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Bilateral Relations

Nepal-United States of America Relations Historical Background The relations between Nepal and the United States of America (USA) date back to the fag end of the Rana regime. The USA is the second country after the United Kingdom with which Nepal entered into diplomatic relations on 25 April 1947. In 1953 the relations between the two countries were upgraded to Ambassadorial level. General Shanker Shumsher, Royal Nepalese Ambassador resident in London presented his Letters of Credence as the first Royal Nepalese Ambassador to the United State on February 24, 1953, while Mr. Chester Bowles, Ambassador of the USA resident in New Delhi became the first American Ambassador to Nepal. Mr. Bowles presented his Letters of Credence to His Majesty the King on February 16, 1952. Nepal established its Embassy in Washington D.C. on 3 February 1958. Mr. Rishikesh Shah became the first resident Royal Nepalese Ambassador to the USA. Mr. Shah presented his Letter of Credence on October 27, 1958. The US government opened its Embassy in Kathmandu on 6 August 1959. H.E. Mr. Henry E. Stebbins was the first resident US Ambassador to Nepal. Mr. Stebbins presented his Letter of Credence on November 25, 1959. Over the period of time the relations between the two countries have been widened, diversified and deepened. Growing cooperation, high level visits to and from both countries, and exchange and sharing of views on various issues of mutual concern at bilateral, regional and international levels have further strengthened to our mutual satisfaction. US assistance in development endeavours of Nepal has been instrumental. The American development assistance is concentrated on the sectors of education, health, environment and agriculture. US assistance also comes through other Non-Governmental Organisations for the development activities of Nepal. The social service of the Peace Corps Volunteers in the remote parts of Nepal is instrumental to enhance people-topeople contacts and understanding. Exchange of Visits Exchange of high level visits has significantly contributed to strengthen the Nepal-US relations. Important visit to Nepal from the US side 1. US First Lady Hillary R. Clinton and Chelsea Clinton visited Nepal in 1995. 2. US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs, Mr. Karl Indurfurth visited Nepal from 9 to10 September 1997.

3. US Senator Charles Robb visited Nepal on Nov 27, 1997 and called on the then Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa. During this visit, Senator Robb also met Chief of Army Staff Gen. Dharmapal Bar Singh Thapa. 4. Senator Thomas A. Dachle, Minority Leader of the US Senate visited Nepal from 12 to13 January 2000 leading a delegation of Senators. 5. Senator Thomas A. Brownback, Chairman of the South Asian Subcommittee paid a visit to Nepal in January 2000 and discussed regional situation as well as bilateral relations. Likewise Commander of the US Pacific Command participated in the Multi-platoon training event organized by the Royal Nepal Army at Panchkhal in January 2000. 6. US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs Mr. Karl F. Inderfurth and US Assistant Secretary of State for Refugees and Migration Ms. Julia V. Taft paid a visit to Nepal from November 30 to December 3, 2000. The Assistant Secretaries paid a courtesy call on the then Prime Minister and the then Foreign Minister. On those occasions, issues of bilateral interests and regional and international situation were discussed. 7. Mr. Alan W. Eastham, Acting Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs, visited Nepal in April 2001 and held discussions with high-level officials of Government of Nepal on bilateral relations. 8. The US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs Mrs. Christina B. Rocca paid a visit to Nepal at the end of July 2001 and held discussions with high-ranking officials of Government of Nepal. She was granted an audience by His Majesty the King. She also paid a courtesy call on the then Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba. She also visited Nepal in January 2000, December 2002, December 2003, and May 2005. 9. The US Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs Mr. Donald Camp paid a visit to Nepal in December 2001 and October 2002. In the capacity of Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs of the State Department Mr. Camp visited Nepal from October 7 to 9, 2004, June 26 -28, 2005 and March 8-9, 2006. 10. U.S. Secretary of State Gen. Colin L. Powell paid an Official Visit to Nepal from 18 to 19 January 2002. He was accompanied by Mr. Alan Larson, Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, Mr. Richard Boucher, Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, Ms. Christina B. Rocca, Assistant Secretary of State for South Asia and Vice Admiral Walter Doran, Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Secretary of State had an audience with His Majesty the King. He held official talks with the then Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs Mr. Sher Bahadur Deuba. He also had a meeting with the then Chief of the Army Staff Gen. Prajwolla Shumshere J. B. Rana. During the meetings both sides reviewed the status of bilateral relations and ways of

further strengthening and expanding the friendly ties between the two countries. The two sides exchanged views on economic cooperation, commercial interaction, and contacts as well as current trends on international relations. 11. Ms. Michael Sisson, Principal Deputy Assistant For South Asia Bureau, US Department of State visited Nepal in February, 2004 and had a meeting with Dr. Bhekh B. Thapa, Ambassador-at-Large. 12. Ambassador J. Cofer Black, US Coordinator, Office of the Counter Terrorism, Department of State visited Nepal in March, 2004 and held meetings with Dr. Bhekh B. Thapa, Ambassador-at-Large, Foreign Secretary, and Royal Nepalese Army and Police officials. 13. Mr. Torkel Patterson, Deputy Assistant Secretary for South Asian Affairs, Department of State paid a visit to Nepal in March, 2004. He had an audience with His Majesty the King and he paid call on to the then Prime Minister Mr. Surya Bahadur Thapa, and Foreign Minister Dr. Bhekh B. Thapa. 14. A three-member congressional delegation comprised of Congressman Mr. David Dreier (Republican), Chairman of the House Rules Committee, Congresswoman Mr. Karen McCarthy (Democrat), member of Energy & Commerce Committee, and Congresswoman Ms. Grace Napolitano (Democrat), member of the Resources Committee, Small Business Committee, and House International Relations Committee visited Nepal from 8 to 10 April, 2004. During their visit, they had an audience with His Majesty the King, and called on the then Prime Minister Mr. Surya Bahadur Thapa and Foreign Minister Dr. Bhekh B. Thapa. 15. US Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration, Arthur E. Gene Dewey visited Nepal from October 18 to 20, 2004 to take stock of the situation of the Bhutanese refugees and ask Nepal and Bhutan to move towards a solution. 16. Former Senator and Minority Leader of United States Mr. Thomas Andrew Daschle also known as Tom Daschle paid a visit of Nepal from July 21-27, 2005. During the visit Mr. Daschle met Minister for Foreign Affairs Hon'ble Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey at his office. Mr. Daschle also met the agitating political leaders. Mr. Daschle was granted an audience by His Majesty the King. 17. The commander of the US Pacific Command (PACOM), Admiral William J. Fallon, visited Nepal from February 1 to 2, 2006. His Majesty the King granted audience to him at the Narayanhiti Royal Palace. During the visit, Admiral Fallon called on Hon'ble Ramesh Nath Pandey, Minister for Foreign Affairs at Shital Niwas and held discussion on bilateral relations. He also met Hon'ble Kamal Thapa, Minister for Home Affairs and Chief of the Army Staff Gen. Pyar Jung Thapa, at their respective offices.

Important visits to USA from Nepalese Side 1. Their Late Majesties King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya paid a State Visit to the USA in December 1983. 2. The then HRH the Crown Prince Dipendra visited the USA in July-August 1996 during the Summer Olympics in Atlanta. 3. The then Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba paid a visit to the USA from May 6 to 11, 2002. During the visit, the Prime Minister was received by H. E. Mr. George W. Bush, President of the USA at the Oval Office on May 7, 2002. The two leaders held discussions on bilateral relations and ongoing cooperation against terrorism as well as regional and international matters of common interest. While in Washington, D.C., the then Prime Minister also met the US Secretary of States Mr. Colin L. Powell, National Security Advisor Dr. (Ms) Condoleezza Rice, and Congressmen and Senators at the Capitol Hill. He also delivered a speech on the Nepalese perspectives on War against Terrorism at the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in Washington, D.C. 4. The then Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Dr. Prakash Sharan Mahat visited Washington, DC from 22 to 25 Sep 2004 to request the US officials, Senators and Congressmen for their support for early passage of Nepal textile bill laying at both the Houses of US Congress. US Development Cooperation to Nepal The USA is one of the first countries to provide development assistance to Nepal. It has been assisting Nepal in its economic development programs since the beginning of 1951. The USA has contributed more than $ 1 billion bilaterally and multilaterally since 1951. In more than four decades, the United States has provided assistance to Nepal in various sectors such as transport, communication, public health, family planning, malaria eradication, agriculture, forestry etc. The US cooperation has been helpful also in the fields of manpower development and institution building. On bilateral basis, annual grant assistance from the US is in the form of training, equipment, expert services and program cost financing. In addition, it also contributes through multilateral channels like IDA, ADB and the UN specialized agencies. At present the US assistance encompasses sectors like rural development, agriculture (research, extension and education) irrigation, population, health, forestry, natural resources conservation and manpower development. The major ongoing development projects being implemented with the US assistance are: Nepal-US Trade Relations The US is one of the important sources of hard currency for Nepal. From the export of garments and carpets to the US as well as from US tourist, Nepal earnes about US$90 to 100 million every year.

After the end of the quota system under Multi-fibre Agreement in 2005, export of the Nepalese Readymade Garments to the United States of America has declined. The trade figure of the Garments Association of Nepal has revealed 41 percent decline in the month of March 2005 in comparison to the previous year. In terms of value, garments worth US dollar 3.19 million was exported during the first three months of the last year in comparison to US dollar 1.68 million for the same period of this year. Major export products from Nepal to the US are ready-made garments, woollen carpets, handicrafts, silver jewellery and leather goods. On the other hand, Nepal imports mainly industrial machinery, telecommunication and electrical equipment, processed food and photographic goods from the US. The trade balance has so far remained in Nepal's favour and there exists a tremendous scope and opportunity for the expansion our trade with the US being the largest market in the world. US tourists visiting Nepal The numbers of tourist arrival from the US to Nepal in the past five years are as follows: Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Tourist 40,442 32,052 17,518 18,838 20,584

US Peace Corps Volunteers Since 1962, more than 4000 Peace Corps volunteers have served in a wide variety of capacities, helping Government of Nepal, USAID and Private Voluntary Organizations (PVO) to provide development service to the people of Nepal. The programs of Peace Corps with over 100 volunteers are well integrated with the plans and programs of Government of Nepal. The Peace Corps is collaborating with USAID in its agriculture Research and Production and Rapti Rural Development Projects. Additionally, the Peace Corps/Nepal collaborates with various UN organizations to promote water systems, rural income generation, urban planning, community forestry, appropriate technology and education. The Peace Corps volunteers programme has played an important role in bringing the people of both countries together. The programme, which was temporarily suspended since September 2004 due to Maoist threat in Nepal, has officially closed from January 18, 2006. However, the Country Agreement between Government of Nepal and the Peace Corps remains active in order to restart the programme as soon as possible. Europe America Division

Ministry for Foreign Affairs Government of Nepal Last updated on April 3, 2006 Nepal-Bhutan Relations Diplomatic relations between Nepal and Bhutan were established in June 1983. Nepal and Bhutan have concurrently accredited their resident ambassadors to India to each other's country as well. Both the countries are members of the United Nations and the founding members of SAARC and have also joined BIMSTEC as new members since 2004. Both the countries are landlocked and have close cultural and social linkages with each other. Bhutan is a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic country. Sarchops, Ngalumgs and Lhostsampas are the three main ethnic groups. Bhutan has a significant number of people of Nepalese origin, particularly in the southern part of the country. The Nepalese of southern Bhutan are called Lhotshampas. Bilateral Visits Late King Birendra visited Bhutan on October 5-6, 1988 for the consultation of SAARC Meeting. His Majesty King Jigme Singye Wangchuck of Bhutan had visited Kathmandu to attend the Third SAARC Summit in November 1987 and Bhutanese Prime Minister visited Nepal to attend the 11th SAARC Summit in January 2002. His Majesty Wangchuk had also taken the opportunity to visit the Halesi Mahadev in Khotang in 1987. Other bilateral visits have mostly been at the ministerial levels. A Ministerial Joint Committee formed in 1993 (initially at the Home Ministers' level, and currently at the Foreign Ministers' level) has been meeting periodically with a view to resolving the problem of the Bhutanese refugees living in camps in Nepal. Her Majesty Queen Ashi Tshering Pem Wangchuck of Bhutan visited Nepal on June 2330, 2003. Trade and Economic Relations Nepal and Bhutan both are predominantly agricultural countries. However, there exits scope for increasing bilateral trade, cultural exchanges, and cooperation in the field of tourism. The Druk Air of Bhutan operates scheduled flights twice a week between Paro and Kathmandu. A Nepalese delegation led by Mr. Lava Kumar Devkota, the then Secretary, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation visited Bhutan from February 2 to February 4, 2004. During the visit, an Air Service Agreement was concluded between the two Governments. The agreement increases the flight numbers up to seven flights a week between Paro and Kathmandu. The agreement also has increased the beyond points (Gaya and Bombay) for Druk Air.

A delegation of FNCCI visited Nepal in March last year. An MOU has also been signed between FNCCI and Bhutan Chamber of Commerce and Industry to promote the development of trade and economic relations between the two countries. Bhutanese Refugees The issue of Bhutanese refugees has remained a challenge for the cordial and friendly relations traditionally subsisting between the two countries. Since 1990, the Lhotshampas have left Bhutan in a massive number and sought asylum in eastern Nepal. At present, there are about 110 thousand Bhutanese refugees living in 7 camps in Jhapa and Morang districts of Nepal. The Nepal-Bhutan Ministerial Joint Committee (MJC) has so far held 15 meetings with the view to resolving this protracted problem. As agreed by the MJC, the Joint Verification Team (JVT) has completed the verification and categorization work of the people in Khudunabari camp. The 13th MJC meeting held in Thimphu from March 24 to 26, 2003 reviewed the work of the JVT on the categorization of people in the Khudunabari camp. During the 14th MJC held in Kathmandu from May 19 to 22, 2003, the two sides approved categorization of the refugees as per the report of the JVT. In the 15th MJC meeting held in Thimphu on October 20-23, 2003, the two sides agreed to repatriate the refugees falling under categories 1, 2 and 4 in Khudunabari camp. The MJC also entrusted the Joint Verification Team (JVT) with the task of reviewing the appeals submitted by those falling under category 3. The meeting also agreed to take up Sanischare camp for verification of categorization with a view to expediting the resolution of the Bhutanese refugee issue. An unfortunate incident that erupted at Khudunabari Camp during a briefing programme by the leader of the Bhutanese side of the JVT on December 22, 2003, has currently stalled the joint exercise being undertaken by the two sides as per the mandate given by the 15th MJC. Nepal believes that this incident should not have serious implication in the overall progress of the bilateral efforts. Government of Nepal has assured full security to the resumption of the work at the earliest. During the bilateral meeting between Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa and Prime Minister Lyonpo Jigmi Y. Thinley of Bhutan on the sidelines of the 12th SAARC Summit in Islamabad on 4-6 January 2004, the two leaders agreed to resume the implementation of the outcome of Fifteenth Ministerial Joint Committee Meeting at an early date for finding a lasting solution of the problem. Latest Status On 07 September 2005, Bhutanese Foreign Minister H.E. Lynpo Khandu Wangchuk called then Foreign Minister of Nepal Ramesh Nath Pandey on telephone and said that he is prepared to work with the latter in seeking amicable solution to the refugee problem. On his part, Nepalese Foreign Minister stressed the need to immediately reactivate the stalled bilateral process by honoring the agreements and understanding reached earlier in order to seek a durable solution to the problem. Minister Pandey also met with his

Bhutanese counterpart on the 13th and 16th of September 2005 on the sidelines of the High Level Plenary Meeting of the 60th UN General Assembly in New York in connection with resolving the stalemate of the bilateral process. They also had talks on the sidelines of the 13th SAARC Summit in Dhaka, on November 10, 2005 on matters relating to the Bhutanese refugees. In a briefing to the diplomatic communities on May 19, 2006, Hon'ble Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister for Foreign Affairs K.P. Sharma Oli stated that Nepal seeks lasting solution to the problem of Bhutanese refugees and asked the Bhutanese government to shows its sincerity. South Asia Division Ministry of Foreign Affairs Kathmandu May 2006 Nepal-Brazil Relations Political Brazil is the largest country in South America. It occupies eastern half of South America with an area of 33, 00, 171 sq. mile. To the north of Brazil are French Guiana, Surinam, Guyana and Venezuela. Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina border Brazil on the west and Uruguay on the south. Diplomatic relations between Nepal and Brazil was established on February 7, 1976. Nepals Permanent Representative to the United Nations is concurrently accredited to Brazil and Brazils Ambassador to India have been concurrently accredited to respective country Brazil has maintained an Honorary Consulate in Kathmandu. Nepal and Brazil have always enjoyed a friendly relation. Notwithstanding the geographical distance, both the countries hold similar views to promote the interests of developing countries in order to achieve the objective of a just and equitable new international order. Exchange of Visits Then Prime Minister Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala led a Nepalese delegation to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3 to 14 June 1992. The then Minister for Health Mr. Sharat Singh Bhandari paid a visit to Brazil from 29 to 31 January 2002. These visits helped to develop better understanding between the two countries. However, there has been no noticeable exchange of visits between the two countries in recent years. Meeting of the World Leaders Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva had taken an initiative to organize meeting

of the world leaders on 20th September 2004 on the eve of the 59th regular session of the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in New York to discuss the concrete solutions for the promotion of greater international cooperation and the increase of available resources to face global challenges, namely the elimination of hunger and poverty in the world. This initiative was aimed at addressing the acute problems facing the developing countries. In this connection the Brazilian President had sent an invitation to His Majesty the King. While welcoming this initiative of the Brazilian President, His Majesty sent a reply assuring him of close cooperation of the leader of the Nepalese delegation to the 59th session of the UNGA with the Brazilian delegation to achieve the objectives of the President's noble endeavour. Economic Cooperation There has been no significant economic cooperation in the economic field between the two countries. Nepal and Brazil have to put their endeavor to give a concrete shape of the existing trade volume in sharing experience in areas like hydro power development. As Brazil has the worlds largest hydropower potentials, Nepal may benefit from the experience and expertise acquired by Brazil in harnessing water resources. Both the countries can explore the opportunities for cooperation in the areas of mutual interest such as agriculture and agro-business, joint venture in industries, trade, tourism and environmental protection, among others. The Major items of the Nepalese export constituted handbags, handmade papers and paperboard, carpet and garments, Nepal imports crude soybean oil, printing sensitive plate, soybean oil, chewing gum, refrigerators, sugar confectionary and citrus fruits. With Brazil, we have a negative trade balance which is widening up in the past 3 years. The following figure reflects the exports to and from Brazil over the past few years. Year 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 Export 54035 12192 1438 1978 Import 29603 149222 19113 293426 Value in '000 Rs. Trade Balance 24432 -137029 -17674 -291448

Cultural Cooperation A team of Globo Television Network of Brazil visited Nepal from 29 to 30 June 2004. The main purpose of their trip was to show the beauty and richness of Nepalese culture and nature to the wider Brazilian audience. Such efforts not only extend positive impact on the Nepalese tourism, but also create the atmosphere of further deepening the friendship between the people of two countries. Tourism A number of Brazilian tourist arrivals to Nepal is quite low in comparison to other South American countries. The following figures show the tourist arrivals from Brazil in recent years.

Year 2001 2002 2003 2004

Number 697 377 639 1393

Europe America Division Ministry for Foreign Affairs Government of Nepal Last updated on April 3, 2006 Nepal-China Relations 1. Political Relations Nepal-China relations have always remained good and cordial. These relations have been marked by friendliness, mutual support and understanding and appreciation of each other's aspirations and sensitivities. Our two countries are abiding by the ideals of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence. The history of our relations could be traced back to the 5th century when sages and saints engaged themselves in visiting far and wide in the pursuit of knowledge and peace. The marriage of Bhrikuti to the Tibetan King, Song Sang Gampo, in the 7th century and the White Pagoda temple in Beijing constructed under the guidance of Nepalese architect, Araniko have, inter alia, provided testimony to the historical relations between Nepal and China. Nepal and the People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations on 1 August 1955. Nepal and China share a long border, spanning a range of about 1414 Kilometres. The two Governments resolved border issue amicably in 1961, and have been conducting joint inspection of the border at regular intervals. Nepal and China are supporting each other in many international forums, including the United Nations. Nepal has always been upholding 'One China' principle and is committed not to allow Nepalese territory to be used against China's interests. Government, in a press release issued on 16 March 2005, unequivocally supported the Anti-secession Legislation enacted by the National People's Congress on 14 March 2005. At the same time, Nepal has also appreciated 'one country two systems' principle as enunciated by China and applied successfully in Hong Kong and Macao in the form of special administrative regions. Exchange of bilateral visits including at the highest level has immensely contributed to further nurturing Nepal-China bilateral relations. Their Majesties the King and Queen paid a State Visit to China in July 2002 and had cordial meetings with the Chinese leaders. Their Majesties King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and Queen Komal Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah visited Boao in Hainan Province of the People's Republic of China from 23 to 26 April 2005 in connection with the participation in the 2005 Annual

Conference of the Boao Forum for Asia. On the occasion, His Majesty, on behalf of the Nepalese people, handed over a Buddha Statue to the Boao Buddhist Temple constructed in Boao. Their Royal Highnesses the Crown Prince and Crown Princess paid an official visit to China in August 2004. Similarly, the visits to Nepal paid by Chinese President, H. E. Mr. Jiang Zemin, in 1996 and also by Premier H. E. Mr. Zhu Rongji in May 2001 have been significant in enhancing good-neighbourly relations between the two countries. The official visit by H. E. Mr. Jia Qinglin, Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in December 2003 has added to strengthening these relations. Chinese Foreign Minister, H. E. Mr. Li Zhaoxing, visited Nepal from 31 March to 01 April at the invitation of Foreign Minister, Hon. Ramesh Nath Pandey. Apart from these visits, there have been a number of exchanges of visits to and from Nepal at various levels, contributing immensely to further promoting the understanding between the two countries. 2. Economic Relations China has been assisting Nepal in its efforts for socio-economic development since mid50s. The first 'Agreement between China and Nepal on Economic Aid' (20 million Indian Rupees in cash and 40 million rupees for aided projects) was signed in October 1956. Ever since, China has been providing financial and technical assistance to Nepal, which has greatly contributed to Nepal's development especially in infrastructure building, establishment of industries, human resource development, health, sports, etc. In the early years, Chinese assistance was pledged in terms of projects and no financial involvement therein was mentioned. From mid-90s, the Chinese Government has been pledging grant assistance to Government under the Economic and Technical Cooperation programme in order to implement mutually acceptable development projects. The volume of such assistance is to the tune of 80 million Yuan every year. Following is the list of such assistance. Financial and Technical Assistance S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Amount Cmmitted (in million RMB) July 20, 1994 60 April 18, 1995 80 April 18, 1996 80 December 4, 1996 80 April 17, 1998 30 October 16, 1998 50 December 30 1999 80 February 16, 2000 30 Date of Agreement Equivalent (In million NRs.) 340 475 475 560 240 425 679 254.6

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

August 24, 2000 May 12, 2001 July 10, 2002 December 3, 2003 August 16, 2004 Total:

50 80 80 80 50 830 Million

436 750 750 750 415

Nepal and China have established Inter-Governmental Economic and Trade Committee (IGETC) in October 1982. The IGETC meetings have become the main forum for discussions on Nepal-China bilateral economic and technical cooperation. The IGETC meetings focus on economic and technical assistance, bilateral trade and tourism. China Aided Projects in Nepal (Completed): A. Road and Transport I. Arniko Highway II. Arniko Highway (Rehabilitation) III. Kathmandu Bhaktapur Road IV. Prithvi Highway and Surface Pitch Paving V. Narayanghat-Mugling Road VI. Gorkha Narayanghat Road VII. Kajhuwa-Gorkha-Road VIII. Kathmandu-Bhaktapur Trolly Bus IX. Kathmandu Ring Road X. Pokhara-Baglung Road XI. Seti River Bridge at Pokhara B. Industries I. Bansbari Leather and Shoes Factory II. Hetauda Cotton Textile Mills III. Harisidhi Brick Factory IV. Bhaktapur Brick Factory V. Industrial Gloves and Apron Manufacturing at Bansbari VI. Bhrikuti Paper Mills VII. Lumbini Sugar Mills C. Water Resources I. Sunkoshi Hydroelectricity Plant II. Pokhara Water Conservancy and Irrigation Project (Multipurpose) III. Sunkoshi Vicinity Electricity Transmission Project IV. Sunkoshi-Kathmandu Electricity Line Transmission Project D. Health I. B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur (104 Km) (13 Km) (174 Km) (36 Km) (24 Km) (14 Km) (27.2 Km) (65 Km)

E. Sports I. Sports Complex at Kathmandu and Lalitpur II. Construction of Sports Facilities for the 8th South Asian Federation Games in 1999 III. Repair of Lighting System in the Sports Complex (April 2005) F. Other Construction I. National Trading Complex II. Warehouse at Kathmandu and Birgunj III. City Hall in Kathmandu IV. Birendra International Convention Centre V. Consolidating Seti River Bridge in Pokhara VI. A three-month arch bridge training course for 15 Nepalese engineers VII. Pokhara Sedimentation Pond VIII. Provision for the Television Truck for NTV IX. Mobile X-Ray Machine for Birgunj Dryport Customs Office Ongoing China-aided Projects: a. Syafrubesi-Rasuagadhi Road b. Civil Service Hospital c. Polytechnic Institute in Banepa d. Nepal Television Metro Channel Station Expansion and Improvement. During the official visit to China by HRH the Crown Prince in August 2004, Government of Nepal/N and the Chinese Government exchanged Letters on the following projects: a. Installation of Optical Fibre along the Araniko Highway b. National Ayurvedic Research and Training Institute c. An Outer Ring Road in the Kathmandu Valley In addition, the Chinese Government has also agreed to send a team for the feasibility study of the Conservation Research Centre for King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation. Government of Nepal/N and the Chinese Government have exchanged letters on this matter during the official visit of the Chinese Foreign Minister H. E. Mr. Li Zhaoxing to Nepal from 31 March to 01 April 2005. 3. Education and Culture Scholarship: Government of Nepal appreciates the Chinese assistance in the field of education. China has been providing 100 scholarships annually to Nepalese students to study in China. In this way, China has been assisting Nepal to meet the ever-increasing demand for technical manpower in the country. It has also contributed to promoting understanding and appreciation of each other's culture and tradition.

Cultural Cooperation: Nepal and China have concluded an MoU on cultural cooperation in 1995. Various activities have taken place since. Cultural programmes have been organised in each other's territories; and visits have been exchanged. For example, China had also organised a cultural fair in Kathmandu in 2003. Similarly, the Chinese Embassy in Kathmandu, in association with Cultural Net, organised China Festival in Kathmandu from 1 to 7 June 2005 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations. Chinese Acrobatic Show was organised among other various activities. Additionally, a cultural troupe of 20 artistes from Guangdong Province of PRC visited Nepal and presented cultural programmes in Kathmandu and Pokhara, coinciding with the 59th auspicious birthday of His Majesty the King. 4. Nepal-China Trade The volume of Nepal-China trade is increasing every year. Nepal's trade with China is largely conducted through Tibet and Hong Kong. The volume of Nepal-China trade is given below. Nepal-China Trade Fiscal Year 1999/2000 2000/2001 2001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 Source: FNCCI Rs. in thousand Import 1253006 514276 2 1157387 528012 0 1040075 8744459 1631050 9098978 2348150 9299902 Export

The following six points along the Nepal-China border have been opened for overland trade: Kodari-Nyalam; Rasua-Kerung; Yari (Humla)-Purang; Olangchunggola-Riyo; Kimathanka-Riwo; Nechung (Mustang)-Legze 5. Investment: Chinese investment in Nepal is growing, and has potential to further growth. Chinese investors are found interested in making investment in hotels and restaurants, electronics, radio paging services, readymade garments (pashmina), nursing home, hydropower, civil construction, etc. As of Baishakh 2060, there were 25 industries operating under Chinese investment, 6 under construction and 13 licensed. Improved law and order situation in the country and enhanced publicity in China could further increase Chinese investment in Nepal. FNCCI, especially under the framework of Nepal-China Non-Governmental Cooperation Forum, is also working towards attracting Chinese investment.

6. Tourism The Government of the Peoples Republic of China has designated Nepal as one of the tourist destinations for its people. At the same time, Nepal has made the following arrangements to attract tourists from China:

Chinese Yuan has been made convertible for tourists and businessmen Government of Nepal has waived visa fee for Chinese tourists Nepal's Tourism Ministry and TAR Government have formed a joint committee to promote tourism

In addition, following agreement between Nepal and China, direct bus service between Kathmandu and Lhasa has been in operation since 1 May 2005, which will contribute to tourism promotion. Nepal and China have also signed Air Services Agreement and an MoU in August 2003. 7. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations The year 2005 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Nepal and the People's Republic of China. The important occasion is being celebrated by both sides by organising various programmes. Government of Nepal has constituted a high-level Committee under the Chairmanship of the Hon. Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey, to plan, organize and coordinate programmes on the occasion. Some of the programmes shall be organized jointly with the Chinese side and some shall be organized by Government of Nepal/N. China-related organisations in Nepal, too, are preparing and organising programmes. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations, His Majesty King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and H. E. Mr. Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China, exchanged congratulatory messages on 01 August 2005. In the messages, His Majesty the King and H. E. the President highlighted, and expressed satisfaction at, the achievements made in promoting Nepal-China understanding and cooperation. Similarly, Hon. Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey, and H. E. Mr. Li Zhaoxing, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, exchanged congratulatory messages. In their messages, the Foreign Ministers expressed satisfaction at the expansion and consolidation of Nepal-China relations in the last 50 years. 8. Nepal-China Non-Governmental Cooperation Forum Nepal and China have established the Nepal-China Non-Governmental Cooperation Forum in 1996. The Forum has been meeting regularly. The eighth meeting of the Forum was held in Sanya, Hainan Province, from 12 to 13 January 2005. The Forum is being led by FNCCI from the Nepalese side and All China Federation of Industry and Commerce (ACFIC) from the Chinese side. 9. Ongoing Activities: The Third Joint Inspection of Nepal China Border

As per the Border Agreement between Government of Nepal and the Government of the People's Republic of China, the border between the two countries has to be jointly inspected every ten years. Accordingly, the first and the second inspections had taken place in 1979 and 1988 respectively. The process for the Third Joint Inspection has been initiated. The two Governments have set up a Joint Inspection Committee and agreed to set up Joint Inspection Teams as necessary. The Joint Inspection Teams are expected to begin field-work in the summer of 2006 and complete the work by the end of the year. Nepal-Canada Relations I. Political Relations Nepal and Canada established diplomatic relations on January 18, 1965. The Royal Nepalese Ambassador to Washington D.C. is accredited to Canada and the Canadian Ambassador to New Delhi is accredited to Nepal. Canada has maintained its presence in Kathmandu through Canadian Co-operation Office that oversees the projects under Canadian aid in Nepal. Nepal and Canada enjoy cordial relations based on mutual understanding and co-operation. Nepal and Canada share common views on many international issues. Like Nepal, Canada is also a major troop contributor to UN Peace-Keeping operations for the maintenance of international peace and security. Nepal has appointed Hon. Consul General in Toronto and Victoria, British Colombia. At the invitation of the Honourable Raymond Chan, Secretary of State (Asia-Pacific) of Canada, the then Water Resources Minister Govind Raj Joshi paid a working visit from October 11 to 15, 1999 to Canada. The central theme of the visit was to discuss on the water resources management in particular and further strengthen the existing bilateral relations in general. II. Economic Relations Canadian aid program in Nepal began in 1958. But the official bilateral program commenced in 1970 which mainly focused on capacity building for Nepal's aviation sector. Under this programme, Canada provided seven Twin Otters, constructed a hanger at Nepalgunj, and provided airport security equipment, and training to RNAC and the Department of Civil Aviation officials. Despite over-all cuts in assistance to Asia and Africa, Canada has assured that the Canadian aid to Nepal will be continued in the years to come. Canada expanded its aid program in Nepal to sectors like energy, rural development, health, education, geographic survey and agriculture as well as poverty alleviation, health care and food security. Canada's development aid is concentrated on strengthening

institutional capacity and human resource. The program strategy includes; (a) poverty alleviation and meeting basic human needs while promoting food security, (b) continued assistance to Nepal in its energy policy planning and in pursuing sustainable energy alternatives and environmental management and (c) support to Nepal's decentralized aviation strategy through enhanced safety and security. Canada provided assistance to Nepal in the past in the following sectors: Karnali Bheri Rural Development (KBIRD), fertilizer fungicide support, health development project, institutional support to Water and Energy Commission Secretariat and the Nepal Electricity Authority, Engineering Education, Nepalgunj aircraft maintenance base, airport security at TIA and the women development. In 1997, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) provided a total of US $ 3.5 million through bilateral and multilateral channels plus the food aid worth about one million US Dollar. Canada also channels its aid through NGOs and Canadian Partnership Programmes. CIDA local initiative funds like Canada Fund, Women's Initiatives Fund and Environment Fund are concentrating their efforts on farmers, local communities, women and children, disadvantaged and other vulnerable sections of the society. There are other two community development projects which promote good governance, covering Jumla, Baitadi, Dadeldhura and Surkhet districts. Government of Nepal and the Canadian Centre for International Studies and Cooperation (CECI) signed an agreement, with a validity of five years, on June 19, 2001 for establishment of the CECI Asia Regional Office in Kathmandu. The CECI is a nonprofit, non-political and non-religious organisation with its headquarters in Montreal. The Regional Office in Kathmandu will coordinate the programme activities of CECI within the countries of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia) and South Asian Countries (Nepal, India and Sri Lanka) and provide greater coordination as well as management and technical assistance to the CECI country programme for the benefit and well-being of the poor people with special focus on women. CIDA has accepted to finance phase II of Nepal Water Strategy Formation Study, which is worth US $ 1 million. The World Bank is co-financing this project which covers 12 districts of Terai region. CIDA is also co-financing with ADB a Ground Water Irrigation Sector Loan. CIDA's component aid is worth US $ 2.8 million in this initiative. The Canadian Cooperation Office is financing many small activities under the Ministry of Population and Environment. It has agreed in principle to support the Ministry on a larger bilateral scale, specially for building institutional capacity. The other CIDA new initiative is a project on gender equality in Nepal. This project will complement the efforts of NGOs and government institutions. III. Trade Relations Major item of export from Nepal is ready-made garments, which amount to 85% of total exports to Canada. The Nepali apparels export to the Canada has increased by double-

fold during the first three months of 2005. In terms of value, import by Canada for the first three months of this year is US dollar 2,45,000/- in comparison to 1,22,000 US dollar in the same period of the previous year. The other items are woolen goods and handicrafts. Following is the table showing our trade with Canada and balance of trade situation. Year 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 Import 258,936 326,953 461,944 222,354 305,978 383,651 546,403 Export 96,978 156,136 284,958 365,823 262,594 407,402 688,247 Value in Rs. '000 Trade Balance - 161,958 - 170,817 - 176,986 + 143,469 - 43,384 - 23,751 - 141,844

Nepal and Canada agreed to extend the validity of the existing Memorandum of Understanding for four years with effective from January 1, 2001 up to December 31, 2004 to facilitate Nepal's export of certain textile products to Canada. The agreement was signed on 14 July 2000 in Ottawa, Canada. Similarly the delegations representing the Government of Canada and Government of Nepal also agreed to make a one time increase of 25% to category 5 in the year 2000 without modifying the Annex I of the MOU signed on January 17, 1996. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between Nepal and Canada in 2003 for duty free and quota free access of Nepalese products to Canadian markets. IV. Tourist Arrival in Nepal from Canada Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 Tourist Arrival 6,949 3,747 4,154 4,825

There is a need to promote Nepal's tourism in Canada in consultation with tour operators and travel agents who are based in Canada and also are specialized in South Asia and South East Asia. V. Prospects of Future Co-operation There is a tremendous scope of promoting relations between Nepal and Canada in the fields of trade, investment and even development cooperation. As all the countries of the region, including Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, have opened their embassies in Canada and

are getting more benefits from their relations with Canada, Nepal-Canada relations could be reinforced with the establishment of residential Embassy of Nepal in Ottawa. . Canada is interested in the development of Nepal's hydropower potentials. It is also interested in providing assistance to Nepal to deal with the social issues like refugees, narcotics, empowerment of women, girl trafficking, child labour, human rights etc. At present, there is only one Canadian joint venture named the Devtech (Nepal) Pvt. Ltd., in the field of consultancy, where N.D. Lee and associates have financial collaboration. The joint venture projects with Canada could be launched in future, especially in the field of hydro-power generation and tourism. Europe America Division Ministry for Foreign Affairs Government of Nepal Last updated on April 3, 2006 Nepal-EU Relations After the establishment of the diplomatic relations between Nepal and the European Union in 1973, the Union has extended invaluable cooperation to the socio-economic development efforts of Nepal. EEC joined the Nepal Aid Group in 1982 so as to coordinate its position with other donor countries. Besides economic assistance, the European Union has also taken keen interest in the problems of Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. The Commission of the European Communities established the EC Consultant Office in Nepal in May 1992 with a view to expanding bilateral contacts. Nepal established residential Embassy in Brussels and appointed Mr Durgesh Man Singh as the first Royal Nepalese Ambassador to EEC in 1992. Mrs. Francine Henrich was appointed EEC?s first Ambassador to Nepal in November 1991 with residence in New Delhi. An Agreement concerning establishment of EC delegation in Nepal was signed on 13th of March 2002 in Kathmandu. With the signing of the agreement, a full-fledged EC delegation office has been established in Kathmandu. Nepal?EU Economic Cooperation Since the inception of EU assistance to Nepal, the Commission for the European Communities has provided a grant assistance of about 48 million ecu to Nepal representing an average of 3.2 million ecu per year. The large portion of the EU assistance has been channelled to rural development projects. The first annual meeting between Nepal and EC was held in Kathmandu from 17 to 19 February 1992. Similarly, the second meeting was also held in Kathmandu from 4 to 5

November 1993. In this meeting both sides reviewed the ongoing projects/programs and also discussed the future areas of cooperation. Nepal-EC annual talks have been replaced by a Joint Commission following the entry into force of the Co-operation Agreement. The Joint Commission is a mechanism that meets every two years and reviews the ongoing projects, discusses pipeline projects and new projects to be implemented with EU assistance. A Cooperation Agreement with EC was signed in Brussels on November 20, 1995. The agreement covers the areas like: trade and commercial cooperation, economic cooperation, development cooperation, joint investment, energy, science and technology, agriculture, environment, and human resource development. The First Session of the Nepal-EC Joint Commission was held in Nepal from November 20 to 21, 1996. The meeting identified a number of priority areas for Nepal-EC cooperation. The Second Session of the Nepal-EC Joint Commission was held in Brussels from October 7 to 8, 1999. The Nepalese delegation was led by Special Secretary Mr. Narayan S. Thapa and the EC delegation was led by Mr. Emiliano Fossati, Director for Asia (Except Japan and Korea). The Joint Commission decided on the course of development cooperation between Nepal and EC until 2001. At this meeting, the importance of human rights was noted by both sides as an essential element upon which the EC-Nepal Co-operation was built. An Agreement between the European Community and the Kingdom of Nepal on Trade in Textile products was signed on December 10, 2003. Likewise, Nepal and EC have singed a Framework Agreement for exporting sugar to EC under the EBA (Everything but Arms) initiative. The Third Session of the Nepal-EC Joint Commission was held in Kathmandu on 19 March 2002. The EU has committed more than Euro 130 million in development assistance to Nepal since 1977 (from 1991 to 1997 commitments amounted to Euro 90 million). Focal areas include irrigation and rural development, as well as programmes in animal health, watershed management, reproductive health, primary education and institution building. The Fourth Session of Nepal-EC Joint Commission was held in Brussels on September 21, 2004. The Joint Commission discussed about the Bhutanese refugee problem, and also discussed about a wide spectrum of Nepal-EC cooperation and reviewed existing bilateral cooperation including areas of development partnership between Nepal and the European Union. The Joint Commission stressed the need to enhance human rights protection and promotion to support capacity building measures. Before the Session, meetings of the two working groups namely the Working Group on Economic and Trade Cooperation and Sub-commission on Development Cooperation were held in Kathmandu on May 2004. On December 20, 2004, the European Commission adopted the regulation prolonging

Nepal's derogation from GSP rules of origin for certain textile products for the period of two years until 31/12/2006. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on National Indicative Programme (NIP) for Nepal (2002-2006) was signed between Nepal and the European Commission on October 20, 2004 in Brussels. The National Indicative Programme (NIP) 2002-2006 for Nepal takes forward the main goals as laid out in the EC-Nepal Country Strategy Paper, 20022006. The EC's assistance will be concentrated on the overarching objective of poverty reduction. Other areas of cooperation include development of rural infrastructures, renewable energy, community development, consolidation of democracy addressing some of the root causes of the conflict, such as socio-economic inequalities, promotion of human rights and the rule of law and trade development. The EC development assistance for the period 2002-2006 is Euro 70 million. The European Union's Position on Maoist Insurgency in Nepal The EU feels that the root cause of the Nepal conflict is a complex web of interacting factors including uneven development within the country. However, the European Union upheld the government of Nepal's right to defend the country's newly established democracy in countering this terrorist insurgency. The European Union noted that the democratic State has the sole right to use legitimate force to preserve the rights and security of its citizens. The EU urges Government of Nepal and the Maoists to seek a peaceful resolution of the conflict. The EU strongly condemns systematic and continued human rights violations by the Maoists such as abduction of schools children and young and their indoctrination into their militia, extortion, killing of innocent civilian, destroying infrastructures, etc. Visit of EU Troika delegation to Nepal A first European Union (EU) Troika delegation visited Nepal from 13 to 15 December 2004. The delegation was headed by Mr. Robert Milders, Director for Asia and Oceania Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. The EU Troika is made up of representatives from the current EU presidency, next EU presidency and representatives of European Commission and Council Secretariat. The aim of the Troika was to offer EU support to all efforts aimed at promoting multiparty democracy - within the framework of a constitutional monarchy - and human rights as well as curtailing violence and renewing dialogue between Government of Nepal and the Maoists. The second Troika delegation visited Nepal from 4 to 6 October 2005. The objective of the Troika visit was to assess the political situation of Nepal since the last visit, to take

stock of the cease-fire announced by the Maoists, Government of Nepal's response to the unilateral cease-fire, revival of the peace process, etc. Nepal-EU Trade The EU is one of the principal trading partners of Nepal. The EU imports mainly handmade carpets, textile, gems and jewellery, wood and paper products, leather products, etc. from Nepal. Nepal imports engineering goods, telecommunication equipments, chemical and minerals, metals and steels, agricultural products, etc. from the EU countries. The EU has provided duty-free and quota-free facilities to the Nepalese export under its Everything But Arms (EAB) policy for the LDC's. The EC agreed to prolong Nepal's derogation from GSP rules of origin for certain textile products for the period of two years (until 31/12/2006). Under the EU Everything But Arms (EBA) Scheme for LDCs, Nepal has been exporting sugar duty-free to EU countries since 2003. Annual sugar export from Nepal is approximately 9000 metric tonnes. The EC will be introducing the new Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) in 2006 and will remain valid till 2015. For nearly 2100 products out of 11,000 except arms and ammunitions, duty rate will be zero. As the provisions of EBA Scheme for LDCs are incorporated into the new GSP, Nepal can greatly benefit from it. EU Assistance to Bhutanese Refugees The European Union is one of the major sponsors of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' programme in the camps. The EU welcomed the prospect of a speedy verification process leading to the repatriation of refugees and the ultimate closing of the camps. The EU has been helping Nepal in providing food aid to the Bhutanese Refugees and other assistance for their early repatriation. The EU has stated that it would continue to support refugees from Bhutan. Till now the EC has been among major donors to support the refugee camps via NGO?s and the UNHCR. Europe America Division Ministry for Foreign Affairs Government of Nepal Last updated on April 3, 2006s Nepal-France Relations Political Nepal and France established diplomatic relations on 20 April 1949. The relations between the two countries have always been marked by goodwill, trust and mutual respect. These relations have been further strengthened by occasional exchange of visits

and contacts at various levels in the past. There have been important exchanges of visits between Nepal and France. His late Majesty King Mahendra paid a State Visit to France in October 1966 on the invitation of General Charles De Gaulle, President of the Republic of France. The decision to establish residential embassies in each other's capital was taken immediately after that visit. Earlier in 1963, His late Majesty King Birendra (then Crown Prince) visited France. In 1981, His Majesty late King Birendra accompanied by Her Majesty late Queen Aishwarya, visited Paris to address the First UN Conference on the Least Developed Countries. His Late Majesty the King addressed the Conference on behalf of nine LDCs of Asia and Pacific region. This visit took place immediately after the assumption of the French Presidency by President Mitterrand and it provided an opportunity to establish good personal rapport. At the invitation of late His Majesty King Birendra, President Mitterrand paid a State Visit to Nepal from 2 to 3 May 1983. In October 1989, His late Majesty King Birendra paid an unofficial visit to France en route to the State Visit to Denmark. In September 1994, Their late Majesties the King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya paid a State Visit to France, for the first time as a constitutional monarch, after the restoration of multiparty democracy in the country in 1990. This State Visit contributed to greater understanding of feelings and aspirations of the peoples and governments of both countries. Then Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defence and Foreign Affairs, Madhav Kumar Nepal, visited France from 19 to 21 February 1995. The then Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary visited France in the second week of April 1995 on his way back from Denmark after attending the World Summit on Social Development and met a cross-section of personalities. At the invitation of Government of Nepal, Dr. Margie Sudre, French Minister of State for Foreign Affairs paid an official visit to Nepal in May 1996. Then Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala paid an official visit to France from 5 to 9 March 2001. Discussions were held on matters of mutual interest, more particularly to enhance the scope of interactions and cooperation between the two countries. Nepal also expressed its sincere appreciations to France for its positive role in enhancing the causes of the developing and the least developed countries in the international arena. Their Royal Highnesses Crown Prince Paras Bir Bikram Shah Dev and Crown Princess Himani Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah paid a visit to the Republic of France from March 26 to 31, 2006. During the visit His Royal Highness the Crown Prince held interactions with the businessmen and industrialists of the Paris Chamber of Commerce. The visit of Their Royal Highnesses to the Republic of France bears an especial significance in promoting bilateral economic cooperation in the field of trade and investment. Economic Cooperation

Economic cooperation programme was initiated in February 1981 when the two countries signed the First Protocol amounting to French Franc 71.5 million. France provided food assistance (grants) to Nepal in that year. Both countries signed Seventh Protocols. Since 1990, French assistance to the LDCs consists of grants only. The French government converted debt into grant, which matured on and after 1 January 1989. It also did the same for the French Treasury Loans granted to Nepal and disbursed before 31 December 1988. France has extended assistance in the form of grant, treasury loan and commercial loan. This practice was followed up to the Fifth Protocol. The Sixth Protocol signed in 1991 for 50 million Francs is 100% grant in accordance with new policy of the French Government on assistance to LDC countries. Under the Seventh Protocol, France agreed to provide French Franc 23 million to Nepal. Out of this amount, French Franc 10 million was provided in the form of grant assistance and the remaining amount was as French treasury soft loan. The grant amount was spent in extension of national seismologic network, petroleum exploration, restructuring of Water Supply Corporation and rehabilitation of airport equipment; and the loan of French Franc 13 million was spent in procuring equipment for domestic airports financed by the ADB. Since 1980, France has been providing food aid to Nepal. Until now, France has provided 43,000 MT of food aid including 4,000 MT of soft wheat, which France had agreed to provide in March 2000. Similarly, in August 2001, an agreement has been signed between Nepal and France to provide 8,000 M.T of soft wheat to Nepal under the same programme. France also agreed to provide ECU 0.51 million for the implementation of Gulmi and Arghakhanchi Rural Development Project. The agreement, in this respect, was signed on 3 May 1989. Besides being member of Nepal Aid Group, France is contributing multilateral aid to developing countries through United Nations agencies and other International Organizations such as FAO, UNICEF, OECD, etc. In view of the major role being played by France in the European Union (EU), the prospects of cooperative relations between Nepal and the EU is expected to receive added impetus through excellent economic and trade relations with France. Trade Nepal exports pulses, incense sticks, handmade papers, carpet, handicrafts, ready-made garments, woollen goods, silver jewellery etc. to France. Similarly, Nepal imports machinery and parts, industrial raw materials, aircraft and spare parts, fertilizer, telecommunications equipment, electrical goods, scientific research equipment etc., from France.

Nepal's Trade Balance with France Year 1999/2000 2000/2001 2001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 Export 735,512 676,031 473,572 453,960 581,762 Value in Rs.'000 Import Balance 1,920,282 1,184,770 1,084,532 - 408,531 706,214 - 232,642 1,590,177 1,136,217 675,532 - 93,770

French Investment in Nepal Nepal and France signed an agreement concerning "Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investment" in 1983. The major areas of French investment in Nepal are in the sectors of hotels, restaurants, ayurvedic medicine, fabrication of aluminium windows and doors, vehicle body building etc. Some hotels are under construction and mineral water and brick industries are licensed. French Cultural Centre & French School Government of Nepal and the French Embassy in Kathmandu have exchanged letters to renew the agreement on the establishment of 'Alliance Franoise de Katmandou' (the French Cultural Centre in Kathmandu) for ten more years (up to 31 June 2014). Further, Nepal and France have signed an agreement on the conduct of the 'Ecole Franoise de Katmandou' (French School) for a period of ten years up to 01 August 2014. The School had been functioning under a written approval by Government of Nepal/Nepal since April 1989. Scholarship French government had been providing few scholarships in the field of public administration, diplomacy, journalism, hotel management, musicology, literature, French as a second language, etc. for the last few years. Such scholarships are not regular in recent years. Tourism A significant number of tourists arrive in Nepal from France each year. The following figures show the tourist arrivals from France in recent years: Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number 21,187 13,376 15,865 18,938

Europe America Division Ministry for Foreign Affairs Government of Nepal Last updated on April 3, 2006

Nepal-Germany Relations Political Relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Nepal and the Federal Republic of Germany were established in 1958. Since then the relations between Nepal and Germany have been growing on the basis of friendship and mutual cooperation. Exchange of visits has taken place at different levels. The visits have contributed to strengthen the close and cordial relations between the two countries. Visit from the Nepalese Side 1. Their Late Majesties King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and Queen Aishwarya Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah had paid a State Visit to Germany in October 1986. 2. Prime Minister G.P. Koirala visited Bonn, Germany in 1992. 3. In the course of visiting some European countries (15-27 February 1995), the then Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defense and Foreign Affairs, Madhav Kumar Nepal, paid an official visit to Germany as guest of the German Government on 15-16 February 1995, and held wide ranging discussions with the prominent German leaders. 4. On his way to attend the Copenhagen Summit on Social Development from 6 to 12 April 1995, the then Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary stopped over in Germany and held talks with journalists and industrialists there. This visit provided another opportunity to throw more light on the policies and programmes of the then Government. 5. A 12-member Nepalese Parliamentary delegation led by Speaker of the House of Representatives Mr. Taranath Rana Bhat visited Germany from October 10 to 16, 1999 to participate in the 102nd session of the Inter-Parliamentary Union held in Berlin. 6. The then Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala visited Hannover, Germany from 12 to 14 September 2000. Hannover hosted the famous Expo-2000. During the visit, the Rt. Hon. Prime Minister visited the Nepal Himalaya Pavilion and also the pavilion of Bhutan, India, European House and Germany. The Nepal

Himalaya Pavilion stood in an area of about 2500 square metres and had a grand composite structure of the typical Pagoda temple intertwined with Stupa. A little pond in the pavilion, intricate and superb wooden architecture, live presentation of traditional pottery and wooden craft, huge monolithic sculpture of Buddha, typical Nepali food and continued presentation of typical Nepali dances attracted huge numbers of visitors. The Exposition with the theme of Humankind: Nature and Technology ran from June to October 2000 and about 150 countries participated making their own special presentation. 7. Hon'ble Hari Bahadur Basnet, Minister for Industry, Trade and Supplies, visited Germany from January 17 to 20, 2004 and attended Domotex Carpet Fair. Visit from the German Side 1. The then President H E Heinric Luebke had paid an official visit to Nepal in July 1967. 2. The then Chancellor H E Helmut Kohl paid an official visit to Nepal in 1987 3. Mr. Carl-Dieter Spranger, the then Minister for Economic Cooperation of Germany, was in Nepal from 15 to 17 February 1994. During the visit, Mr. Spranger lauded the policies and programmes of economic liberalisation adopted by Government of Nepal. 4. At the invitation of His Late Majesty King Birendra, HE Prof. Dr. Roman Herzog, the then President of the Federal Republic of Germany, and Ms. Herzog paid a state visit to Nepal from 25 to 30 November 1996. 5. A 4-member German-South Asian Parliamentary Group of the German Bundestag (Lower House) led by Mrs. Brigitte Adler (SPD), Chairperson of the Group, visited Nepal from October 12 to 17, 1999. Other members of the Group included Mrs. Ingrid Holzhueter (SPD), Mr. Holger Ortel (SPD) and Mr. Peter Letzgus (CDU/CSU). The MPs were accompanied by the Secretary of the Parliamentary Group Mr. Guido Large. While in Nepal, the members of the Group paid courtesy calls on Rt. Hon. Prime Minister and Hon. Foreign Minister, met with the Members of Parliament and visited Janakpur and Lahan (Nepal-German Churia Forest Development Project). 6. A 7-member delegation of the members of the German Parliament under the leadership of Mr Johannes Pflug visited Nepal from 15-18 February 2004. Economic Relations In 1961, the Federal Republic of Germany first provided technical cooperation for the establishment of the Technical Training Institute at Thapathali. In 1964, it provided soft loans to the Nepal Industrial Development Cooperation (NIDC). All German Cooperation

is now on grants basis. The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the major donors for Nepal's development efforts. It is also Nepal's largest trading partner after India. Since 1962, Germany has been assisting Nepal in the fields of power generation, agriculture, town development, preservation of monuments and temples, tourism, education and culture, solid waste management, promotion of small business projects, etc. These are areas, which make long-term impacts on Nepal's overall development. At present 28 different projects are in progress under German cooperation. Some of the major ones are: Himal Cement Company, Ceramics Development Project, Small Business Promotion Project (Phase IV), Line of Credit to NIDC (V), Project Assistance for the Department of Mines and Geology, Marsyangdi Hydro Power, Livestock Breeding Project (II), SFDP (III), Dhulikhel Development, Dhading IRD (Phase II), Palpa District IRDP, Lamjung IRD, Solid Waste management and Resource Mobilization Center (IV), Joint Nepal-German Archaeological Project, Study and Expert Fund, Forestry Action Plan for Siraha, Saptari and Udayapur Districts, Reconstruction of Bridges, Basic Health Care etc. There are 15 Nepal-German joint venture projects. Nepal-German Trade Germany is the biggest export market for Nepali products. As per the statistics published by the Trade Promotion Centre, export to Germany was equivalent to Rs. 3,567,035,651 imports from Germany was Rs. 1,977,895,741, and the trade balance was Rs. 1,589,139,910 in Nepal's favour in 2003/04. Nepalese product's export to Germany has been declining since 1999, although Germany maintains the biggest export market for Nepali products. Lately, the decline in the export of carpet has been the main reason for decrease in overall export to Germany. Besides carpet, export to Germany from Nepal include handicraft, silver jewellery, garments, leather, wooden and bamboo goods, lentils, tea, essential oils from herb and aromatic plants. Lately, some joint venture companies have started export of micro- transformers and high-value garments and knitwear to the German market. Nepal imports mainly industrial raw materials, chemicals, machinery equipment and parts, electric and electronic goods, vehicles etc. from Germany. Similarly Germany's share in Nepal's overall export has been gradually going down as is evident from the following data: Nepal's Balance of Trade with Germany: Year 1999/2000 2000/2001 2001/2002 2002/2003 Export 7,510,563,234 6,178,556,848 4,043,218,438 3,555,327,416 (Value in Nepalese Rupees) Import Balance 1,499,686,591 6,010,876,643 (+ve) 1,687,074,032 4,491,482,816 (+ve) 1,669,908,627 2,373,309,811 (+ve) 2,278,356,184 1,276,971,232 (+ve)


3,567,035,651 1,977,895,741 1,589,139,910 (+ve)

Tourist Arrival from Germany Apart from trade, Germany is also important for the promotion of Nepal's tourism industry. Germany ranked fourth in terms of overseas tourists visiting Nepal in the year 2000. In recent years, arrivals of tourist from Germany have seen declining. Some of the reasons cited for the decline in the German tourists are Maoist violence, lack of facilities in tourist areas outside Kathmandu and the discontinuation of Lufthansa flight in 1997. Number of tourist arrival from Germany: Year 2001 2002 15,774 2003 14,866 2004 18,99 2

Number of tourist 21,577

Prospects for Future Cooperation Nepal relies heavily on its carpet export trade with Germany. Any slight fluctuation in the carpet trade brings a notable change in the overall export trade picture of the country. To avoid over dependency on one single product and also to diversify and promote export trade, new export products have to be developed. There are good prospects of developing garment, herbal preparations, essential oils, computer software for export to Germany. Carpet industry has developed well and this industry has to be further strengthened to ensure a healthy export without any disruption. Unplanned and low quality productions are some of the major challenges facing the industry towards its consolidation. Similarly, concerns over the exploitation of underage labour and pollution need to be quickly tackled with sincerity both by the business community and the government as well. Europe America Division Ministry for Foreign Affairs Government of Nepal Last updated on April 3, 2006 Nepal-India Relations Nepal and India are bound together by age-old ties of history, culture, tradition and religion. Our relations are deep and extensive pervading many aspects of our life. There are time-honoured traditions and socio-cultural ethos common to both our peoples. A firm commitment to the principle of peaceful coexistence and sovereign equality of the states has characterized our relations. Both our countries share commonality of approach in many outstanding international issues. With the establishment of SAARC, some more areas have been added for self-reliance within the region. Our main thrust now has been to strengthen and broaden our neighbourly relations based on mutual understanding of each other's aspirations and interests. A. Exchange of Visits

The exchange of visits by the leaders of the two countries at different levels have helped to bring the peoples of our two countries much closer. The visits at the apex-level have served to place Nepal's age-old and multi-dimensional relations of friendship and cooperation with India on a more mature and pragmatic footing. During the interim Government period, Prime Minister Mr. K.P. Bhattarai visited India from 8 to 10 June 1990 at the invitation of Prime Minister V. P. Singh of India. The Joint Communiqu issued at the end of this visit reaffirmed the two Governments' adherence to and respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, national independence, non-use of force, non-interference in each other's internal affairs and peaceful settlement of all disputes. During the visit, the impasse on Nepal-India trade and transit was broken by restoring the status quo ante before the expiry of the relevant treaties. Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala paid an official visit to India from 5 to 10 December 1991 at the invitation of Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao. A new Indo-Nepal Treaty of Trade, valid for five years and renewable, was concluded. Likewise, a separate Treaty of Transit valid for 7 years was also signed on that occasion. Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikari paid an official visit to India at the invitation of Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao from 10 to 14 April 1995. During the visit the two Prime Ministers held extensive talks on wide ranging issues existing between Nepal and India. Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba paid an official goodwill visit to India from 11 to 17 February 1996 at the invitation of Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao. During the visit the two Prime Ministers signed a landmark and historic treaty concerning Integrated Development of the Mahakali River. Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala paid an official goodwill visit to India from 31 July to 6 August 2000 at the friendly invitation of Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. The visit helped to clear the atmosphere and restore the relations of the two countries which were adversely affected in the wake of events such as the hijacking of IC 814, the Rhitik Roshan incident etc. Their Majesties King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and Queen Komal Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah paid a State Visit to India at the invitation of President K. R. Narayanan in June 2002. This was the first visit abroad by Their Majesties since accession to the throne in June 2001. The Visit of Their Majesties the King and Queen to India in March 2003 gave a further fillip to our quest for greater mutual understanding and consolidation of bilateral relations. Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba paid an official goodwill visit to India from 20 to 25 March 2002, for the second time in six years. During the visit, India has greed to

undertake a feasibility study of the East West Railway in Nepal and to extend cooperation in establishing a Technology Institute in the Far Western Development Region of Nepal. Prime Minster Sher Bahadur Deuba paid an official working visit to India from September 8 to 12, 2004 at the invitation of Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh. During the corresponding period, quite a number of visits have taken place from the Indian side also. The President of India H.E. Mr. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy paid an official visit to Nepal in 1981. President Giani Zail Singh visited Nepal in July 1986. Mr. K. R. Narayanan, President of India and Madame Narayanan paid a State Visit to Nepal from 28 to 30 May 1998. The President of India addressed a meeting of the Nepal Council of World Affairs and was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Literature by the Tribhuvan University. The President was given a civic reception and met with intellectuals and eminent persons of Nepal. The President's visit was characterized as vision-setting visit to a friendly neighbour by the Indian side and is taken to have served its purpose of not only consolidating the existing friendship between the two countries but also in putting forward a vision of a more mature and mutually beneficial relations in the years ahead. The Prime Minister of India, Mr. Chandra Shekhar visited Nepal on 13-15 February 1991. During this visit, the two Prime Ministers agreed, inter alia, to form a High-level Task Force for the purpose of preparing a program of cooperation between the two countries under the umbrella of Nepal-India Joint Commission. Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao paid an official goodwill visit to Nepal from 19 to 21 October 1992 at the invitation of Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala. The B. P. Koirala Nepal-India Foundation was inaugurated by the two Prime Ministers on 21 October 1992. The Foundation provides an institutional framework for promoting academic, cultural and technical exchanges and cooperation between India and Nepal, the specific thrust areas being agricultural research, science and technology, health, technical training, developmental and area studies and women's studies. The activities funded by the BPKIF are financed through revenues/interests generated from a Trust Fund which has been set up principally through grants made available by the governments of the two countries. Both the secretariats maintain the Trust Fund contributed by their respective Governments. Currently Government of Nepal has contributed IRs.3 corore for the Trust Fund and GOI has contributed IRs. 8 corore. The Foundation also accepts unconditional grants from other agencies, both public and private. Its focus is on higher studies, research, in-service training of teachers, research scholars, technocrats etc. During the visit, the two countries had also reached understandings for accelerating joint ventures and investigating and preparing reports on a number of projects on flood protection, power exchange, water resources etc. Prime Minister I. K. Gujral visited Nepal from 5 to 7 June 1997. Prime Minister Lokendra Bahadur Chand and Prime Minster I. K. Gujral held extensive discussions on

all aspects of bilateral relations and the status of Nepal-India cooperation was also reviewed in detail. The Joint Press Statement issued at the end of the visit set a time bound calendar for examination and discussion of all major issues of bilateral interests including the opening of the Kakarbhitta-Phulbari-Banglaband transit route. Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee visited Kathmandu in January 2002 to attend the 11th SAARC Summit meeting. Other Important Visits 1. Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare Mr. B. Shankarananda paid an official visit to Nepal from 18-20 October 1994. During the visit he attended the foundation laying ceremony of Academy and 350 Bed Hospital Complex of the B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Science in Dharan to be constructed jointly by the governments of the two countries. 2. India's then Minister for External Affairs Mr. Pranab Mukharjee paid a 3 day official goodwill visit to Nepal from January 26 to 29, 1996. During his visit, extensive discussions were held regarding the development Mahakali river including Tanakpur issues between the high officials of the two Governments. And the two Foreign Ministers initialed a treaty for the 'Integrated Development of Mahakali River including Pancheswor and Sarada Barrage'. 3. Foreign Minister Dr. Prakash Chandra Lohani paid an official visit to India in August 1996. The major highlight of the visit was the agreement to set up a Joint Working Group to evolve modalities to monitor movement across the Nepal-India border. 4. Foreign Minster Mr. Kamal Thapa visited India from 10-14 September 1997 and held extensive discussion on all issues of bilateral interest with Prime Minister Gujral. At the meeting with Prime Minister Gujral as well as at the official meeting at the Ministry of External Affairs, Foreign Minister Thapa put forward Nepal's proposal for a new Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with India that would reflect the present realities while ensuring continuation of the traditional bonds of friendship and cooperation between Nepal and India. 5. Indian Minister for Commerce Mr. Ramakrishna Hegde paid an official visit to Nepal from January 5-6, 1999. During the visit the renewed and modified Treaty of Transit was signed on 5 January 1999 in Kathmandu by Commerce Ministers Mr. Purna Bahadur Khadka and Mr. Ramakrishna Hegde. 6. Foreign Minister Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat paid a consultation visit to India from 17-19 August 1999 in connection with the 11th SAARC summit which was scheduled to be held in Kathmandu in November 1999. 7. Foreign Minister Chakra Prasad Bastola paid an official visit to India on 7-10 May 2000, at a time when Nepal-India relations were marked by mutual suspicion in the wake of IC 814 hijacking and the Rhitik Roshan incident. The visit helped to clear the air in bilateral relations.

8. After the Royal Palace incident of 1 June 2001, Indian External Affairs Minister Mr. Jaswant Singh came on a goodwill visit to Nepal on 18-19 August 2001. 9. Indian External Affairs Minister Mr. K Natwar Singh paid an official visit to Nepal in June 2004 as the first of his foreign visit after the UPA Government took over the helm of the Government in India. 10. Nepalese Foreign Affairs Ramesh Nath Pandey paid working visit to India from March 7 to 9, 2005. 11. Indian Minister of State for External Affairs Mr. Rao Inderjit Singh visited Nepal from July 21 to 23, 2005 in connection with garnering support of Nepal on India's bid for permanent seat in the expanded UN Security Council. This was the first high-level visit to Nepal from India after the February 1, 2005. B. Nepal-India Cooperation: India has been extending cooperation to Nepal in diverse areas for more than fifty years. Following is a glimpse of the on-going Indian aided projects as well as those decided to be taken up by the Government of India after the 5th meeting of the High Level Task Force (HLTF). The HLTF periodically meets to identify and prioritize such cooperation projects. The 5th meeting of the HLTF was held in Kathmandu from 5-7 June 2000. The Chief Secretary of Nepal and Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister of India lead the respective delegations to the HLTF. 1. BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan: It was established on 8 January 1998 under a bilateral agreement between Nepal and India. Since then, consecutive batches of MBBS courses are being conducted smoothly. The Institute has also started the B. Sc. Nursing course. The Government of India handed over the BPKIHS to Nepal during the visit of Indian External Affairs Minister Mr. Jaswant Singh to Nepal in September 1999. During the fifth HLTF meeting held in Kathmandu on 5-7 June 2000, the Indian side confirmed that the cooperation of the Government of India would continue, including the faculty support to the BPKIHS, up to the year 2009. 2. Bir Hospital Expansion Project: Prime Minister I.K. Gujral laid the foundation stone of Trauma and Emergency Centre during his visit to Nepal in June 1997. An expert team from India visited Kathmandu and held discussions with the concerned Nepalese authorities on 1-3 June 2000 on the preparation of the Detailed Project Report of the proposed Emergency and Trauma Centre. Another expert level meeting was held in Kathmandu on 5-6 October 2001. A MOU on this project has been signed between the two countries and DPR of the same has been completed. The construction works of the project was to be started from the beginning of October 2004 and completed by 2007.

3. Paropakar Indra Rajya Laxmi Maternity Hospital: The work on the setting up of the Maternal and Neo-Natal Intensive Care Units at Paropakar Indra Rajya Laxmi Maternity Hospital including training of the personnel has been completed and the GOI has agreed to continue its association with this hospital. 4. Construction of 22 bridges on Kohalpur-Mahakali Highway Sector: The construction work of the 22 bridges on Kohalpur-Mahakali Highway sector under Indian cooperation has been completed and already handed over to Nepal in 2001. 5. Raxaul-Sirsiya Broad-Gauge Rail Link Project: The Construction of Inland Clearance Depot (ICD) at Sirsiya, Birgunj, in cooperation with the World Bank, under 'Nepal Multimodal Transit and Trade Facilitation Project', has already been completed. A 5.3 km. rail line from Raxaul to Sirsiya (ICD) has also been laid under Indian cooperation. Nepal and India have concluded Rail Services Agreement on May 21, 2004 for the operation of the ICD Birgunj. Accordingly, the ICD has been operated since July 16, 2004 for the third country transit traffic. Bilateral cargo trade has also been operationalized from ICD Birgunj since March 2006. 6. Greater Janakpur Development Project: Yatri Niwas: A traveler's rest house (Yatri Niwas) was constructed at a cost of Rs.10 million. The facility was handed over to the Greater Janakpur Development Project after its completion. 7. (a) Rangeli-Bhadrapur Road, (b) Chatara-Birpur Road, and (c) Janakpur Outer Ring Road A consultant would be appointed to draw up a plan of action and assess the viability of the development of infrastructure, including transportation and communication links at the adjoining border districts - the Bhadrapur-RangeliBiratnagar Road, Birpur-Chatara road, and the Janakpur outer ring road, subject to the availability of resources. 8. Mahendranagar-Tanakpur Link Road Project: The DPR of the project has been finalized. Land acquisition by the Government of Nepal is in progress. Discussions on the draft Letter of Exchange were held in Kathmandu in April 2002, and it is now in the process of being finalized. The construction work would start after the Letter of Exchange is signed between the two Governments. 9. Embankments along Bagmati, Kamala, Khando and Lal Bakaiya Rivers: The construction work on the extension of the right embankment on the Lalbakaiya river in Nepal has commenced and that the construction of embankments on Kamala, Bagmati and Khando rivers would be finalized thereafter. It was agreed that the proposed Nepal-India Task Force on Flood

Control and Flood Forecasting would be constituted shortly to review cooperation in this area and recommend short term and long term measures. The first meeting of the Nepal-India Committee on Flood Forecasting was held in New Delhi on 26-27 April 2001. The Committee held its second meeting in Kathmandu from 6 to 8 May 2002. 10. Implementation of the provisions of the Treaty on Integrated Development of the Mahakali Treaty: So far, 18 meetings of the Joint Expert Group have been held for the purpose of preparing Detailed Project Report of the Pancheswor Multipurpose Project. The DPR is being prepared. The JEG is scheduled to meet soon in Kathmandu. 11. Cooperation under the Umbrella Agreement As per the agreement signed between the two governments on 7 November 2003, the Government of India has been providing financial assistance for the implementation of more than 60 small development projects in different parts of the country. Such development projects range from construction of school building to provision of ambulance to the hospitals to implementation of drinking water projects. Proposals put forward at the Fifth HLTF Meeting (June 5-7, 2000): 1. Infrastructure Development: To improve the physical facilities and infrastructure development at important border crossings - Birgung/Raxaul, Bhairahawa/Sunauli and Biratnagar/Jogbani, a consultant would be appointed shortly to prepare a blue print in consultation with the concerned authorities of two Governments. The Government of India has appointed M/s RITES as consultant for undertaking a study on this project. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between Nepal and India has been signed in Kathmandu on August 3, 2005 to provide technical and financial support for the development of infrastructures at four border check points (Biratnagar, Birgunj, Bhairahawa and Nepalgunj) along Nepal-India border. Infrastructure development at these points includes link roads, administrative blocks for custom offices, laboratories, staff quarters, security posts, quarantine check posts and other facilities. It is estimated that Rs. 5060 million will be required for the development of infrastructures in these four border points. The Government of India has supplied 2 diesel engines and 12 coaches for the narrow-gauge Janakpur-Jayanagar Railway. The request to convert the narrowgauge railway to broad gauge is still pending. At the fifth HLTF meeting, India has agreed to see its economic viability for the conversion of the JanakpurJayanagar Railway and extension of Janakpur broad-gauge Rail Route to Bardibas.

2. Pilot Projects in Nepal: Nepal and India agreed to launch jointly developed pilot projects in Nepal in the field of rural and community development. Two districts - Doti and Nawalparasi have been selected. The National Planning Commission is handling the matter. 3. Run-of-the-river Hydropower project: India has proposed to jointly set up a small/medium sized run-of-the-river hydropower project during the fifth HLTF meeting. An Indian team visited Nepal in February 2001 and held preliminary discussions with the Nepalese authorities in this regard. The two sides are yet to moot the projects. 4. Dairy Development: The Indian side has agreed to cooperate in developing dairy industry in Nepal with the involvement of the National Dairy Development Boards of Nepal and India. 5. Technology Institute India has agreed to extend cooperation in establishing a technology institute at the Far Western Development Region of Nepal. Both sides are yet to identify the appropriate location of the proposed institute. 6. East-West Railway Project: Indian has agreed to undertake a feasibility study of the East West Railway project. The project is still at the inception phase. Detailed studies and preparation of the feasibility studies is yet to be done. 7. East West Highway Optical Fibre Project India provided grant assistance for the laying of optical fiber cable network and its associated technical structures along the East West Highway in accordance with the technical scope and specifications as mutually agreed. First phase of the project has been completed with laying of optical-fiber from Jhapa to Kohalpur section of east-west highway and has already been inaugurated in 2005. Nepal has asked India to consider support for the second phase of the project to connect the network in the remaining section of the east west highway. During the official visit of Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala to India in August 2000, the recommendations of the HLTF were endorsed and directions given to expeditiously implement the following new projects: 1. improving infrastructure and physical facilities at important border customs stations; 2. development of infrastructure including transportation and communications links in the adjoining districts of Nepal and India; 3. launching a rural and community development pilot project; 4. setting up a small/medium hydropower project in Nepal; 5. setting up an EPZ near the ICD in Birgunj;

6. cooperation in dairy development, and 7. cooperation in establishing a Technology Institute in Nepal with information technology as one of its key components. During Prime Minster Sher Bahadur Deuba's official working visit to India from September 8 to 12, 2004, the following agreements were concluded: 1. Agreement between Nepal Oil Corporation and Indian Oil Corporation was reached for a joint venture regarding construction of an oil pipeline between Amlekhgunj (Nepal) and Raxual (India). 2. Agreement between Nepal Bureau of Standards and Metrology and Bureau of Indian Standards, 3. Agreement on Cooperation in the fields of Culture and Sports, 4. Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the field of Weather Forecasting, Also, the Government of India agreed to consider the ulitization of Jawahar Lal Nehru Port in Mumbai for Nepal's use of its transit cargo. During the visit, directions were given to expeditiously complete the following projects and welcomed the following new proposals: 1. completing the remaining mandated tasks of Joint Technical Level Boundary Committee by June 2005. 2. the proposed Institute of Technology in the Far-Western Region of Nepal 3. projects on Pancheshwar and Upper Karnali and preparation of the DPR of Budhi Gandaki project New Proposals 1. cooperation for development of road network in the Terai, including the development of identified stretches of Hulaki Rajmarg. 2. cooperation for conservation and development of Churia range in Nepal 3. establishment of the Joint Project Office for Sapta Koshi Multipurpose Project and Sun Koshi Storage cum Diversion Scheme. Government of India has expressed its support to the reinstatement of the House of Representatives on April 24, 2006 and the handing over of political power to the representatives of the people of Nepal. In a statement issued on 25 April 2006, the Government of India stated that "as a close friend and neighbour, India has all along stood by the people of Nepal in their unrelenting struggle for the restoration of their democratic rights. We are ready to render unstinted support to the people of Nepal in

whatever manner they wish...". India has recently released about Nrs. 1.2 billion to Nepal under the DRP scheme that it had withhold since June 2005 and, expressed willingness to extend assistance as per the need and wish of the Nepalese Government. May 2006

Nepal-Israel Relations Political Diplomatic relations between Nepal and Israel were established on 1 June 1960. Israel opened her Embassy in Kathmandu in March 1961. The Royal Nepalese Ambassador to Egypt is concurrently accredited to Israel. Nepal also opened the Royal Nepalese Honorary Consulate General in Israel in 1993. Nepal was the only country in the region until recent past to recognize the existence of Israel by maintaining continued diplomatic relations. Nepal continues to support the right of Israel to exist within secure and internationally recognized boundaries. Nepal voted in favour of Security Council Resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973), which upheld the right of all the states in the region to live in peace. Nepal has also welcomed every initiative from whatever quarter that seeks to resolve the Middle East problems like the Camp David Accord signed between Egypt sand Israel in 1978 and the renewed peace process sponsored time to time by countries like the USA. In 1975, the United Nations General Assembly passed an Arab sponsored resolution (3379) that equated Zionism and racism and racial discrimination. Nepal expressed its reservation throughout the discussions on the issue and did not support the resolution. In the context of renewed peace in West Asia, the United States took the initiatives to introduce a draft resolution to repeal the resolution 3379 of 1975 in the 46th Session of the UNGA. A large majority adopted the draft resolution. Nepal voted in favour of the resolution. Israel, USA and the Western Countries appreciated Nepal's support for the resolution. Bilateral Visits: The exchange of bilateral visits at various levels including at the highest one and the foresight shown by our leaders have immensely helped promote and nurture the relations between Nepal and Israel. Late Prime Minister Mr. BP Koirala paid an Official Visit to Israel in 1960, which was very important in the context that many countries outlawed Israel. His Late Majesty King Mahendra paid a State Visit to Israel in September 1963, which

was returned by Late Israeli President Zalman Shazar's Official Visit to Nepal later. In 1968, His Late Majesty King Birendra, then Crown Prince, paid a two-week study visit to Israel. Then Foreign Minister of Israel late Moshe Dayan visited Nepal in April 1979. The Former Speaker of the House of Representatives Mr. Daman Nath Dhungana paid an Official Visit to Israel in January 1992 at the invitation of the Speaker of the Knesset. Former Prime Minister Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala paid an Official Visit to Israel on 23-25 June 1993. Then Minister of Agriculture and Local Development Mr. Ram Chandra Paudel paid an Official Visit to Israel on 17-21 November 1993. Mr. Hasta Bahadur Malla, then Assistant Minister of Education visited Israel to participate in the Jerusalem International Conference of Ministers of Education on January 8-11, 1996. Mr. Jhala Nath Khanal, then Minister of Communications paid an official visit to Israel on September 16-22, 1997 at the invitation of the Minister of Communication of Israel. Nepal's View on Middle East Problem Nepal has been stressing that a just, enduring and comprehensive peace in the Middle East must be based on three fundamental principles: 1. The withdrawal of Israel from the Arab Territories occupied since 1967. 2. The right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, including right to form a state of their own. 3. Recognition of the rights of all states in the region, including Israel, to live in peace within safe, recognized and guaranteed boundaries. Nepal welcomed the historic accord signed between Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization on 13 September 1993 in Washington, DC, on autonomy for the Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and West Bank Town of Jericho and also the agreement signed on 10 September 1993 on mutual recognition to each other. Former Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala sent letters of appreciation to HE (late) Mr. Yitzhak Robin, Prime Minister of Israel and HE (Late) Mr. Yasser Arafat, President and PLO Chairman, for this courageous decision taken by them and expressed hope that this would be instrumental in establishing peace, order and stability in West Asia. Nepal welcomes the landmark ceasefire announced after a summit held between Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Palestinian Leader Mahmud Abbas in Egypt on February 8, 2005 to end four years of bloodshed.

Economic Cooperation Israel extended valuable cooperation to Nepal in various developmental fields including establishment of the National Construction Company of Nepal and training facilities for the Royal Nepalese Army personnel in parachuting. Israel has been providing Nepal with short-term scholarships in various subjects particularly in the areas of agriculture, education, rural development, water resources, tourism, etc. Similarly, the Israeli experts in Nepal on farm management, artificial insemination, irrigation, childhood education, workers, and cooperative biotechnology and farm machinery conducted seven on-the-spot courses. Israel is becoming one of the destinations for Nepalese youths to seek employment. There is already number of Nepalese youths working in Israel and number is increasing day by day. A Protocol of Cooperation was signed between the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industries and Federation of Israeli Chambers of Commerce in Tel Aviv on 25 June 1993 during the official visit of then Prime Minister Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala to Israel. The trade between Nepal and Israel has remained in favour of Israel. Nepal exported items amounted to Rs 3,175,682 and imported amounted Rs 483,695,044, having trade deficit of Rs 480, 519,362 in fiscal year 2003/04 according to the Trade Promotion Center. Government of Nepal and the Israeli Government signed a bilateral Air Service Agreement (ASA) on November 18th, 2002. Nepal-Russia Relations Political Nepal and the then Soviet Union had established diplomatic relations in 1956. Soon after the collapse of the former Soviet Union, Government extended full and formal diplomatic recognition to the Russian Federation as a sovereign and independent state on December 28, 1991. Foreign Ministers of Nepal and the Russian Federation exchanged congratulatory messages in July 2001 on the occasion of the 45th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations. They both emphasized the need for enhanced exchanges of visits and interactions at various levels for consolidating bilateral relations. Some Important Visits 1. In 1958, His Late Majesty King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev paid a state visit to the Soviet Union.

2. On his way to participate in the twenty-fourth Session of UNGA in New York, Foreign Minister Mr. Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari paid a friendly visit to the Soviet Union in 1969. 3. Mr. Krishna Raj Aryal, then Minister for Foreign Affairs paid a visit to the Soviet Union in 1975. 4. In 1976, Mr. Lokendra Bahadur Chand, then Deputy Chairman of the Rastriya Panchayat, led a delegation to Moscow to participate in the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Nepal and the Soviet Union. 5. His Majesty King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev paid a state visit to USSR in 1976. 6. HRH Prince Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev paid an informal visit to the Soviet Union in 1985. 7. Hon. Minister for Foreign Affairs Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey paid an official visit to the Russian Federation from October 23 to 26, 2005. From Russian Side 1. The Soviet Union sent its President Marshal Voroshilov on a state visit to Nepal in 1960. 2. In May 1977 Mr. N. P. Firyubin, Deputy Foreign Minister of the USSR paid an official visit to Nepal. 3. The First Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of USSR Mr. V. V. Kuznetsov visited Nepal in December 1981. 4. Deputy Prime Minister of Moldavia Republic of the Soviet Union Ms. Nelly Pavlovna Kiriyach visited Nepal in 1985. Her Majesty the Queen granted audience to her during her visit to Nepal. 5. First Deputy Minister of Justice Mr. Yuri Dmitrievich Severin visited Nepal in 1996 on the occasion of 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Nepal and the USSR. 6. Mr. Yuri Fokin, Secretary General of USSR Foreign Ministry visited Nepal in August 1987 for consultation. 7. The Deputy Foreign Minister of USSR, in charge of South Asia Mr. Igor Alexseevich Rogachyov visited Nepal on May 28 and 29, 1987 at the invitation of Government of Nepal. 8. Mr. Georgi F. Kunadze, Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia, paid an official visit to Nepal from December 24 to 26, 1992.

9. Visit of Hon'ble Minister for Foreign Affairs Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey to Russian Federation Hon. Minister for Foreign Affairs Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey visited Russia from October 23 to 26, 2005. During the visit, Hon'ble Minister Pandey met with the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation H. E. Mr. Sergey Lavrov. Both the Ministers held one-to-one meeting and shared extremely useful views on further widening and deepening relationship and cooperation in political, trade and economic, educational, cultural, security and technological fields. Both the Ministers have realised the need for upgrading bilateral consultation at the level of Foreign Minister. The discussion also covered issues of common concerns such as terrorism, multipolar world structure, disarmament, non-proliferation and strengthening of the United Nations. Like Nepal, Russia also shares the views that foreign domination and interference of any kind should not be acceptable. Russia said that it has deep understanding of the current situation in Nepal and reaffirmed support for Nepal's fight against terrorism and measures aimed at ending internal conflict. Russia has also assured of its continued support towards this end. Russia shares with Nepal the firm views that double standard and selective approach to deal with terrorism must be stopped for the elimination of terror from the world. Russia has also appreciated Nepal's role in UN peacekeeping and Nepal's constructive efforts for the development of regional cooperation in South Asia. Both the countries have expressed commitment to faithfully implement the provisions of the Outcome Document adopted by the High Level Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly, including the provisions relating to terrorism and democracy. Hon'ble Foreign Minister Mr. Pandey also exchanged constructive views with influential lawmakers in Russia. Hon'ble Minister met the Chairman of the Committee on International Link of the Russian Parliament, DUMA, H. E. Mr. Konstantin I. Kosachev. This meeting proved useful in acquainting the Russian Parliament about the importance of Nepal-Russia relationship in promoting mutually beneficial cooperation. H. E. Kosachev expressed the views that the Russian Parliament is eagerly waiting to establish an effective link with the Nepalese Parliament and that the forthcoming general elections in Nepal would provide that opportunity. While in Russia, Hon'ble Foreign Minister Mr. Pandey also visited the State Technical University (MADI), one of the oldest universities in Russia, and exchanged views with the Dean and Heads of different faculties of the University. The discussion was focussed mainly on enhancing academic cooperation between the University and the Nepalese academic institutions. Hundreds of Nepalese nationals have been educated in the University. In reflection of deep respect to the institution of Monarchy and the people of Nepal, the University has decided to confer the title of Honorary Doctorate on His Majesty King

Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and to open a scientific research hall dedicated in the name of His Majesty with inscription on illustrious and visionary personality. The other important event that took place during the visit of Hon'ble Foreign Minister Mr. Pandey was the visit to the Institute of Oriental Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Hon'ble Foreign Minister shared with the scholars at the Institute the situation in Nepal and apprised them of the efforts undertaken by Nepal to end terrorism, restore peace and stability and reenergize democratic process. During the visit, Hon'ble Foreign Minister Mr. Pandey attended a programme organised by the Russia-Nepal Chamber of Commerce and held extensive discussion with businessmen and entrepreneurs with a view to encouraging them to increase trade between the two countries and attract investment in Nepal. Hon'ble Foreign Minister also attended a programme organised by the Russia-Nepal Friendship and Cooperation Society. He had an interaction with Former Russian Ambassadors to Nepal, imminent businessman and industrialists and friends of Nepal during the programme. They have expressed their commitment to work for promoting Nepal-Russia relationship at peopleto-people level. Hon'ble Foreign Minister Pandey, along with the Russian Deputy Foreign Minister H. E. Mr. Alexander U. Alekseev jointly inaugurated the first-ever Handicraft Exhibition organized at the Royal Nepalese Embassy. A large number of people from various strata of Russian society including senior officials from the Russian Foreign Ministry, Chairman and office bearers from Russia Nepal Friendship Society, leading businessman and industrialists and friends of Nepal attended the Exhibition. The Deputy Foreign Minister and the Chairman of the Committee on International Links of the Russian Parliament, DUMA, also spoke during the programme. They expressed that the visit by the Foreign Minister has expanded the scope of cooperation between the two countries. The official visit to Russia by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Nepal took place after 30 years. Former Minister for Foreign Affairs Mr. Krishna Raj Aryal had visited the then USSR in 1975. Other Visits Mr. Georgi F. Kunadze, Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia, paid an official visit to Nepal from December 24 to 26, 1992. The visit contributed towards strengthening the bilateral relations between the two countries. During the official talks, the two sides discussed ways and means of strengthening bilateral relations between Nepal and Russia, particularly through trade and exchange in cultural and educational fields. The two sides also agreed on the idea of annual consultations at the Foreign Ministry level. A Nepalese delegation led by Foreign Secretary Mr. Kedar Bhakta Shrestha made an official visit to Moscow in September 1995. During the visit, a protocol for bilateral consultation between the two Foreign Ministries was signed in Moscow on September 5, 1995. The protocol is mainly aimed at broadening exchange of views between the two Foreign Ministries on bilateral cooperation and on global, regional and international

issues of mutual interests. The Director of the Third Asian Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry Mr Rashit Hamidullin visited Nepal from February 28 to March 2, 1997. On October 1998, Foreign Secretary Mr. Murari Raj Sharma visited Russia. During the visit Foreign Secretary Mr. Sharma had a meeting with the Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation Mr. Grigory Karasin. Consultation Meeting The last round of bilateral consultation between Nepalese and Russian delegations was held at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Kathmandu on February 13, 2003. The Director of the Third Asian Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Mr. Gleb A. Ivashentsov led the Russian delegation. Similarly, Mr. Nabin Bahadur Shrestha, Joint Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs led the Nepalese delegation. During the consultation, both sides reviewed current international situation and the status of Nepal-Russian Federation bilateral relations. Russia's position on Nepal's political development after the Royal Proclamation of February 1, 2005 On February 2, 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia issued a following statement on events in Nepal: "A state of emergency was declared in the Kingdom of Nepal on February 1. A number of articles of the Constitution have been suspended in this connection and King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev has headed up the Government himself. The term of office of the new Cabinet has been set for three years. During this period the King says he expects to restore peace and order in the country. The measures undertaken by the King have been triggered by the complicated internal political situation in Nepal, stemming from large-scale actions by left-wing extremists for the last few years, which had blocked the democratic processes in the country, in particular, the holding of parliamentary elections. The efforts of the previous governments to solve problems with the insurgents by negotiations and to return the country into the mainstream of democracy had failed. Moscow is watching the course of events in the Kingdom. Russian and Nepal are bound by long-standing relations of mutual sympathies and cooperation. It is expressing the hope that friendly Nepal will be able to independently solve the problems facing it and the restoration of conditions of stability and security in the country will combine with the strengthening of democracy and economic and social progress. In a congratulatory message sent to Hon. Mr. Ramesh Nath Pandey on his appointment as Minister for Foreign Affairs, H. E. Mr. Sergey V. Lavrov, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation expressed hope stating, "the friendly relations traditionally existing between Russian and Nepal will further develop to the benefit of our nations, in the interest of peace, security and cooperation in Asia and all over the world."

While thanking H. E. Mr. Lavrov for his congratulatory message, Hon. Foreign Minister Mr. Pandey mentioned that Nepal and the Russian Federation enjoy the age-old friendly relations based on mutual trust and cooperation. Hon. Pandey further said that Government of Nepal highly appreciates the Government of the Russian Federation's understanding and cooperation on the Nepalese efforts to bring about peace, stability and prosperity to the Nepalese people and institutionalization of democracy. Economic Cooperation The then Soviet Union had extended important economic and development cooperation to Nepal's development efforts. Their cooperation in building physical and industrial infrastructure also contributed to accelerate the modernization process in Nepal in the past. Similarly, a large number of technical manpower was trained in the then Soviet Union mainly in the engineering and industrial fields. Entrepreneurs from the Russian Federation participated in a big way in the Nepal Investment Forum meeting held in Kathmandu in November 1992 and a number of letters of intent were signed between the two sides. There are good possibilities of promoting bilateral economic co-operation between Nepal and Russia, especially in the field of joint industrial venture. Russian technology specially relating to hydro-power plants and accessories, building materials, nonconventional uses of energy and small and medium-scale labour-intensive industries, is considered to be particularly suitable for Nepal. Private airlines have bought Russian helicopters for operating passenger and cargo services in the remote areas of Nepal. Trade Balance of trade between Nepal and Russia has been remaining unfavourable to Nepal since last several years. Nepal's major exports to the Russian Federation consist of hand knotted carpets. Nepal mainly imports electrical equipment, industrial raw material, parts of airplane and helicopter and newsprint from the Russian Federation. Tourism Tourist arrival in Nepal from Russian Federation is gradually increasing over the years. Aeroflot, the Russian airline closed its weekly flight to Kathmandu since January 13, 2002 stating that the route was not commercially viable. However, it has maintained the right of Russian airlines to operate flights to Kathmandu and is prepared to resume flights once it decides that they are commercially viable. Joint Venture A joint venture in the area of gliding service has been operating with the financial collaboration of Russian investor. License has been provided to open an industry to produce generators under joint venture. Similarly, a firm has been licensed under Russian joint investment to produce computer software. Scholarship: Since 1992, Nepalese students have been going to Russia for higher studies on selffinance basis. Moreover, Russian Federation has been providing a limited number of

scholarships to Nepalese students in the fields of medicine and engineering. At present, permissions granted to the students, who would like to pursue further studies with approval of the concerned Universities or educational institutions on self-finance basis, by the Education Ministry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Bilateral agreements Agreement on the Abolition of Visa Requirements for the Holders of Diplomatic and Service Passports was signed in Kathmandu on 16 April 2002. The Agreement simplifies the official travel of diplomatic and official passport holders of the Kingdom of Nepal to the Russian Federation and vice versa by eliminating visa requirements for a maximum period of 180 days. Europe America Division Ministry for Foreign Affairs Government of Nepal Last updated on April 3, 2006 Nepal-Qatar Relations Political The diplomatic relations between Nepal and Qatar were established on 21 January 1977. Thereafter the friendly ties between the two countries have always remained cordial. The friendship between Nepal and Qatar are based on trust, understanding and cordiality. Both countries have played active role in the United Nations system and Non-Aligned Movement. At the United Nations and other international fora Nepal and Qatar hold similar views on many issues including promotion of peace and security in the world. The Qatari Ambassador based in New Delhi is concurrently accredited to the Kingdom of Nepal. Memorandum of Understanding on Consultation Mechanism between Foreign Ministries of Government of the Kingdom of Nepal and the Government of the State of Qatar was signed on June 16, 2005. Visits The exchange of visits and contacts at various levels has been instrumental in strengthening the bonds of friendship. 1. Private visits paid by His Late Majesty King Birendra in 1999 and by then His Late Royal Highness the Crown Prince Dipendra in January 2000 generated tremendous goodwill between Nepal and Qatar. 2. The then Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala paid a visit to Qatar in 1998 following the 12th NAM Summit held in Durban, South Africa. 3. After the killing of 12 Nepalese nationals by terrorists in Iraq, a high level delegation headed by then Minister for Information and Communication Dr.

4. 5.

6. 7.

Mohmad Mohsin visited Qatar in 2004. The delegation included then Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Dr. Prakash Sharan Mahat and then Minister of State for Labour and Transport Management Mr. Urba Dutt Pant. Hon. Ramesh Nath Panday, Minister for Foreign Affairs visited the State of Qatar in March 2005. On the occasion, the much-awaited Labour Agreement between Nepal and Qatar was signed. His Majesty King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and Her Majesty Queen Komal Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah paid an official visit to the State of Qatar in June 13-17, 2005 to participate in the Second South Summit of G-77 in Doha. During the visit, two agreements: Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Government of Nepal and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State of Qatar and Agreement on Economic, Commercial and Technical Cooperation between Government of Nepal and the Government of the State of Qatar were signed. His Majesty King Gyanendra and Her Majesty Queen Komal visited the State of Qatar on November 14-15, 2005. Hon. Ramesh Nath Panday, Minister for Foreign Affairs visited the State of Qatar in November 2005.

Economic and Commerce Both Nepal and Qatar are endowed with natural resources. There is ample scope of cooperation between the two countries in the fields of trade, investment and manpower utilization. Thousands of Nepalese labourers are working in Qatar. The trade between Nepal and Qatar has remained in favour of Qatar. Nepal exported items of Rs 621,397 in the period of 2003/04. The major export items included garment of textile fabric and rubberized textile fabric, CD cassette, vegetables. Salt Trading Corporation has opened its office in Doha last year to export vegetables. At the same period, Nepal imported items of Rs 162,000,896. Major imported items were polyethylene, Colour Television, Polypropylene, Gold, VCRs, and Parts of VCRs. The trade deficit stood at Rs 161,379,499. Nepal should explore the ways to fill the gap of trade deficit by increasing export to Qatar. To enhance the economic cooperation between two countries, Government of the Kingdom of Nepal and the Government of the State of Qatar have signed following agreements: 1. Memorandum of Understanding on Consultation Mechanism between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Government of Nepal and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State of Qatar. 2. Air Services Agreement 3. Labour Agreement 4. Agreement on Economic, Commercial and Technical Cooperation

Tourism Prospects The number of tourists from Qatar visiting Nepal is still very small, because most of the Qataris have not known much about Nepal. The direct air service linking Kathmandu and Doha has served much in this respect. The opening of the Royal Nepalese Embassy in Doha on 11 July 2000 has further contributed positively towards promoting Nepal by disseminating relevant information to the Qatari nationals and expatriates in Qatar

Bilateral Relations
Nepal-Saudi Arabia Relations Political Relations The Kingdom of Nepal and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia established their diplomatic relations on March 15, 1977. Immediately, Nepal opened its Embassy in Saudi Arabia in 1978. Ever since the establishment of diplomatic relations, Nepal and Saudi Arabia have been enjoying best of relations with each other. Despite Nepal being an only Hindu Kingdom in the world and the Saudi Arabia, Holyland of the Muslims all over the world, bilateral relations have continued to be strengthened on the basis of five principles of peaceful co-existence, friendship and cooperation. Both the nations have expressed avowed commitments and loyalty to the principles of the United Nations Charter and work together in the United Nations as well as other international for a for the common benefit of the humankind. Bilateral Visits 1. His Majesty the King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev visited Saudi Arabia on an official visit in 1983 at the capacity of His Royal Highness Prince. 2. Their Late Majesties King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya also paid a visit to Saudi Arabia in 1983. 3. The then Minister for Labour Mr. Bal Bahadur K.C. also visited Saudi Arabia on a official visit in 1999. 4. After the killing of 12 Nepalese nationals by terrorists in Iraq, a high level delegation headed by then Minister for Information and Communication Dr. Mohmad Mohsin visited Saudi Arabia in 2004. The delegation included then Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Dr. Prakash Sharan Mahat and then Minister of State for Labour and Transport Management Mr. Urba Dutt Pant.

5. Representing His Majesty the King, His Royal Highness Crown Prince Paras visited Riyadh to express condolences on the sad demise of His Majesty King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud in August, 2005. 6. High-level visits between the two countries have greatly contributed in enhancing the relations between the two countries. People to people relations have grown steadily after the arrival of Nepalese labourers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia just a decade ago. Despite coming from a very starkly different social, geographical and religious as well as cultural environment, Nepalese have been welcomed by the Saudi people very much due to their dedication to work, loyalty, sincerity and integrity. 7. Every year a large number of Nepalese Muslim community pay a visit to the holy sites Makkaha and Madina to perform Haz pilgrimage. Government of Nepal has been facilitating to the Community so that they could perform their timehonoured pilgrimage without any hindrance. The support and cooperation received from the Saudi Government to Nepalese pilgrims is also noteworthy and has greatly contributed in further cementing the bonds of friendly relations existing between the two countries and the people. Economic Cooperation Economic cooperation between the two countries began in 1978 when Nepal opened its Embassy in Saudi Arabia. The economic cooperation extended by the Saudi Government has been primarily focused towards upliftment of Muslim community, agricultural development and emergency assistance. Nepal has received loan assistance from the Saudi Fund for Development for several hydroelectric projects including Marsyngndi Project. Saudi Arabia has also extended loans to the Bagmati Irrigation Project. A great prospect of economic cooperation exists between the two countries. Trade, Commerce and promotion of tourism are yet to be explored and tapped. Saudi Arabia is a country with vast oil and mineral resources and Nepal can explore for cooperation in this sector. The trade between Nepal and Saudi Arabia has remained in favor of Saudi Arabia. Nepal exported items of Rs. 517,616 in the period of 2003/4. The major export items included Handbags, Carpet, CD Cassette, and Woolen Shawls. At the same period, Nepal imported items of Rs 2,547,900,875.Major imported items were Comin Seeds, Cardamom, Lubricating Oil, Antibiotics, Motor Sprits, Personal Deodorants, and Polyisobutylene. The trade deficit stood at Rs 2,547,383,259. Nepal should explore the ways to fill the gap of trade deficit by increasing export to Saudi Arabia.

Nepal-United Kingdom Relations

Political Nepal established diplomatic relations with Britain in 1816. Relations between the two countries have been characterized by friendship, mutual understanding and respect for each other's national interests and aspirations. The Treaty of Sugauli (1816) provided for the exchange of accredited Ministers to each other's court. A new Treaty of Friendship between Great Britain and Nepal was signed and the status of British Representative in Kathmandu was upgraded to an Envoy. In 1934 Nepal established a legation in London. In 1947, the status of these representatives was promoted to the level of Ambassadors, Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Exchange of visits at different levels and periodic consultations between the two sides have played major role in further promoting bilateral relations. Some important visits: 1. His Majesty Late King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev paid a state visit to THE United Kingdom in October 1960. 2. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, accompanied by HRH Prince Philip, the United Kingdom of Edinburgh paid a state visit to Nepal in 1960 and in 1986. 3. Their Late Majesties King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and Queen Aishworya Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah visited the United Kingdom in 1980. 4. His Late Majesty King Birendra along with Her Late Royal Highness Princess Shruti visited the United Kingdom in May 1995 on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Victory of the Allies in the Second World War. 5. Diana, late Princess of Wales, paid a visit to Nepal from 2 to 6 March 1993, and visited various development projects financed by the United Kingdom. 6. His Royal Highness Prince Charles paid an official visit to Nepal from 6 to 9 February 1998. 7. Their Majesties King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev and Queen Komal Rajya Laxmi Devi Shah paid a private visit to United Kingdom from August 27 to September 7, 2003 in connection with medical check up at Cromwell Hospital in London. 8. Prime Minister Mr. Sher Bahadur Deuba paid an official visit to the United Kingdom from 10 to 13 November 1996. Rt. Hon. Prime Minister Deuba paid again a visit to the United Kingdom from 12 to 14 May 2002. 9. H. E. Mr. Richard Spring MP, Member of the House of Commons and Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs visited Nepal from 19 to 23 February 2003.

10. Mr. Gareth Thomas, British Parliamentary Under Secretary of State (PUSS) for International Development visited Nepal from 28 to 30 July 2004. Economic Cooperation The British aid to Nepal in various fields of activities started in 1961. The United Kingdom has been offering fellowships to Government of Nepal since 1950s. British volunteers are engaged in Nepal since 1964. These programmes have contributed to Nepal's need for specialized and trained manpower and also have developed important links between the people of the two countries. The assistance of British Government generally comes through an Umbrella Agreement. The British aid to Nepal is channelled through Department for International Development (DFID). The level of DFID aid for the year 2000/2001 was to the tune of 18.52 million, which was increased to 22 million by 2002 and to 35 million in 2004. The British Government has been extending its assistance particularly in different Socioeconomic fields. Britain's development assistance programme in Nepal is designed to reduce poverty and social exclusion and thus contribute to establishing the basis for a lasting peace. The programme covers work to support governance reforms; improve basic services for poor people (including basic education, health, water and sanitation, agriculture and rural infrastructure); and activities in support of peace building and conflict resolution. Assistance is projected to increase from 26 million in 2003-04 to 35 million in 2004-05 and 47 million in 2005-06. The United Kingdom has assisted Nepal in the areas of agriculture, transport, local development, communication, education, administration, health, water supply and forestry Technical cooperation agreement to strengthen the traditional cooperation between Nepal and the United Kingdom was signed on 31st May 1994. This agreement provides for the roles and responsibilities of the two governments regarding the British Technical Cooperation and the British Council activities. The DFID and its office in Nepal The Department for International Development (DFID) is the British Government Department responsible for promoting development with emphasis on the reduction of poverty in the developing countries. The DFID opened its office in Kathmandu in March 1999. International Conference on Nepal in London and Follow up Meeting in Kathmandu The Government of the United Kingdom organized International Conference on Nepal in London on 19-20 June 2002. The meeting expressed its profound concern at the Maoist insurgency in the country and reaffirmed the solidarity with the government's position and its action to protecting lives and property of its citizens. The meeting also reaffirmed

the commitment of the international community to provide development support to Nepal. British Parliamentary Under Secretary of State His Excellency Mr. Mike O'Brien paid a working visit to Nepal on 9-11 October 2002 to chair the follow up of the London meeting held in Kathmandu on 11 October 2002. Appointment of Sir Jeffery Russell James as Special Representative of British Government to Nepal The British Government appointed Sir Jeffrey Russell James as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for Nepal from February 24, 2003. In an announcement made by the Minister for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, the British Government committed to assisting Nepal and identifying ways to help resolve her problems, including putting an end to a conflict that has resulted in immense suffering for the Nepalese people. The statement further stated that Sir Jeffrey's role would be to provide a strong focal point for the United Kingdom policy towards Nepal and in particular to coordinate the United Kingdom and international efforts in support of the cease-fire and the peace process. After his appointment, Sir Jeffrey visited Nepal several times and called on high-ranking officials of Government of Nepal and discussed about the political and security situations of Nepal. His visited Nepal last time as Special Representative from 24 April 2005 to May 4, 2005. Visit of Mr. Gareth Thomas, British Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for DFID Mr. Gareth Thomas, British Parliamentary Under Secretary of State (PUSS) for Department for International Development visited Nepal from 28 to 30 July 2004. The purpose of his visit to discuss the development and political situation in Nepal with high ranking officials of Government of Nepal/Nepal as well as to give details of the United Kingdom support for education and health sector programme and to meet DFID staff in Nepal. Explaining the remarkable boost in British government aid to Nepal in recent months, Thomas said that the British government thinks that normal development activities should not be disturbed even in a conflict situation. "This is the reason why we have made a remarkable increment in our assistance to Nepal in recent years," he said, adding that since poor and rural people are the worst hit by the ongoing conflict, British aid has been directed to addressing the problems of those people. He also stressed that one of the objectives of the increased assistance is to extend support to efforts to restore peace and to accelerate development activities in the country, and underlined that, "Concerned parties should understand this purpose." Mr. Thomas further said that British government is particularly interested in the country's long-term and sustainable development, explaining, "That is why our assistance has been mainly focused on the education and health sectors in recent years."

He also expressed his delight over the successes of the programs and projects running under British aid, particularly in rural areas, and said that most of the programs have been successful in achieving their goals. Visit of Mr. Douglas Alexander, Ministry of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Office H. E. Mr. Douglas Alexander, Minister of State of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom visited Nepal from 8 to 10 November 2004. The purpose of his visit was to familiarise himself with the political and economic situation in Nepal, including through meetings with high level official of Government of Nepal and leading political figures, and also visits to development projects funded by the British Government. While in Nepal, H. E. Mr. Alexander said, "Our two countries have close ties. The United Kingdom has the longest history of representation in Nepal of any foreign state; many prominent Nepalis have studied and lived in the United Kingdom; we have one of the largest bilateral development assistance programmes in the country and we are all familiar with the formidable reputation of the Gurkhas and of the valuable contribution they have long made to the British army." Referring to bilateral trade and investment, Mr. Alexander stated that Nepal and the the United Kingdom are yet to tap trade potentials and opportunities. British Gurkhas The recruitment of Gurkha Army was organised by way of the Tripartite Agreement of 1947 among Nepal, India and the United Kingdom. Currently the strength of the Gurkhas in the British Army is about 3,500. British Gurkhas is a fully integrated part of the British Armed Forces. It constitutes an important element in Nepal-Britain relations. In recognition of their distinguished service, the British Gurkhas servicemen from Nepal has won 13 Victoria Crosses (VC), the highest British gallantry honour. BGN administers the Gurkhas Welfare Scheme through 24 of its Area Welfare Centres (AWCs) located in areas where ex-servicemen live. Welfare assistance includes grants to relieve hardships, family pensions, and scholarship for children, medical aid and support for projects such as building potable water systems, bridges and schools. Compensation for Gurkha prisoners The British Government set up a separate office in Kathmandu in March 2004 to receive applications from the Gurkhas who were held prisoners by Japan during the Second World War. The applications were sought following the decision of the British High Court to award Sterling Pound 10,000 to such prisoners as compensation. By March 2005, the British Embassy made an Ex-gratia payment of 10,000.00 to those applicants whose applications were processed.

Granting of Permanent Residency to Ex-British Gurkhas British Government announced on 29 September 2004 that the immigration rules would be changed to let the former British Gurkha soldiers to stay in Britain. Gurkha soldiers who have served at least four years with the British Army and were discharged after July 1, 1997, the date at which the brigade's headquarters was moved to the United Kingdom, will be eligible to apply to citizenship. Thus a large number of Gurkha soldiers who want to settle in the United Kingdom with their families would be allowed remain permanently in the United Kingdom. Business and Commercials Relations The United Kingdom occupies among the top ten countries in Nepal's bilateral trade. Major Nepalese exports to the United Kingdom are goatskin, leather goods, Nepalese paper and paper products, woollen carpets, handicrafts, ready-made garments, silverware and jewellery. Likewise, major imports from the United Kingdom are copper scrap, hard drinks, cosmetics, medicine and medical equipment, textiles, copper wire rod, machinery and parts, aircraft and spare parts, scientific research equipment, office equipment and stationery. An agreement on promotion and protection of investment between Nepal and the United Kingdom was signed on March 2, 1993. There are some British joint ventures in the areas of hotel, travel & trekking, tea production, garments, biotechnology and consultancy. Tourism A sizeable number of British tourists come to Nepal every year for trekking and mountaineering and other leisurely activities. A total number of 24,644 British tourists visited Nepal in the year 2004.

Concurrent Accreditations

(1) Embassy of Nepal, Abu (2) Embassy of Dhabi Nepal,Bangkok 1. United Arab Emirates 1. Thailand 2. Brunei Darussalam 3. Singapore 4. Cambodia 5. Laos (5) Embassy of Nepal, Brasilia

(3) Embassy of Nepal, Beijing 1. China 2. DPR of Korea 3. Mongolia (6) Embassy of Nepal, Brussels

(4) Embassy of Nepal, Berlin

1. Germany 2. Austria 3. Czech Republic 4. Holy See 5. Hungary 6. Poland 7. Slovekia (7) Embassy of Nepal, Cairo 1. Egypt 2. Algeria 3. Ethiopia 4. Lebanon 5. Libya 6. Morocco 7. Syria 8. Nigeria 9. Tunisia

1. Brasil 2. Argentina 3. Chile 4. Paraguay

1. European Union 2. Belgium 3. Luxembourg 4. The Netherlands

(8) Embassy of Nepal, Canberra 1. Australia 2. New Zealand 3. Fiji

(9) Embassy of Nepal, Colombo 1. Sri Lanka 2. Maldives

(10) Embassy of Nepal, (11) Embassy of Nepal, Copenhagen Dhaka 1. Denmark 2. Finland 3. Sweden 4. Norway (13) Embassy of Nepal, Islamabad 1. Pakistan 2. Iran 3. Iraq 4. Turkey 5. Afghanistan (16) Embassy of Nepal, London 1. United Kingdom 2. Ireland 1. Bangladesh

(12) Embassy of Nepal, Doha 1. Qatar

(14) Embassy of Nepal, Kualalumpur 1. Malaysia 2. The Philippines 3. Indonesia

(15) Embassy of Nepal, Kuwait City 1. Kuwait

(17) Embassy of Nepal, Moscow 1. Russian Federation 2. Belarus 3. Bulgaria 4. Romania 5. Ukraine (20) Embassy of Nepal, Pretoria

(18) Embassy of Nepal, New Delhi 1. India 2. Bhutan

(19) Embassy of Nepal, Paris

(21) Embassy of Nepal, Riyadh

1. France 2. Greece 3. Portugal 4. Spain 5. Monaco

1. South Africa 2. Botswana 3. Kenya 4. Lesotho 5. Mauritius 6. Tanzania 7. Zambia 8. Zimbabwe (23) Embassy of Nepal, Seoul 1. South Korea (26) Embassy of Nepal, Washington DC 1. USA 2. Colombia 3. Mexico

1. Saudi Arabia 2. Jordan 3. Yemen 4. Oman 5. Bahrain

(22) Embassy of Nepal, Ottawa 1. Canada 2. Cuba (25) Embassy of Nepal, Tokyo 1. Japan

(24) Embassy of Nepal, Tel Aviv 1. Israel 2. Cyprus (27) Embassy of Nepal, Yangon 1. Myanmar 2. Vietnam

(28) Permanent Mission of (29) Permanent Mission of Nepal to the UN, New Nepal to the UN and other York International Organisations, Geneva 1. UN 2. Bolivia 3. Equator 4. Venezuela 5. Peru 1. UN 2. Switzerland 3. Italy 4. CTBTO 5. FAO 6. UNIDO 7. WTO 8. IAEA 9. WFP 10. UNODC

(1) Embassy of Nepal, Canbara 1. Vanuatu

(6) Embassy of Nepal, Brussels 1. Estonia 2. Latvia 3. Lithonia (5) Embassy of Nepal, Berlin

(3) Embassy of Nepal, Cairo 1. Gabon 2. Mali 3. Somalia

(4) Embassy of Nepal, Paris

(6) Embassy of Nepal, Moscow

1. Andorra

1. Albania 2. Bosnia Herzegovina 3. Macedonia 4. Slovenia

1. Armenia 2. Azerbaijan 3.Gerogia 4. Kyrgyzstan 5. Moldova 6. Tajikistan 7. Turkmenistan (9) Embassy of Nepal, London 1. Iceland 2. Malta (12) Embassy of Nepal, Washington DC 1.Costa Rica 2. Guatemala 3. Guyana 4. Honduras 5. Nicaragua 6. Panama

(7) Embassy of Nepal, Riyadh 1. Sudan

(8) Embassy of Nepal, Pretoria 1. Congo 2. Mozambique 3. Seychelles

(10) Permanent Mission of (11) Permanent Mission of Nepal to the UN, New Nepal to the UN, Geneva York 1. Dominican Republic 2. Haiti 3. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4. Norway 1. Croatia 2. San Marino

Foreign Missions in Nepal

Her Excellency Ms. Susan Grace Ambassador Australian Embassy Suraj Niwas, Bansbari, Kathmandu Tel: 437 1678/076/466 Fax: 437 1533 Her Excellency Ms. Verena Grfin von Roedern Ambassador Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany Gyaneshwar, Kathmandu Tel: 441 2786, Fax: 441 6899 Email: His Excellency Ambassador Embassy of the Peoples Republic of China

His Excellency Ambassador Embassy of the State of Israel

Lazimpat, Kathmandu Tel: 441 1811, 441 3419, Fax: 441 3920 Email: His Excellency Dr. John Anthony Tucknott Ambassador Embassy of the United Kingdom Lainchaur, Kathmandu Tel: 441 0583, 441 4588, 441 1281 Fax: 441 1789 Email: His Excellency Mr. Abdelhamid Mahmoud Soliman Ambassador Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt Naya Bazar, Saibu, Bhaisepati, Lalitpur Tel: 559 0166, 559 0544 Fax: 559 2661 Email:

Baluwatar, Kathmandu Tel: 441 1740 Fax: 441 4045 Email: His Excellency Dr. Sergey Vasilievich Velichkin Ambassador Embassy of the Russian Federation Baluwatar, Kathmandu Tel: 441 2155, 441 1063 Fax: 441 6571 Email: His Excellency Mr. Jean Charles Demarquis Ambassador Embassy of the French Republic Lazimpat, Kathmandu Tel: 441 2332, 441 4734 Fax: 441 9968 Email: His Excellency Dr. Alexander Spachis Ambassador Delegation of the European Union to Nepal Uttar Dhoka Sadak, Lainchaur, Kathmandu Tel: 442 9445, 442 9446, 444 372, 444 0406 Fax: 442 3541 Email: His Excellency Mr. Finn Thilsted Ambassador Royal Danish Embassy Lazimpat, Kathmandu Tel: 441 3010 Fax: 441 1409 Email:

His Excellency Mr. Kim Yong Su Ambassador Embassy of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Jhamsikhel, Lalitpur Tel: 552 1855 Fax: 552 5394 Email: His Excellency Dr. Neem Chandra Bhowmik Ambassador Embassy of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh Ring Road, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu Tel: 437 2843, 437 0438, Fax: 437 3265 Email:

His Excellency Mr. Hong Sung-mog Ambassador Embassy of the Republic of Korea Ravibhawan, Kathmandu Tel: 427 0172, 427 0417, 427 7391 Fax: 427 2041, 427 5485 Email:

His Excellency Mr. llankovan Kolandavelu Ambassador Embassy of Malaysia 3rd Floor, Block 'B' Kartmachari Sanchaya Kosh Bhavan Pulchowk, Lalitpur Tel: 501 0004, 501 0005 Fax: 501 0492 Email:

His Excellency Mr. Maris Sangiampongsa Ambassador Royal Thai Embassy Bansbari, Kathmandu Tel: 437 1410 / 11 Fax: 437 1408 / 09 Email: His Excellency Mr. Scott H. DeLisi Ambassador Embassy of the United States of America Maharajgunj, Kathmandu Tel: 400 7200 Fax: 400 7272

His Excellency Mr. Rakesh Sood Ambassador Embassy of the Republic of India 336 Kapurdhara Marg Tel: 441 0900, 441 4990, 441 1699 Fax: Email: Telex: 442 8279 His Excellency Mr. Syed Abrar Hussain Ambassador Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Maharajgunj, Chakrapath, Kathmandu Tel: 437 4024, Consular: 437 4015 Fax: 437 4012 Email: His Excellency Mr. Thomas Gass Ambassador Embassy of Switzerland Ekantakuna, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur Tel: 554 9225 Fax: 554 9224 Email: His Excellency Mr. Thosapala Hewage Ambassador Embassy of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Chundevi Marg, Maharajung, Kathmandu Tel: 472 0623, 472 1389 Fax: 472 0128 Email:

His Excellency Mr. Tatsuto Mizuno Ambassador,Embassy of Japan Panipokhari, Kathmandu Tel: 442 6680 Fax: 441 4101 Email: His Excellency Mr. Thor Gislesen Ambassador Royal Norwegian Embassy Pulchowk, Lalitpur Tel: 554 5307 Fax: 554 5226 Email:

His Excellency U Thet Oo Ambassador Embassy of the Union of Myanmar Plot No. 997, Nakkhu Height, Sainbu Bhainsepati, Lalitpur Tel: 559 2774 Fax: 559 2776 Email: Mr. Robert Piper UN Resident and Humantarian Coordinator in Nepal Mailing Address: P O Box 107, Kathmandu, Nepal Office Address: UN House, Pulchowk, P.O. Box 107, Kathmandu, Tel: 552 3200 Fax: 552 3991 Email: 1

His Excellency Uz. Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed Secretary General SAARC Secretariat Tridevi Marg, Kathmandu Fax: 422 7033, 422 3991 Email: Telex: 422 1785, 422 6350, 423 1334, 422 1411 Mrs. Pirkko-Lisa Kyoestilae Charge d'Affaires a.i. Embassy of Finland Lazimpat, Kathmandu Tel: 441 6636, 441 7221 Fax: 441 6703 Email:

Nepalese Missions Abroad

Abu Dhabi, Embassy of Nepal Hareb Mohammad Hareb Al Otaiba, Building No. 1670, (Behind ADCCI Abu Dhabi Travel Bureau), Falt No. 102, Airport Road / Cornish Area, POBox 38282, Abu Dhabi Tel: 971-2-6344385, 6344767 Fax: 971-2-6344469 Email: Beijing, Embassy of Nepal No 1, xi Liu Jie, Sanlitun Lu, Beijing 100600, People's Republic of China Tel: 0086-10-6532-1795 Fax: 0086-10-6532-3251 Email: Bangkok, Embassy of Nepal 189 Soi 71, Sukumvit Road Prakanong, Bangkok 10110, Thailand Tel: 00662-391-7240, 390-2280 Fax: 00662-381-2406 Email:

Berlin, Embassy of Nepal Guerickestrasse-27, 10587 BerlinCharlottenburg, Federal Republic of Germany Tel: 0049-30-3435-9920,3435 9921, 34359922 Fax: 0049-30-3435-9906

Email: Brasilia, Embassy of Nepal SHIS/QI-11, Conjunto-03, Casa (Home)-20 Lago Sul Brasilia- DF, Brazil Tel: 0055-61-3541 1232, 3541 1228 Fax: 0055-61-3541 1229 Brussels, Embassy of Nepal Avenue Brugmann-210 1050 Brussels, Belgium Tel: 00 32 2 346 2658, 346 6638 Fax: 00 32 2 344 1361 Email: Canberra, Embassy of Nepal Suite 2.02, 24-Marcus Clarke Street Canberra City, ACT 2601 Australia Tel: 0061 (02) 6162 1554 / 1556 Fax: 0061 (02) 6162 1557 Email:,

Cairo, Embassy of Nepal 23, Al Hassan Street, MohandessinDokki,Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt Tel: 00202-37603 426, 37612 311 Fax: 00202-33374 447 Email: Time Difference to GMT: September Last Friday-Apil Last Thursday: +2 hrs April Last Friday-September Last Thursday: +3 hrs Colombo, Embassy of Nepal 153, Kynsey road, Colombo-8, Sri Lanka. Tel: 0094-11-2689-656, 657 Fax: 0094-11-2689-655. Email: Dhaka, Embassy of Nepal United Nations Road, Road No 2 Baridhara, Diplomatic enclave, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh. Tel: 880-2-601-790/890, 602 091 Fax: 880-2-882-6401 Email: Geneva, Permanent Mission of Nepal to the United Nations and other International Organisations 81, rue de la Servette, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. Tel: 0041-22-7332 600, 7332 2621. Fax: 0041-22-7332-722. Email: Islamabad, Embassy of Nepal

Denmark, Hellerup, Embassy of Nepal Svanemollevej 92 2900 Hellerup Tel: +45 44 44 40 26/35/43 Fax: +45 44 44 40 27 Email: Doha, Embassy of Nepal Villa No 13,Street No 810, 42, Ibne Bajah, Doha, Qatar. Tel: +00974-467-5681, 5683. Fax: +00974-467-5680 Email: Hong Kong, Consulate General of Nepal Unit 715, China Aerospace (North) Tower, Concordia Plaza, No. 1 Science Museum Road, Tsim Sha Tsu (East) Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: 00852-2369-7813 Fax: 00852-2824-2970 Email: Kolkata, Consulate General of Nepal

House No 4, Street No 21, F-7/2, Islamabad, Pakistan. Tel: 0092 51-265-5180 (Ambassador), 2655181(CDA), 265 5182/83(Off.) Fax: 0092 51-265-5184 Email: Kuala Lumpur, Embassy of Nepal Suite 13A.01, 13th A Floor Wisma MCA, 163 Jalan Ampang 50540 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: 03-2164 5934, 9653 Fax: 603-2164 8659 Email: Lhasa, Consulate General of Nepal Norbulingka Road 13, Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of The People's Republic of China. Tel: 00681-5744, 3965, 682-2881 Fax: 0086-891-683-6890 Email: Moscow, Embassy of Nepal 2nd Neopalimovsky Pereulok 14/7, Moscow, Russia. Tel: 007-095-244-0215 Fax: 007-095-244-0000. Email: New York, Permanent Mission of Nepal to the United Nations 820 Second Avenue, Suite 17-B New York, NY 10017, USA Tel: 001212 3703988 / 3703989 Fax: 001212 9532038 Email: Paris, Embassy of Nepal 45, bis rue des Acacias, 75017, Paris, France Tel: 0033-4622-4867 Fax: Email: Telex: 0033-4227-0865

1, National Library Avenue, Alipore, Kolkata-700027 Tel: 0091-33-2456-1103, 1117, 1224, 1154, 1085, 3972, 3971 Fax: 0091-33-2456-1410 Email: Kuwait City, Embassy of Nepal House No. 184, Street No. 804 Block No. 8, Al Zahara South Surra, State of Kuwait Tel: 00965-25243254, 25243257, 25243275 Fax: 00965-25243250 London, Embassy of Nepal 12A, Kensington Palace Gardens, London, W8 4QU, United Kingdom. Tel: 0044-20-7229-1594/6231/5352 Fax: 0044-20-7792-9861 Email: New Delhi, Embassy of Nepal Barakhamba Road, New Delhi-110001, India. Tel: 91-11-2332 7361, 2332 9218,2332 8066, 2332 7594, 2332 9969. Fax: 91-11-2332 6857, 2332 9647 Email: Ottawa, Embassy of Nepal 408, Queen Street Ottawa, ON K1R 5A7 Canada Tel: 001-613-680-5513, 680-5623 Fax: 001-613-422-5149 Email: Pretoria, Embassy of Nepal Pretoria, South Africa Tel: 0027-12-346 2399 Fax: 0027-12-460 5535 Email:

Riyadh, Embassy of Nepal Al Aruba Road, Sulaimania, Post Box No 94384, Riyadh 11693, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tel: 00966-1-4611108, 4645170 Fax: 00966-1-464-0690, 465-1823 Email: Tel Aviv, Embassy of Nepal Textile Center Building, 7th Floor 2 Kaufman St. Tel Aviv-68012 Israel. Tel: 5100111, 5168085 & 5168086 Fax: +972 3 5167965 Email: &

Seol, Embassy of Nepal Embassy of Nepal, 244-143, Huam-dong, Yongsan-Ku, Seol, Korea. Tel: + 82 2 3789 9770 / 3789 9771 Fax: + 82 2 736 8848 Email: Tokyo, Embassy of Nepal Fukukawa House B 20-28, Shimomeguro, 6- Chome, Meguru-Ku Tokyo 153-0064 Japan Tel: 0081-3-3713-6241, 03-3713-6242, Fax: 0081-3-3719-0737 Email: