this category include carpenters, steel fixers, machine operators, drivers, fitters, pipe jointers etc. They are usually recruited locally for their respective jobs. Their job is to keep the work going at the right speed and in the right manner in their sections. Role of Labourers: They are the ones who assist skilled workers and performed many unskilled jobs at the site. The expect the right payment and need to be given clear instructions regarding what to do. In contractor's site organization, key persons involved in a project. Project Manager Resident Engineer
Site Engineer 1
Site Engineer 2
Foreman 1 Labourers
Important Duties/Role of Project Manager : To coordinate the entire construction work on site and with the head office.
To direct and control the construction work on site. To employ work force, hire machinery, engage sub-contractors and material suppliers with or without reference to head office depending on the size of the project, policy of the firm, distance from head office and also his standing within the firm. To organize, direct and control men working under him. To check the Progress of work regularly in orders to avoid delay in construction work. To call periodically joint meeting of several key personnel working at the site to review progress and to issue instruction for speeding up work, if required. The duties of the resident engineer, Site engineer etc. and are similar to those of the executive Engineer, Assistant Engineer etc. The project management construction manpower planning is primarily concerned with estimating the worker's productivity, scheduling manpower employment, and structuring it into workers' team and work groups, with a view to economically match manpower supply with the task requirements. The setting up of a suitable organization for various civil engineering works is all the more necessary because the construction industry is a competitive field of endeavors which is susceptible to many risks, variable labors condition and diverse construction problems. In order to be effective, an organization has to follow certain basic principle given below: Principle of Objectives: The organizational objectives should be clearly defined. The structure of the organization should be geared to achieve these objectives at minimum cost and effort. The Scalar Principle: An organizational structure consists of different levels of authority arranged in a hierarchical manner. The line of authority should be clearly defined from the chief executive at the top to the first line supervisor at the bottom. This is known as Scalar principle. The importance of scalar principle lies in the fact that the understanding of authority relationships within an organization becomes easier. It also throws light on how different parts of an organization are created and held together. Principle of balance between Authority and Responsibility: In order to work properly, it is essential that every one knows his duty, responsibility and authority of powers. Authority means right to act, decide and command. The delegate will not be able to perform his task properly unless he is given necessary powers. So, whenever a task is assigned to a person, he must be given sufficient power to exercise control in order to achieve desired objectives. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform any job allotted to him by his superiors. A person, who is assigned responsibility to do a certain job must be given appropriate authority to achieve the same. Thus authority and responsibility go hand in hand and must be balanced rationally to produce best results. For example, if a civil engineer in a construction firm is asked to carry out constructions of different structure, and is not given corresponding authority to procure the various resources, responsibility given to the civil engineer would be illogical and unbalanced. Principle of Unity of command: Each person in an organization must know to whom he has to report and from whom he has to receive order. He should also know the persons both upwards and downwards whom he is to consult. The principle that each subordinate report to only one superior is called the "Unity of Command". This not only avoids confusion but also helps in maintaining definite line of commands. In order to avoid indiscipline, delay,
disorder and undermining of authority, a subordinate should receive orders from only one superior and not from a number of superiors. Principle of Span of Control: According to this principle, there is a limit to the number of subordinates an executive can effectively supervise. There are many factors on which the span of control depends, such as the type of work, whether routine or repetitive, level in the organization, type of problems encountered and ability of person involved. The optimum span of control varies from person to person and job to job. Sometimes number six is taken as the effective span of control. Principle of Departmentation: Departmentation means the division of an organization in to several distinct departments or sections. This helps in increasing efficiency and facilitates the execution of work. In order to obtain optimum results, the function and scope of each department must be clearly defined. Principle of Specialization: According to this principle, activities of the organization should be grouped as per the functions and assigned to individuals according to their specialization. Principle of Communication: The number of supervisory levels in an organization must be kept as small as possible. This helps in shortening the line of communication for passing on information, instructions and suggestions from the chief executive level to the first line supervisor. Principle of Flexibility and stability: Flexibility and stability in an organization are closely inter-related. On the one hand, an organization should be flexible enough to assess the changes which often become necessary because of internal and external situations. While on the other hand, the organization must be stable enough to withstand any organizational change which becomes necessary for the accomplishment of its objectives. Principle of Motivation and Professional Growth: The organizational structure should be such that it provides enough opportunities to its personnel for its professional growth and upward or lateral mobility. Job roles should be such that each member of an organization achieves professional satisfaction and is motivated towards loyalty for the organization. Principle of Continuity: The organizational structure should be dynamic so that it not only provides for the activities necessary to achieve its objectives but also for the continuation of such activities in the future. This maintains a link between the past and the future. The project management team is led by a project manager, who is the agent of the client and acts on his behalf. He either appointed by the client or is position at sight by the construction management consultant of the client. He coordinates and communicates with all the agencies engaged in project work. In particular, he is accountable for planning, mobilizing, and motivation directing, coordinating and controlling all the activities at the project site which are necessary for achieving the project objectives of time, cost & quality. Loosely, the site in-charge of a major contractor is also referred as contractor's project manager or general manager or construction manager. The achievement of these project objectives is closely linked with the skill, effectiveness and efficiency of the project management team, and how it is organized for conducting its operations. This team consists of the functional of heads or the body of manager in a
project. To quote example, Turnkey contractor's project management team comprising of heads of staff and line department of a typical housing units building construction project of bunglows, Apartments etc. as shown below:
Establishing Workers' Productivity Standards The basic equation for determining the workers required for accomplishing a specific activity is as Workers required = Work quantity X Workers' productivity Standards/ Completion Period Workers' Productivity Standards = Worker's output norms X efficiency factor production
Workers' productivity standard is defined as the effort in man-days or man-hours needed for accomplishing a unit quantity of work, while working efficiently but allowing for normal delays and wastage. Work quantity of the activity involved is expressed in standard work units. Completion period is taken as working days or hours planned or earmarked to accomplish the task. Workers production norms are expressed is man-days or man hours, category wise required for accomplishing the unit work. Production efficiency factor is the multiplier used to convert production norms into productivity standards expected under job condition at the site. In this basic equation for determining manpower, the quantity of work to be performed can be accurately estimated from the construction drawings and specifications. If the work is to be completed within the stipulated period, the variable in assessment of workers' requirement is the productivity standard.
Authority to carry out function: Construction involves multi-skill technology for its wide range of related activities. These skills vary with the nature of job, type of project and corporate policy of the contractor. The first step towards determining productivity standard is to identify the trade workers needed for execution of the project. I.S. 10302: 1982, Indian standards on "Unified nomenclature of workman for civil engineering", published by its construction management section committee includes around 95 categories of labours. The trade categories and crew sizes used for determining construction output also varies with various agencies publishing output planning norms. On the whole, for a given project, nomenclature of the trade categories needed for workers' planning, mobilizing and monitoring productivity, should be identified and standardized. Suitable sub junior level Workers Construction works: Shuttering Carpenter, wood Polisher, Carpenter helper, concrete Mason, Mason, Tiling Mason, Mason helper, rebar fabricator, rebar helper, Painter, painter
helper, Electrician, Electrical helper, Plumber/Pipe Fitter, Plumber Helper, General Helpers. Mechanical Trade: Light vehicle drivers, Heavy vehicle drivers, equipment operators, Blacksmith, welder, sheet fabricator, auto Electrician, Mechanic/operator, Helpers, Riggers and other categories. Actual strength of workers category wise or construction work adjustment for daily manpower requirement: Every construction site whether large or small requires temporary services which are designed and provided by the contractor. The design and selection of services depends on various factors including size and nature of the project, location of the project, project cost, number of working shifts per day and the specific needs of the project. Temporary services consist of water supply, electricity connection, repair and construction yards, material stores, approach and service roads, sewage and sanitation arrangements, site office, labour huts etc.